Next Issue
Volume 54, ENC 2023
Previous Issue
Volume 52, E-Textiles 2023
 
 
engproc-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Eng. Proc., 2023, IOCBD 2023

The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings

Online | 24–26 October 2023

Volume Editor: David Arditi, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA

Number of Papers: 54
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image): The first International Online Conference of Buildings (IOCBD 2023) focuses on “Advances in building structures, materials, repair/renovation, energy, environment, systems, architecture, urban [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Other

238 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Capturing the Opportunity for Decarbonization in the Construction Industry: Emission-Free, Effective, and Resilient Solutions
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15184 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 441
Abstract
The global economy’s most significant sector, the construction sector, is key to accomplishing sustainability objectives. The building and infrastructure business is not typically thought of as being environmentally friendly, but this is likely to change as the ecosystem (the whole life cycle of [...] Read more.
The global economy’s most significant sector, the construction sector, is key to accomplishing sustainability objectives. The building and infrastructure business is not typically thought of as being environmentally friendly, but this is likely to change as the ecosystem (the whole life cycle of all structures and infrastructure, from design and material manufacturing to construction, use, and destruction) develops. Actors in the building sector cannot afford to ignore the worldwide trend of decarbonization. As this sector is responsible for more than 20% of all greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, construction companies have the opportunity to reduce their climate impact by decarbonizing their building operations. Actors in the construction sector must prioritise the development of a strategic goal and collaborate with other ecosystem players, such as clients, architects, engineers, manufacturers, and financiers, in order to realise this potential. Here, we show the actions the industry can take right now and how stakeholders from all points along the value chain may work together to succeed. It is also important to keep in mind that if the low-interest-rate environment lasts and sizable stimulus packages are implemented, these developments may aid in the deployment of new, sustainable infrastructure as well as infrastructure for adaptation and resilience, investments that would support the creation of jobs in the near future. In the meantime, it is possible that the need for international collaboration on this matter will increase in terms of clarity and acceptance. This research study focuses on how construction affects greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the context of buildings, how this sector can decarbonize, and how businesses might profit from this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
244 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Deconstruct, Don’t Demolish: An Overview of Rio de Janeiro in 2016 and London in 2012 as Olympic Host Cities
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15183 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 348
Abstract
The buildings that house the events, which serve as icons of this most famous sporting event, must now be sustainable as well. Stadiums, arenas, gathering places, and athlete communities are all changing from expressions of architectural brilliance to instances of sustainable environments, built [...] Read more.
The buildings that house the events, which serve as icons of this most famous sporting event, must now be sustainable as well. Stadiums, arenas, gathering places, and athlete communities are all changing from expressions of architectural brilliance to instances of sustainable environments, built to last long after concluding the event and to aid in the redevelopment of the metropolitan areas that host them. The building business is one of the most environmentally destructive in the world since it directly affects how raw materials are used, and how they are determined to be used during their entire existence. This sector, however, is still in the early stages of transition from a linear to a circular economy. To minimize total resource use and landfill trash, business models must be updated to incorporate novel concepts and cutting-edge services. According to this approach, “deconstruction” plays a crucial role in the circularity of structures. It serves as a sustainable substitute for traditional demolition, which is generally an arbitrary and destructive process that, although being quicker and less expensive, typically produces a substantial amount of garbage. On this line, the goal of this research is to revisit the Olympic Games hosting cities, mainly London and Rio de Janeiro, and examine the possibility of the demolition of built infrastructure in the Olympics and to provide methods for minimizing its effects on the urban environment. The research paper aims to make it easier to implement circular economy strategies for buildings by outlining the key principles that must be followed throughout the design and planning process regardless of the kind of construction system or material employed and by recommending deconstruction as a sustainable alternative to demolition. By collaborating with the corporate, academic, and research sectors, we can further emphasize the sharing of information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
230 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Investigation of Placemaking Attributes for Cultural Tourism in Historic Port Cities: Using the Fuzzy Delphi Method
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15188 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 256
Abstract
A placemaking framework can be a decisive guide in the decision-making processes to augment cultural tourism practises in unique destinations like historic port cities. This paper intends to present a preliminary list of 16 attributes and 55 indicators compiled based on a literature [...] Read more.
A placemaking framework can be a decisive guide in the decision-making processes to augment cultural tourism practises in unique destinations like historic port cities. This paper intends to present a preliminary list of 16 attributes and 55 indicators compiled based on a literature survey and expert inputs to improve the cultural tourism experience within historic port cities. A fuzzy Delphi survey was performed, consulting 12 selected experts and identifying 43 significant indicators under the physical, functional, social, and notional dimensions. Furthermore, this study serves as a valuable reference for policymakers in similar destinations to implement sustainable strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
3884 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Analysis of Prayer Room Acoustics in the Pusdai Mosque in West Java
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15187 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Aside from being a place for congregational prayers, the West Java Pusdai Mosque is also a center for preaching and other Islamic activities in West Java. Therefore, as a place of worship for Muslims, this mosque needs to maintain a comfortable atmosphere. The [...] Read more.
Aside from being a place for congregational prayers, the West Java Pusdai Mosque is also a center for preaching and other Islamic activities in West Java. Therefore, as a place of worship for Muslims, this mosque needs to maintain a comfortable atmosphere. The comfort or solemnity of worship can be affected by the noise of the surrounding environment or the acoustics of the room. This study aims to analyze the acoustic quality of the prayer room in the Pusdai Mosque, which is influenced by several factors. This research was conducted by observing and simulating, using the Ecotect v5.50 software. A simulation was carried out with the creation of a 3D model and the addition of both the absorption coefficient of the material in the room and speakers to it. In addition, research was also strengthened by conducting literature studies on scientific articles. The simulation was carried out to determine the reverberation time and sound distribution produced by the sound sources or speakers that could indicate the acoustic quality of the Pusdai Mosque. The acoustic quality of the Pusdai Mosque is greatly influenced by the interior materials and the shape of the ceiling. Based on the results of this analysis, the Pusdai Mosque has room acoustic defects. This is due to the large use of sound-reflecting materials and the form of the ceiling, which is quite complex. This causes a lot of sound reflection to occur, causing the reverberation time to exceed the optimum limit of a 500 Hz frequency (conversational space). This causes the speaker’s voice to become an echo or hum. Therefore, the Pusdai Mosque needs to improve its room acoustics in order to create comfort and solemnity in worship. Improvement can be made by adding sound-absorbing material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

560 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Potential Applications of Different Forms of Recycled Plastics as Construction Materials—A Review
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15177 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The issue of waste plastic generation is a pressing global concern with several significant environmental, economic, and health implications. Various studies have explored the utilization of recycled plastics in construction, yet there is a notable gap in providing a comprehensive overview of recyclable [...] Read more.
The issue of waste plastic generation is a pressing global concern with several significant environmental, economic, and health implications. Various studies have explored the utilization of recycled plastics in construction, yet there is a notable gap in providing a comprehensive overview of recyclable plastic types, suitable recycling methodologies, and the range of products tailored to specific applications. Thus, the aim of the current literature review was to achieve a thorough review of the literature on the current use of recycled plastic as a construction material and its possible future applications. This was attained by targeting the highly reputable journals articles published during the last decade. Studies show the convenient recycling of thermoplastics due to their reversible nature. However, their durability and resistance to temperature are still points of concern. Recycled plastics are commonly used as replacements for aggregates in the manufacturing of cementitious composites as part of various research investigations. Efforts to tackle the issue of plastic waste include improving recycling infrastructure and encouraging the development of alternative materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3952 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of the Structural Behavior of Composite Slim-Floor Beams with Openings in the Web
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15181 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 235
Abstract
In this study, the bending behavior of Slim-Floor beams was analyzed using FE models developed in the ABAQUS software. The validity of these models was demonstrated by comparing the numerical results obtained with experimental data found in the literature. Through parametric evaluations, the [...] Read more.
In this study, the bending behavior of Slim-Floor beams was analyzed using FE models developed in the ABAQUS software. The validity of these models was demonstrated by comparing the numerical results obtained with experimental data found in the literature. Through parametric evaluations, the following findings were verified: (i) the connection mechanisms adopted (concrete dowels, reinforcing steel bars, and adherence) were able to activate the composite behavior between steel and concrete; (ii) the spacing between the openings, the number of openings, and the diameter of the reinforcing steel bars determine the behavior of the connection; (iii) adherence contributes little to the strength of the connection, and therefore, its contribution can be neglected; (iv) the connection mechanisms adopted in this study can promote the ductile behavior of the Slim-Floor beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3957 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preserving the Great Mosque of Cordoba (Spain): A Preliminary Mechanical Characterization of Its Original Natural Stone
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15180 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 305
Abstract
The Mosque of Cordoba (Spain) is an emblem of the rich cultural heritage of Western Andalusia. This research focuses on the mechanical characterization of the natural stone used in the building. Determining its properties is crucial to understanding the structural behaviour of the [...] Read more.
The Mosque of Cordoba (Spain) is an emblem of the rich cultural heritage of Western Andalusia. This research focuses on the mechanical characterization of the natural stone used in the building. Determining its properties is crucial to understanding the structural behaviour of the entire building. An experimental campaign with various mechanical tests, such as density, compression, indirect tensile, and bending tests, was conducted on more than 100 cubic and prismatic specimens obtained from the main quarry that supplies material for the mosque’s restoration. The results indicated the stone’s isotropic behaviour for the studied properties. Further analysis established correlations between compressive strength (averaging 6 MPa) and other mechanical properties. This preliminary characterization provides valuable information for future in situ testing and more sophisticated lab techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1646 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of the Scaling Methodology on the Seismic Response of RC Buildings
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15176 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 230
Abstract
The seismic performance of buildings requires researchers to collect a suite of seismic records that are usually scaled to characterize the seismic hazard of the site. After scaling the accelerograms, a nonlinear analysis of the buildings allows researchers to evaluate the expected performance [...] Read more.
The seismic performance of buildings requires researchers to collect a suite of seismic records that are usually scaled to characterize the seismic hazard of the site. After scaling the accelerograms, a nonlinear analysis of the buildings allows researchers to evaluate the expected performance and to assess damage limit states based on seismic demands in buildings’ structural elements. Scaling seismic records is a frequent task in the nonlinear analysis of structures using different methodologies not always well justified in the studies. This study presents the effect of ten scaling methodologies on the expected behavior of reinforced concrete buildings subjected to a suite of accelerograms recorded in a high-seismic-hazard region. Based on the nonlinear analysis, the seismic demands of the buildings were assessed to determine the expected damage by selecting performance limit states. The results show an important variability in the building demands that can draw different conclusions as a function of the scaling methodology used in the nonlinear analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1149 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Creative Frugality as a Sustainable Circular Pattern in Architecture and Building Construction
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15206 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 323
Abstract
The global population growth and the imperative to achieve decarbonization goals suggest a re-evaluation of conventional building design approaches. A shift towards sustainability, guided by the Triple Bottom Line principle, becomes essential. In this context, a design paradigm rooted in frugality and creativity [...] Read more.
The global population growth and the imperative to achieve decarbonization goals suggest a re-evaluation of conventional building design approaches. A shift towards sustainability, guided by the Triple Bottom Line principle, becomes essential. In this context, a design paradigm rooted in frugality and creativity can be a promising alternative. This study delves into the role of creative frugality within affordable housing. Through case studies, we showcase technological solutions designed following frugality and creativity. These solutions demonstrate key research findings, such as the relationship between sustainability, circular practices, and frugal, low-technology buildings. These findings are enabled by the concepts of flexibility, adaptability, and disassemblability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1246 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Novel Scrap Tire Rubber Pad with Steel Rods and Maglev Seismic Isolators
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15194 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 312
Abstract
This research presents two innovative base isolators known as the Scrap Tire Rubber Pad with Steel Rods (STRP-SR) isolator and the Magnetic Levitated (Maglev) isolator. The STRP-SR isolator offers a cost-effective solution for low-rise buildings, while the Maglev isolator provides an ideal bearing [...] Read more.
This research presents two innovative base isolators known as the Scrap Tire Rubber Pad with Steel Rods (STRP-SR) isolator and the Magnetic Levitated (Maglev) isolator. The STRP-SR isolator offers a cost-effective solution for low-rise buildings, while the Maglev isolator provides an ideal bearing with zero horizontal stiffness. In this study, both the STRP-SR and Maglev isolators were analyzed numerically, and the experimental specimen of the Maglev isolator was tested on a shaking table. It can be concluded numerically that both isolators have the ability to significantly reduce absolute acceleration and displacement values, with average reductions of 53.24% and 100%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

2819 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
On the Performance of Steel Buildings with Skewed Beams against Progressive Collapse
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15178 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 269
Abstract
This research studies the performance of two- and four-story steel building models against progressive collapse in two cases: (1) skewed beam–column connections, and (2) straight cleated beam–beam connections. Nonlinear static and dynamic analyses were performed and then the time history analysis was performed [...] Read more.
This research studies the performance of two- and four-story steel building models against progressive collapse in two cases: (1) skewed beam–column connections, and (2) straight cleated beam–beam connections. Nonlinear static and dynamic analyses were performed and then the time history analysis was performed under the simultaneous effect of the two horizontal components of three earthquake records and two column removal scenarios. The results showed that the 60-degree skewed connection had a weaker performance than the straight connection, and, according to the plastic hinge distribution, it was observed that the mentioned connection did not provide the life safety performance level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1070 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison of Two Novel Heat-Treated Beam Section and Self-Centering Pinned Connection with Friction Damper Steel Beam–Column Connections
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15195 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 205
Abstract
This study presents a comparative analysis of the structural performance of two innovative steel beam–column connections, namely a self-centering pinned connection with friction damper (SC-PC-FD) and a heat-treated beam section (HBS). The findings indicate that the SC-PC-FD connection exhibits stable, flag-shaped behavior, while [...] Read more.
This study presents a comparative analysis of the structural performance of two innovative steel beam–column connections, namely a self-centering pinned connection with friction damper (SC-PC-FD) and a heat-treated beam section (HBS). The findings indicate that the SC-PC-FD connection exhibits stable, flag-shaped behavior, while the HBS connection can withstand applied loadings up to a rotation of 6% without any occurrence of lateral–torsional buckling. Upon comparison of these connections, it is evident that the SC-PC-FD connection can eliminate residual drifts and provide higher ductility up to a rotation of 7%, while maintaining the main members within the elastic range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

2224 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preserving the Great Mosque of Córdoba (Spain): Characterization of Natural Stone Based on Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic Tests
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15185 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The preservation of The Great Mosque of Córdoba (Spain) as a carrier of Andalusian collective memory requires innovative approaches to assess and maintain its structural health. This research centers on two non-destructive methods: direct ultrasound testing and rebound hammer. Laboratory tests were performed [...] Read more.
The preservation of The Great Mosque of Córdoba (Spain) as a carrier of Andalusian collective memory requires innovative approaches to assess and maintain its structural health. This research centers on two non-destructive methods: direct ultrasound testing and rebound hammer. Laboratory tests were performed on natural stone provided by the primary material supplier for the Mosque’s restoration and rehabilitation works. Non-destructive and destructive tests were carried out over 10 ashlars and 100 cubic and prismatic specimens, which were cut from the ashlars. Tests were conducted in multiple directions to investigate stone anisotropy. Destructive testing indicated isotropy, but ultrasound test results disagreed. Sensitivity analysis of specimen dimensions affected result dispersion, but not average properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1143 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cylindrical Sandwich Shells for Civil Engineering Applications
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15196 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 236
Abstract
The literature is not abundant with mechanical characterizations of cylindrical shells for civil engineering applications, especially in terms of impact response. In this context, this study intends to evaluate the impact response of cylindrical sandwich shells produced by various types of fibers. Analysis [...] Read more.
The literature is not abundant with mechanical characterizations of cylindrical shells for civil engineering applications, especially in terms of impact response. In this context, this study intends to evaluate the impact response of cylindrical sandwich shells produced by various types of fibers. Analysis was performed on three alternative configurations: carbon fibers only, carbon fibers and glass, and carbon fibers and basalt. All configurations were tested for static and impact strength. It was concluded that the constituents of the cylindrical sandwich shells are determinants of both static and impact strength. In terms of compressive properties, the lowest displacement (4.4 mm) and highest compressive strength (873 N) and stiffness (354 N/mm) are attributed to configuration 6C. However, the incorporation of basalt fibers decreased these properties to the lowest values, and reductions of 22% and 44% were found for the compressive strength and stiffness, respectively, while the displacement increased by around 66%. On the other hand, in terms of impact, significant benefits were achieved with the introduction of glass fibers. Compared with configurations 6C and 2C+2B+2C, for instance, the elastic recuperation was 25% and 64.6% higher, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 3234 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Non-Linear Behavior of Mixed Reinforced Concrete–Steel Frames under Strong Earthquakes
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15197 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Mixed building frames constructed using reinforced concrete (RC) in the lower stories and structural steel in the higher ones meet great scientific interest as forming a common and often constructed building type. However, the current seismic regulations do not provide special guidelines for [...] Read more.
Mixed building frames constructed using reinforced concrete (RC) in the lower stories and structural steel in the higher ones meet great scientific interest as forming a common and often constructed building type. However, the current seismic regulations do not provide special guidelines for the aforementioned vertically mixed building type, but only for building frames constructed with the same material throughout. In addition, a small number of respective works in the literature can be found, thus underlining the need for the thorough examination of the nonlinear response of mixed reinforced concrete and structural steel frames subjected to strong ground excitations. Due to space limitations, selected cases of mixed RC–steel 3D frames are analyzed here via nonlinear dynamic analysis under selected intense earthquakes, considering appropriate nonlinear mechanical models for structural elements. A comparison of nonlinear response results is performed for two considered connection types of the steel part on the RC part, which are called “fixed” and “fixed-pinned” connections here. In this way, the nonlinear response of mixed-frame cases is studied under extreme ground motions, towards the utmost unfavorable conditions. Selected comparative nonlinear response results and plots are presented to estimate the behavior of mixed frames. Qualitative remarks arise from the current described investigation, resulting in practical suggestions for the design enhancement of mixed buildings, available for the upgrade of current codes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

2904 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Composition of Engineered Cementitious Composite with Local Materials, Composite Properties and Its Utilization for Structures in Developing Countries
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15179 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 263
Abstract
This study focuses on developing cost-efficient engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) with glass and polypropylene fibers, using local materials for sustainable construction in developing countries. The ECC exhibits unique properties such as strain hardening, enhancing structural resilience and crack mitigation. The composite utilizes 1–2% [...] Read more.
This study focuses on developing cost-efficient engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) with glass and polypropylene fibers, using local materials for sustainable construction in developing countries. The ECC exhibits unique properties such as strain hardening, enhancing structural resilience and crack mitigation. The composite utilizes 1–2% volume of 6mm fibers, with fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material and a superplasticizer. The PPGF-ECC surpasses PC in mechanical properties, making it suitable for various applications, including rigid pavements in developing countries. This research recommends 2% PPGF-ECC for various applications in developing countries, including rigid pavements, due to its superior performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3973 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Suitable Roof Designs for a Photovoltaic Panel: A Case Study of Housing Roof in Gorontalo
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15212 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 261
Abstract
The demand for PV on roof installations in the household sector is increasing. In this paper, an investigation on optimizing the energy performance of PV on housing roofs is conducted. Three housing roof designs found in Gorontalo city are selected as the mounting [...] Read more.
The demand for PV on roof installations in the household sector is increasing. In this paper, an investigation on optimizing the energy performance of PV on housing roofs is conducted. Three housing roof designs found in Gorontalo city are selected as the mounting planes for PV on roofs. The designs represent stacked gable roofs, complex gable roofs, and complex hip roofs. The purpose of the research is to find which roof shape is better for PV mounting in terms of sun radiation gain and access, mountable spaces, and orientation flexibility. This research employs Rhinoceros 3D to model the three roofs. The models are designed to face 12 directions, from 0° to 330°. Radiation analysis using Ladybug is utilized to study the roof’s performance in obtaining solar radiation in all 12 directions. It was found that the complex hip roof has more evenly distributed solar radiation on the roof planes, is flexible for PV mounting in any orientation, but has few mountable spaces. The stacked gable roof has two out of four suitable planes to gain solar radiation, but they are spacious. The complex gable roof has only one out of five suitable planes since they are narrow and prone to self-shading. Overall, a stacked gable roof provides a better option for PV installation compared to the other roof shapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3666 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Calibration of Constitutive Models for Construction Materials against Blast Threat by Means of Ballistics Tests
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15208 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 213
Abstract
The design of infrastructure that is protective against ballistic and blast fragment impact requires a series of tests which are costly. In this study, the authors propose a methodology based on a practical approach with the aim of facilitating the attainment of parameters [...] Read more.
The design of infrastructure that is protective against ballistic and blast fragment impact requires a series of tests which are costly. In this study, the authors propose a methodology based on a practical approach with the aim of facilitating the attainment of parameters of a constitutive model representative of the behavior of the main structural materials used in common constructions, namely clay or concrete, with the objective of being able to make hypotheses that are considered convenient, at a moderate cost. To this end, the proposed methodology interpolates the parameters of the target material using ballistics tests framed according to the values of related materials and compared with those existing in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

2198 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Energy and Climatic Performances of Modern Architecture: A Complete Overview of Building Physics Implications
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15203 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 232
Abstract
The architecture of the 20th century stands as an imperative realm of experimentation. Inside it, the architecture of the Modern Movement emerged from 1900 to 1940, with shapes, features, and materials completely different from pre-industrial buildings, rejecting traditional construction practices, techniques, and materials. [...] Read more.
The architecture of the 20th century stands as an imperative realm of experimentation. Inside it, the architecture of the Modern Movement emerged from 1900 to 1940, with shapes, features, and materials completely different from pre-industrial buildings, rejecting traditional construction practices, techniques, and materials. Its key design concepts include (i) the “Form Follows Function” principle establishing a strict relationship between building aesthetics and function, favoring minimalism, balanced composition, and visible materials; (ii) the creation of comfortable and healthy buildings with natural light and ventilation through windows, biophilia, and spacious rooms; and (iii) advancements in engineering enabling novel design possibilities (e.g., metal-framed curtain walls, complex windows) and mass-produced materials (e.g., glass, steel, reinforced concrete, plywood, Masonite, and cast iron). These criteria directly influence energy efficiency and human comfort. Otherwise, technical problems have emerged due to inadequate comprehension of the long-time performance of these experimentations, leading to deterioration and aging. This research provides a complete overview of the energy and climatic performances of Modern Architecture, discussing the building physics implications of the key design principles through several case studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

470 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Probabilistic Evaluation of Steel Column Damage under Blast Loading via Simulation Reliability Methods and Gene Expression Programming
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15200 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 222
Abstract
This paper introduces a probabilistic assessment of steel column damage caused by blast loads, utilizing simulation reliability methods and gene expression programming. The research focuses on an H-section steel column and incorporates uncertainties associated with input loads (axial and blast loads) and geometric [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a probabilistic assessment of steel column damage caused by blast loads, utilizing simulation reliability methods and gene expression programming. The research focuses on an H-section steel column and incorporates uncertainties associated with input loads (axial and blast loads) and geometric factors (i.e., maximum slenderness) under various boundary conditions (pinned and fixed supports). The reliability analysis employs three different methods: the point estimate method (PEM), the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method, and the Monte Carlo simulation with Latin hypercube sampling method (MCS-LHS). To perform the reliability analysis, formulas derived from a previous study conducted by the authors using gene expression programming (GEP) were employed. Damage assessment was carried out based on a damage index criterion, considering the post-blast residual axial load-bearing capacity of the steel column. The research results are presented in terms of damage probability, considering the different reliability analysis methods and boundary conditions. The findings demonstrate that the PEM effectively estimates the probabilistic response of the steel column with acceptable accuracy and less effort compared with the MCS and MCS-LHS. Furthermore, the MCS-LHS demonstrates higher accuracy in estimating the probability distribution function by utilizing the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) method, as compared to the MCS. These findings emphasize the importance of considering uncertainties in calculating the column response under extreme dynamic blast loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1720 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Rooftop PV Energy Potential Based on Housing Design in Brunei National Housing Planning
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15174 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Brunei aims to achieve 600 MW of renewable energy by 2035. Since the country has high solar radiance throughout the year, solar energy is the most feasible. However, the high cost of producing solar farms remains an obstacle and caused the country’s [...] Read more.
Brunei aims to achieve 600 MW of renewable energy by 2035. Since the country has high solar radiance throughout the year, solar energy is the most feasible. However, the high cost of producing solar farms remains an obstacle and caused the country’s progress towards the goal to fall behind schedule. Thus, this study aims to show the beneficial costs of investing in residential rooftop solar farms instead. This study calculated the optimal PV system sizes based on the residential load profiles (at only 10% of total consumption) and the available detached housing plans. After that, the costs of the optimal PV system sizes are estimated and then projected to the number of detached houses nationwide, which is 49,872 houses. The research found that the optimal rooftop off-grid PV system size for the average resident is 15.3 kW, with an inverter of 12.0 kW and a nominal battery size of 20 kWh. The net present cost of one optimal PV system is BND49,108 for 20 years of lifetime. If all the detached houses in the country are utilized to install solar panels, the total solar capacity is 763 MW, costing BND2.4 billion without involving the homeowners’ funds. Comparing this budget to conventional solar farms such as Tenaga Suria Brunei, the country can save BND10.3 billion. The study shows that Brunei may need to consider the benefits of investing more in residential rooftop solar farms due to savings in potential costs and only using the readily available rooftop space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

562 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Using Mathematical Programming and Optimization
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15198 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The analysis and design of reinforced concrete members (such as beams, columns, and shear walls) is fundamental to civil and structural engineering. Classical design methods based on hand calculations or interaction diagrams are available for various reinforced concrete sections. The goal of this [...] Read more.
The analysis and design of reinforced concrete members (such as beams, columns, and shear walls) is fundamental to civil and structural engineering. Classical design methods based on hand calculations or interaction diagrams are available for various reinforced concrete sections. The goal of this study is to develop a new alternative design method for reinforced concrete shear walls using mathematical programming and numerical optimization. The design of reinforced concrete shear walls is based on the latest American Concrete Institute ACI 318-19 Code. The design method relies on an optimization formulation to determine the minimum required steel area subject to given factored loads (such as a combined bending moment and axial force on a concrete section). This study intends to present the design of concrete shear wall sections in a rigorously derived framework using different formulations. To make it more practical for civil and structural engineers to use, a widely available numerical solver in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is adopted as the optimization engine. Concrete shear wall examples are analyzed and designed using the proposed method, and the results are compared with those obtained using classical design methods. The new method using numerical optimization works well and is easy to implement in an Excel spreadsheet. The proposed design method provides a useful alternative for practical engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 2505 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Data Envelopment Analysis to Benchmark Hotel Energy Consumption in an Urban Locality
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15204 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The benchmarking of hotel energy use comprehensively identifies the controllable and uncontrollable factors affecting energy performance, including building characteristics, management strategies, operations, and maintenance systems. Other factors include climatic conditions, floor areas, operating hours, occupancy rates, and guest populations. A benchmarking study on [...] Read more.
The benchmarking of hotel energy use comprehensively identifies the controllable and uncontrollable factors affecting energy performance, including building characteristics, management strategies, operations, and maintenance systems. Other factors include climatic conditions, floor areas, operating hours, occupancy rates, and guest populations. A benchmarking study on energy consumption patterns in significant hotels (each with less than 100 rooms and an average staff strength of 40 employees), situated in the university town of Nsukka (longitude 70 23′ E, latitude 60 52′ N), Nigeria, was performed using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology. The DEA, a linear programming technique that measures the relative performances of units, was chosen as a benchmarking methodology due to its ability to handle multiple inputs and outputs. Following a correlation test, energy use intensity, diesel consumption, and the number of employees were selected as the analysis inputs, while the occupancy rate was chosen as the output variable. Data on these variables spanning 12 months were collected using questionnaires, interviews, site visits, and oral conversations with hotel managers to ensure validity. Grid-supplied electricity accounted for most of the hotels’ energy needs, followed by diesel used in generators. More than 70% of the electricity use was for HVAC. From the DEA, Hotel 3 (DMU H3) had a technical efficiency score of 1, whereas adjustments were recommended for improving the efficiency scores of the other hotels, which were deemed inefficient. DMU H7 had the lowest efficiency score (0.474) and the highest identified savings for electricity and diesel. The analysis also revealed that occupancy rates were generally low in the months of June and July, coinciding with the high rainfall season with its accompanying decline in outdoor activities. Consistent with this, electricity consumption was highest in the Christmas and Easter holiday months of December, January, and April following increased travel-related activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

2042 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design, Environment, Energy, and Comfort in Buildings Equipped with a PMV-Controlled HVAC System
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15209 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 171
Abstract
This work presents a study about the design, environment, energy, and comfort in buildings equipped with a Predicted Mean Vote (PMV)-controlled HVAC system. The control system, based on the three categories of the international standard ISO 7730 uses the level of thermal comfort [...] Read more.
This work presents a study about the design, environment, energy, and comfort in buildings equipped with a Predicted Mean Vote (PMV)-controlled HVAC system. The control system, based on the three categories of the international standard ISO 7730 uses the level of thermal comfort instead of the traditional control of the air temperature. In this type of control, using the PMV index, the air temperature (Tair), air relative humidity (RHair), Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT), air velocity (Vair), level of clothing (CL), and level of physical activity (AL) are considered. The initial four parameters are associated with environmental ones, and the last two are associated with personal ones. The simulation is carried out using a simulator of the dynamic thermal response of buildings and the thermophysiology of the occupants. The simulator considers energy and mass balance integral equations, based on the building’s design. This equation system is generated by the simulator. In this study, three cases are performed: Categories A, B, and C. According to the results obtained, it is possible to verify that it takes some time to achieve acceptable comfort conditions when the HVAC system is connected. However, after the conditions are achieved, the system guarantees acceptable conditions during the occupancy time. Category A provides higher levels of energy consumption than Categories B and C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1192 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploring the Protection of Ancient Buildings Using BIM Technology—Taking the Han Family Compound in Shangli Ancient Town, Sichuan Province, as an Example
by and
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15199 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 209
Abstract
As a digital innovation tool in the field of architecture and engineering, BIM technology can improve the efficiency and quality of projects and also realize all-round information sharing and collaboration throughout the project life cycle. Most of the ancient buildings in China are [...] Read more.
As a digital innovation tool in the field of architecture and engineering, BIM technology can improve the efficiency and quality of projects and also realize all-round information sharing and collaboration throughout the project life cycle. Most of the ancient buildings in China are wooden structures, which often face problems such as damage, corrosion, and insect infestation, but because of their high cultural value, the maintenance of ancient buildings is always subject to problems. The effective combination of BIM technology and ancient buildings is conducive to the all-round, detailed, and in-depth maintenance and protection of ancient buildings. The Han family compound is located in Shangli Ancient Town, Sichuan Province, which is a well-preserved Qing dynasty architectural complex in an ancient town. However, under the dual effects of nature and man, a fire in the Republic of China period, an earthquake in 2008, and tourism development in recent years have caused the ancient buildings to become damaged and collapse, and they tend to assimilate with modern buildings, facing the dilemmas of maintenance and protection. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to exploring the feasibility of combining BIM technology with the maintenance and protection of the Han Family Courtyard and summarizing the specific application of BIM technology in the repair and protection of the Han Family Courtyard through domestic and international cases, so that the Han Family Courtyard can be developed in a sustainable way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1877 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study of the Water-Resistant Properties of New Eco-Friendly Gypsum Composites with Additions from Single-Use Plastic Waste
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15201 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 228
Abstract
The main aim of this research is to study the water resistance properties of new eco-friendly gypsum composites made with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) waste additions in granular form. Three percentages of LDPE additions by weight have been used as partial replacement of the [...] Read more.
The main aim of this research is to study the water resistance properties of new eco-friendly gypsum composites made with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) waste additions in granular form. Three percentages of LDPE additions by weight have been used as partial replacement of the original gypsum material: 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%. The results show that the addition of these recycled raw materials reduces the total water absorption of the gypsum composites. On the other hand, durability tests have been carried out against the repeated action of wet chamber cycles and water–stove cycles. After carrying out these accelerated ageing tests, it was concluded that all the composites produced in this research exceeded the minimum flexural and compressive strengths recommended by the EN 13279-2 standard. Thus, the gypsum composite materials produced are a sustainable alternative for recovering and revaluing plastic waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1280 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Retrofitting Strategy of Residential Buildings Based on Detailed Energy Monitoring Measurements in Hot Climate
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15205 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 191
Abstract
In this comprehensive study, a typical house underwent extensive monitoring over several years to measure direct deterministic consumption of each active system component. The indeterministic components including infiltration, air conditioner, fenestration and envelope performances were found through inverse sensitivity analysis. The data collected [...] Read more.
In this comprehensive study, a typical house underwent extensive monitoring over several years to measure direct deterministic consumption of each active system component. The indeterministic components including infiltration, air conditioner, fenestration and envelope performances were found through inverse sensitivity analysis. The data collected over the monitoring period revealed that the Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of the house amounted to 184 kWh/m2/year, for which the air-conditioning system accounted for approximately 80%. To reduce this demand, it is imperative to enhance the air tightness and thermal characteristics of the fenestration and envelope of the building. In addition, the air conditioner with higher performance must be promoted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

567 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Early-Age Properties of Cement Paste Prepared Using Seawater
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15207 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 190
Abstract
In the United States, approximately 10 billion gallons of mixing water is required annually to produce close to 400 million cubic yards of concrete. In response to the declining supply of freshwater in some locations and with the goal of decreasing the environmental [...] Read more.
In the United States, approximately 10 billion gallons of mixing water is required annually to produce close to 400 million cubic yards of concrete. In response to the declining supply of freshwater in some locations and with the goal of decreasing the environmental footprint of the concrete industry, there is current interest in either full or partial replacement of fresh water with seawater in concrete mixtures. Research indicates that the early-age strength of seawater concrete is typically higher than that of normal concrete, but that the long-term strength is affected less. This study investigates the early-age properties of seawater concrete by measuring its ultrasonic pulse velocity. This nondestructive test method is commonly used to assess the quality of concrete, and its value correlates well with the compressive strength. Neat-cement-paste specimens were prepared at several water–cement ratios using either fresh water or salt water at various salinities (36, 24, and 12 g/L). The highest salinity of 36 g/L was chosen because it is the approximate salinity of the ocean, while 24 and 12 g/L represent either brackish water or seawater that has been mixed with freshwater. The ultrasonic pulse velocity of the specimens was measured at various points in time until 28 days. Additionally, the compressive strength was measured at both 7 and 28 days. By comparing the evolution of the ultrasonic pulse velocity and the compressive strength between the various mixtures, the effect of seawater on the early-age properties of seawater concrete can be better understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

4555 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Research on Asymmetrical Reinforced Concrete Low-Rise Frames under Multiple Seismic Events
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15191 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 183
Abstract
Current seismic regulations neglect the influence of multiple seismic events on the seismic response, which, as already recognized in the literature, may influence the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete structures. Symmetrical and asymmetrical low-rise reinforced concrete frames are investigated here via nonlinear time-history [...] Read more.
Current seismic regulations neglect the influence of multiple seismic events on the seismic response, which, as already recognized in the literature, may influence the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete structures. Symmetrical and asymmetrical low-rise reinforced concrete frames are investigated here via nonlinear time-history (NLTH) analysis considering multiple earthquake events, as well as under a respective single seismic event, for comparison purposes. The two horizontal directions, as well as the vertical one, of the ground excitation are considered in the dynamic analysis, assuming the elastoplastic action of reinforced concrete sections under heavy loading. A simple ratio is defined to express the geometrical in-plane asymmetry of the buildings. The nonlinear response outcomes of the time-history analyses are appropriately plotted by using unitless parameters for an objective estimation of the structural behavior under multiple earthquakes. The dimensionless response results and plots are presented and discussed in view of the relative geometrical asymmetry of the 3D frames. The effect of the multiple seismic events, as well as the one of a simple geometrical symmetry/asymmetry, is identified and discussed in the presented plots resulting from the dynamic analysis. Thus, practical remarks are presented regarding the significance of the in-plane symmetry/asymmetry of frames for improvements in the provisions of the current seismic regulations to develop safer structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

426 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Learning from Past Research for a Green Future: Harnessing Organic and Genetically Enhanced Trees to Reduce Construction-Induced CO2 Emissions
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15210 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 214
Abstract
In today’s world, GHG emissions, especially CO2, drive rapid global warming. Construction significantly contributes to this by emitting CO2. Plants have long been recognized for their role in mitigating climate change through CO2 absorption, enhancing both climate control [...] Read more.
In today’s world, GHG emissions, especially CO2, drive rapid global warming. Construction significantly contributes to this by emitting CO2. Plants have long been recognized for their role in mitigating climate change through CO2 absorption, enhancing both climate control and environmental beauty. Thus, the aim of this paper is to assess plants’ CO2 absorption potential, focusing on recent articles from reputable journals in the past decade. First, we delve into the primary causes of global warming. Next, we explore the philosophy of CO2 emissions in construction, from inception to completion. Finally, CO2 emission control through plantation is examined, exploring the potential of organic and genetically modified plants for real-world applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1252 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Developing a Framework for Innovation in House Construction: An Exploratory Study of Emerging Techniques and Practices
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15186 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Using innovation building technology in South Africa as case subjects, this study aims to explore the practices and techniques that are used in or as a part of the framework in innovation in house construction. This study explored the existing literature on the [...] Read more.
Using innovation building technology in South Africa as case subjects, this study aims to explore the practices and techniques that are used in or as a part of the framework in innovation in house construction. This study explored the existing literature on the subject, followed by using the proposed framework. The study methodology, the proposed conceptual framework, was adopted from the house of quality and multicriteria decision making procedure. Data were collected in two stages and were used to test or validate the framework. The two stages of this study included a questionnaire survey that was targeted at end users, namely contractors of innovation building technologies in the house construction industry. The second stage was interviews targeted at the developers of innovation building technologies who are also referred to as system holders. Regarding the findings of the study, the proposed conceptual framework may be used to measure innovation in house construction and may be used hand in hand with existing South African regulations in the house construction industry. On the other hand, system holders may use the proposed conceptual framework as a guide in innovation building technology projects. The value of this study is in ensuring that innovation building technologies maintain their original advantages and survive the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

909 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact Response of FRP Composites Used in Civil Structural Applications
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15215 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 200
Abstract
This study delves into the effect of repeated low-velocity impacts on the residual tensile strength of composite laminates reinforced with E-glass/epoxy woven fabrics. The specimens underwent a series of low-velocity impacts, each delivering a constant energy of 4 J. Various parameters, such as [...] Read more.
This study delves into the effect of repeated low-velocity impacts on the residual tensile strength of composite laminates reinforced with E-glass/epoxy woven fabrics. The specimens underwent a series of low-velocity impacts, each delivering a constant energy of 4 J. Various parameters, such as maximum impact load, displacement, contact time, and absorbed energy, were examined. The residual tensile strength was subsequently analysed for each impact and compared to control specimens that experienced no impact. The results highlighted a significant decrease in residual tensile strength after the initial impact, whereas subsequent impacts exhibited a diminished effect until the puncture of the specimens occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

531 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Investigation of the Parameters Affecting Affordable Housing Location Choice
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15359 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 247
Abstract
The provision of affordable housing has become a major concern for policymakers and urban planners, especially in developing nations of the world. One of the key challenges in this domain is the identification of suitable locations for the development of affordable housing. Appropriate [...] Read more.
The provision of affordable housing has become a major concern for policymakers and urban planners, especially in developing nations of the world. One of the key challenges in this domain is the identification of suitable locations for the development of affordable housing. Appropriate locations of affordable housing will improve the housing satisfaction of residents by increasing the social and economic benefits for low-income residents, providing better accessibility to opportunities and services, and reducing the poverty concentration. A bidirectional relationship exists among affordable adequate housing and health, and has been recognised as an essential sustainable development component. Therefore, this research aims to identify the factors that govern the spatial location choice of affordable housing. The determinants were derived via an exploratory study of relevant literature studies encompassing different geographical contexts, socio-economic backgrounds, and technological and economic advancement levels. A total of 61 parameters were identified, each of which lies in one of the following six categories: neighbourhood characteristics, urban characteristics, social factors, economic parameters, demographic factors, and housing quality. The findings indicate that the location choice of users varies with regard to the context of an urban area. Broadly speaking, most of the prior studies have considered accessibility, transport-related factors, and housing prices as important attributes in determining the optimal location for siting affordable housing. However, parameters such as socio-economic criteria, accessibility to various facilities, and employment opportunities have greater significance in developing nations. Contrasting results are observed in the case of several developed nations, wherein factors such as safety, environmental aspects, and dwelling type were emphasised over elements of accessibility. The identified parameters can be considered by the policymakers to evaluate optimal locations for siting affordable housing projects, thereby ensuring that low-income residents reside in neighbourhoods that promote social and economic sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1401 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tackling the Data Sourcing Problem in Construction Procurement Using File-Scraping Algorithms
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15190 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector has a lower adoption rate of machine learning (ML) tools than other industries with similar characteristics. A significant contributing factor to this lower adoption rate is the limited availability of data, as ML techniques rely on [...] Read more.
The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector has a lower adoption rate of machine learning (ML) tools than other industries with similar characteristics. A significant contributing factor to this lower adoption rate is the limited availability of data, as ML techniques rely on large datasets to train algorithms effectively. However, the construction process generates substantial data that provide detailed characterisation of a project. In this regard, this paper presents a data-scraping algorithm to search construction procurement repositories systematically to develop an ML-ready dataset for training data for ML and natural language processing (NLP) algorithms focused on construction’s procurement phase. This tool automatically scrapes procurement repositories, developing a procurement file dataset comprisffing bills of quantities (BoQs) and project specifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

225 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Insight into the Enablers for Waste Management Culture in the Construction Sector
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15216 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 171
Abstract
The construction industry is growing day by day due to the immense need for infrastructure and development projects in developed as well as developing countries. At the same time, millions of tons of waste are generated during the execution of these projects. In [...] Read more.
The construction industry is growing day by day due to the immense need for infrastructure and development projects in developed as well as developing countries. At the same time, millions of tons of waste are generated during the execution of these projects. In total construction waste, half of the waste comes from building projects. So, the importance of waste control in construction and especially in building projects can be imagined. In this regard, a comprehensive literature review was conducted based on fifty shortlisted and most relevant papers from prestigious journals of construction management. Then, frequency analysis was conducted. Based on the results, significant enablers at the macro as well as micro levels in the construction industry were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
209 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Barriers to and Enablers of Affordable Housing Construction: Insights from Construction Industry Professionals
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15213 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Recent research emphasizes the urgent need to improve affordable housing accessibility, safety, and quality while addressing poverty and economic mobility. However, there are a lack of comprehensive studies on US affordable housing construction. Our study focused on barriers to and enablers of affordable [...] Read more.
Recent research emphasizes the urgent need to improve affordable housing accessibility, safety, and quality while addressing poverty and economic mobility. However, there are a lack of comprehensive studies on US affordable housing construction. Our study focused on barriers to and enablers of affordable housing construction in Upstate New York through interviews with ten construction industry professionals. We identified obstacles like funding shortages, regulatory complexities, and administrative hurdles. Enablers included increased advocacy, strategic tax credit use, and reduced zoning restrictions. Although a housing supply–demand imbalance persists, emerging solutions and collaborative efforts signal a promising, equitable, and sustainable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
1130 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimizing Daylight and Energy Consumption for Climate Change Adaptation: Integrating an Artificial Neural Network Model with a Multi-Objective Optimization Approach
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15202 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Machine learning models have been proven for their capability to improve the computational efficiency of building performance simulations. However, studies on their reliability to produce Pareto front solutions for multi-objective optimization are limited, particularly for climate adaptation studies. This study proposed a dependable [...] Read more.
Machine learning models have been proven for their capability to improve the computational efficiency of building performance simulations. However, studies on their reliability to produce Pareto front solutions for multi-objective optimization are limited, particularly for climate adaptation studies. This study proposed a dependable workflow through which to integrate an artificial neural network (ANN) model with energy consumption and daylight multi-objective optimization for climate change adaptation. The trained ANN model attained high R2 scores with RMSE scores of 2.23 and 4.52 for UDI and cooling EUI, respectively. Statistical hypothesis analysis of the Pareto front solutions produced via conventional simulation-based and ANN-based optimization shows that the two models have no significant difference, indicating the reliability of the proposed workflow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

818 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhancing Tower Crane Safety: A Computer Vision and Deep Learning Approach
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15193 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The utilization of tower cranes at construction sites entails inherent risks, notably the potential for loads to fall. This study proposes a novel method for identifying the tower crane load fall zone and determining workers’ locations relative to this zone. Previous studies have [...] Read more.
The utilization of tower cranes at construction sites entails inherent risks, notably the potential for loads to fall. This study proposes a novel method for identifying the tower crane load fall zone and determining workers’ locations relative to this zone. Previous studies have failed to accurately identify the load fall zone, mainly due to the difficulties in detecting various types of crane loads. This study presents a method that uses computer vision algorithms to detect crane loads based on their movement patterns and elevation, while also employing the YOLOv7 deep learning algorithm to detect workers and using stereo camera depth data to measure their positions in the 3D world coordinate system. The proposed method outperforms prior approaches in terms of analysis speed and accuracy, achieving a speed of 8 frames per second, 94% precision, and 96.5% recall in determining workers’ relative zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3207 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Church Audial Quality on Cross-City Routes: The Java Christian Church in Bandung, Indonesia
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15182 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 256
Abstract
The Church is a place of worship for Christians; to ensure the smooth and solemn implementation of worship activities, many factors that affect their overall effectiveness must be considered, and one of the conditions that must be met in the worship room is [...] Read more.
The Church is a place of worship for Christians; to ensure the smooth and solemn implementation of worship activities, many factors that affect their overall effectiveness must be considered, and one of the conditions that must be met in the worship room is audial comfort. Certain churches are situated in noisy surroundings, which may impact the comfort and auditory experience of worshippers during prayer. This research examines the issue of audial comfort in a church positioned at the periphery of a cross-town road. The main goal of this research was to determine the audial quality deemed comfortable in the Java Christian Church in Bandung from the noise impact caused by high vehicle traffic. The prominent noise that arises from the highway is mostly caused by motorized vehicles. The methodology employed in this study involves a case study approach using quantitative descriptive analysis to evaluate the audial quality of the church. This study uses the Decibel X Sound Meter application to collect data through field measurements. The measured data were analyzed using NoiseTools and IBANA-Calc software was used to analyze the level of noise around the outer church buildings, which are directly adjacent to the main road. The standards used as research references are based on the Decree of the State Minister for the Environment, Number KEP-48/MENLH/11/1996, concerning environmental noise, and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development guidelines regarding spatial noise. Based on the observations made in this research, the noise level within the premises of the Java Christian Church in Bandung is fairly good, so the only addition needed is a barrier that can reduce environmental noise in the Java Christian Church in Bandung. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

499 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Building Information Modeling (BIM) Implementation in Public–Private Partnership (PPP) Projects
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15189 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 211
Abstract
Studies about the challenges and lessons learned from Public–Private partnerships (PPPs) exist in construction all around the world, yet it is not certain how to use these challenges to improve the performance of projects. Building Information Modeling (BIM) has great potential to improve [...] Read more.
Studies about the challenges and lessons learned from Public–Private partnerships (PPPs) exist in construction all around the world, yet it is not certain how to use these challenges to improve the performance of projects. Building Information Modeling (BIM) has great potential to improve collaboration in PPPs. However, implementing this technology requires new steps rather than the traditional approaches. This study aims to resolve the implementation dilemma by proposing a BIM Implementation Plan. The methodology includes evaluating BIM adaptation at the company and project levels via PPP case studies. Results will show major drivers and barriers to utilizing BIM in PPPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

4778 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Natural Lighting Evaluation of the Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Cimahi as an Educational Building in Indonesia Using Sefaira Software
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15211 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The B building sector contributes to 40% of the carbon emissions in the atmosphere. Several studies show that high-performance MAN (Madrasah Aliyah Negeri) buildings contribute to reducing carbon emissions. This study discusses the evaluation of natural lighting in educational buildings, namely the MAN [...] Read more.
The B building sector contributes to 40% of the carbon emissions in the atmosphere. Several studies show that high-performance MAN (Madrasah Aliyah Negeri) buildings contribute to reducing carbon emissions. This study discusses the evaluation of natural lighting in educational buildings, namely the MAN (Madrasah Aliyah Negeri) Cimahi building. This research was conducted using direct survey methods via measuring and simulating the natural lighting using Sefaira. The simulation results show that natural lighting in the building does not meet lumination standards. This article concludes that the addition of a roof overhang, windowed areas, façade elements, and shading strategies are all factors that can affect natural lighting in the MAN (Madrasah Aliyah Negeri) Cimahi building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

205 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Investigation of Shopping Mall Design Requirements
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-16329 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Shopping malls may be considered as controversial structures since they sometimes fail to comply with the expectations of the project stakeholders throughout the project life cycle. New mall projects often attract the attention of people since such a structure has a potential to [...] Read more.
Shopping malls may be considered as controversial structures since they sometimes fail to comply with the expectations of the project stakeholders throughout the project life cycle. New mall projects often attract the attention of people since such a structure has a potential to reshape the neighborhood it is located in; however, the impact is usually negative. On the other hand, the parties involved in mall projects may be subject to criticism from both the public and the industry during the design, construction, and operation. In this study we conducted semi-structured interviews with five managers of an international company that provides real estate services worldwide, and mainly focuses on managing shopping centers within the context of Turkiye. During the interviews, we collected insights on shopping mall design and criteria that have an impact on the operational success or failure. We analyzed the interview data to understand the shopping mall design requirements from the experts’ perspectives. We summarized our investigation under three main categories as location, shop and brand mix, and design. Analyzed data indicates that the requirements and use of shopping malls evolve and change over time. The change is driven by things such as changing habits and expectations of the users and new marketing approaches. Understanding such changes is essential for designers and investors to propose new design approaches and space compositions in order to be able to adapt to the changes. Through our analysis of the collected data, we provided insights on requirements and new trends that affect the design of malls. As further explained in this paper, our analysis indicates a number of important topics during design such as the need to design to fit ever-changing spatial needs, providing feel-good environment for users, correct placement of spaces and stores related to each other, designing circulation that supports commercial activities, and designing with a consideration of operation and maintenance. According to the collected data, the trend of shopping mall design is towards integration of hybrid uses, free forms, more open spaces, increased emphasis on gastronomy, and enabling socializing while leveraging technology and being more sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
1170 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sustainable Architecture: Innovations and Perspectives for Multifamily Housing in Timber-Based Structures
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15990 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 199
Abstract
The current methods of designing and using wood-based construction systems are going through exciting changes. By adopting new and innovative technologies, it is now possible to create residential buildings with less environmental impact. After examining the available research, this article presents and describe [...] Read more.
The current methods of designing and using wood-based construction systems are going through exciting changes. By adopting new and innovative technologies, it is now possible to create residential buildings with less environmental impact. After examining the available research, this article presents and describe five main categories of wood construction systems, highlighting their advantages and applications. Choosing the right structural system is crucial for facing the sustainability challenges of today. It is important to consider different factors, such as the building function or economic aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11703 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design Styles and Restoration of Traditional Residential Buildings in Northern China
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-16328 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 194
Abstract
The development of Chinese ancient architectural design has gone through three historical stages: primitive society, slave society, and feudal society. Due to the influence of geography, the environment, and the humanities, the regional architectural styles of each region were also formed. In particular, [...] Read more.
The development of Chinese ancient architectural design has gone through three historical stages: primitive society, slave society, and feudal society. Due to the influence of geography, the environment, and the humanities, the regional architectural styles of each region were also formed. In particular, this is reflected in the residential architecture. Among residential architectures, the courtyard architectural style is the most typical, adapting to the microclimate and improving the comfort of living. This enclosed style of architecture was accompanied by the diffusion of Chinese culture and enriched the architectural design of the East Asian region. Nonetheless, as urbanisation accelerated, this traditional style of architecture began to be undermined. In addition, there is less discussion of the architectural content that embodies design ideas in terms of ritual, order, form, components, and color. In order to preserve this precious built environment, this study highlights the design style and its connotations. Through the use of case studies, the stylistic characteristics of a traditional dwelling in Northern China and the restoration process are assessed. Furthermore, observations on key building components, construction techniques, and materials are made in terms of architectural ideas. This leads to the proposition that conservation strategies should be appropriate to local conditions. The findings show that building restoration can contribute to the effective conservation of traditional building forms and provide an opportunity to inherit traditional culture. Moreover, it is more conducive to the presence of Chinese residential architecture that shines in the world discourse. New perspectives and contributions are offered in the fields of architectural design and conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

768 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Critical Success Factors for Building Projects through the Literature
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15988 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 272
Abstract
A construction project’s failure encompasses a spectrum of disappointments, which may manifest individually or in combination, spanning the domains of cost, time, quality, and effective project management. This study discerns the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) that underpin the triumph or failure of construction [...] Read more.
A construction project’s failure encompasses a spectrum of disappointments, which may manifest individually or in combination, spanning the domains of cost, time, quality, and effective project management. This study discerns the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) that underpin the triumph or failure of construction projects, while also scrutinizing the interplay between various attributes that contribute to project success, through a comprehensive and thorough examination of prior research endeavors. This extensive review of the literature serves to guide the identification of CSFs that will serve as predictive indicators for assessing the likelihood of a project’s success. This study endeavors to quantify the individual contributions of these Critical Success Factors to the ultimate outcome of a building project. The overarching aim of this current literature research is to offer a meticulous and exhaustive exploration of Critical Success Factors within the context of building projects. This focused and precise undertaking spans articles published in reputable journals over the past decade. From these, we shed new light on the dynamics of construction project success, enriching our understanding of the specific factors that shape the outcomes of these endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3142 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Efficacy of FRP Hooping in Masonry Domes: A Simple Numerical Approach
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15936 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 180
Abstract
A simple numerical approach to predict the efficacy of FRP hooping in historical masonry domes is presented. The dome is modelled with 8-noded elastic hexahedron elements connected by 1D trusses/springs on meridians and on parallels, where all the non-linearity takes place. The aim [...] Read more.
A simple numerical approach to predict the efficacy of FRP hooping in historical masonry domes is presented. The dome is modelled with 8-noded elastic hexahedron elements connected by 1D trusses/springs on meridians and on parallels, where all the non-linearity takes place. The aim is to simulate the nonlinear behaviour of domes through every FE commercial software equipped only with non-linear 1D elements, namely point contacts and cutoff bars. The constitutive behaviour of the trusses is assumed to be either perfectly brittle or perfectly ductile. A possible orthotropic behaviour and the no-tension material case can be reproduced. External retrofitting is simulated using trusses with an elastic perfectly ductile behaviour, assuming a perfect bond between the substrate and the reinforcement and imposing an ultimate strength for the trusses, which takes into account the possible debonding/delamination from the substrate in a conventional way. The Italian code CNR DT200 and the existing specialized literature are used as references. The models are benchmarked on a masonry dome reinforced with three hooping FRP strips and experimentally tested at the University Architecture Institute of Venice IUAV, Italy. The procedure is validated through extensive comparisons with available experimental data and numerical results obtained in the literature with a variety of different models. Through the extensive comparisons that were made and discussed, the robustness and simplicity of the procedure are proven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

4055 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Identification of Natural Lighting Quality in Several Development Types of Subsidy House
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15175 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 135
Abstract
The function of a house can be achieved via residential comfort. Several studies have shown that natural lighting affects the comfort of a dwelling. Previous research discussed the typology of subsidized housing development in Kupang City and Kendal Regency. The result was the [...] Read more.
The function of a house can be achieved via residential comfort. Several studies have shown that natural lighting affects the comfort of a dwelling. Previous research discussed the typology of subsidized housing development in Kupang City and Kendal Regency. The result was the addition of space according to the needs. This article discusses the analysis of natural lighting in the original form of subsidized housing and after development in Kupang City and Kendal Regency through simulations using Dialux. The simulation results show that natural lighting in the house cases does not qualify SNI 03-6197-2000 both in the original plan and the after-development plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

204 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Placemaking and Sustainable Urbanism: Strategies for Creating Liveable and Resilient Cities
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-15989 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Sustainable urbanism has become a popular expression in the realm of planning and design. The concept of sustainable urbanism revolves around the idea of managing finite resources for the burgeoning population. The ultimate goal of sustainable urbanism is community well-being and inclusivity, which [...] Read more.
Sustainable urbanism has become a popular expression in the realm of planning and design. The concept of sustainable urbanism revolves around the idea of managing finite resources for the burgeoning population. The ultimate goal of sustainable urbanism is community well-being and inclusivity, which align with the objectives of placemaking. The paper aims to explore the prospects of placemaking in achieving sustainable urbanism. The case studies demonstrate that strategic investment in sustainable infrastructure and adaptive reuse practices yields long-term cost savings and environmental benefits. The conclusion reflects on the challenges related to citizen participation and governance, highlighting the necessity of collaboration and coordination among stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
1275 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cost- and Carbon-Effectiveness Analysis of Renewable Energy Options for Delivering Net-Zero Housing in the United Kingdom
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-16252 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 133
Abstract
The UK government has legal binding objectives under the “climate change act 2008” to accomplish net-zero carbon emissions by the year 2050. The government has implemented a variety of measures across many different sectors of the UK economy that are accountable for the [...] Read more.
The UK government has legal binding objectives under the “climate change act 2008” to accomplish net-zero carbon emissions by the year 2050. The government has implemented a variety of measures across many different sectors of the UK economy that are accountable for the emissions. The aim of this research was to evaluate and compare some existing renewable energy technologies. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of installing these technologies into homes across the UK and the impact it has on the “net-zero housing” scheme. A series of results were produced using the SAP rating, deploying an existing dwelling located in Bradford, UK, fitted with a gas boiler and comparing the results to those obtained for an air source heat pump (ASHP) and a mechanical ventilation with heat recovery system (MVHR). The three systems were analysed in terms of cost-effectiveness, carbon footprint and energy savings. The study found that the installation of a gas boiler costs less than that of the other systems, whilst ASHPs involve high upfront costs. However, the latter showed higher energy savings, with an efficiency of 4.0 compared to 0.75 and 0.95 for the gas boiler and MVHR, respectively. The SAP rating showed that the ASHP had a carbon footprint of 2396.3 kg/year for the studied flat of 65.72 m2, whilst carbon footprints of 3406.92 CO2 kg/year and 7143.45 kg/year were determined for the gas boiler and the MVHR system, respectively. The study concluded that ASHPs work better than the other systems for most of the existing UK housing, unless a whole building fabric improvement is considered, in which case, some other renewable options could be a choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

217 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Analysis of Visitors’ Perceptions of Shopping Malls
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-16358 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 102
Abstract
Shopping malls have been a significant part of our daily lives for decades. Their significance is derived from the use of these spaces based on great numbers of people, as well as the role malls play in culture. On the other hand, the [...] Read more.
Shopping malls have been a significant part of our daily lives for decades. Their significance is derived from the use of these spaces based on great numbers of people, as well as the role malls play in culture. On the other hand, the design of malls has been constantly evolving according to the needs of users and the market. This study is based on survey data that we collected from ninety visitors of a shopping mall located in Izmir, Turkiye. Through the survey, we collected data on topics such as the participants’ visit frequency and reasons for visiting the mall, architectural and spatial features they favor and/or dislike, their opinions on where they perceive malls in everyday life, and their opinions on alternative spaces to malls. The data collection was finalized right before the pandemic, which significantly changed the way we think about public spaces, as well as malls, in relation to architecture. Analyzing collected data provides further insight into surveyed customers’ perception of spaces, the design of shopping malls, the use of the space, the preferred design features, as well as design features that drive customers away from the mall. The analysis was later compared and linked to studies in the literature. These research findings have the potential to be used in studies that evaluate mall design and space use, as well as in studies that compare the post-pandemic perception of spaces and the use of shopping malls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
6090 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
From Yenching University to Peking University—The Spatial Inheritance and Architectural Evolution of Yan Garden
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-16359 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 93
Abstract
Taking Yan Garden as the research object, this paper mainly looks at the evolution process of its campus planning during the past century. In the early stage, many aspects, such as orientation and cultural symbols, showed that Yan Garden greatly reflects the personal [...] Read more.
Taking Yan Garden as the research object, this paper mainly looks at the evolution process of its campus planning during the past century. In the early stage, many aspects, such as orientation and cultural symbols, showed that Yan Garden greatly reflects the personal will of the architect. With the relocation of Peking University, teachers and students started to express their spatial demands actively; thus, Yan Garden generated new spatial axes and dynamic areas, finally achieving a harmonious coexistence between people and the campus. The increase in autonomy among users in campus planning enhances the interaction between people, places, and information, leading to a rich, dynamic, and humanized harmonious campus environment. This entire process reflects the importance of humanism in campus planning and design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 1080 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploring the Benefits of 360-Degree Panoramas for Construction Project Monitoring and Control
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-16409 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 178
Abstract
In the field of technological construction tools, 360-degree panorama provides a panoramic virtual reality capable of representing the construction environment in great detail. While there are many studies on their pedagogical and safety applications, few studies address the benefits of their use in [...] Read more.
In the field of technological construction tools, 360-degree panorama provides a panoramic virtual reality capable of representing the construction environment in great detail. While there are many studies on their pedagogical and safety applications, few studies address the benefits of their use in construction monitoring and control. For this reason, the present research aims to explore its application and benefits for monitoring and control, the research for which begins with a literature review of the application of 360-degree panoramas in construction, where the authors identified the main benefits. In the second stage, the authors analyzed two case studies of its application: the first is based on the construction of a retail project, and the second is based on an infrastructure project. After the implementation, the researchers conducted interviews with the team members responsible for implementing 360-degree panorama. The main benefits of 360-degree panorama are as follows: a complete overview of the construction site situation, verification of the distribution of the space used, documentation of the current project situations, as well as progress control and quality control. These results will hopefully help to improve the understanding of this tool’s current state of the art in the construction field and open the door to future investigations on cost–benefit analysis that facilitate the application of this tool in construction sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11981 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Emotional Maintenance: A Digital Model to Support Maintenance Decisions in Buildings’ Coatings
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-16488 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 90
Abstract
Maintenance decisions at the end of building components’ service life are frequently driven by subjective motivations that can arise from various sources, including the building owner’s personal preferences, sentimental attachments, aesthetic considerations, and individual/collective preferences or sense of taste. This study supports decision-making [...] Read more.
Maintenance decisions at the end of building components’ service life are frequently driven by subjective motivations that can arise from various sources, including the building owner’s personal preferences, sentimental attachments, aesthetic considerations, and individual/collective preferences or sense of taste. This study supports decision-making regarding maintenance actions by combining objective indicators of building degradation and subjective user perceptions to prioritize areas of focus, determine appropriate maintenance strategies, and allocate resources effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

238 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
From Process to System: A Review on the Implications of Concrete 3D Printing on Project Delivery
Eng. Proc. 2023, 53(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/IOCBD2023-16383 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 72
Abstract
The aim of this study is to question the need for alternative project delivery methods to foster the integration of concrete 3D printing in the construction industry. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out. The results indicate that the traditional planning [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to question the need for alternative project delivery methods to foster the integration of concrete 3D printing in the construction industry. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out. The results indicate that the traditional planning and construction process will have to be reconsidered. On the one hand, new roles and changes in responsibilities may emerge, and, on the other hand, a holistic design process and early contractor involvement will be required to fully exploit the potential of concrete 3D printing. Therefore, alternative project delivery models need to be adopted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Online Conference on Buildings)
Back to TopTop