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Eng. Proc., 2023, ASEC 2023

The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences

Online | 27 October–10 November 2023

Volume Editor: Nunzio Cennamo

Number of Papers: 337
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences (ASEC 2023), an online event held from 27 October to 10 November 2023, brought together scientists from different areas to discuss [...] Read more.
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1173 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Very Short-Term Photovoltaic Power Forecasting Model Using Linear Discriminant Analysis Method and Deep Learning Based on Multivariate Weather Datasets
by Zemouri Nahed, Mezaache Hatem and Chouder Aissa
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15228 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 514
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV)-system-generated solar energy has inconsistent and variable properties, which makes controlling electric power distribution and preserving grid stability extremely difficult. A photovoltaic (PV) system’s performance is profoundly affected by the amount of sunlight that reaches the solar cell, the season of the [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV)-system-generated solar energy has inconsistent and variable properties, which makes controlling electric power distribution and preserving grid stability extremely difficult. A photovoltaic (PV) system’s performance is profoundly affected by the amount of sunlight that reaches the solar cell, the season of the year, the ambient temperature, and the humidity of the air. Every renewable energy technology, sadly, has its problems. As a result, the system is unable to function at its highest or best level. To combat the unstable and intermittent performance of solar power output, it is essential to achieve a precise PV system output power. This work introduces a new approach to enhancing accuracy and extending the time range of very short-term solar energy forecasting (15 min step ahead) by using multivariate time series inputs in different seasons. First, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is used to select the relevant factors from the mixed meteorological input data. Secondly, two very short-term deep learning prediction models, CNN and LSTM, are used to predict PV power for a shuffled and reduced database of weather inputs. Finally, the predicted outputs from the two models are combined using a classification strategy. The proposed method is applied to one year of real data collected from a solar power plant located in southern Algeria to demonstrate that this technique can improve the forecasting accuracy compared to other techniques, as determined through the use of statistical analysis involving normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean bias error (MBE), and determination coefficient. (R2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2898 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
FEM Modeling for Enhancing Fatigue Strength of Asphalt Pavements through an Optimum Tack Coat Layer Insertion
by Fayiz Amin, Yasir Zaman and Shiraz Ahmed
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15351 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 478
Abstract
A key factor in ensuring the stability and ductility of asphalt pavements is interlayer fatigue resistance. Interlayer bonding characteristics are one of the most significant elements influencing the lifespan of asphalt pavements. Poor bonding properties often lead to debonding, slippage cracking, and pavement [...] Read more.
A key factor in ensuring the stability and ductility of asphalt pavements is interlayer fatigue resistance. Interlayer bonding characteristics are one of the most significant elements influencing the lifespan of asphalt pavements. Poor bonding properties often lead to debonding, slippage cracking, and pavement deformation. The primary cause of interlayer slippage cracking is a lack of interface bonding between an asphalt overlay and underlayer, which is typically triggered by vehicle braking and turning. Emulsified asphalt, modified asphalt, and hot asphalt are just a few of the materials that are used as tack coats to address this issue. This paper examines five different bonding types between interlayers: a model with no tack coat, a model with SBS-modified hot asphalt, a model with SBS-modified asphalt emulsion, a model with an epoxy resin binder, and a model with SK-90 hot asphalt. This study evaluates the shear fatigue of asphalt pavement under a single wheel cycle load. A model is created using the Abaqus software to predict fatigue life while taking into account the various tack coat materials listed above. Considering the outcomes of this study, the best bonding type for asphalt pavement is SBS-modified hot asphalt. After selecting this material, various tack coat thicknesses were used until the optimum thickness of 6 mm was determined. The proposed model can withstand more load cycles and less rutting depth, which helps to prevent interlayer fatigue failure over the course of a pavement’s design life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2211 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Simulation-Based Design and Analysis for MEMS Vibrating Ring Gyroscope
by Waqas Amin Gill, Ian Howard, Ilyas Mazhar and Kristoffer McKee
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15273 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors are integral components in a variety of smart electronic devices, most notably MEMS vibrating gyroscopes, which are rotational inertial sensors. The applications of MEMS vibrating gyroscopes range from household appliances to GPS and even to military applications. However, [...] Read more.
Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors are integral components in a variety of smart electronic devices, most notably MEMS vibrating gyroscopes, which are rotational inertial sensors. The applications of MEMS vibrating gyroscopes range from household appliances to GPS and even to military applications. However, the stability and reliability of these MEMS inertial sensors in space applications still pose challenges. In this research study, we introduce a simple design for a vibrating ring gyroscope with eight semicircular support springs connected to outside-placed anchors. The symmetric design structure with semicircular support springs provides higher sensitivity while minimizing mode mismatch. The design and modelling analysis of the vibrating ring gyroscope was conducted using Ansys 2023 R1. The proposed vibrating ring gyroscope has a ring radius of 1000 µm, a 210 µm radius for the semicircular support springs, a ring and support spring thicknesses of 10 µm, and an area of 80 × 80 µm2 for the outside-placed anchors. The vibrating ring gyroscope operates at two identical elliptical-shape resonant modes, one for driving resonance frequency and the other for sensing resonance frequency. Both simulated resonance frequencies were measured at 48.78 kHz and 48.80 kHz. The modelled result achieved a mode mismatch of 0.02 kHz, which can be easily rectified with tuning electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2217 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Improved Virtual Synchronous Generator-Based Control Scheme for Enhanced Transient Response in Microgrids
by Mandarapu Srikanth and Yellapragada Venkata Pavan Kumar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15390 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Synchronous generator-based power stations, with their inherent inertia, can maintain frequency stability during sudden load switching, while distributed generating station-driven microgrids suffer from a lack of natural inertia. Cascaded power, voltage, and current controllers are a widespread control strategy used to regulate the [...] Read more.
Synchronous generator-based power stations, with their inherent inertia, can maintain frequency stability during sudden load switching, while distributed generating station-driven microgrids suffer from a lack of natural inertia. Cascaded power, voltage, and current controllers are a widespread control strategy used to regulate the power output of distributed generating stations to maintain frequency and voltage within stable limits. Virtual synchronous generator (VSG) control for the power controller is used as a potential solution to emulate inertia. To derive maximum benefit from VSG, proper tuning of its multiple parameters is required. In this direction, earlier works proposed the equivalence between the droop and VSG schemes, which suggested that the droop coefficient value could be directly used in the design of VSG. As an improvement to these conventional works, the proposed work in this paper identifies that VSG delivers a better response when an equalizing constant is used to adjust the droop coefficient value than using it directly. This paper proposes implementing the VSG with an equalizing constant as a new design parameter. A description of designing the parameters of this improved VSG considering the equalizing constant is also discussed in this paper. The performance of the conventional VSG and the proposed improved VSG are compared. From the results, it is observed that, at load switching, the output frequency of the proposed method in all test cases has settled at less than 3 s, while the conventional method took a maximum of 6 s in critical cases. Further, the output frequency’s maximum peak with the proposed method is 3 Hz less than the conventional method. These, along with other metrics, validate the importance of the proposed improved VSG-based control scheme for the enhancement of transient responses in microgrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1930 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of the Toxicity of Wet Wipes Based on the Growth Test with Lepidium sativum L.
by Nataliia Tkachuk and Liubov Zelena
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15495 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 315
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of wet wipes from manufacturers of different countries using the growth test with garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). This study used nine variants of wet wipes produced in Ukraine, Turkey and the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of wet wipes from manufacturers of different countries using the growth test with garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). This study used nine variants of wet wipes produced in Ukraine, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Germination energy (on the third day), germination, and biometric and morphometric characteristics (on the fifth day) were determined. The phytotoxic indexes were calculated. It was established that 78% of the tested wet wipes (60% from Ukrainian production and 100% from foreign production) possessed extreme toxicity. Therefore, the tested wet wipes contain toxic substances (in particular, surfactants), show phytotoxicity and can be a source of environmental pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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765 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bimodal Nanoprobes Containing AgInSe2 Hydrophilic Quantum Dots and Paramagnetic Chelates for Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging
by Rebeca Muniz de Melo, Gabriela Marques de Albuquerque, Goreti Pereira and Giovannia Araujo de Lima Pereira
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15272 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 341
Abstract
The development of bimodal systems with signals for two diagnostic techniques has been increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive technique that distinguishes pathological tissues from healthy ones. To improve the images’ contrast, nanoparticulate contrast agents (CAs) have been developed, allowing for [...] Read more.
The development of bimodal systems with signals for two diagnostic techniques has been increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive technique that distinguishes pathological tissues from healthy ones. To improve the images’ contrast, nanoparticulate contrast agents (CAs) have been developed, allowing for the attachment of several CA molecules in one nanoparticle. In this work, we associated AgInSe2 quantum dots (QDs) with gadolinium complexes, obtaining nanoprobes for MRI and optical imaging. The nanosystems showed good optical properties and values of relaxivity superior to the CAs used clinically. Thus, these nanoprobes have the potential to be used as CAs for MRI and optical imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 787 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Approach to the Assessment of the Physical Stability of Mayonnaises
by Sergey Gubsky and Anastasiia Sachko
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15339 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 521
Abstract
A significant number of foods are manufactured in the form of emulsions. A typical example of such a product is mayonnaises, which vary in oil content. However, as a macroemulsion, they are a thermodynamically unstable system. Therefore, the physical instability associated with processes [...] Read more.
A significant number of foods are manufactured in the form of emulsions. A typical example of such a product is mayonnaises, which vary in oil content. However, as a macroemulsion, they are a thermodynamically unstable system. Therefore, the physical instability associated with processes such as flocculation, coalescence and Ostwald ripening leads to separation of the oil and water phases over time. This is especially typical of low-fat mayonnaises. As the oil content in the sauce decreases, it is necessary to add various biopolymers to ensure its stability over time. Predicting physical instability is important for food technology development purposes, and especially for reduced oil systems as the most challenging task in terms of system stabilization. In the first approximation according to the Stoke’s model, the stability of an emulsion is affected by microstructural characteristics such as as the droplet size and the rheological properties of the emulsions. The combination of this approximation with the generalized Casson’s rheological model for structured liquid systems allows us to propose an approach for estimating the rate of emulsion creaming. The parameters used for calculations are determined from rheology and laser diffraction data for mayonnaise samples. The approach is devoid of empirical variables, since all parameters have a physical meaning on the basis of the kinetic model of destruction–recovery of the structural aggregates of the system. Calculations were carried out for a series of commercial mayonnaises (CMs) and developed low-fat mayonnaise (LFM). The results make it possible to evaluate the physical stability of emulsions, as well as the influence of rheological and microstructural characteristics on the texture of the final product during its shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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737 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Comprehensive Comparison of the Hargreaves Isothermal Model with the Schmidt Model for the Gamma Stirling Engine
by Abdul Rab Asary, Basit Abdul, Abdul Samad and Mohammad Abul Hasan Shibly
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15246 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 309
Abstract
The Stirling engine, a type of external combustion engine utilizing a compressible fluid as its working medium, holds promise as a highly efficient device for converting heat into mechanical work at Carnot efficiency. This research conducts a detailed analysis, comparing the Hargreaves isothermal [...] Read more.
The Stirling engine, a type of external combustion engine utilizing a compressible fluid as its working medium, holds promise as a highly efficient device for converting heat into mechanical work at Carnot efficiency. This research conducts a detailed analysis, comparing the Hargreaves isothermal model and the Schmidt model specifically for the gamma-type Stirling engine. The study examines the impact of dead volume on the engine’s performance, revealing that the engine network is solely influenced by these volumes. Furthermore, it highlights the effectiveness of the Hargreaves model for the performance analysis of gamma-type Stirling engines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1626 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Transmittance Properties of Healthy and Infected Coffee Robusta Leaves with Coffee Leaf Miner (CLM) Pests
by Jejomar Bulan, Jumar Cadondon, James Roy Lesidan, Edgar Vallar and Maria Cecilia Galvez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15235 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Coffee Robusta (Coffea canephora) increased its total production by 73.5% during the first quarter of 2023. In this study, twenty (20) samples each of healthy and infected coffee leaves were measured for their transmittance properties in the UV-Vis and NIR regions. [...] Read more.
Coffee Robusta (Coffea canephora) increased its total production by 73.5% during the first quarter of 2023. In this study, twenty (20) samples each of healthy and infected coffee leaves were measured for their transmittance properties in the UV-Vis and NIR regions. Coffee Leaf Miner (CLM)-infected leaves were identified based on translucent patches on the plant foliage. The results showed that a healthy coffee leaf has a mean transmittance of 41.53 μW for the NIR region, while for the infected leaves, the mean transmittance is 47.06 μW. Healthy coffee Robusta leaves showed significant differences in their transmittance properties compared to infected coffee Robusta leaves in the UV (r = −0.15, p = 0.021, F = 5.8, t = −0.286), visible (r = −0.15, p = 0.018, F = 6.11, t = −2.88), and NIR (r = −0.14, p = 0.027, F = 5.28, t = −2.99) regions. A CLM index was introduced based on the intensity ratio of green and red wavelengths. I535/575 showed positive correlation with the estimated chlorophyll-a concentration for healthy (r = 0.94, p = 0.227) and infected (r = 0.56, p = 0.622) leaves. This method leads to the development of portable sensors for the early detection of CLM pests in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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487 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Efficiency of Sulfonated UiO-66 on Biodiesel Production from Oleic Acid: An Optimization Study with ANCOVA
by Gamze Ozcakir
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15279 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Biodiesel is defined as a mixture of fatty acids and methyl esters. For esterification reaction in biodiesel production on acidic catalysts, waste cooking oils can be selected as raw material. Researchers generally use heterogeneous sulfonated solid catalysts for this reaction. However, the by-product [...] Read more.
Biodiesel is defined as a mixture of fatty acids and methyl esters. For esterification reaction in biodiesel production on acidic catalysts, waste cooking oils can be selected as raw material. Researchers generally use heterogeneous sulfonated solid catalysts for this reaction. However, the by-product water, the result of the biodiesel production process, absorbs on the catalyst surface. Therefore, it is crucial to select hydrophobic support. To use sulfonated UiO-66 for biodiesel production via the esterification of waste cooking oil is logical. Besides its hydrophobicity, it is known that UiO-66 has high chemical and thermal stability, high surface area, and uniform pore structure. The study aimed to determine the effective parameter in biodiesel synthesis from oleic acid esterification on sulfonated UiO-66 with ANCOVA analysis. For optimization analysis, Sigma Plot 14.0 software was utilized as software. The Holm–Sidak test was applied for one-way ANCOVA. Parameters were effective on the oleic acid conversion rate selected as esterification temperature, time, catalyst amount, and methanol/oleic acid rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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3592 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Recent Advances in Extractive Distillation
by Althea Francesca Aquilon, Diana Mae Cargullo, Jeremay Onayan, Jgiordana Sarno, Vea Marie Molino and Edgar Clyde R. Lopez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15261 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Distillation is widely recognized as the preferred method for separation due to its operational and control benefits. Traditional distillation processes, however, cannot successfully separate azeotropic mixtures with near boiling points. Numerous special distillation processes have been developed to address this limitation. Extractive distillation, [...] Read more.
Distillation is widely recognized as the preferred method for separation due to its operational and control benefits. Traditional distillation processes, however, cannot successfully separate azeotropic mixtures with near boiling points. Numerous special distillation processes have been developed to address this limitation. Extractive distillation, in particular, has gained significant popularity in the chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and refining industries. This review examined the state-of-the-art advances in extractive distillation. The importance of the proper selection of a solvent was discussed. Several configurations of extractive distillation processes were presented. Additionally, alternative extractive distillation systems have been elaborated. However, significant research gaps remain, such as the need for an exhaustive investigation of various control variables, the impact of certain entrainers on distillation processes, and cost comparisons across specialized distillation systems. Furthermore, process intensification strategies require additional research to solve complexity and operability issues. The integration of energy-efficient technologies, developments in renewable energy consumption, and the development of cost-effective reactive or split distillation columns will shape the future of distillation operations. These advances will help the chemical process sector achieve improved energy efficiency, lower environmental impact, and increased sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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710 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles by Using Pomegranate Peels: An Overview
by Gamze Ozcakir
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15280 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a crucial material for industries such as rubber production, biomedical applications, and metal surface treatment areas. ZnO exhibits semi-conductivity, antimicrobial activity, and UV absorption capability. This material is regarded as a vulcanization activator. Transforming this material to a nanoparticle [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a crucial material for industries such as rubber production, biomedical applications, and metal surface treatment areas. ZnO exhibits semi-conductivity, antimicrobial activity, and UV absorption capability. This material is regarded as a vulcanization activator. Transforming this material to a nanoparticle is preferred because increasing the particle size of the material decreases the surface area. In the scientific literature, researchers have attempted to increase the features of ZnO nanoparticles to use them as photocatalysts and antimicrobial agents. Besides that, there are also studies aimed at improving the properties of this nanomaterial for use in energy cells and sensors. The synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles in a biological way is accepted as an eco-friendly process. Since hazardous chemicals and high energy are not used, the biological method is called green synthesis. In the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via the green route, zinc nitrate or zinc acetate is the source of zinc salt added to biological extracts. These extracts can be obtained from algae, plants, and bacteria. The reaction between the salt and extract occurs, and then a thermal treatment is applied to reach the nanoparticle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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511 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Some Microbiological Characteristics of the Biofilm on the Surface of Pre-Production Pellets of Polypropylene Microplastics after Short Exposure in Soil
by Nataliia Tkachuk and Liubov Zelena
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15350 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 311
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil and the surface biofilms of both polypropylene microplastics and quartz sand. The exposure of sterile samples lasted for 30 days in the soil of a residential area. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil and the surface biofilms of both polypropylene microplastics and quartz sand. The exposure of sterile samples lasted for 30 days in the soil of a residential area. Some initial chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil were studied, as well as microbiological characteristics of the biofilms on the surface of the materials. This expands the understanding of biofilm formation processes on the surface of microplastics in soil and can be used in processes for removing harmful materials from soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1487 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
2030 Ambitions for Hydrogen, Clean Hydrogen, and Green Hydrogen
by Osama A. Marzouk
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15497 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Hydrogen production has been dominated by gray hydrogen (hydrogen produced from fossil fuels without carbon capture). Historical data for 2019–2021 show nearly steady global production of and demand for hydrogen, with an annual average of 92 Mt (million tonnes) for each. Both global [...] Read more.
Hydrogen production has been dominated by gray hydrogen (hydrogen produced from fossil fuels without carbon capture). Historical data for 2019–2021 show nearly steady global production of and demand for hydrogen, with an annual average of 92 Mt (million tonnes) for each. Both global hydrogen production and demand are expected to grow to 180 Mt in 2030 in compliance with the Net-Zero Emissions by 2050 (NZE) scenario of the International Energy Agency (IEA), which aims to bring CO2 emissions down to net zero by 2050. Recently, green hydrogen (hydrogen produced via water electrolysis using electricity from renewables) has received increased attention, with the 11 countries (Australia, the United States, Spain, Canada, Chile, Egypt, Germany, India, Brazil, Oman, and Morocco) identified as top producers expected to produce 15.9534 Mt altogether in 2030. All of these countries, except Spain, Canada, and Germany, were classified by the global Hydrogen Council as having optimal green hydrogen production potential. Blue hydrogen (hydrogen produced from fossil fuels with carbon capture) and green hydrogen together constitute clean hydrogen. The share of clean hydrogen in global total final energy consumption (TFEC) was less than 0.1% in 2020. In alignment with the 1.5 °C pathway of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), which aims to limit the global average temperature rise to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, this share should grow to 3% in 2030 and 12% in 2050, with the aim of producing 154 Mt of clean hydrogen and its derivatives in 2030 (and 614 Mt in 2050) compared to only 0.8 Mt in 2020. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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710 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Novel Quality Assessment Method for the Clinical Reproduction of Orthodontic Attachments Based on Differential Entropy
by Fabio Salmeri, Emmanuele Barberi, Frank Lipari and Fabiana Nicita
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15245 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 313
Abstract
In this study, the effectiveness of an experimental clinical technique for the reproduction of attachments during an orthodontic treatment with clear aligners was evaluated using a new index (CorAl) for quality assessment that exploits the differential entropy of point clouds. The procedure involves [...] Read more.
In this study, the effectiveness of an experimental clinical technique for the reproduction of attachments during an orthodontic treatment with clear aligners was evaluated using a new index (CorAl) for quality assessment that exploits the differential entropy of point clouds. The procedure involves the use of a pre-drilled template and a second pre-loaded template with a high-viscosity composite and is compared with the standard technique. Attachment planning was conducted on four prototypes of dental arches with extracted teeth which were divided into two groups according to the proposed operating procedures. Digital scans were utilized to capture dental impressions for both the purposes of virtual planning and to reproduce the clinical outcomes post-procedure. The point clouds obtained after the reproduction of the attachments were aligned with those from the virtual planning, and the deviation analysis was conducted using the quality index of the CorAl method. Though no significant discrepancies were found among the groups regarding morphological flaws, detachments, or maximum defect values, the differential entropy analysis revealed that the experimental technique offers good alignment in attachment placement. The outcome supports that the innovative procedure of the clinical reproduction of attachments proved to be reliable and operationally simple, with additional benefits derived from using the CorAl index. The advantages of CorAl include the use of a single comparison index, no problem of comparison commutativity, noise immunity, low influence from the presence of holes, and point cloud densities. This allows for the drawing of quality maps that show areas with the highest deviation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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853 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor Using Model Reference Adaptive System and Deadbeat Regulator
by Wail Hamdi, Mohamed Yacine Hammoudi and Achour Betka
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15240 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
This paper presents the sensorless speed control of induction motors using a Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) method and field-oriented control. The main objective is to minimize the cost related to speed sensors, thereby improving both the affordability and efficiency of motor control. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the sensorless speed control of induction motors using a Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) method and field-oriented control. The main objective is to minimize the cost related to speed sensors, thereby improving both the affordability and efficiency of motor control. The sensor is eliminated by estimating the rotor’s angular speed, and the MRAS approach offers a sturdy alternative for this purpose. The presented approach provides a robust alternative, where the adaptation mechanism is facilitated by the implementation of a Deadbeat regulator. This mechanism allows for an improved response and superior control in motor operations, thus making sensor-based systems less necessary. In order to ascertain the efficiency of the proposed method, a comprehensive simulation test was conducted using MATLAB/Simulink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2498 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Irradiated Hazelnut (Corylus avellana): Identification and Dose Assessment Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
by Ahmed Maghraby, Elsayed Salama, Abdo Mansour, Samy Anwar and Elsayed Mahmoud
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15241 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Food irradiation aims to eliminate biohazards such as pathogens, microbes, fungi, etc., as the identification of irradiated food and dose assessment ensures its safe use. Hazelnut is the most universal widespread nut and can be found as a whole fruit or as an [...] Read more.
Food irradiation aims to eliminate biohazards such as pathogens, microbes, fungi, etc., as the identification of irradiated food and dose assessment ensures its safe use. Hazelnut is the most universal widespread nut and can be found as a whole fruit or as an ingredient in many food types. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to identify irradiated hazelnut and assess radiation doses delivered to it using fractions of its kernel and/or shells. In this paper, parameters affecting the proper detection and evaluation of irradiated hazelnut kernels and shells are studied and analyzed, including the response to Cs-137 gamma rays, the effect of the change in microwave power and modulation amplitude values during EPR spectra acquisition, and the time dependence of the induced radicals. The stability study of the radiation-induced radicals suggests that it is better to perform EPR measurements for irradiated hazelnut during the first month following irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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241 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Advancing towards a Circular Economy in the Textile Industry
by Al Mamun, Nora Torst and Lilia Sabantina
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15244 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
The textile and garment manufacturing process in the textile industry produces a significant amount of waste, including fabric scraps, dyes and chemicals, as well as leftover fibers and yarns, leading to environmental pollution. The issue of fabric and garment waste is a major [...] Read more.
The textile and garment manufacturing process in the textile industry produces a significant amount of waste, including fabric scraps, dyes and chemicals, as well as leftover fibers and yarns, leading to environmental pollution. The issue of fabric and garment waste is a major concern within the industry. This review provides an overview of the prevailing waste challenges in the textile sector while exploring the basics of a circular economy. The review incorporates additional findings and relevant research related to these proposals, aiming to promote sustainable solutions for waste reduction in the textile industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
7056 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of Highly Birefringence and Nonlinear Modified Honeycomb Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber (MHL-PCF) for Broadband Dispersion Compensation in E+S+C+L Communication Bands
by Amit Halder, Md. Riyad Tanshen, Mst. Sumi Akter and Mir Afzal Hossain
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15234 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 321
Abstract
This paper investigates the design and tuning of a Broadband Dispersion Compensating Modified Honeycomb Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber (MHL-PCF) with outstanding features such as strong birefringence and nonlinearity. The proposed PCF for y polarization exhibits a negative dispersion coefficient of −263.9 ps/(nm·km) at [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the design and tuning of a Broadband Dispersion Compensating Modified Honeycomb Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber (MHL-PCF) with outstanding features such as strong birefringence and nonlinearity. The proposed PCF for y polarization exhibits a negative dispersion coefficient of −263.9 ps/(nm·km) at 1.55 µm operating frequency and a high negative dispersion of −652.9 ps/(nm·km) when air-filled fraction (dc/Λ) grows from 0.35 to 0.65. Because it is a polarization-maintaining fiber, it also exhibits birefringence. At 1.55 µm operating frequency, the suggested fiber exhibits 1.482 × 10−2 birefringence. The suggested MHL-PCF has a high nonlinear coefficient of 34.68 W−1km−1 at the same operating frequency. Numerical aperture is also investigated for MHL-PCF as it influences their light-guiding capabilities, light-coupling efficiency, mode control, dispersion qualities, and sensitivity in sensing applications. The numerical aperture of the proposed MHL-PCF at 1550 nm is 0.4175, demonstrating excellent light-coupling properties. The purpose of this research is to satisfy the growing need for improved optical communication systems capable of managing high data rates across long transmission distances. The suggested MHL-PCF structure has distinct features that make it an attractive choice for dispersion correction and nonlinear optical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1276 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Anti-Inflammatory Drug Repurposing for Intranasal Delivery: Ketoprofen Nanoemulgel Development for the Treatment of Glioma
by Patrícia C. Pires, Mafalda Correia, Francisco Veiga and Ana Cláudia Paiva-Santos
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15345 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 362
Abstract
The anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen has shown promising results in the field of drug repurposing for the treatment of brain cancer, but currently developed formulations are for invasive administration (intravenous) and have very limited drug strength. Hence, the purpose of this work was to [...] Read more.
The anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen has shown promising results in the field of drug repurposing for the treatment of brain cancer, but currently developed formulations are for invasive administration (intravenous) and have very limited drug strength. Hence, the purpose of this work was to develop an intranasal oil-in-water nanoemulgel, with drug strength maximization, for non-invasive, more effective and safer treatment of glioma. The developed formulations were made of Capryol® 90 (hydrophobic surfactant), Tween® 80 (hydrophilic surfactant), Transcutol® (co-solvent and permeation enhancer), Pluronic® F-127 (surfactant and gelling agent) and ketoprofen. Droplet size, polydispersity index, in vitro drug release and accelerated stability were measured. The results showed that the addition of Pluronic to a preliminary optimized nanoemulsion led to a significant droplet size and PDI reduction (176 to 22 nm and 0.3 to 0.1, respectively). The achieved drug strength was 4 mg/mL, which is more than 50 times higher than ketoprofen’s aqueous solubility. The developed formulations also appeared to have high stability, with instability indexes between 0.130 and 0.265, and a high cumulative drug release percentage, varying between 78 to 93% after 24 h. The formulations also showed a controlled release profile, fitting a Korsmeyer–Peppas kinetic model, with low AIC (43.84 to 54.67) and high R2 (0.9725 to 0.9971) values, depicting non-Fickian diffusion (n between 0.7 and 0.8). Hence, high-drug-strength, high-stability and high-drug-release ketoprofen-loaded nanoemulgels were successfully prepared. Future in vitro cytotoxicity evaluations in glioma cells will assess the true potential of the developed formulations for the treatment of brain cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
Research Progress on Insulin Dressings to Promote Wound Healing
by Marcin Przybyła, Barbara Dolińska and Aneta Ostróżka-Cieślik
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15344 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Insulin is a hormone whose efficacy in wound healing was recognised in the late 1920s. Intensive research is currently underway to develop materials that will allow the effective stabilisation of insulin and control of its diffusion rate. The aim of this review was [...] Read more.
Insulin is a hormone whose efficacy in wound healing was recognised in the late 1920s. Intensive research is currently underway to develop materials that will allow the effective stabilisation of insulin and control of its diffusion rate. The aim of this review was to bring together research on the development of innovative wound care strategies based on insulin-enriched bioactive dressings. An analysis of the literature contained in bibliographic databases and published up to 30 June 2023 was performed. The results of the included basic and preclinical studies confirm that engineered polymeric matrices/scaffolds with insulin show high efficacy and good tolerability in topical wound treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
275 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Nucleation and Crystal Growth: Recent Advances and Future Trends
by Luizmae Aspillaga, Daniela Jan Bautista, Samantha Noelle Daluz, Katherine Hernandez, Josef Atrel Renta and Edgar Clyde R. Lopez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15281 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
Recent advances in nucleation and crystal growth have revolutionized our understanding and control of crystallization processes. This paper highlights key developments in this field and the processes and technologies involved in its continuous growth. Advanced computational models have allowed for precise prediction of [...] Read more.
Recent advances in nucleation and crystal growth have revolutionized our understanding and control of crystallization processes. This paper highlights key developments in this field and the processes and technologies involved in its continuous growth. Advanced computational models have allowed for precise prediction of nucleation rates and crystal morphologies, facilitating the rational design of materials with desired properties. Innovative strategies have also emerged, enabling enhanced control over crystal growth kinetics and crystallographic orientations. Process intensification strategies, including microreactors and membrane crystallization, enhance nucleation rates and crystal growth. Advances in the potential-driven growth of metal crystals from ionic liquids, including protic ionic liquids (PILs) and solvate ionic liquids (SILs), are discussed. Lastly, current research gaps and future prospects in the field of nucleation and crystal formation are highlighted. The integration of cutting-edge experimental techniques, computational modeling, and novel strategies will drive the understanding of nucleation and crystal growth processes, allowing for the development of materials with tailored properties and enhanced functionality across multiple disciplines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
Agro–Industrial Waste Blends on the Mechanical Response of Selected Soils
by Imoh Christopher Attah, George Uwadiegwu Alaneme, Roland Kufre Etim, Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba and Nimay Chandra Giri
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15292 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Due to urbanization, it is nearly impossible to construct civil infrastructure without encountering soil materials with poor geotechnical response. In soil re-engineering, the trending practice is the use of supplementary cementitious material with the aim of reducing carbon footprints and construction costs. This [...] Read more.
Due to urbanization, it is nearly impossible to construct civil infrastructure without encountering soil materials with poor geotechnical response. In soil re-engineering, the trending practice is the use of supplementary cementitious material with the aim of reducing carbon footprints and construction costs. This has necessitated the usability of integrating the blends of palm oil fuel residue (POFR) and calcium carbide powder (CCP) in the amelioration protocols of two soil materials. The amelioration protocols were implemented by the inclusion of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% dosages of POFR and 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% dosages of CCP at the requisite weight of soil materials. The experimental work was performed in three phases, namely material characterization, mechanical performance, and microstructural testing. Judging from the index performance, black clayey soil (BCS) and reddish lateritic soil (RLS) are clayey materials with a plasticity index of 28.70 and 28.80%, respectively. Concerning the mechanical performance (compaction, California bearing ratio, and durability), the inclusion of the blends of POFR-CCP into the soils (BCS and RLS) activated a positive response and was later validated via means of microstructural tests. This research has shown the potential of blended waste residues in soil re-engineering studies. The study was vividly achieved through a qualitative approach known as scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
Effects of Hydroxycarboxylic Acid-Based Retarder on the Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Cement under Wellbore Conditions
by Nurul Nazmin Zulkarnain, Afif Izwan Abd Hamid, Nasir Shafiq, Siti Humairah Abd Rahman and Syed Ahmad Farhan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15347 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 300
Abstract
In oil well cementing, cement must flow through the casing before reaching the targeted annulus; hence, a retarder must be added to provide the cement with sufficient time to reach the targeted depth before setting. At the same time, in support of the [...] Read more.
In oil well cementing, cement must flow through the casing before reaching the targeted annulus; hence, a retarder must be added to provide the cement with sufficient time to reach the targeted depth before setting. At the same time, in support of the Paris Agreement, the prospect of substituting ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with geopolymer cement as the well cement material has to be further explored. Although previous studies have found that retarders can delay the strength development of the cement, the studies were conducted either under ambient conditions or using OPC; hence, the findings do not apply to geopolymer cement that is exposed to wellbore conditions. In order to address the shortcomings of the studies, an addition of a hydroxycarboxylic acid-based retarder to a fly ash-based geopolymer cement, at concentrations of up to 3% by weight of the fly ash, was performed. The slurry of the cement was aged at 100 °C and 20.7 MPa for 8, 24 and 48 h. Compressive strength tests were conducted on samples of the cement. At the 8 h aging duration, retarder concentrations of 0.5–2.0% led to strength increases of 112.7–129.4% relative to that of 0%, or the control sample, whereas that of 3.0% led to a strength decrease of 84.2%. At the 24 h aging duration, all retarder concentrations led to strength decreases of 16.4–22.5%. At the 48 h aging duration, retarder concentrations of 1.0–3.0% led to strength increases of 18.1–24.4%, whereas that of 0.5% led to a strength decrease of 16.7%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
A Techno-Economic Study of a Hybrid PV–Wind–Diesel Standalone Power System for a Rural Telecommunication Station in Northeast Algeria
by Ahlem Zegueur, Toufik Sebbagh and Abderrezak Metatla
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15250 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 385
Abstract
Telecommunication stations, particularly operating in rural areas, are usually powered by diesel generators due to the lack of access to the utility grid. However, the growing cost of energy due to the constantly increasing fuel prices and the related greenhouse gas emissions contributing [...] Read more.
Telecommunication stations, particularly operating in rural areas, are usually powered by diesel generators due to the lack of access to the utility grid. However, the growing cost of energy due to the constantly increasing fuel prices and the related greenhouse gas emissions contributing to global warming have driven telecom companies to seek better energy management solutions. In this paper, we study the economic feasibility of an environmentally friendly power supply system for rural telecommunication station in the city of Skikda, northeast Algeria. The proposed system is a standalone hybrid PV–wind system with pre-existing diesel generators and battery storage. Different system configurations are considered in the study: (a) diesel generators only, (b) PV–diesel–battery, (c) wind–diesel–battery, (d) PV–wind–diesel–battery, and lastly (e) PV–wind–battery; this helps to select the optimal solution based on the lowest net present cost (NPC) and the cost of energy (COE) of each configuration. The optimization is performed using HOMER PRO software 3.14.2 version. The results showed that a hybrid system of 5 kW DG, 3.81 kW of PV capacity, three wind turbines, and a 14-battery bank is the best design for the proposed power system with an NPC of USD 85673 and a COE of USD 0.214. The greenhouse gas emissions were considerably reduced by more than half making the proposed system a technically, economically, and environmentally viable solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
Physics-Based Approach to Deep Interseismic Creep: Implications for North Tabriz Fault Behavior Using MCMC
by Milad Salmaniyan, Asghar Rastbood and Masoud Mashhadi Hossainali
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15239 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 309
Abstract
Many studies assume that the distribution of a fault slip rate remains constant with time when examining surface deformation. However, recent numerical simulations have shown that dynamic rupture can penetrate regions with increased friction and diffuse from the lock-to-creep transition, contradicting this assumption. [...] Read more.
Many studies assume that the distribution of a fault slip rate remains constant with time when examining surface deformation. However, recent numerical simulations have shown that dynamic rupture can penetrate regions with increased friction and diffuse from the lock-to-creep transition, contradicting this assumption. Bruhat and Segall (2017) introduced a new method to account for the downward penetration of interseismic slip into the locked zone. This study builds upon their work by applying their model to strike-slip fault environments and incorporating creep coupling to viscoelastic flow in the lower crust and upper mantle. In this study, using Bruhat’s (2020) model, the interseismic deformation rates on the North Tabriz Fault are investigated. This study utilizes elastic and viscoelastic probabilistic models to fit horizontal surface rates. By employing this updated approach, a physics-based solution for deep interseismic creep is developed, revealing potential slow vertical propagation. The improved fit of horizontal deformation rates on the North Tabriz Fault is examined, leading to reasonable estimations of earthquake rupture depth and seismic displacement. The best-fit solutions suggest a half-space relaxation time of approximately 156 years, with a diffusion rate of less than 1 m/year and around 0.419 m/year, indicating minimal creep diffusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
Cytotoxic Activity of Metal Nanoparticle Complexes
by Nidhi Singh, Satya, Kulsum Hashmi, Sakshi Gupta and Seema Joshi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15242 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Metal complexes are widely used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, electronics, casting printing and power generation. One of the major challenges due to their long-term use as medicines is their accumulation in the body. This issue needs to be resolved to achieve better results of [...] Read more.
Metal complexes are widely used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, electronics, casting printing and power generation. One of the major challenges due to their long-term use as medicines is their accumulation in the body. This issue needs to be resolved to achieve better results of metal complexes as medicines. The use of metal-nanoparticles (MNPs) can be expected to reduce the toxicity of metals and their accumulation in the body. The aim of this paper is to give an insight into the variation induced in the cytotoxic activity of MNP–ligand complexes by replacing the respective heavy metals with their nanoparticles (NPs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
Preprocessing and Analyzing Raman Spectra Using Python
by Eleftherios Pavlou and Nikolaos Kourkoumelis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15251 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
The inherent complexity of the Raman spectra of biomedical samples reflects the intricate molecular composition and intermolecular interactions of these diverse systems. Unraveling the complexities of biological Raman spectra is essential for bioscience and bioengineering research because it provides insight into cellular processes, [...] Read more.
The inherent complexity of the Raman spectra of biomedical samples reflects the intricate molecular composition and intermolecular interactions of these diverse systems. Unraveling the complexities of biological Raman spectra is essential for bioscience and bioengineering research because it provides insight into cellular processes, disease states, and drug interactions. For the effective analysis of such complex data, robust and cutting-edge software is required that provides sophisticated algorithms for data preprocessing, thereby enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio and revealing hidden spectral information. In addition, novel applications of this type may include machine learning algorithms for automated clustering analysis, enabling the identification of biomolecules and their conformational changes in diverse biological specimens. We present a Python 3 package built around popular scientific Python libraries that aims to provide Raman spectroscopists with user-friendly programming tools for the analysis of complex biomedical Raman data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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583 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhancing Gamma Stirling Engine Performance through Genetic Algorithm Technique
by Abdul Rab Asary, Basit Abdul, Abdul Samad and Mohammad Abul Hasan Shibly
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15264 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The Stirling engine, invented in 1816, was initially lacking comprehensive scientific understanding, which only surfaced after a considerable 50-year period. In the present era, impressive strides have been made in enhancing the performance of Stirling engines by implementing thermodynamic cycles. Despite these advancements, [...] Read more.
The Stirling engine, invented in 1816, was initially lacking comprehensive scientific understanding, which only surfaced after a considerable 50-year period. In the present era, impressive strides have been made in enhancing the performance of Stirling engines by implementing thermodynamic cycles. Despite these advancements, there remains untapped potential for further improvements by applying soft computing methods. To address this, the focal point of this research paper centres around optimizing the Stirling engine, specifically focusing on a gamma-type double-piston Stirling engine and leveraging genetic algorithms to achieve the desired enhancements. The results from this analysis are meticulously compared with experimental data, validating the approach’s efficacy. Additionally, this paper explores the potential impact of utilizing cryogenic fluids as coolants on the Stirling engine’s performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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645 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Heuristic Evaluation of Partitioning Techniques Considering Early-Type Galaxy Databases
by Prithwish Ghosh and Shinjon Chakraborty
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15287 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Galaxies are one of the most interesting and complex astronomical objects statistically due to their continuous diversification caused mainly due to incidents such as accretion, action, or mergers. Multivariate studies are one of the most useful tools to analyze these type of data [...] Read more.
Galaxies are one of the most interesting and complex astronomical objects statistically due to their continuous diversification caused mainly due to incidents such as accretion, action, or mergers. Multivariate studies are one of the most useful tools to analyze these type of data and to understand various components of them. We study a sample of the local universe of Orlando 509 galaxies, imputed with a Predictive Mean Matching (PMM) multiple imputation algorithm, with the aim of classifying the galaxies into distinct clusters through k-medoids and k-mean algorithms and, in turn, performing a heuristic evaluation of the two partitioning algorithms through the percentage of misclassification observed. From the clustering algorithms, it was observed that there were four distinct clusters of the galaxies with misclassification of about 1.96%. Also, comparing the percentage of misclassification heuristically k-means is a superior algorithm to k-medoids under fixed optimal sizes when the said category of galaxy datasets is concerned. By considering that galaxies are continuously evolving complex objects and using appropriate statistical tools, we are able to derive an explanatory classification of galaxies, based on the physical diverse properties of galaxies, and also establish a better method of partitioning when working on the galaxies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1542 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of a High-Speed Signal Processing System for Underwater LiDAR Based on Complete Waveform Sampling
by Guangbo Xu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15268 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The complex and changing underwater environment, along with the presence of various suspended particles, leads to laser attenuation and backward scattering. As a result, the detection capabilities of underwater LiDAR are significantly limited. To address the challenges associated with the backward scattering problem [...] Read more.
The complex and changing underwater environment, along with the presence of various suspended particles, leads to laser attenuation and backward scattering. As a result, the detection capabilities of underwater LiDAR are significantly limited. To address the challenges associated with the backward scattering problem using traditional time discrimination circuits, this paper proposes a high-speed signal processing system for underwater LiDAR based on complete waveform sampling. The system includes the design of a photodiode preamplifier circuit and a main control board with a sampling frequency of up to 2 GHz. With this design, the underwater LiDAR can achieve a ranging accuracy of 0.075 m and implement relevant backscatter filtering algorithms. This paper can serve as a valuable reference for the design of signal processing systems for underwater LiDAR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
In Vivo Biocompatibility and Biodegradability of Bilayer Films Based on Hyaluronic Acid and Chitosan for Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery
by Maria Naumenko, Petr Snetkov, Tatiana Gribinichenko, Anna Bervinova, Svetlana Morozkina and Sergei Zhuravskii
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15260 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Septal cartilage defects and tympanic membrane perforations are some of the main challenging clinical problems in modern ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) surgery. Polymer films based on biocompatible and biodegradable polymers seem to represent prospective materials for surgical reconstruction of such defects. In [...] Read more.
Septal cartilage defects and tympanic membrane perforations are some of the main challenging clinical problems in modern ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) surgery. Polymer films based on biocompatible and biodegradable polymers seem to represent prospective materials for surgical reconstruction of such defects. In this study, we present the results of pilot in vivo experiments of the biocompatibility and biodegradability of bilayer films obtained via the casting method from hyaluronic acid (MW = 1300 kDa) and chitosan (500 and 900 kDa) polymer solutions. The total toxicity, pro-inflammatory activity, biodegradation rate and proliferative potential of the connective tissue of the dermis in the implantation area were evaluated on days 7, 14, 30 and 50 after the implantation. The studied samples demonstrated negligible overall acute and chronic toxicity. The influence of the preparation technique as well as the effect of chitosan’s MW on the biodegradation rate are also demonstrated. These bilayer polymer films can be recommended for ENT surgery, in particular for the reconstruction of the nasal septum and tympanic membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
First-Principle Calculation Analysis on Electronic Structures and Molecular Dynamics of Gadolinium-Doped FAPbI3
by Atsushi Suzuki and Takeo Oku
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15332 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 328
Abstract
First-principle calculation analysis on electronic structures and molecular dynamics was performed to investigate the addition of gadolinium ion into a formamidinium lead iodine (FAPbI3) perovskite crystal for use in the application of photovoltaic devices with stability of performance. Band dispersion, density [...] Read more.
First-principle calculation analysis on electronic structures and molecular dynamics was performed to investigate the addition of gadolinium ion into a formamidinium lead iodine (FAPbI3) perovskite crystal for use in the application of photovoltaic devices with stability of performance. Band dispersion, density of state, enthalpy, and kinetic energy were predicted during the relaxation process. The Gd2+-doped FAPbI3 perovskite crystal had an effective mass ratio of 0.02 in narrow band dispersion, consisting of 5d and 4f orbitals of gadolinium ion, a 6p orbital of lead ion, and a 5p orbital of iodine ion, supporting the charge transfer and carrier diffusion related to carrier mobility as a photovoltaic parameter. The molecular dynamics of the Gd2+-doped perovskite crystal indicate dynamic stability while suppressing decomposition, with separation between nitrogen and hydrogen ions on FA in the crystal. The first-principle calculation predicts that it is advantageous to apply the Gd2+-doped FAPbI3 perovskite crystal to the perovskite solar cell, providing stability of photovoltaic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
Trio-PV Monitor: A Smart IoT-Based Instrument for Continuous and Reliable Monitoring of Solar PV Installations
by Njimboh Henry Alombah, Ambe Harrison, Jerome Ndam Mungwe, Fohagui Fodoup Cyrille Vincelas and Hillaire Fotsin Bertrand
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15291 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 408
Abstract
This paper introduces a Trio-PV monitor: a smart IoT-based instrument for the continuous and accurate monitoring of solar PV systems. The instrument is a synergistic combination of electronic hardware, desktop applications and a website. It has been conceived to provide monitoring, storage, and [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a Trio-PV monitor: a smart IoT-based instrument for the continuous and accurate monitoring of solar PV systems. The instrument is a synergistic combination of electronic hardware, desktop applications and a website. It has been conceived to provide monitoring, storage, and sharing as well as to perform statistical operations on solar energy-related data collected at any chosen site. The instrument features high flexibility, with the capacity of monitoring PV plants of up to a 90 kW rating. It is intentionally equipped with large-range weather-proof sensors, permitting monitoring and evaluation across different seasons and geographical areas. The proposed instrument targets six keys operating variables of a PV systems, namely irradiance, panel-temperature, ambient temperature, humidity, PV current and voltage. The automated design of the Trio-PV monitor allows for continuous operation for 12 h within a day. The instrument has been used to monitor simple 30 W solar PV-DC connected systems, with acquired results revealing it practical suitability and soundness. The friendly user interface of the system allows a graphical visualization of monitored parameters in real time through an installed desktop application. Finally, the IoT competence of the proposed instrument extensively allows data acquisition and the monitoring of a PV system from any location in the world. It is envisioned that the developed instrument would be a leverage package for data acquisition and the monitoring of PV system installations in developing countries and especially in Cameroon where access to information on PV systems is still highly costly and unreliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
Nonlinear Control Design of Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped-Based High-Voltage Direct Current Systems for Enhanced Availability during AC Faults with Semi-Experimental Validation
by Ilyass El Myasse, Aziz Watil, Abdelmounime El Magri and Ambe Harrison
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15336 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 357
Abstract
This research paper addresses the issue of enhancing the operational availability of NPC three-level converter-based high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transport systems during alternating current (AC) grid fault conditions. During short-circuit faults in power transmission lines, voltage sags can occur, causing fluctuations in the [...] Read more.
This research paper addresses the issue of enhancing the operational availability of NPC three-level converter-based high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transport systems during alternating current (AC) grid fault conditions. During short-circuit faults in power transmission lines, voltage sags can occur, causing fluctuations in the DC link voltage of converter systems. These voltage sags have the potential to induce a reversed power flow and trip the VSC-HVDC transmission system. The objective of this paper is to develop a nonlinear control technique that investigates the fault ride-through (FRT) capability of VSC-HVDC transmission system characteristics during voltage sag events. To achieve this, we conduct semi-experimental investigations using Processor-in-the-Loop (PIL) simulations and analyze the results. Symmetrical and asymmetrical voltage sag events with different remaining voltages are applied to an AC grid, and their effects are observed for varying durations. The proposed nonlinear control technique aims to mitigate the impact of voltage sags on the operational availability of HVDC transport systems. By analyzing the semi-experimental results, we aim to gain insights into the FRT capability of the VSC-HVDC transmission system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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Proceeding Paper
Development of a Density-Based Traffic Light Signal System
by Umar Abubakar, Abdullahi Shuaibu, Zaharuddeen Haruna, Ajayi Ore-Ofe, Zainab Mukhtar Abubakar and Risikat Folashade Adebiyi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15269 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 813
Abstract
This paper presents a density-based traffic light signal system that performs timing signal that changes automatically based on the amount of traffic at each of its intersections. However, as traffic congestion is a pertinent problem on all of Ahmadu Bello University’s (ABU) gates, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a density-based traffic light signal system that performs timing signal that changes automatically based on the amount of traffic at each of its intersections. However, as traffic congestion is a pertinent problem on all of Ahmadu Bello University’s (ABU) gates, it is time to advance from the traditional technique to an automated system that has self-decision capabilities. The current technique used on the traffic system is based on the traditional technique, which works based on time scheduling; this system is inefficient if one lane is operational while the others are not operational. The intelligent traffic control was prototyped in order to solve this perennial problem of ABU’s gate. When there is a high density on one lane of the intersection, it causes a longer waiting time on the other lanes than the regular permitted time. As a result, a process was designed through which the time periods for the green and red lights were assigned based on the traffic densities on each of the lanes at that time. Infrared (IR) sensors were used to perform this task. The Arduino Uno Microcontroller was used for allocating the glowing period of green lights once density had been calculated. Sensors were used for monitoring the presence of vehicles and communicating information to the microcontroller, which determines the duration for which a signal will change or a flank will remain open. Also displayed is the operating principle of the density-based traffic signal control system, which shows the prototype’s efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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857 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modeling and Optimizing the Performance of an Industrial Trigeneration Unit
by Miroslav Variny, Marianna Kšiňanová and Patrik Furda
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15409 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Trigeneration provides an effective means of power, heat, and cold production on site. Proper design and well-managed operation of such units can bring in substantial savings in consumed primary energy as well as in the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere, [...] Read more.
Trigeneration provides an effective means of power, heat, and cold production on site. Proper design and well-managed operation of such units can bring in substantial savings in consumed primary energy as well as in the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere, compared to separate production of all three media. The studied sub-MW-sized trigeneration unit comprises an internal combustion engine combined with an absorption chiller and a heat management system, delivering all three media to a nearby industrial facility. A mathematical model is developed based on available design and process data, a profit function is set up, and the subsequent sensitivity analysis of economic parameters is realized. The lowered efficiency of summer operation is analyzed, and a suitable solution is proposed, with an estimated total investment cost of EUR 114,000 and an anticipated simple payback period less than 2 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2293 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Highly Efficient Cross-Connected H-Bridge-Style Multilevel Inverter with Lower Power Components
by Vijayaraja Loganathan, Dhanasekar Ravikumar, Kesav Sanadhan Saikumar and Rupa Kesavan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15296 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Compared to the classical inverters, the multilevel inverter finds remarkable advantages that can be suitably implemented in green energy power generation. Here, an asymmetric multilevel inverter with fewer components is proposed for renewable energy applications. The proposed inverter is a cross between two [...] Read more.
Compared to the classical inverters, the multilevel inverter finds remarkable advantages that can be suitably implemented in green energy power generation. Here, an asymmetric multilevel inverter with fewer components is proposed for renewable energy applications. The proposed inverter is a cross between two H-bridge-style devices. To maximize the output voltage, three different algorithms to fix the amplitude of the DC sources are proposed, and the best among them is chosen for implementation. The recommended inverter can generate 19 levels of output voltage using three DC sources with reduced power components. The nearest-level modulation is used as the control course for the inverter. Here, MATLAB software is used to simulate the proposed inverter, and the performance of the inverter is observed. The proposed inverter is constructed in real time, and the performance of the inverter is studied by testing with fixed and variable reactive loads. A comparative study is made between the simulation model and real-time work results interms of efficiency and harmonics in the load waveforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1617 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mechanical Performance of Protective Epoxy Coatings with Bio-Based Ingredients for Flax–Fiber Composites
by Pieter Samyn, Wannes Lembrechts, Patrick Cosemans and Linde De Vriese
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15327 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Due to its long and continuous cellulose fibers, flax offers excellent specific tensile strength and stiffness relative to other natural fibers such sisal or jute, and it is widely used as fiber reinforcement in composites with relevance in industries such as automotive, sports [...] Read more.
Due to its long and continuous cellulose fibers, flax offers excellent specific tensile strength and stiffness relative to other natural fibers such sisal or jute, and it is widely used as fiber reinforcement in composites with relevance in industries such as automotive, sports and maritime environments. However, the use of natural fibers poses additional challenges relative to synthetic fibers in ensuring the functional lifetime of composites; in particular, water resistance and resistance against UV conditions should be improved for outdoor use. Therefore, a protective coating that offers high resistance against environmental conditions and mechanical damage can be applied to avoid direct surface exposure of natural fibers. The linseed oil or wax coatings increase the hydrophobic surface properties and limit water ingress, but they have drawbacks such as extended curing periods via oxidative crosslinking and weak mechanical performance. In seeking alternatives for natural fiber composites, the potential of bio-based crosslinked coatings to enhance mechanical robustness, surface protection and durability was explored by screening various coating grades, including bio-based epoxy resin, diluents and crosslinkers. The epoxy coatings with a bio-based phenalkamine crosslinker offer higher hardness and scratch resistance, and the water resistance was improved in the presence of an amine crosslinker with long alkyl chains. In parallel, the mechanical abrasion resistance of the crosslinked coatings significantly increased in relation to the intrinsic mechanical properties and crosslinking density of the coatings. The processing of the epoxy coatings was further enhanced by adding a bio-based trifunctional diluent with low viscosity while providing limited shrinkage and good compatibility with the composite substrate. Moreover, the UV resistance was better for epoxy coatings with a bio-based diluent, likely via migration effects and the formation of a protective layer at the outer surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2043 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Evaluation of the Compressive Strength of Nanosilicate Hollow Crete Blocks
by Juliana N. Tyoden, Adamu Lawan and Sp Ejeh
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15316 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 330
Abstract
The need for significant infrastructure development in Nigeria; the high demand for cement; the challenges associated with the disposal of agricultural waste; and—most significantly—the emission of CO2 associated with cement production and use, which has a negative impact on the environment, have [...] Read more.
The need for significant infrastructure development in Nigeria; the high demand for cement; the challenges associated with the disposal of agricultural waste; and—most significantly—the emission of CO2 associated with cement production and use, which has a negative impact on the environment, have created opportunities for research in the construction sector. The urgent need for researchers to explore substitute materials that may sustainably replace cement in the construction sector has also been prompted by the necessity to manage Nigeria’s natural resources. This paper investigates the properties of hollow blocks produced by replacing cement with nanosilica produced from rice husk waste at 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% in order to assess the impact on the hollow block’s strength. The hollow blocks have four mixes: cement-to-sand ratios of 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 for different curing durations (1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days by spraying water). The results from the findings showed that the nanosilica produced from rice husk ash and used in this study are a good reactive pozzolana with particle sizes in the range of 1–49 nm, with majority of the particles within 1–7 nm. Hollow blocks produced at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% replacement by weight of cement (nanosilica-crete) proved stronger than hollow blocks produced at 0% cement replacement (conventional sandcrete), with an optimal nanosilica percentage replacement of 3% by weight of cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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393 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Formulation of Self-Compacting Concrete Mixtures Incorporating Diverse Cement Types
by Khandokar Md Rifat Hossain and Rupak Mutsuddy
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15238 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a highly flowable, self-leveling, and non-segregating type of concrete that requires no form of vibration to maintain its uniformity throughout the mixture as well as being able to perform in an outstanding manner in densely reinforced structures. The main [...] Read more.
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a highly flowable, self-leveling, and non-segregating type of concrete that requires no form of vibration to maintain its uniformity throughout the mixture as well as being able to perform in an outstanding manner in densely reinforced structures. The main objective of this study is to investigate the primary differences in the engineering properties of SCC using CEM-I, CEM-II/A-M, and CEM-II/B-M types of cement as the primary binding material. The properties of SCC, such as cohesiveness, stability, flowability, etc., can be modified by selecting definitive amounts of aggregates, cementitious materials, and viscosity-modifying admixtures. Therefore, it will highlight the effects of the mechanical and flow properties of the concrete mix due to the change in cement type with a similar composition and volumetric ratio to other constituent materials. The flow properties were validated using the V-funnel test, L-box test, T-500 test, and slump flow test. A comparative result highlighting the strength response, i.e., the compressive, tensile, and flexural strength of the mix designs, was recorded at 28 days, and correlations among these values were established and analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2470 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Rheological and Microstructural Characteristics of Commercial Mayonnaise-Type Emulsions: A Chemometric Analysis
by Sergey Gubsky and Anastasiia Sachko
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15338 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 417
Abstract
Mayonnaise is a widely used emulsion-like food that is popular for its flavor properties. However, the modern trend of healthy eating requires a reduction in the calorie content of this product, which means an oil content decrease. Such emulsion systems require the solution [...] Read more.
Mayonnaise is a widely used emulsion-like food that is popular for its flavor properties. However, the modern trend of healthy eating requires a reduction in the calorie content of this product, which means an oil content decrease. Such emulsion systems require the solution of increased problems associated with the stabilization of their spatial structure. It is known that the size of droplets as a microstructural characteristic depends on the stability of the emulsion and correlates with the rheological properties of emulsions. Thus, the study of these characteristics becomes one of the important factors in predicting the properties of emulsions being developed with different natures of the main ingredients. The purpose of this study was a preliminary chemometric analysis of data on acidity and rheological and microstructural characteristics of commercial mayonnaises containing from 25 to 76% oils (sunflower, rapeseed and olive) in order to predict the effect of the main ingredients of the recipe on textural characteristics. Rheological data were analyzed within the framework of a structural representation based on the generalized Casson’s model. The nine standardized parameters were grouped using multivariate statistical methodology techniques such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The experimental flow curves demonstrated pseudoplastic behavior, which is typical for such emulsion systems. The three factors of multivariate factor analysis can explain 72.5% of the variability. In the first factor, the most important variables (with the highest loads) were Casson’s model coefficient of the aggregation degree, the static yield stress and the average droplet size. In the second factor, the highest loadings were the oil content and Casson’s model coefficient, which indicate a tendency to form an infinitely large droplet aggregate. The pattern captured by PCA is confirmed by HCA analysis data. Rheology combined with microstructural characteristics can be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of ingredients in mayonnaise and mayonnaise sauces on textural properties. This information is important for formulation in cases using alternative ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1567 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimizing Traffic Flow: Utilizing IR and Load Cell Sensors for Cost-Effective Traffic Congestion Alleviation at Smart City Intersections
by Muhammad Zain Khalid, Ahsan Tanveer, Sajjad Ahmad, Hassan Ejaz and Muhammad Hashier Muneeb Farrukh
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15266 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Cities face a significant challenge due to increasing traffic congestion and the rising number of vehicles. Developed countries have introduced smart traffic management systems as a solution to mitigate congestion and improve traffic flow. These systems employ various techniques such as image processing, [...] Read more.
Cities face a significant challenge due to increasing traffic congestion and the rising number of vehicles. Developed countries have introduced smart traffic management systems as a solution to mitigate congestion and improve traffic flow. These systems employ various techniques such as image processing, radar sensing, ultrasonic and microwave detectors, and other sensors. However, each of these methods has its drawbacks, including susceptibility to weather conditions, high costs, and low accuracy. Intelligent traffic control methods like inductive loop detection, wireless sensor networks, and video data analysis have proven to be efficient. However, they suffer from lengthy installation processes and high installation and maintenance expenses. In response to this issue, this article proposes a system that can detect lane density and adjust traffic signal timers accordingly to optimize traffic flow. The proposed system utilizes IR sensors and load sensors to calculate the density of each lane at an intersection, and an RFID system is implemented to accommodate emergency response vehicles. This system is centered around an ATmega 2560 chip. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, real-time experiments were conducted on a scaled-down model of the system. The results showed promising outcomes. The authors argue that this system could serve as a cost-effective and efficient solution for managing traffic in cities, particularly in Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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242 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Pyrolysis of Polyvinyl Chloride, Polypropylene, and Polystyrene: Current Research and Future Outlook
by Edgar Clyde R. Lopez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15376 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Plastic waste has increased worldwide due to the steady rise in plastic consumption. Several strategies were developed to mitigate plastic waste. Among these methods, pyrolysis is a promising technology for converting plastic waste into valuable products. This paper discusses the latest advancements in [...] Read more.
Plastic waste has increased worldwide due to the steady rise in plastic consumption. Several strategies were developed to mitigate plastic waste. Among these methods, pyrolysis is a promising technology for converting plastic waste into valuable products. This paper discusses the latest advancements in the pyrolysis of three common types of plastic waste: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). The challenges associated with the pyrolysis of these plastics are highlighted, and an outlook on the future of research on pyrolysis is given. Overall, this review provides valuable insights into the current state of research on the pyrolysis of PVC, PP, and PS. This has implications for advancing pyrolysis technology to contribute to a more sustainable and circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
3022 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Use of a Natural Clinoptilolite Monolith as a Negative Temperature Coefficient Thermistor
by Loredana Schiavo and Gianfranco Carotenuto
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15397 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Geomorphic clinoptilolite, a mechanically and thermally stable mineral substance, has very useful electrical properties due to the presence of extra-framework cations in the crystal structure. Indeed, owing to the electrical transport that alkaline earth metal cations may give, this ceramic material behaves like [...] Read more.
Geomorphic clinoptilolite, a mechanically and thermally stable mineral substance, has very useful electrical properties due to the presence of extra-framework cations in the crystal structure. Indeed, owing to the electrical transport that alkaline earth metal cations may give, this ceramic material behaves like an electrical insulator at room temperature, while it changes to an electrical conductor with increasing of temperature. Such unusual electrical property of clinoptilolite can be advantageously exploited for a number of functional applications in industrial fields. For example, clinoptilolite-based devices can be used as thermal sensors, electrical/thermal switches, NTC thermistors, etc. Here, the capability of a simple natural clinoptilolite monolith to switch from an electrical insulator to a conductor under fast temperature changes has been investigated via time-resolved a.c. electrical transport measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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224 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Housing Conditions and Their Impact on Health of Residents
by Mohd. Zuber, Charu Khosla and Nargis Begum Javed
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15334 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 581
Abstract
Housing amounts to the physical structures that provide shelter, social services with a hygienic neighborhood, to fulfill the essential needs of the people. Housing factors have been shown to have an effect on an individual’s state of physical, mental, social and economic well-being. [...] Read more.
Housing amounts to the physical structures that provide shelter, social services with a hygienic neighborhood, to fulfill the essential needs of the people. Housing factors have been shown to have an effect on an individual’s state of physical, mental, social and economic well-being. Indoor environmental factors such as crowding, environmental tobacco smoke, biofuels, dampness, house dust mites, temperature, age of building, pets, and indoor plants affect the wellbeing and productivity of the occupants. A literature review was performed on studies of housing conditions and health outcomes conducted in India and abroad from 1999 to 2020. The studies assessed housing quality by self-reported questionnaires administered through the postal system, face-to-face or via the internet. Visual signs and non-volumetric methods were used to assess indoor air quality and housing conditions, while the health of residents was assessed by self-reported questionnaire, or SF-36 questionnaire. Studies conducted in the United States of America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Middle East, Africa and Australasia have revealed that factors affecting health conditions were ventilation, dampness, presence of molds, overcrowding, house dust mite allergens, age and renovation of buildings and these factors showed an association with respiratory illnesses, colds, coughs, asthma, conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and ear infections. However, studies in India revealed that lack of proper ventilation, use of traditional fuels, crowding and poor hygienic conditions are the main factors associated with acute respiratory infections, asthma, tuberculosis, cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Thus, the review highlights that there is a need to improve housing conditions in India to enable the people to lead a healthy and productive life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1416 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Copper Substitution in Methylammonium-Based Perovskite Solar Cells
by Riku Okumura, Takeo Oku, Atsushi Suzuki, Sakiko Fukunishi, Tomoharu Tachikawa and Tomoya Hasegawa
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15403 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 328
Abstract
The addition of copper bromide to the perovskite precursor solutions increased the conversion efficiencies of the devices. On the other hand, the short-circuit current densities decreased with an increase in the added amounts of copper (Cu). From first-principles calculations, the partial substitution of [...] Read more.
The addition of copper bromide to the perovskite precursor solutions increased the conversion efficiencies of the devices. On the other hand, the short-circuit current densities decreased with an increase in the added amounts of copper (Cu). From first-principles calculations, the partial substitution of lead with Cu resulted in the formation of a Cu d orbital energy level in the forbidden band, which worked as a recombination center, causing the generated carriers to disappear. Experiments and calculations show the effects of Cu substitution on the electronic structures and the ability of the addition of Cu compounds to further improve the device performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2484 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Multi-Parametric Analysis of a Mimicked Accelerating Pedal (Via DC Motor) of an Electric Vehicle
by Hassan Niaz, Muhammad Abdullah Sheeraz and Muhammad Ahsan Naeem
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15253 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 549
Abstract
In the 21st century, researchers have been exploring different designs, performance characteristics, charging–discharging regions, and regenerative braking aspects of electric vehicles. However, there has been a major gap in the multimodal analysis of the accelerating pedal drive for electric vehicles; therefore, herein, a [...] Read more.
In the 21st century, researchers have been exploring different designs, performance characteristics, charging–discharging regions, and regenerative braking aspects of electric vehicles. However, there has been a major gap in the multimodal analysis of the accelerating pedal drive for electric vehicles; therefore, herein, a novel analytical model of a mimicked foot pedaling control of an electric vehicle is developed by cascading five sub-models (i.e., foot pedal, resistive potentiometer, 555 timer, buck converter, and the permanent magnet DC motor) to synthesize the overall third-order transfer function of the system. MATLAB is utilized to comprehensively analyze the transient and steady-state characteristics of the developed model by considering the pedaling force, four different materials (i.e., aluminum, brass, carbon fiber, and polyamide 6), the potentiometer’s resistance, and the mechanical and electrical attributes of the motor. The results highlight that the linear pedaling drive is possible by considering the polyamide 6 material’s pedaling properties of 0.25 kg mass and 2.679 Ns/m damping coefficient. Furthermore, at a lesser potentiometer track length (around 10 cm) and equivalent inertia of 5 Kgm2, the motor generates the regulated angular velocity, thereby minimizing the transient characteristics of the accelerating pedal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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851 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mechanochemical Activation of CeO2 in Order to Boost Physicochemical Properties for Catalytic Applications
by Matías G. Rinaudo, Luis E. Cadús and Maria R. Morales
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15402 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 322
Abstract
Mechanochemical activation, by means of high-energy ball milling, was applied to CeO2 as a strategy to enhance its physicochemical properties. Different milling times were screened to evaluate their effect on ceria. The fluorite-type structure of cerianite was maintained in all cases, no [...] Read more.
Mechanochemical activation, by means of high-energy ball milling, was applied to CeO2 as a strategy to enhance its physicochemical properties. Different milling times were screened to evaluate their effect on ceria. The fluorite-type structure of cerianite was maintained in all cases, no matter the amount of energy introduced by the milling process, as observed via X-ray diffraction (XRD). A decrease in crystallite sizes and a consequent increase in specific surface area (SBET) were observed through XRD and N2 sorption (BET method). Pore diameters and total pore volumes were also in line with the duration of CeO2 milling. Moreover, redox properties and oxygen mobility studied through H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2- TPR) showed an increase in reducibility with milling time, including signals of both bulk and surface ceria, due to the greater number of defects and/or oxygen vacancies achieved by mechanochemical activation. The obtained features could play an essential role in terms of metal–support interaction, reactant adsorption and/or oxygen supply during catalytic reactions. Thus, high-energy ball milling is a useful, simple and green method for the design of materials with catalytic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2509 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Opportunities for Reversible Bonding at the Cellulose/Matrix Interface of Composites via Mussel-Inspired Interface Design
by Pieter Samyn
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15401 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 334
Abstract
With the increasing demand for recycling composite materials and re-use of fibers and matrices as new resources in the context of a circular economy, composite materials often pose problems as they form complex aggregates. The user properties of high strength and long lifetime [...] Read more.
With the increasing demand for recycling composite materials and re-use of fibers and matrices as new resources in the context of a circular economy, composite materials often pose problems as they form complex aggregates. The user properties of high strength and long lifetime require strong interfaces between a matrix and reinforcing fibers, while recycling would benefit from easy separation of the two phases. Therefore, the design of an interface with reversible bonding upon thermal or chemical activation may offer a good balance. In addition, the request for bio-based composites incorporating cellulose fibers should be combined with bio-inspired interface modification avoiding traditional chemical surface modification. An impressive example of reversible bonding in nature is observed in mussels and is regulated by the so-called mussel foot proteins. The latter includes dopamine as a main component that presents reversible bonding upon a change in pH. In the present work, cellulose fibers were modified with a dopamine (DA) or polydopamine (PDA) coating that was polymerized when in contact with the cellulose surface, thus providing good chemical compatibility and interaction with cellulose hydroxyl groups. The adhesive properties of the modified cellulose fibers were investigated via local adhesive measurements using atomic force microscopy and varied between strong adhesion (low pH) and weak adhesion (high pH). In parallel, the macroscale mechanical strength of the epoxy composites with modified fibers improved, while the interface adhesion of the modified fibers dropped after submersion in solutions with pH = 9.8. Based on these observations, a proof of concept for recycling of cellulose/epoxy composites and recovery of cellulose fibers is demonstrated after grinding and chemical treatment at a high pH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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213 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preservation of Bone Volume in Implant-Supported Post-Extraction Sockets: Tissue Conditioning during Prosthetic Rehabilitation
by Luca Fiorillo, Cesare D’amico, Dario Milone and Gabriele Cervino
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15320 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Socket preservation is a procedure in oral surgery that is vital to maintain the integrity of the alveolar ridge following tooth extraction, providing a favorable environment for subsequent implant placement. The success of post-extractive implantology relies on osseointegration and the establishment of harmonious [...] Read more.
Socket preservation is a procedure in oral surgery that is vital to maintain the integrity of the alveolar ridge following tooth extraction, providing a favorable environment for subsequent implant placement. The success of post-extractive implantology relies on osseointegration and the establishment of harmonious soft tissue contours. A supporting literature review was conducted to analyze the socket preservation technique and the role of prosthodontics in facilitating optimal soft tissue healing. Relevant studies and clinical trials published between 2000 and 2023 were included. The search was performed using electronic databases, such as PubMed, Embase, and Scopus, using keywords related to socket preservation, post-extractive implantology, prosthodontics, and soft tissue conditioning. Socket preservation techniques, such as guided bone regeneration and biomaterials, have been proven effective in minimizing bone resorption and preserving the alveolar ridge volume. However, with proper consideration of the prosthetic aspects, these techniques may yield optimal aesthetic outcomes. Prosthodontics plays a crucial role in soft tissue conditioning by providing provisional restorations, functional and esthetic support, and contouring the emergence profile. The socket preservation technique in oral surgery is fundamental for successful post-extractive implantology. However, it is equally important to consider the prosthodontic aspects to ensure adequate soft tissue conditioning. Provisional restorations can help shape the surrounding soft tissues, maintaining a proper emergence profile and enhancing the final aesthetic outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
3845 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Isothermal and Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Life Prediction Using the Total Strain Energy Density-Based Approach
by Ikram Abarkan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15406 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Accurate fatigue life prediction is essential for ensuring the reliability of engineering designs, particularly under thermo-mechanical fatigue conditions. This study focuses on investigating the isothermal and thermo-mechanical low-cycle fatigue of 316 FR stainless steel using finite element analysis in ABAQUS. The research evaluates [...] Read more.
Accurate fatigue life prediction is essential for ensuring the reliability of engineering designs, particularly under thermo-mechanical fatigue conditions. This study focuses on investigating the isothermal and thermo-mechanical low-cycle fatigue of 316 FR stainless steel using finite element analysis in ABAQUS. The research evaluates the accuracy of fatigue life prediction using the total strain energy density-based approach, including Masing and non-Masing methods. The predicted results, when compared with experimental data, highlight the high accuracy of FEA in replicating cyclic behavior under both loading conditions. Additionally, the non-Masing method exhibits the highest accuracy for fatigue life prediction, particularly under isothermal loading conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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6 pages, 1341 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Catalytic Performance of Doped Ni2P Surfaces for Ammonia Synthesis
by Abdulrahman Almithn
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15319 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Ammonia is a key ingredient in fertilizer production, but its synthesis using the conventional Haber–Bosch process over metal-based catalysts is energy intensive. Prior investigations revealed that metal catalysts suffer from a trade-off between N2 activation and N* binding strength, hindering their overall [...] Read more.
Ammonia is a key ingredient in fertilizer production, but its synthesis using the conventional Haber–Bosch process over metal-based catalysts is energy intensive. Prior investigations revealed that metal catalysts suffer from a trade-off between N2 activation and N* binding strength, hindering their overall reactivity. Metal phosphide catalysts are promising alternatives to conventional metal catalysts due to their unique reactivity and stability. Here, we used DFT to study the catalytic performance of Ni2P catalysts doped with Fe and Ru for ammonia synthesis. We show that H-assisted N–N activation may provide a new route to circumvent the N2 dissociation scaling relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1337 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Obtaining Red Phosphate Coatings on Steel at Room Temperature
by Viktoriya S. Konovalova and Varvara E. Rumyantseva
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15378 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 444
Abstract
The article discusses the aspects of obtaining red-colored phosphate coatings on the surface of steel at low temperatures. The solution for color phosphating is based on a modified composition based on the chemical «Majef» with sodium nitrite as an accelerator, organic additives of [...] Read more.
The article discusses the aspects of obtaining red-colored phosphate coatings on the surface of steel at low temperatures. The solution for color phosphating is based on a modified composition based on the chemical «Majef» with sodium nitrite as an accelerator, organic additives of glycerin and Trilon B to improve the quality of precipitated phosphate coatings, and the preparation of OS-20 for emulsifying and wetting the surface. To precipitate red phosphate coatings, it is proposed to introduce copper salt into the composition of the phosphating solution. In the phosphating solution with the addition of copper salt, contact deposition of copper occurs before the formation of a phosphate film on the surface of the steel. This copper layer stains the resulting phosphate coating but does not adhere to the steel surface. To obtain a red phosphate coating of satisfactory quality, it is recommended to first soak the steel product in a modified cold phosphating solution for 15 min, and after the formation of a thin layer of phosphate film on the surface of the steel, introduce copper salt into the solution. Red phosphate coatings are inferior in their protective abilities to unpainted phosphate films; they have greater roughness and high porosity. Although red phosphate coatings have a protective ability, their anticorrosive properties should be improved by additional varnish treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1356 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Understanding the Effects of Plastic Fines as a Bitumen Modifier on the Performance Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt
by Idorenyin Ndarake Usanga, Chijioke Christopher Ikeagwuani and Edidiong Eseme Ambrose
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15394 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 286
Abstract
The mechanical properties of most asphalt binders may not be sufficient to withstand the increased load requirements experienced by flexible pavement in practice, especially in regions notorious for severe climatic conditions. This necessitated the need to often enhance the properties of asphalt binder [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of most asphalt binders may not be sufficient to withstand the increased load requirements experienced by flexible pavement in practice, especially in regions notorious for severe climatic conditions. This necessitated the need to often enhance the properties of asphalt binder so that it can counteract most pavement distresses, such as rutting and moisture susceptibility. In this study, economical industrial waste plastic dust (IWPD) from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) origin was used to modify base bitumen with a penetration grade of 60/70, and its effect on the moisture susceptibility and rutting potential of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) was investigated thereafter. The IWPD was added at varying percentages (3%, 6%, and 9%) to the base bitumen by weight of the optimum bitumen content. Afterward, Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength ratio were performed on HMA samples produced with the IWPD-modified bitumen blends to evaluate, respectively, its rutting and moisture susceptibility. Based on the results obtained from the analysis, it was found that the modified blends of bitumen enhance the properties of the conventional bitumen. More importantly, the modified blend of bitumen with 6% IWPD content gave optimal results in terms of the increment of rutting resistance and improvement of moisture susceptibility of HMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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757 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
NanoRevolution: Pioneering Applications of Nanotechnology in Type II Diabetes Care
by Debojyoti Mandal, Jayanta Kumar Sarmah and Jeena Gupta
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15312 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1323
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a chronic and multifactorial disease that is increasingly prevalent worldwide. An ageing population will double the number of individuals who need medical attention during the next decade, putting a greater strain on healthcare systems [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a chronic and multifactorial disease that is increasingly prevalent worldwide. An ageing population will double the number of individuals who need medical attention during the next decade, putting a greater strain on healthcare systems everywhere but especially in developing nations. The prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications have become major health concerns in modern society. Once diabetes-related problems manifest, they tend to be permanent and challenging to treat effectively. Amidst this health crisis, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising avenue for addressing various issues associated with diabetes. Over the past few years, scientists have increasingly used nanotechnology to investigate diabetic complications, focusing on areas including prevention and treatment. When it comes to detecting and treating illness, nanotechnology (the exploration of nanoscale materials) has opened up new avenues of inquiry. With its applications spanning materials science, environment, biology, healthcare, and biochemistry, nanotechnology has garnered attention for exploring diabetic complications and interventions. In particular, it has paved the way for less intrusive and more effective diabetes management options. The development of nanocarriers, such as nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, carbon nanotubes, nanoemulsions, and micelles, has revolutionized the transport of oral hypoglycemic drugs. These nanocarriers offer superior efficiency compared to traditional therapeutic approaches, enabling better control of elevated blood glucose levels. The integration of multiple ligands into nanostructures further enhances targeted drug delivery while safeguarding the encapsulated hypoglycemic drugs from degradation. The net result is a greater and sustained reduction in blood glucose levels, offering new hope for improved diabetes control with reduced short- and long-term consequences. Thus, nanotechnology holds the potential to transform diabetes management into a state-of-the-art and highly promising field, presenting novel and useful solutions to combat this global health challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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570 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Initial Assessment of Separation Train Design and Utilities Consumption for Cyclopentyl Methyl Ether Production
by Miroslav Variny, Lukas Hlavatý, Tomáš Soták and Zuzana Magyarová
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15307 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Asymmetric ethers such as Cyclopentyl Methyl Ether (CPME) found their application as alternative solvents in technology; they are often labeled as “green solvents” as they can be prepared using renewable feedstock. They are almost immiscible with water and can be easily regenerated. Based [...] Read more.
Asymmetric ethers such as Cyclopentyl Methyl Ether (CPME) found their application as alternative solvents in technology; they are often labeled as “green solvents” as they can be prepared using renewable feedstock. They are almost immiscible with water and can be easily regenerated. Based on earlier experiments with CPME preparation in laboratory conditions and the estimated product yields, an initial assessment of the reaction mixture separation train was performed, for the chosen production capacity of 100 kg·h−1 of CPME. Following suitable thermodynamic model selection, basic analyses in Aspen Plus software were executed. Reactor effluent containing eight chemical species was subjected to multiple separation steps including extraction and several rectifications including one vapor phase compression step to yield saleable products with sufficient purity and unreacted chemicals recyclable to the reactor. Basic simulations were performed to find the optimal working conditions of individual columns and to estimate the associated energy needs. Basic design, without any heat or work integration measures, required a total heating duty of 787 kW and a total cooling duty of 614 kW. This yielded a specific heat consumption of 28.3 GJ per ton of the main product (CPME) which is unacceptably high as it represents around 70% of its chemical energy content (heating value). Further research will be devoted to reducing heating and cooling duty by integrated separation train design development to comply with the reduced carbon footprint mandatory for the syntheses and separations of green solvents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1555 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development and Evaluation of Nanosuspension Loaded Nanogel of Nortriptyline HCl for Brain Delivery
by Akash J. Amkar, Bhushan R. Rane and Ashish S. Jain
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15311 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Nanogel systems loaded with nanosuspension area promising approach tonose-to-brain delivery in order to reduce the dose and dosing frequency and also improve the bioavailability of the drug. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a nanosuspension-loaded insitu nasal nanogel of [...] Read more.
Nanogel systems loaded with nanosuspension area promising approach tonose-to-brain delivery in order to reduce the dose and dosing frequency and also improve the bioavailability of the drug. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a nanosuspension-loaded insitu nasal nanogel of nortriptyline HCl (NTH) to achieve effective administration through the intranasal route to reach the brain via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves to improve the therapeutic efficiency. A nanoprecipitation–ultrasonication method followed by high-pressure homogenization was elected for the preparation of the nanosuspension, which was further incorporated into the in situ gelling polymer solution. The optimized nanosuspension-loaded nanogels were prepared using gellan gum. The optimized formulation showed an average particle size of 10–100 nm, a good PDI value, an increase in solubility, a good gelation property, and the desired viscosity to adhere to the nasal mucosa after ionic interactions. In vitro drug release was found to be greater than a drug solution over a period of 60 min. Spreadability and viscosity studies showed better results in achieving a good residence time. Hence, it was proved that insitu nanogel is one of the best possible approaches for the targeting of drugs toward the brain in nanoform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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225 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Characterization of Medical Wastewater and Appropriate Treatment Strategies in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Comparative Analysis of Public Hospitals
by Nazia Hossain, Md. Rakib Hasan Roni and Abdullah Alif
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15392 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Dhaka, the economic hub of Bangladesh, houses numerous healthcare facilities, resulting in increased medical waste generation. However, waste management systems in these facilities are often inadequate, posing a threat to public health and the environment. Wastewater characteristics vary regionally, making treatment strategies location-specific. [...] Read more.
Dhaka, the economic hub of Bangladesh, houses numerous healthcare facilities, resulting in increased medical waste generation. However, waste management systems in these facilities are often inadequate, posing a threat to public health and the environment. Wastewater characteristics vary regionally, making treatment strategies location-specific. This study characterizes medical waste streams in Dhaka, and suggests appropriate treatment strategies. Twenty samples from four major public hospitals were analyzed for various parameters, including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), color, Total Coliform counts, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5). Samples were categorized as acceptable, moderate, or highly polluted. Results were compared to the standard values provided by the department of Environment of Bangladesh to find that samples show moderate to high pollution levels in terms of TDS, TSS, color, and bacteria. Effective wastewater treatment strategies are needed to mitigate pollution and ensure health and safety. Treatment recommendations include the implementation of pre-treatment processes such as sedimentation and filtration to remove solids and aeration to increase dissolved oxygen levels. To reduce organic pollution, treatment methods including sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR), and Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) were recommended according to the applicability of the processes in respective hospitals. Advanced treatment methods such as activated carbon adsorption and ultraviolet disinfection processes were also suggested to address the specific issues like color and bacterial contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
4051 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterising the Physicochemical Properties of Selected Geophagic Clay from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to Investigate Their Potential Applications
by Mukuna Patrick Mubiayi, Thabo Nkambule and Bhekie Brilliance Mamba
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15295 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Clay and clay composites have been used for numerous applications around the world, for example, as construction materials, cosmetics, and absorbents. Since clay is easy to find, abundant, and sustainable, understanding its quality is crucial. This study focuses on the characterization of geophagic [...] Read more.
Clay and clay composites have been used for numerous applications around the world, for example, as construction materials, cosmetics, and absorbents. Since clay is easy to find, abundant, and sustainable, understanding its quality is crucial. This study focuses on the characterization of geophagic clay samples from various locations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to investigate their potential uses in various sectors. Geophagic clays have different colors, morphologies, and properties. Many characterizations were carried out including X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Microstructure and chemical analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). UV–Vis spectroscopy was also carried out to investigate reflectance. XRD revealed the presence of muscovite, kaolinite, illite, and quartz. On the other hand, XRF showed the presence of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, and Fe2O3 as major chemical compounds. A flake-like surface morphology was observed in all samples and the EDS analyses exhibited similar results to the XRF. The XRF, XRD, and EDS results were in agreement. The zeta potential was negative for all the clay samples. The properties exhibited by the selected geophagic clay were compared with the properties of various samples used for different applications. It was concluded that the selected geophagic clays demonstrated properties that could lead to their use in water and wastewater treatments and other applications, including as a sunblock (cosmetic industry) due to their mineralogical/chemical composition and UV–Vis reflectance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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904 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Study on the Influence of Chitosan-Based Solution on Eggplant and Green Pepper Plants
by Zaid Abdulhamid Alhulaybi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15322 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Water shortages are one of the main factors affecting plant growth, development, and yield, particularly in poor counties. Using chitosan biopolymer improves water efficiency and plant growth. It was therefore decided to investigate the effects of a chitosan-based solution on eggplant and pepper [...] Read more.
Water shortages are one of the main factors affecting plant growth, development, and yield, particularly in poor counties. Using chitosan biopolymer improves water efficiency and plant growth. It was therefore decided to investigate the effects of a chitosan-based solution on eggplant and pepper growth, moisture content, and thermal conductivity. After a 30 day period of evaluation, the plant whose soil contained chitosan’s results showed that the soil moisture content was higher than the plant whose soil did not contain chitosan. As a result of the use of the chitosan solution prepared in this study, water consumption was reduced while watering the plants by almost 170%. The electrical conductivity experiment revealed that the plants treated with the chitosan solution had higher electrical conductivity than the plants irrigated with water only. Results also demonstrated that eggplant plants preserve water compared to the pepper plant by roughly 10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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308 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Recent Advances in Particle Fluidization
by Julia Balag, Darby Ann Trixie Franco, Vincent Grace Miral, Verona Reyes, Linea Jennica Tongco and Edgar Clyde R. Lopez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15321 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 930
Abstract
Recent advances in particle fluidization focus on improving the efficiency and control of various processes used in different industries. New technologies, such as spouted beds and circulating fluidized beds, have emerged to improve particle distribution. Additionally, the integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) [...] Read more.
Recent advances in particle fluidization focus on improving the efficiency and control of various processes used in different industries. New technologies, such as spouted beds and circulating fluidized beds, have emerged to improve particle distribution. Additionally, the integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and other advanced technology leads to the effective observation of particle fluidization behavior and up-scaling of fluidized beds. In this paper, we aim to give a thorough analysis of studies from various research groups in the field of particle fluidization. The fundamentals of fluidization, recent advanced techniques, models and simulations, and application of the process will be emphasized. Moreover, it discusses various aspects regarding the challenges and opportunities of the fluidization process. Advances in particle fluidization hold great promise for improving industrial processes and enabling technologies in various industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1475 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Structural, Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Concrete Slab in Traditional Buildings in Casablanca, Morocco
by H. Soumadrass, Z. Beidouri and Kh. Zarbane
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15262 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Morphological, structural and mechanical analyses were performed on reinforced concrete slab samples used in traditional buildings in Casablanca, Morocco. X-ray diffraction and morphological analysis revealed that all of the samples had a low Ca/Si intensity, which could be the primary factor responsible for [...] Read more.
Morphological, structural and mechanical analyses were performed on reinforced concrete slab samples used in traditional buildings in Casablanca, Morocco. X-ray diffraction and morphological analysis revealed that all of the samples had a low Ca/Si intensity, which could be the primary factor responsible for the reduction in the compressive strength of our samples. The compressive strength ranged between 30.5 and 29.1 MPa and the flexural strength ranged between 13 and 15 MPa. Based on these results, we aim to obtain the basic knowledge necessary to propose a correct diagnosis, which is useful for planning conservation projects compatible with the specificity of the local culture of the building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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369 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Study of the Foam Stability Kinetics of Protein Blowing Agents Based on Solid Keratin Hydrolysates Synthesized with a Mixture of Sodium and Calcium Hydroxide and Individually
by Kirill A. Breskin, Elena N. Rozanova, Vladimir M. Zhmykhov and Ekaterina S. Barteneva
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15331 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 269
Abstract
This study is dedicated to an investigation and comparison of the kinetics of the foam stability of protein foaming agents based on the hydrolysates of solid keratin. The work utilized ready-made hydrolysates based on sodium hydroxide and a mixture of sodium hydroxide with [...] Read more.
This study is dedicated to an investigation and comparison of the kinetics of the foam stability of protein foaming agents based on the hydrolysates of solid keratin. The work utilized ready-made hydrolysates based on sodium hydroxide and a mixture of sodium hydroxide with calcium hydroxide for the synthesis of foaming agents. The synthesis was carried out according to the author’s methodology. Among the indicators studied were foam multiplication, foam specific weight, foam stability over time, and average foam stability reduction rate. Experiments were conducted with various concentrations and ratios of components at constant temperature, pressure, and pH values, as well as mixing speed, mixing time, and observation time. Itis hypothesized that protein foaming agents based on hydrolysates of solid keratin using a mixture of hydroxides will not be able to achieve optimal values in the kinetics of foam stability. In contrast, protein foaming agents based on hydrolysates of solid keratin using sodium hydroxide individually have high potential foaming properties and, consequently, good foam stability kinetics indicators. The results of this study may be useful in the development of new synthesis methods for protein foaming agents with optimal foaming properties or for improving those that already exist. The research itself and the products obtained during it—protein foaming agents—are mainly aimed at expanding the industrial sphere of human activity. This may also have practical applications in other areas, such as the food industry, cosmetology, medicine, and others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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256 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
CD-MOFs for CO2 Capture and Separation: Current Research and Future Outlook
by Edgar Clyde R. Lopez and Jem Valerie D. Perez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15374 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation constitute an important field of research as we seek to reduce the effects of climate change. Because of their porosity, resilient crystallinity, high adsorption capacity, and affinity for CO2, cyclodextrin-based metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation constitute an important field of research as we seek to reduce the effects of climate change. Because of their porosity, resilient crystallinity, high adsorption capacity, and affinity for CO2, cyclodextrin-based metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) have emerged as attractive materials for carbon capture. This paper gives an overview of CD-MOFs and their applications in CO2 capture and separation. Several studies have been conducted to synthesize and characterize CD-MOFs for CO2 capture. The causes of the high binding affinity of CO2 in CD-MOFs were discovered through mechanistic studies on CO2 adsorption. Furthermore, CD-MOF modifications have been carried out to improve the sorption capacity and selectivity of CO2 adsorption. Meanwhile, several researchers have reported using CD-MOFs for gaseous CO2 membrane separation. This paper also highlights the current gaps in CD-MOF research and future outlooks in carbon capture and separation using CD-MOFs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
3253 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development and Evaluation of Atorvastatin Calcium Nanovesicular Niosomal Gel for the Treatment of Periodontitis
by Nidhi S. Kate, Bhushan R. Rane and Ashish S. Jain
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15313 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Nowadays, smoking and tobacco-related habits (chewing tobacco) are recognized as the most frequent environmental risk factor for periodontal disorders. Atorvastatin calcium (ATV) is a well-known lipid-lowering drug, but recent studies have discussed its pleiotropic effects, including anti-inflammatory properties, anti-bacterial properties, etc. This anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Nowadays, smoking and tobacco-related habits (chewing tobacco) are recognized as the most frequent environmental risk factor for periodontal disorders. Atorvastatin calcium (ATV) is a well-known lipid-lowering drug, but recent studies have discussed its pleiotropic effects, including anti-inflammatory properties, anti-bacterial properties, etc. This anti-inflammatory effect can be studied as an adjunct for scaling and root planing (a non-surgical process to remove dental tartar and smooth root surfaces) for periodontic problems. The goal of the study is to formulate and evaluate ATV-niosomes, introduce them in a gel-based formulation by utilizing an appropriate gelling agent, and evaluate them for various parameters. The niosomal vesicles were prepared using the thin-film hydration method. Gel was prepared using the dispersion method, and an in vitro drug release study was conducted using a Franz diffusion cell. According to the results evaluated, ATV niosomal gels loaded with different concentrations of Carbopol 934 were effectively produced utilizing ATV-niosomes that were formulated through the thin-film hydration process using cholesterol and Span 60. The ATV-niosomes showed the highest entrapment efficiency, up to 84%, and the zeta potential (−18 mV) and PDI (0.106) showed stable and homogenous behavior in the vesicles formed. The performance of the optimized gel containing 1% Carbopol 934 showed in vitro release of up to 8 h following zero-order release. The gel also proved to have antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Therefore, we conclude that 1% Carbopol 934 gel comprising ATV-niosomes showed a prolonged effect compared to plain ATV and can effectively work to improve the periodontal condition as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2469 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Predictive Model for Load-Carrying Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beam–Column Joints Using Gene Expression Programming
by Hafiz Ahmed Waqas, Mehran Sahil, Muhammad Mansoor Khan and Muhammad Hasnain
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15363 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 607
Abstract
This study emphasizes the significance of beam–column joints (BCJs) within reinforced concrete (RC) structures and investigates their performance when subjected to seismic forces. Accurately predicting the load-carrying capacity of exterior BCJs under seismic loading poses a significant challenge. The development of a reliable [...] Read more.
This study emphasizes the significance of beam–column joints (BCJs) within reinforced concrete (RC) structures and investigates their performance when subjected to seismic forces. Accurately predicting the load-carrying capacity of exterior BCJs under seismic loading poses a significant challenge. The development of a reliable and user-friendly predictive model is of paramount importance for facilitating cost-effective and safe design practices for RC structures. To address this requirement, we propose an artificial intelligence (AI)-based model that utilizes gene expression programming (GEP) to accurately predict the load-carrying capacity of exterior BCJs under monotonic loading conditions. The model is developed using GEP and utilizes a database of 128 joint load-carrying capacity results of exterior BCJs obtained from a validated finite element (FE) model using ABAQUS, which considers the effects of material and geometric factors, which have often been overlooked in prior studies. These factors encompass multiple aspects, including the beam and column dimensions, concrete material properties, longitudinal reinforcements in beams and columns, and axial loads applied to the columns. This study also compared the results of the proposed GEP model with the numerical data obtained from the validated FE model, demonstrating good accuracy and reliability. The proposed model has the potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of joint load-carrying capacity predictions, thereby aiding the design of safe and cost-effective RC structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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531 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Use of AI for Prosthodontic Restoration: Predictable and Safer Dentistry
by Gabriele Cervino, Matteo Peditto, Marco Portelli, Angela Militi, Giovanni Matarese, Luca Fiorillo, Riccardo Nucera and Giacomo Oteri
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15304 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 567
Abstract
This scientific article proposal explores the potential benefits of using artificial intelligence (AI) in prosthodontic restoration to achieve predictable and safer dental outcomes. Prosthodontic restoration involves designing, fabricating, and placing dental prostheses to restore oral function and aesthetics. Although traditional prosthodontic techniques have [...] Read more.
This scientific article proposal explores the potential benefits of using artificial intelligence (AI) in prosthodontic restoration to achieve predictable and safer dental outcomes. Prosthodontic restoration involves designing, fabricating, and placing dental prostheses to restore oral function and aesthetics. Although traditional prosthodontic techniques have evolved significantly, incorporating AI into the workflow can revolutionize the field by enhancing accuracy, efficiency, and patient satisfaction. The proposed study aims to investigate the integration of AI algorithms and techniques into various stages of prosthodontic restoration, including treatment planning, digital impression acquisition, prosthesis design, and fabrication. By leveraging machine learning algorithms and image processing, AI can assist in diagnosing dental conditions, predicting treatment outcomes, and optimizing prosthesis design to ensure optimal fit and function. This technology can also aid in identifying potential challenges and risks before proceeding with the restorative procedures, minimizing errors, and improving patient safety. Furthermore, AI-powered systems can facilitate real-time assessment and feedback during fabrication, ensuring precise milling or 3D printing of prosthetic materials. These advancements have the potential to streamline workflows, reduce human error, and shorten treatment times, ultimately leading to enhanced treatment outcomes and increased patient satisfaction. The proposed research methodology includes a comprehensive literature review, an analysis of existing AI applications in prosthodontic restoration, and the development of a prototype AI-assisted system for prosthesis design and fabrication. The evaluation of this prototype will involve quantitative and qualitative assessments, comparing its performance with traditional methods. Overall, this article proposal seeks to highlight the transformative role of AI in prosthodontic restoration, emphasizing its potential to revolutionize traditional approaches and deliver predictable and safer dentistry. The findings from this research can contribute to advancing dental technology, fostering innovation, and improving patient care in prosthodontics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2800 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Voltammetric Sensors for the Simultaneous Quantification of Natural Phenolics in Coffee and Citrus Juices
by Anastasiya Zhupanova and Guzel Ziyatdinova
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15314 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Phenolic antioxidants of various groups are important nutrients in the human diet, providing positive health effects. Nevertheless, these effects are dose dependent and require the control of natural phenolic contents in their sources. Coffee and citrus juices containing significant amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids [...] Read more.
Phenolic antioxidants of various groups are important nutrients in the human diet, providing positive health effects. Nevertheless, these effects are dose dependent and require the control of natural phenolic contents in their sources. Coffee and citrus juices containing significant amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanones, respectively, are among the most widely consumed beverages all over the world. The electroactivity of phenolics allows the application of voltammetric sensors for quantification purposes. Highly sensitive and selective voltammetric sensors for the simultaneous quantification of hydroxycinnamic (caffeic (CA), ferulic (FA), and p-coumaric(p-CA)) acids and flavanones (hesperidin and naringin) have been developed for the first time using glassy carbon electrodes modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized via polyaminobenzene sulfonic acid (f-SWCNTs) and polymeric coverages from triphenylmethane dyes (phenol red (PR) or aluminon). Polymeric layers have been obtained in potentiodynamic modes. The conditions of the dye’s electropolymerization have been optimized using the voltammetric response of hydroxycinnamic acids or flavanone mixtures. Three separated oxidation peaks of CA, FA, and p-CA at the electrode with polyPR as well as hesperidin and naringin at the polyaluaminon-modified electrode have been observed. The oxidation currents are significantly increased comparing those at the bare glassy carbon (GCE) and carbon nanotube-modified electrodes. Both sensors provide a highly sensitive response to target analytes in the differential pulse voltammetric mode. Other natural phenolics of various classes do not affect the response of the sensors developed to the target analyte. The quantification of hydroxycinnamic acids in coffee and flavanones in orange and grapefruit juices has been successfully realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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29 pages, 15072 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fluvial Flood Risk in Contemporary Settlements: A Case of Vadodara City in the Vishwamitri Watershed
by Nishchay Kumar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15270 - 22 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Settlements situated downstream of hills and dams are invariably at risk of floods. Constant land use/land cover changes in the Vishwamitri Watershed and long-term climate variability have made Vadodara City more susceptible to river flooding in recent times. In the past, the local [...] Read more.
Settlements situated downstream of hills and dams are invariably at risk of floods. Constant land use/land cover changes in the Vishwamitri Watershed and long-term climate variability have made Vadodara City more susceptible to river flooding in recent times. In the past, the local government authorities have only tried to solve this issue within the administrative boundary of the Vadodara City. This study demonstrates the importance of watershed scale investigation over administrative scale. The study presents a review of the current flooding and environmental degradation challenges that are affecting the Vishwamitri Watershed. For the analysis, the entire watershed was classified into two parts: (1) the upper watershed and (2) city limits. The data-deficient upper watershed was studied with the aid of site visits and secondary sources. The floodplain within the city limits was simulated for the 2005 peak discharge event (805 cumec) using Hydrological Engineering Centre—River Analysis System (HEC-RAS, 5.0.7.) software and HEC-GeoRAS (10.2.) (a set of procedures, tools, and utilities for processing geospatial data in ArcGIS using a graphical user interface). The simulated water surface elevation from HEC-RAS was validated with the in situ data available within the city limits. The generated floodplain extent map was used for conducting a primary flood impact survey and analysing the inundation-affected zones. Various aspects of the flood plain, like land use, land cover, built form, affected demography, river system, natural environment and habitat, were analysed during this survey. For the mitigation of floods and other maladies associated with the watershed, this probing calls for the restoration of the river ecosystem back to its original state to the maximum possible extent. Nature-based solutions were found to be the remedy for most of the issues pertaining to the floodplain. The study can potentially help concerned stakeholders of any flood-prone urban settlement to envision the issue of flooding with the whole river system and watershed in mind. This will discourage the usual approach of interventions limited to administrative boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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7394 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Generalized Numerical Simulation Calibration Approach to Predict the Geotechnical Hazards of a Coal Mine: Case Study on Khalashpir Coal Basin, Bangladesh
by Habibullah Sarker and Md. Mostafijul Karim
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15342 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Numerical investigation facilitates the development and exploitation phase of a coal mine, incorporating geological settings by forecasting the overall stability. This study proposes a generalized numerical simulation calibration approach to predict potential geotechnical hazards in an explored coal mine, focusing on the Khalashpir [...] Read more.
Numerical investigation facilitates the development and exploitation phase of a coal mine, incorporating geological settings by forecasting the overall stability. This study proposes a generalized numerical simulation calibration approach to predict potential geotechnical hazards in an explored coal mine, focusing on the Khalashpir coal basin in Bangladesh. This research investigates the feasibility of initiating mining at the central block, which is associated with major faults by the finite element method (FEM), which is a valuable tool for understanding the variations of stress distribution in the rock mass. The study verifies the findings of the FEM by further assessing the seam convergence, vertical stress, and strain safety factor using the boundary element method (BEM), which involves numerical discretization in a reduced spatial dimension. The results illustrate that there will be significant displacements in the formation, which infer subsidence and increase vastly along the fault lines. This numerical investigation approach provides essential insights for future research concerning newly explored coal mines, particularly ones in the Gondwana basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1009 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Current Advances in the Synthesis of CD-MOFs and Their Water Stability
by Edgar Clyde R. Lopez and Jem Valerie D. Perez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15373 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of material made up of metal ions or clusters and organic linkers. Cyclodextrin-based MOFs (CD-MOFs) are gaining popularity among MOFs due to their unique features, such as high porosity, permanent porosity, and biocompatibility. This paper focuses on [...] Read more.
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of material made up of metal ions or clusters and organic linkers. Cyclodextrin-based MOFs (CD-MOFs) are gaining popularity among MOFs due to their unique features, such as high porosity, permanent porosity, and biocompatibility. This paper focuses on recent advances in synthesizing CD-MOFs and their water stability. We highlight the difficulties involved in CD-MOF synthesis and the strategies explored to increase water stability. The advances in CD-MOF synthesis and characterization open new avenues for tailoring crystal growth processes and properties, with potential applications spanning areas such as catalysis, drug delivery, and environmental remediation. The combination of innovative synthesis techniques, systematic parameter exploration, and functionalization strategies heralds a promising era for crystal growth research and applications. Finally, we discuss the current research gaps and the future outlook of CD-MOF research. Overcoming obstacles in the synthesis and water stability of CD-MOFs is crucial for their practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1632 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Butyric Acid and Caproic Acid Production Using Single and Mixed Bacterial Cultures
by Young-Cheol Chang and M. Venkateswar Reddy
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15361 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 478
Abstract
In this study, we explored different bacterial strains (Clostridium beijerinckii, C. acetobutylicum, C. oryzae, and C. kainantoi) belonging to the Clostridium group and produced butyric acid (C4) using acetate as a carbon source. All the strains produced significant [...] Read more.
In this study, we explored different bacterial strains (Clostridium beijerinckii, C. acetobutylicum, C. oryzae, and C. kainantoi) belonging to the Clostridium group and produced butyric acid (C4) using acetate as a carbon source. All the strains produced significant amounts of C4, but C. beijerinckii produced 1.54 g/L of C4, which is almost equivalent to the production capacity (1.63 g/L) of C. kluyveri. Further experiments were performed using diluted raw cheese whey (CW) by inoculating mixed bacterial cultures containing Clostridia, Bacillus, and Desulfobacteraceae groups. Clostridium kluyveri was added to the mixed culture, and it stimulated the caproic acid (C6) production. Mixed bacterial culture produced 13.97 g/L, 10.83 g/L, and 6.81 g/L of C6 when incubated with two times, five times, and ten times diluted CW, respectively, within a 20-day incubation period. Compared to our previous study, the C6 production was higher and faster. These results indicated the dilution ratio of CW is an important factor in facilitating the C6 production, and higher fatty acids are produced with mixed culture than that of a single culture, i.e., C. kluyveri. Results have depicted the potential of employing the bio-augmentation strategy for the valorization of bioresources into valuable products like butyric acid and caproic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1065 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A CAD-Based Tool to Support the Configuration of Parts Storage Shelving in Assembly Workstations
by Paolo Cicconi, Michele Trovato and Antonio Casimiro Caputo
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15303 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 319
Abstract
The supply of parts to the workstations of assembly lines is a critical design and operational issue. Even though automation and collaborative robots are increasingly used in industry, human operators are frequently employed in the picking and assembly of manual parts. These are [...] Read more.
The supply of parts to the workstations of assembly lines is a critical design and operational issue. Even though automation and collaborative robots are increasingly used in industry, human operators are frequently employed in the picking and assembly of manual parts. These are time-consuming activities required to be efficiently performed at a high rate and for prolonged periods. Therefore, ergonomic analysis is necessary to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal injuries due to the biomechanical loads. The proper layout of shelves storing part containers along the production line, and the location of the containers on the shelves, may improve picking efficiency and reduce biomechanical risk. Several manufacturing companies use computer-aided ergonomic tools to improve the design of manual production lines, racking, shelving, and workstations. This paper describes the development of a support tool to configure industrial light shelves for feeding the assembly lines. The approach includes the development of a knowledge base to support the geometrical configuration of the shelving and an ergonomic analysis based on the RULA method, considering the shelf’s position and the operator’s postures. As a test case, the model has been used to evaluate the ergonomic score of some configured shelving based on a prescribed picking sequence. The results show that the proposed approach can help in comparing the ergonomic score of candidate shelving layouts to improve the design of parts storage systems to reduce operators’ workload and ergonomic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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242 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Robust Control Approaches and Trajectory Planning Strategies for Industrial Robotic Manipulators in the Era of Industry 4.0: A Comprehensive Review
by Ammar Mazhar, Ahsan Tanveer, Muhammad Izhan and Mohammad Zayan Tariq Khan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15330 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
This article presents a comprehensive review of control approaches for industrial robotic manipulators, focusing on research conducted from 2020 onwards. The efficient functioning of robotic arms and successful task completion necessitate effective control strategies. Addressing real-world challenges, such as dynamic system variations due [...] Read more.
This article presents a comprehensive review of control approaches for industrial robotic manipulators, focusing on research conducted from 2020 onwards. The efficient functioning of robotic arms and successful task completion necessitate effective control strategies. Addressing real-world challenges, such as dynamic system variations due to environmental changes and unknown disturbances, remains crucial. To tackle these challenges, robust control strategies, including PID, H∞ and Model Predictive Control, are thoroughly surveyed. Commercially employed trajectory-planning techniques for manipulators are also extensively discussed. This paper concludes by providing valuable insights into prospective areas for future research, with the aim of enhancing the capabilities and performance of control strategies for industrial robotic manipulators. This study offers valuable knowledge to advance the field of robotic automation in Industry 4.0, fostering the development of efficient and intelligent manufacturing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
2605 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Room Temperature Electrical Analysis of Pr3+-Doped Silicate Glasses for Energy Storage Applications
by Gracie. P. Jeyakumar, Yasmin Jamil and Geetha Deivasigamani
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15308 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 269
Abstract
Composite glasses possessing an amorphous nature and high dielectric constants exhibit properties suitable for optoelectronic and electrochemical applications. Multi-component silica–calcium phosphate glasses doped with 0.5 and 1 mol% of trivalent praseodymium (Pr3+) were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The Pr3+ [...] Read more.
Composite glasses possessing an amorphous nature and high dielectric constants exhibit properties suitable for optoelectronic and electrochemical applications. Multi-component silica–calcium phosphate glasses doped with 0.5 and 1 mol% of trivalent praseodymium (Pr3+) were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The Pr3+-doped and undoped glasses were compared at room temperature (300 K) to analyze their electrical variations. Dielectric studies predicted an increase in the dielectric constant and conductivity in the doped samples when compared to the undoped glass. A high dielectric constant of 89.2 was observed in the optimally doped glass at 1 kHz. The value of the capacitance increases to the order of nanofarads as the concentration of Pr3+ increases, indicating enhanced storage in the material. The AC conductivity of the highly doped sample evidenced a high value of 2.9 × 10−5 S/cm at 10 MHz. The Cole–Cole plot of the glasses demonstrated a single flattened semicircle due to the lack of grains. The equivalent circuitry constitutes a constant-phase element (CPE) in series with the parallel circuit of a resistor and CPE. This behavior is indicative of the suitability of the glasses as cathodes. The increase in capacitance with doping in the low-frequency region suggests the use of the glasses as dielectric energy-storage materials in condensers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1937 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Valuing the Ecological and Socio-Economic Interests of the Oualidia Lagoon (Morocco): An Ecosystem Services Framework
by Nezha Mejjad, Amine el Mahdi Safhi, Abdelmourhit Laissaoui, Samira El Aouidi and Ismail Hilal
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15398 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 360
Abstract
The Oualidia lagoon provides different ecosystem services of socio-economic and ecological interest. These services and goods are important to the local population living there, particularly aquaculture, fishing, and agricultural activities. However, the increase in human activities around such ecosystems has adversely influenced their [...] Read more.
The Oualidia lagoon provides different ecosystem services of socio-economic and ecological interest. These services and goods are important to the local population living there, particularly aquaculture, fishing, and agricultural activities. However, the increase in human activities around such ecosystems has adversely influenced their environmental quality and caused their natural resource depletion. In this context, the main ecosystem services and goods were analyzed; this lagoon provides and defines the main pressures on such an ecosystem. The analysis highlights the need to build a balance between the economic activity growth in this coastal system and the lagoon environment to sustain its natural resource development and avoid their depletion and losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1130 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fabrication of Self-Healing Absorbable Polymer-Based Gel for Wound Dressing
by Zaid Abdulhamid Alhulaybi, Hawra Alhammaqi, Masoumah Alatafi, Reem Alamer, Rayanah Aloudah, Fatima Almarhoon, Ghadeer Almohammed Saleh, Walaa Althuwaini and Sarah Alamer
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15233 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Healthcare professionals must take special care of wounds to avoid serious complications such as infections, lengthy healing periods, and even amputations. This study aimed to design and manufacture a self-healing bioabsorbable polymeric-based wound dressing with antibacterial growth and improved wound healing properties. Gel-based [...] Read more.
Healthcare professionals must take special care of wounds to avoid serious complications such as infections, lengthy healing periods, and even amputations. This study aimed to design and manufacture a self-healing bioabsorbable polymeric-based wound dressing with antibacterial growth and improved wound healing properties. Gel-based mixtures were successfully made up of 5wt% chitosan with properties that inhibit bacterial growth in 5–20wt% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and called the “pure mixture”. It was observed that the mixture of 5wt% chitosan into 10wt% PVA resulted in the most controlled viscosity and appropriate gel texture for wound healing. The measured viscosities of 5wt% chitosan and 10wt% PVA were 235 and 531 Pa·s, respectively. A microscopic examination confirmed that the addition of chitosan into PVA successfully inhibited bacterial growth. Another gel-based mixture, named the “additive mixture”, was also investigated using the optimized preparation condition of 5wt% chitosan in 10wt% PVA with the incorporation of some traditional herbs in powder form, namely frankincense, myrrh, and alum stone. Microscopic examination proved that the addition of traditional herbs into the chitosan/PVA mixture inhibited some bacterial growth. A comparison of the wound healing performance of the pure mixture gel and additive mixture gel was conducted using rats. The pure mixture gel produced a faster healing rate and a lower level of inflammation than the additive mixture gel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1164 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Extraction Methods Applied to Natural Lamiaceae-Derived Compounds: An Overview Based on Patents
by Reda El Boukhari and Ahmed Fatimi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15362 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Secondary metabolites of plants are of major interest for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food applications. The extraction methods for these compounds must be optimized to achieve the best possible yield without altering the effectiveness of the targeted compounds. In this paper, we examine the [...] Read more.
Secondary metabolites of plants are of major interest for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food applications. The extraction methods for these compounds must be optimized to achieve the best possible yield without altering the effectiveness of the targeted compounds. In this paper, we examine the methods of extraction of plant compounds, especially those applied to plants of the Lamiaceae family, renowned for their aromatic and medicinal roles. To do so, we consulted databases specialized in patent documentation, using appropriate keywords with the help of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes. Our results present the analysis of the 140 relevant documents selected. The first patent relating to our field of study was granted in the United States in 1998. It concerned a process for obtaining antioxidants from plant materials. The year 2020 saw the registration of the largest number of these documents (15). Most of the documents identified (66) were filed in China. The French company Naturex, which specializes in plant-based products, is the number one depositor in the field of plant extraction. The relevant patents selected describe processes using various extraction methods and agents, most of which are valid for many plants, while some focus on genera of Lamiaceae, such as Salvia, Ziziphoria, and Clinopodium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1444 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
How Low Can It Go? ATR-FTIR Characterization of Compounds Isolated from Ginger at the Nanogram Level
by Joel B. Johnson, Ryan J. Batley, Janice S. Mani and Mani Naiker
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15407 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 405
Abstract
This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy for the structural characterization of natural products when only very small quantities of the target compound are available. Four known compounds (6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol) were isolated [...] Read more.
This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy for the structural characterization of natural products when only very small quantities of the target compound are available. Four known compounds (6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol) were isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A portion of each fraction was evaporated on the ATR plate and spectra collected using a standard FTIR instrument. The minimum amount required to detect some spectral features appeared to be around 50 ng for the gingerols, and around 25 ng for 6-shogaol. Various peaks are assigned and interpreted to demonstrate the range of structural information that can be obtained. Evaporation-based ATR-FTIR spectroscopy could be an inexpensive and rapid method to aid structural elucidation of natural compounds, even when collected from a single semi-preparative HPLC run. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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8154 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of a Bubble Curtain Device on Microplastics Dynamics
by César A. V. Santos, Emanuel A. R. Camacho, André R. R. Silva and Cristina M. S. Fael
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15317 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Air bubble curtains have been applied to a wide range of situations, from the attenuation of underwater noise, debris control, and containment of suspended sediment to the reduction in saltwater intrusion. This work conducts a preliminary numerical study on the influence of a [...] Read more.
Air bubble curtains have been applied to a wide range of situations, from the attenuation of underwater noise, debris control, and containment of suspended sediment to the reduction in saltwater intrusion. This work conducts a preliminary numerical study on the influence of a bubble curtain device on microplastic dynamics. Simulations are conducted with a two-phase unsteady model, and the trajectories of the microplastic particles are computed with the Discrete Phase Model (DPM). Particles are injected upstream of the bubble curtain, and their transport is analyzed under different flow conditions. Results show that the ratio between the water velocity and the air injection velocity can significantly impact the efficiency of the device in directing the particles toward the surface. Furthermore, a higher degree of turbulent mixing is seen for lower water velocities. This study highlights the intricate flow behavior, and the need for a deeper understanding of other variables such as the microplastic size and concentration and the geometry of the air injection system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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570 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Inactivation of Candida albicans in Water Using Advanced Oxidation Processes
by Ana Gomes, Ana Sampaio, Sara Silva, José R. Fernandes, José A. Peres and Marco S. Lucas
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15302 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa have played a central role in the safety of drinking water, since they spread easily in the water network, constituting a health risk for humans and animals. Currently in water treatments, advanced oxidative processes [...] Read more.
Pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa have played a central role in the safety of drinking water, since they spread easily in the water network, constituting a health risk for humans and animals. Currently in water treatments, advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) have been increasing in importance in the microbiological disinfection of water. The present study aimed to inactivate C. albicans, a commensal yeast species in Vertebrates that can cause disease, using AOPs. To achieve this objective, a powerful oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) was combined with UV radiation to promote the inactivation of C. albicans. Initially, the inactivation capacity of the H2O2 was assessed and it was verified that the application of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM H2O2 reached a cell reduction of 3 log after 180, 360 and 300 min, respectively. Subsequently, the combination with UV-A radiation (λ = 365 nm) proved to be even more promising, as the H2O2 + UV-A system, using the same H2O2 concentrations, reached an inactivation of 3 log after 240, 180 and 60 min, respectively. These results support that UV-A radiation promotes the generation of hydroxyl radicals, which have a comparatively higher oxidation potential (2.8 eV) to the H2O2 (1.8 eV), responsible for the inactivation of C. albicans cells. Thus, the UV-A/H2O2 process can reduce this microorganism in an aqueous matrix, avoiding potential hazards to human and animal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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508 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Unbundling SWCNT Mechanically via Nanomanipulation Using AFM
by Ahmed Kreta, Mohamed A. Swillam, Albert Guirguis and Abdou Hassanien
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15346 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 402
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical nanostructures fabricated from carbon atoms that seem like seamless cylinders composed of rolled sheets of graphite. Owing to the unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), they are a promising candidate in various fields such as chemical sensing, [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical nanostructures fabricated from carbon atoms that seem like seamless cylinders composed of rolled sheets of graphite. Owing to the unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), they are a promising candidate in various fields such as chemical sensing, hydrogen storage, catalyst support, electronics, nanobalances, and nanotubes. Because of their small size, large surface area, high sensitivity, and reversible behavior at room temperature, CNTs are ideal for measuring gas. They also show improved electron transfer when used as electrodes in electrochemical reactions and serve as solid media for protein immobilization on biosensors. SWCNTs can be metallic or semi-conductive, counting on their structural properties. In this study, an atomic force microscope (AFM) was used as a powerful tool to manipulate and disaggregate SWCNTs. By precisely controlling the AFM probe, it was possible to manipulate individual SWCNTs and separate them from the bundle structures. Next, the electrical transport of disaggregated SWCNTs was studied using the conductive atomic force microscope (cAFM) technique. Thus, current-voltage measurements on the unbundled branches of SWCNTs were carried out. Interestingly, these current-voltage measurements have allowed us to unravel the complex electrical characteristics of the nanotube bundle, which is a very crucial issue for gating effects as well as the resistance of the interconnects within carbon nanotube network devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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263 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Recent Advances in Particle Characterization
by April Jane Argamosa, Swantje Lalique Miciano, Abigail Monis, Angel Rena Marie Ramos, Allyson Orpia and Edgar Clyde R. Lopez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15354 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Particle characterization is critical in industries that are influenced by particle size distribution. Understanding particle behavior is crucial for product quality control and manufacturing process optimization. Particle characteristics significantly affect material performance and properties. This review paper examines the importance of particle characterization [...] Read more.
Particle characterization is critical in industries that are influenced by particle size distribution. Understanding particle behavior is crucial for product quality control and manufacturing process optimization. Particle characteristics significantly affect material performance and properties. This review paper examines the importance of particle characterization in many industries and focuses on particle size and shape measurement. This paper begins by delving into particle size and size distribution analysis, emphasizing the impact of particle size on material properties and the many methodologies used for particle size analysis. This paper then examines particle shape characterization and its impact on material characteristics. It gives an overview of particle characterization techniques and the criteria for selecting the best technique for a given sample. Particle characterization in ceramics, food, cosmetics, medicines, and metallurgy are also thoroughly discussed. Overall, this work emphasizes the importance of particle characterization in numerous industries and provides insights into particle size and shape measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
6 pages, 3496 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water Quality Status of Different Ghats of River Ganga in Patna Urban Area
by Aftab Alam, Md. Barkatullah and Amit Kumar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15408 - 23 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The Ganga is a river and a representation of morality and purity for the people of India. From a geographical perspective, it is also India’s main river. A significant part of Patna’s population used ganga water for a variety of uses, including domestic, [...] Read more.
The Ganga is a river and a representation of morality and purity for the people of India. From a geographical perspective, it is also India’s main river. A significant part of Patna’s population used ganga water for a variety of uses, including domestic, agricultural, and industrial. This study aims to evaluate the Ganga River’s water quality for different Ghats of Patna urban area from Digha to Gai Ghat. Samples of water were taken from 15 distinct Ghats. The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water have significantly changed as a result of heavy municipal waste discharge and anthropogenic activities in the river. All the Ghats were classified as unfit for drinking purposes, and it was suggested that water be made available only after thorough treatment. People’s habitual usage of Ganga water for various purposes raises the potential of human health hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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261 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Analysis of an Open Source Binomial Random Variate Generation Algorithm
by Vincent A. Cicirello
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15349 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The binomial distribution is the probability distribution of the number of successes for a sequence of n independent trials with success probability p. Efficiently generating binomial random variates is important in many modeling and simulation applications, such as in medicine, risk management, [...] Read more.
The binomial distribution is the probability distribution of the number of successes for a sequence of n independent trials with success probability p. Efficiently generating binomial random variates is important in many modeling and simulation applications, such as in medicine, risk management, and fraud and anomaly detection, among others. A variety of algorithms exist for generating binomial random variates. This paper concerns the algorithm chosen for ρμ, an open source Java library for efficient randomization, which uses a hybrid of two existing binomial random variate algorithms: the BTPE Algorithm (Binomial, Triangle, Parallelogram, Exponential) and the inverse transform for cases that BTPE cannot handle. BTPE uses rejection sampling, and BTPE’s authors originally provided an analytical formula for the expected number of iterations in terms of n and p. That expression is complicated to interpret in practical contexts. I explore BTPE by instrumenting ρμ’s implementation to empirically analyze its acceptance/rejection behavior to gain further insights into its runtime performance. Although the number of iterations depends upon n and p, my experiments show that the average number of iterations is always under two, and that the average number of random uniform variates required to generate a single random binomial is under four (two per iteration). Thus, when analyzing the runtime of a simulation algorithm that includes steps generating random binomials, one can consider such steps to have a constant runtime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
2057 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Linear Matrix Inequality Approach to Optimal Voltage Control of a Three-Phase UPS Inverter under Unbalanced Loads
by Chivon Choeung, Panha Soth, Heng Tang, Sreyleak Ean and Sarot Srang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15365 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Unbalanced loads are extremely prevalent in real systems, and they create power quality issues for the UPS system. To address this problem, this work provides an optimal voltage control scheme for a three-phase inverter using the linear matrix inequality method. In addition, the [...] Read more.
Unbalanced loads are extremely prevalent in real systems, and they create power quality issues for the UPS system. To address this problem, this work provides an optimal voltage control scheme for a three-phase inverter using the linear matrix inequality method. In addition, the purpose of this controller is to provide a well-balanced three-phase sinusoidal voltage regardless of the imbalance of the loads. This symmetrical component-based controller features two paralleled voltage controls: a positive sequence to regulate output signals and a negative sequence to eliminate unbalanced voltages. Along with that, the optimization problem is formulated such that the convergence rate is maximized to obtain the output voltage as swiftly as possible. PSIM is used to carry out the simulation, and MATLAB is utilized to assist in determining the optimal control gain for the state feedback and integral control of each sequence. The control algorithm is then deployed utilizing an in-house designed control board together with a TMS320F28335 digital signal processor. To determine the efficacy of the proposed control, simulation, and experiment results are compared to those of an optimal controller without a negative sequence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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263 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
What Is Darapskite? Some Reflections on How Artificial Intelligence Could Promote an Academic Gap
by Carlos Alves, Carlos Figueiredo and Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15329 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Two AI chatbots were tested with questions regarding a relatively minor mineral species. There were several issues with the information provided but the answers were well structured and well written. Nevertheless, these AI chatbots are a potentially useful tool, especially for those struggling [...] Read more.
Two AI chatbots were tested with questions regarding a relatively minor mineral species. There were several issues with the information provided but the answers were well structured and well written. Nevertheless, these AI chatbots are a potentially useful tool, especially for those struggling with the English language, albeit a skeptical overview of their use is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
452 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Non-Stationary Rainfall Intensity–Duration–Frequency Curves for Calabar City, Nigeria
by Inyeneobong Cletus Odiong and Jonah C. Agunwamba
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15393 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Rainfall intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) relationships are crucial in the design and management of hydraulic structures. At the core of the assumption for IDF development is that the statistics of past rainfall events will represent future rainfall events. It has been proven that climate change [...] Read more.
Rainfall intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) relationships are crucial in the design and management of hydraulic structures. At the core of the assumption for IDF development is that the statistics of past rainfall events will represent future rainfall events. It has been proven that climate change is a major trigger for non-stationarity; therefore, the assumption is untenable. This work is aimed at considering the impact of climate change in the development of IDF curves for a city. To account for this non-stationarity, an RCM was combined with measured data through a climate factor (CF) to develop a rainfall IDF for the coastal city of Calabar. The baseline and future climatic periods of the RCM were 1971–2010 and 2021–2060, respectively. The annual maxima series (AMS) were disaggregated and fitted to the Gumbel distribution. Results revealed that the magnitude of trend for the measured AMS and measured annual rainfall are −0.351 and +3.628, respectively. A CF value of 0.86 was obtained, and a generalized non-stationary rainfall IDF model was derived. When compared to models from similar studies, this model has conserved values with r2 = 1 and an error margin of ±6% for all return periods. This will introduce economy in the design of hydraulic structures. Excess runoffs in Calabar were, therefore, related to frequent short-duration rainfall with low intensities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1419 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploration of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Control on a Dynamic Test Rig: Computational and Experimental Analysis
by Ahsan Tanveer and Sarvat Mushtaq Ahmad
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15315 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) control is a cutting-edge method used to manipulate the motion of an unmanned air vehicle when traditional control surfaces like elevators are not available. The primary purpose of employing FTV is to make the aircraft less detectable. This research [...] Read more.
Fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) control is a cutting-edge method used to manipulate the motion of an unmanned air vehicle when traditional control surfaces like elevators are not available. The primary purpose of employing FTV is to make the aircraft less detectable. This research centers around the exploration of the co-flow variation of the FTV concept. In this approach, a secondary jet with a significant velocity is injected into the boundary layer of the primary jet. As a consequence, the primary jet is diverted, leading to the formation of a pitch moment. Numerical simulations were conducted to analyze different ratios of secondary and primary jet velocities, providing valuable insights into the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The test rig, designed with a pitch-constraint dynamic setup, utilized electric ducted fans to generate primary and secondary flows. At 19 m/s primary velocity, the experimental testing shows a maximum vertical force of 0.4 N, producing a deflection of 25°, which is deemed adequate for thrust vectoring. This research builds upon the authors’ previous work on characterizing a static co-flow FTV rig. The comparison between the computational fluid dynamics analyses and the experimental results demonstrates agreement in the behavior of the vectored jet. This validation further strengthens the findings presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1224 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Vanadium Complexes as Potential Anticancer Agents
by Satya, Kulsum Hashmi, Sakshi Gupta, Armeen Siddique and Seema Joshi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15263 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 488
Abstract
For the structure and functioning of bio-molecules, metals are important. The main focus of research remains the design and synthesis of novel metal-based complexes and metal ion binding to substances in search of novel medicines. Studies have established the well-defined geometry, thermodynamic stability [...] Read more.
For the structure and functioning of bio-molecules, metals are important. The main focus of research remains the design and synthesis of novel metal-based complexes and metal ion binding to substances in search of novel medicines. Studies have established the well-defined geometry, thermodynamic stability and excellent coordination power of vanadium in different oxidation states. This paper summarizes the biological activities of vanadium complexes, particularly their anticancer activity. Future multidisciplinary research and analysis focused on comprehending the biochemistry of vanadium complexes with different ligands is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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782 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Machine-Learning-Based Real-Time Photoacoustic Surface Crack Detection
by Abdulrhman Alshaya, Ghadah Alabduljabbar and Asem Alalwan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15328 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Photoacoustic imaging is commonly utilized in biomedical research due to its capability to provide the functional and structural details of imaging targets, featuring optical contrast and ultrasound resolution. This imaging technique has also found applications in industry, particularly in non-destructive testing, such as [...] Read more.
Photoacoustic imaging is commonly utilized in biomedical research due to its capability to provide the functional and structural details of imaging targets, featuring optical contrast and ultrasound resolution. This imaging technique has also found applications in industry, particularly in non-destructive testing, such as in surface crack detection. However, the cost of photoacoustic systems and the time required for scanning and image reconstruction limit their use in non-destructive testing. In this study, low-cost photoacoustic equipment was combined with machine learning techniques and applied in surface crack detection. This scanning technique achieved a 97% offline prediction accuracy. Additionally, it demonstrated a reduction in system complexity compared to traditional photoacoustic imaging techniques. This reduction in complexity results from using a single scanning line as input to the machine learning model, unlike the imaging technique, which requires multiple scanning lines to reconstruct the photoacoustic image. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2044 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Anion Removal by Magnetic Carbon Xerogel Nanocomposite: The Role of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles, Catalyst, Carbonization, and H2O2 Surface Modification
by Sasirot Khamkure, Victoria Bustos-Terrones, María-Fernanda Cabello-Lugo, Nancy-Jakelin Benitez-Avila, Daniella-Esperanza Pacheco-Catalán, Prócoro Gamero-Melo and Audberto Reyes-Rosas
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15290 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Magnetic carbon xerogel composites with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) prepared via co-precipitation can effectively remove arsenic (As(V) and As(III)) and fluoride ions from groundwater. The optimum conditions for the synthesis of these materials were studied, including the molar ratios of MNPs [...] Read more.
Magnetic carbon xerogel composites with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) prepared via co-precipitation can effectively remove arsenic (As(V) and As(III)) and fluoride ions from groundwater. The optimum conditions for the synthesis of these materials were studied, including the molar ratios of MNPs and catalyst. Carbonization and post-synthesis treatment with H2O2-induced surface modification were applied. SEM and Fe analysis revealed the presence of Fe in the materials. This study provides a promising new method for the removal of arsenic and fluoride from groundwater, with the feasibility of reusing adsorbent and magnetic separation, which could have a significant impact on public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1897 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Linear Economic Characteristics of Machines for Optimal Operation of Heat Sources
by František Világi, František Urban and František Ridzoň
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15297 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Optimization problems relating to heat source operation are solved via linear (LP) or nonlinear (NLP) programming. The optimization methods used can be compared based on the complexity of the computational program setup, the time required to input and update data, and the computational [...] Read more.
Optimization problems relating to heat source operation are solved via linear (LP) or nonlinear (NLP) programming. The optimization methods used can be compared based on the complexity of the computational program setup, the time required to input and update data, and the computational time required for the optimal shifting and loading of installed power machinery. LP methods are preferred (e.g., the simplex method, the method of characteristics), but the Lagrange multiplier NPL method is sometimes applied. In this paper, the method of proportional increments (LP and NLP) is applied to compare the optimal loadings of power machinery installed in a thermal power plant using linear and quadratic economic characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1672 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Evaluation of the Capability of the NARX Neural Network in Predicting Ground Water Level Changes
by Arman Hosseinpour Salehi, Amin Hosseinchi, Mohammad Bejani, Mahdi Alipour, Ali Ilghami Khosroshahi and Khalil Bakhtiari Asl
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15257 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 293
Abstract
The efficient monitoring and tracking of groundwater level changes are critical for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in light of population growth and climate change. This study evaluates the ability of the Non-linear Autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) model to simulate [...] Read more.
The efficient monitoring and tracking of groundwater level changes are critical for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in light of population growth and climate change. This study evaluates the ability of the Non-linear Autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) model to simulate groundwater level trends in Ajabshir, Iran, using groundwater level data from 2006 to 2019 as the baseline period. The model was trained using time, groundwater levels, and delay times between 1 and 2 as the input training samples. The results indicate that the NARX model performed exceptionally well in simulating historical trends of groundwater levels, achieving a Coefficient of Determination (DC) value of 0.87 and a Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of 0.215. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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282 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Precision Warriors: Nanotechnology’s Triumph in Cancer Therapy
by Jeena Gupta, Srirupa Gupta Choudhury, Jayanta Kumar Sarmah and Debojyoti Mandal
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15232 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Nanotechnology has emerged as a pivotal platform in revolutionizing cancer treatment, offering a diverse array of strategies to enhance therapeutic efficacy while minimizing collateral damage to healthy cells. This review paper extensively explores the recent breakthroughs and applications of nanotechnology in the realm [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has emerged as a pivotal platform in revolutionizing cancer treatment, offering a diverse array of strategies to enhance therapeutic efficacy while minimizing collateral damage to healthy cells. This review paper extensively explores the recent breakthroughs and applications of nanotechnology in the realm of cancer treatment. The unique physicochemical properties of nanoformulations, specifically nanoparticles, enable precise customization for targeted drug delivery, a hallmark feature of effective cancer therapy. Nanoformulations leverage their diminutive size to exploit enhanced permeability and retention within tumour tissues, thereby facilitating the accumulation of therapeutic agents at the tumour site. The utilization of nanocarrier-based formulations showcases their exceptional potential for precise drug delivery, ensuring optimal therapeutic impact. Beyond drug delivery, nanotechnology has fundamentally advanced cancer diagnosis and imaging techniques. The integration of functionalized nanoparticles with contrast agents has empowered the development of highly sensitive imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET). This heightened sensitivity allows for the detection of minute tumour masses, real-time monitoring of treatment responses, and the guidance of intricate surgical interventions. Throughout this comprehensive review, we delve into the multifaceted roles of nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanocarriers, and nanodevices, as they address pivotal challenges posed by conventional cancer therapies. Amidst our analysis of these advancements, we critically examine the obstacles faced by nanotechnology-based treatments, ranging from potential toxicities to safety considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
1355 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of a CH3NH3SnI3 Perovskite Solar Cell Using the SCAPS1-D Simulator
by Selma Rabhi, Hichem Benzouid, Abdelhadi Slami and Karima Dadda
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15300 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 451
Abstract
In this work, our aim was to design and numerical simulation of a solar cell using the SCAPS-1D simulation program. The studied solar cell has an N-I-P type structure, with its active layer based on a hybrid (organic–inorganic) semiconductor called “methylammonium tin triiodide [...] Read more.
In this work, our aim was to design and numerical simulation of a solar cell using the SCAPS-1D simulation program. The studied solar cell has an N-I-P type structure, with its active layer based on a hybrid (organic–inorganic) semiconductor called “methylammonium tin triiodide perovskite”, CH3NH3SnI3, which is known as MASnI3. This semiconductor is known for its efficiency in the field of photovoltaic thanks to its good properties such as high absorption, direct bang-gap, and facilities of elaboration. The objective of this study was primarily focused on improving the performance of the perovskite solar cells, specifically enhancing their reproducibility and stability, as they tend to degrade rapidly. To achieve this, we proposed the use of ZnO and Spiro-OMeTAD as charge transport layers (ETL and HTL, respectively) and varying the thickness of the active layer to obtain the optimal parameters that ensure the proper functioning of the cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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3797 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Influence of Adding Silica Fluoroalkylsilane on the Morphology, Mechanical, and Corrosion Resistance Properties of Sol-Gel Derived Coatings
by Magdi Mussa, Abdalrahem Shtawa and Sarra Takita
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15380 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 326
Abstract
Sol-gel-derived coatings’ corrosion resistance and mechanical properties have been studied frequently in the literature individually. However, there is a limitation in the studies that consider both mutually, as is common in all sol-gel hybrid coatings, for instance, mechanical failures such as cracks that [...] Read more.
Sol-gel-derived coatings’ corrosion resistance and mechanical properties have been studied frequently in the literature individually. However, there is a limitation in the studies that consider both mutually, as is common in all sol-gel hybrid coatings, for instance, mechanical failures such as cracks that influence the mechanical durability of coatings as well as their corrosion resistance. Therefore, this research will study the impact of adding fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) to silica-based sol-gel on its mechanical properties by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation, cross-cut adhesion, microhardness, and water contact angle, in line with a short investigation of corrosion resistance using electrochemical coating to test for the new modified coatings, which will be discussed. The results show that the new modified coating with fluoroalkylsilane was more flexible and could produce mechanical and corrosion protection stability, enhancing the hydrophobicity of the new surface, which is essential within the coating industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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2505 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Recent Advances in Reactive Distillation
by Demi Andrei Barrientos, Beatrice Fernandez, Rachel Morante, Hannah Ruth Rivera, Karen Simeon and Edgar Clyde R. Lopez
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/ASEC2023-15278 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Reactive distillation (RD) combines chemical reactions and separation in a single unit essential to equilibrium-limited reactions. This new technique encompasses multiple advantages over traditional processes, including lower operating costs, increased thermal energy efficiency, high product selectivity, high purity percentage, and lower environmental impact. [...] Read more.
Reactive distillation (RD) combines chemical reactions and separation in a single unit essential to equilibrium-limited reactions. This new technique encompasses multiple advantages over traditional processes, including lower operating costs, increased thermal energy efficiency, high product selectivity, high purity percentage, and lower environmental impact. This paper provided an overview of the features, industrial applications, and industrial perspective of advanced reactive distillation technologies (ARDTs). This study focused on five under-development ARDTs: reactive dividing wall column (R-DWC), reactive high-gravity distillation (R-HiGee), reactive heat-integrated distillation column (R-HIDiC), catalytic cyclic distillation (CCD), and membrane-assisted reactive distillation (MA-RD). The primary drivers for new RD applications are reduced number of vessels, reduced residence time and holdup volume, increased mass and heat transfer, overcoming azeotropes, and prefractionation or impurity removal. ARDT’s potential has yet to be studied, and research remains active to improve it further by investigating other RD technologies, simulation, and optimization techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 4th International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences)
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1287 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development and Evaluation of Nanoemulsion Loaded Metaxalone for the Treatment of Pain and Injury
by Shivani S. Pawar, Bhushan R. Rane and Ashish S. Jain
Eng. Proc. 2023, 56(1), 100; https://doi.org/