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Eng. Proc., 2023, IEEE ECBIOS 2023

2023 IEEE 5th Eurasia Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Healthcare and Sustainability

Tainan, Taiwan | 2–4 June 2023

Volume Editors:
Teen-Hang Meen, National Formosa University, Taiwan
Kuei-Shu Hsu, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Taiwan
Cheng-Fu Yang, National University of Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan

Number of Papers: 97
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume represents the proceedings of the 5th IEEE Eurasia Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Healthcare and Sustainability 2023 (IEEE ECBIOS 2023). This conference was held at the Chia Nan [...] Read more.
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2 pages, 416 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Teen-Hang Meen, Kuei-Shu Hsu and Cheng-Fu Yang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055001 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 307
Abstract
In submitting the conference proceedings of the 5th IEEE Eurasia Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Healthcare and Sustainability 2023 (IEEE ECBIOS 2023) to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to [...] Read more.
In submitting the conference proceedings of the 5th IEEE Eurasia Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Healthcare and Sustainability 2023 (IEEE ECBIOS 2023) to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
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4 pages, 1301 KiB  
Editorial
Preface of the Fifth IEEE Eurasia Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Healthcare and Sustainability, 2023 (IEEE ECBIOS 2023)
by Teen-Hang Meen, Kuei-Shu Hsu and Cheng-Fu Yang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055002 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 357
Abstract
This volume represents the proceedings of the fifth IEEE Eurasia Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Healthcare and Sustainability 2023 (IEEE ECBIOS 2023) [...] Full article
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8 pages, 2607 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Anomaly Detection on Network Traffic for the Healthcare Internet of Things
by Hsiao-Ching Huang, I-Hsien Liu, Meng-Huan Lee and Jung-Shian Li
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055003 - 22 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized technologies in society, including in households, offices, factories, and health centers. Among these, the Healthcare Internet of Things (HIoT) significantly transforms medical assistance for patients. By using wearable devices with remote network connections, caregivers monitor patients’ [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized technologies in society, including in households, offices, factories, and health centers. Among these, the Healthcare Internet of Things (HIoT) significantly transforms medical assistance for patients. By using wearable devices with remote network connections, caregivers monitor patients’ physiological data to gain valuable insights into their health conditions. Despite the many benefits of the HIoT, several security vulnerabilities still exist. Hackers can exploit the internet connection to steal or modify credential information regarding patients, violating the integrity and confidentiality of the security policy. Moreover, they can launch cyberattacks on hospitals or critical life-support systems, further endangering patients’ lives. Consequently, it is crucial to implement robust cybersecurity measures to enhance the security of healthcare services. Therefore, we proposed an anomaly detection method based on network traffic for the HIoT, adopting Markov models. Owing to their simplicity, interpretability, and well-developed theory, the Markov models have been applied to network traffic prediction and modeling, serving as a viable approach to cater to our needs. We evaluated the proposed method using the public dataset ToN_IoT and analyzed the results. Full article
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9 pages, 981 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Compartment Pharmacokinetics Model of THC and Its Metabolites after Smoking
by Thanachok Mahahong and Teerapol Saleewong
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055004 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 514
Abstract
This article presents the application of the compartment model to investigate the pharmacokinetics of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of the cannabinoids found in cannabis, after smoking cannabis. The behavior of THC and its metabolite concentrations in the body following smoking were investigated, and the [...] Read more.
This article presents the application of the compartment model to investigate the pharmacokinetics of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of the cannabinoids found in cannabis, after smoking cannabis. The behavior of THC and its metabolite concentrations in the body following smoking were investigated, and the result offered a guideline for determining the appropriate duration between each smoking session to prevent intoxication and potential harm to the body. The compartment model was transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to describe the rate of change in the concentration of THC and its metabolites in each compartment, employing the law of mass action. For simulating the solution curve, the exact solutions of the ODE system and an actual data sample were processed using Microsoft Excel to obtain the optimal rate constants using curve fitting and generating a simulated curve that closely matched the actual data. The findings in this study indicated that the proposed model effectively described the concentration behavior of THC and its metabolites in plasma and other tissues. Therefore, the model will serve as a valuable tool for the determination of the appropriate duration between each smoking session to prevent harm to the body. Full article
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7 pages, 413 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Analysis of Digital Contact-Tracing Technologies for Informing Public Health Policies
by Tsz Ho Kwan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055005 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Contact tracing is the cornerstone of epidemic control of infectious diseases, especially in the era of COVID-19. This labor-intensive task calls for the use of digital technology to help identify individuals who have potentially been exposed to the infection to deliver necessary interventions [...] Read more.
Contact tracing is the cornerstone of epidemic control of infectious diseases, especially in the era of COVID-19. This labor-intensive task calls for the use of digital technology to help identify individuals who have potentially been exposed to the infection to deliver necessary interventions and treatment. Mobile applications based on different technologies and system architectures have been developed and widely used in concert with public health policies and regulations. Three main types of digital contact-tracing technologies, namely Bluetooth low energy (BLE), location tracking, and check-in, were adopted in contact-tracing apps and implemented with a centralized or decentralized system architecture to protect privacy and facilitate spatiotemporal co-occurrence matching. Passive data collection methods, including BLE and location tracking, could be contrasted with check-in-based apps, which require users’ effort to record their whereabouts. Persuasive computing with a centralized system for collecting contact-tracing data from users might require additional legislation for authorization and privacy protection. Technology options should therefore be taken into account when designing enforceable public health policies on the use of contact-tracing apps. At the same time, public health policies also inform the information system’s design. This paper aims to delineate and contrast current technologies and system architectures used for developing contact-tracing apps and examine the intertwined relationship between the design and implementation of public health policies and the design of digital contact-tracing systems. Full article
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6 pages, 993 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Classification of Breast Cancer Using Radiological Society of North America Data by EfficientNet
by Hoang Nhut Huynh, Ngoc An Dang Nguyen, Anh Tu Tran, Van Chinh Nguyen and Trung Nghia Tran
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055006 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Breast cancer is a common cancer that affects women all over the world. Therefore, detection at an early stage is crucial for reducing the mortality rate linked to this disease. Mammography is the primary screening method for breast cancer. However, it has drawbacks, [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is a common cancer that affects women all over the world. Therefore, detection at an early stage is crucial for reducing the mortality rate linked to this disease. Mammography is the primary screening method for breast cancer. However, it has drawbacks, including high rates of false-positive and negative results, inter-observer variability, and limited sensitivity with dense breast tissue. To solve such problems, breast cancer was analyzed and classified using mammography images and deep learning models from the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) database. This database contains processed and raw images from the RSNA that consist of annotated malignancies and clinical data. Using deep learning models based on convolutional neural network (CNN) models such as visual geometry group (VGG), Googlenet, EfficientNet, and Residual Networks, mammograms were classified into cancer or non-cancer categories. In this study, a novel architecture was proposed by combining CNNs and attention mechanisms, which extracted and highlighted the relevant features. A dataset of 8000 patients with 47,000 photographs was used to train and assess the model via 5-fold cross-validation. The results outperformed prior methods using the same database and reached an average accuracy rate of 95%. The results showed that mammography with deep learning methods considerably improved breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Full article
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9 pages, 3650 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Outpatient Prescription Trends of Non-Narcotic Analgesics and Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) in Taiwan from 2010 to 2021: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
by Jack C. Yue, I-Wei Lu, Jung-San Chang and Chien-Nan Lin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055007 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, trends, and associations of the use of outpatient prescription non-narcotic analgesics and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in Taiwan from 2010 to 2021. We identified the most commonly prescribed analgesics and PPIs, including paracetamol [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, trends, and associations of the use of outpatient prescription non-narcotic analgesics and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in Taiwan from 2010 to 2021. We identified the most commonly prescribed analgesics and PPIs, including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), in outpatient departments according to the data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan’s NHI Annual Statistical Report. This study shows that the traditional non-selective NSAIDs take the largest proportion of usage, representing over 60% of the annual usage of non-narcotic analgesics. Acetaminophen is the second and takes over 30% of annual usage. The selective COX-2 (coxibs) takes less than 10% of usage, but its use is growing rapidly. This study also shows that the annual usage of PPIs is growing rapidly and is not decreasing with the use of selective COX-2. The findings in this study can help us to focus on the most commonly prescribed drugs to investigate the prescription pattern of NSAIDs and PPIs, especially the combined use of selective COX-2 and PPIs, in future study. Full article
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4 pages, 479 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Shanghai Smart Health Station Research Application in Fusion of Sports and Medicine Community Health Service
by Si-Jing Tu, Chen Jin, Xiao-He Wang and Bi-Yan Wang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055008 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 380
Abstract
The “fusion of sports and medicine (FSM)” is the key to promoting national fitness and health in deep fusion. However, there are disadvantages such as isolation of information networks and separation of health data in the progress of FSM. A smart health station [...] Read more.
The “fusion of sports and medicine (FSM)” is the key to promoting national fitness and health in deep fusion. However, there are disadvantages such as isolation of information networks and separation of health data in the progress of FSM. A smart health station (SHS) is a new health service mode of FSM to provide a place for community residents for health self-assessment and self-management. SHS forms an integrated health information management system based on the Internet of Things, mobile internet, and big data. It integrates community health services, community physical fitness surveillance, and other resources. In order to put forward health management and improve people’s ability to manage their health, Shanghai has promoted the construction of SHS. The construction of SHS in Shanghai provides strong support and guarantees disease prevention and treatment in the community. “Early prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment” are also achieved to eliminate the disease. In this study, we introduce the background, service, character, and management of SHS construction in Shanghai, and the application of health service data in health education, chronic disease management, and intervention guidance. Full article
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8 pages, 3824 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Defect Detection by Analyzing Thermal Infrared Images Covered with Shadows with a Hybrid Approach Driven by Local and Global Intensity Fitting Energy
by Yishuo Huang, Chia-Chien Hung and Chih-Hung Chiang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055009 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 373
Abstract
Defect detection using thermal infrared images is used in nondestructive evaluation and testing because it is easy to use. Thermal infrared images recorded the surface temperatures of the target with a thermal infrared camera. Image segmentation is a technique to group those pixels [...] Read more.
Defect detection using thermal infrared images is used in nondestructive evaluation and testing because it is easy to use. Thermal infrared images recorded the surface temperatures of the target with a thermal infrared camera. Image segmentation is a technique to group those pixels with similar surface temperatures to form thermal patterns. Defects can be identified by the segmented patterns having different surface temperatures in their neighborhoods. In this study, a hybrid approach combining fitting energy is proposed for describing the contamination illustrated in the recorded surface temperatures and regional constants averaging the surface temperatures of the segmented regions. The numerical implementation is completed by applying the level set functions on an iteration scheme. The initial level sets evolve till a convergence can be reached. The processed results demonstrate that the hybrid approach can be used for defect detection. Full article
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7 pages, 2529 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Willingness, Proficiency, or Supports? Challenges in Implementing Content and Language Integrated Learning for Taiwan K-12 Teachers
by Shing-Yun Jung, Shih-Wen Su, Xiaojing Yu, Shyan-Ming Yuan and Chuen-Tsai Sun
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055010 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 588
Abstract
After the Taiwanese government launched the Blueprint for Developing Taiwan into a Bilingual Nation by 2030, the Implementation Project of Bilingual Instruction in several domains of primary and junior high school education was promoted by the Taiwan Ministry of Education. Content and language [...] Read more.
After the Taiwanese government launched the Blueprint for Developing Taiwan into a Bilingual Nation by 2030, the Implementation Project of Bilingual Instruction in several domains of primary and junior high school education was promoted by the Taiwan Ministry of Education. Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a dual-objective strategy in which students simultaneously acquire language skills and subject knowledge. CLIL has been widely implemented and proven to be successful in European countries. This strategy will become the primary method of bilingual education for instructors in grades K-12. Other non-European countries, such as Latin America and Indonesia, however, found difficulties applying CLIL in class. The issues need to be identified to encourage researchers and practitioners to find solutions. The purpose of this paper is to identify the barriers to implementing CLIL from the perspective of K-12 teachers. We surveyed 102 K-12 teachers in Keelung using a questionnaire. The findings indicate that (1) 49.0% of teachers feel concerned if they are required to teach half of their content in English, (2) 64.8% of teachers are willing to improve their English proficiency in their spare time for implementing CLIL in class, and (3) only 36.3% of teachers are willing to adopt CLIL in class, while 50.0% of teachers are willing to implement CLIL if a teaching assistant system supports them with English course materials. Teaching assistant systems that provide English course materials might influence teachers’ willingness to implement CLIL in class. Full article
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7 pages, 2856 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Case Study of Wind Farm Re-Powering
by Ming-Hong Chen and Yan-Ting Lin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055011 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 526
Abstract
The Jhongtun wind farm in the area of Penghu Archipelago is studied. The first part of the Jhongtun wind farm has been operated for 19 years, and the second part has been operated for 15 years. It is about time to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The Jhongtun wind farm in the area of Penghu Archipelago is studied. The first part of the Jhongtun wind farm has been operated for 19 years, and the second part has been operated for 15 years. It is about time to evaluate the feasibility of this wind farm’s re-powering process to promote its power production. The evaluated AEPs are 82.65 GWh/year and 107.32 GWh/year. With the current deployment, roughly 12% of the power is provided by the wind farm with a 600 kW wind turbine, and its AEP is 11.46 GWh/year. The newly proposed 3 MW wind turbine has the potential to provide 100% of the power needed for the entire Penghu Archipelago. Full article
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6 pages, 6139 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Using Machine Learning of Artificial Intelligence to Analyze Business Opportunities and Applications of the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Case in Metaverse
by Kuo-Hsien Lee, Wen-Hsien Tsai, Cheng-Tsu Huang, Jerry Tao, Hank Lee, Ching-Hui Chen, Li-Yun Lee and Hsiao-Ting Tseng
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055012 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 498
Abstract
By using the machine learning of artificial intelligence to explore the application business opportunities of the Metaverse in the MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game) interactive game market, we study the supply and demand laws of buyers and sellers at the market economy [...] Read more.
By using the machine learning of artificial intelligence to explore the application business opportunities of the Metaverse in the MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game) interactive game market, we study the supply and demand laws of buyers and sellers at the market economy level, future trends, and business opportunities. The feasibility of its new products and services is explored under a pragmatic, cooperative model of the game community platform “Key to the Desert” case for the application level and business opportunities of Taiwan’s Metaverse markets. Online and offline integration (OMO; Online Merge Offline), precision marketing, and the customer management data platform (Customer Data Platform) are also explored in the application business opportunities of the Metaverse market. By combining the NFT (Non-Fungible Token) Monopoly game and MMORPG interactive games, we study the laws of supply and demand of buyers and sellers at the market economy level to provide third-party payment, electronic payment, mobile payment, and other transaction method certifications such as NFT (Non- Fungible Token). We also evaluation the future and security issues of cryptocurrency. Full article
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7 pages, 224 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prevention of Burnout Syndrome in Social Workers to Increase Professional Self-Efficacy
by Alida Samusevica and Santa Striguna
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055013 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
The reality of the professional burnout of social workers has never been more topical than in today’s transformative, dynamic, and anxiety-filled society. Thus, this study aims to stress the necessity and importance of prevention of social workers’ burnout syndrome based on empirical research [...] Read more.
The reality of the professional burnout of social workers has never been more topical than in today’s transformative, dynamic, and anxiety-filled society. Thus, this study aims to stress the necessity and importance of prevention of social workers’ burnout syndrome based on empirical research data on the topicality of the problem and the application of diverse and contradictory solutions. Although social work is purposefully structured, mentally rewarding, rejuvenating, and inspiring, it is also tedious, demanding, and emotionally draining at times, as it requires inexhaustible intellectual and emotional resources from social work professionals, consistently qualified professional activities, and effective cooperation with the client. The research data obtained from surveying social workers confirm the topicality of the problem and the need for preventive activities for the promotion and preservation of the mental health of professionals. The study result offers theory-based recommendations and suggestions for the reduction of burnout syndrome symptoms and prevention strategies when implementing professional self-efficacy of social workers in the era of constantly pulsating changes and challenges. Full article
8 pages, 222 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of an Active Reach-Out Program on Hepatitis C Screening Test for Drug-Addicted Inmates in Southern Taiwan
by Hsiao-Fang Chen and Jin-Yuan Chern
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055014 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Chronic hepatitis C is an important threat to the world’s public health. In Taiwan, 2~4% of the population is infected with hepatitis C, and 10~15% of those cases will lead to liver cirrhosis. This study examined the effect of a comprehensive screening test [...] Read more.
Chronic hepatitis C is an important threat to the world’s public health. In Taiwan, 2~4% of the population is infected with hepatitis C, and 10~15% of those cases will lead to liver cirrhosis. This study examined the effect of a comprehensive screening test project conducted by the Addiction Treatment Center in southern Taiwan. In collaboration with the Drug Addiction Treatment Center, 154 screening tests were completed. It is demonstrated that through active reach-out screening service with innovative process design, the vulnerable groups of people with a potentially high prevalence of HCV could be targeted and cured. Nevertheless, close surveillance and follow-up would be necessary to prevent the reoccurrence. Full article
6 pages, 2426 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Lightweight Network for Single Image Super-Resolution with Arbitrary Scale Factor
by Quang Truong Duy Dang, Kuan-Yu Huang and Pei-Yin Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055015 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The existing single image super-resolution (SISR) methods that consider integer scale factors (X2, X3, X4, and X8), have been developed well, but SISR methods with arbitrary scale factors (X1.3, X2.5, and X3.7) have gradually gained attention recently. Therefore, we proposed an efficient, lightweight [...] Read more.
The existing single image super-resolution (SISR) methods that consider integer scale factors (X2, X3, X4, and X8), have been developed well, but SISR methods with arbitrary scale factors (X1.3, X2.5, and X3.7) have gradually gained attention recently. Therefore, we proposed an efficient, lightweight model. In this study, there are two contributions as follows. (1) An efficient and lightweight network for SISR is combined with the up-scaled module, which determines its weights based on the size of the high-resolution (HR) image. (2) All scale factors are applied simultaneously using one model, which saves more storage and computational resources. Finally, we design various experiments to evaluate the proposed method based on multiple general datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed model is lightweight while the performance is relatively competitive. Full article
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7 pages, 1168 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Neonatal Activity Monitoring by Camera-Based Multi-LSTM Network
by Imre Jánoki, Ádám Nagy, Péter Földesy, Ákos Zarándy, Máté Siket, Judit Varga and Miklós Szabó
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055016 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The objective evaluation of an infant’s activity and sleep pattern is critical in improving the comfort of the babies and ensuring the proper amount of quality sleep. The predefined behavioral states of an infant describe their consciousness and arousal level. The different states [...] Read more.
The objective evaluation of an infant’s activity and sleep pattern is critical in improving the comfort of the babies and ensuring the proper amount of quality sleep. The predefined behavioral states of an infant describe their consciousness and arousal level. The different states are characterized by different movements, body tone, eye movements and breath patterns. To recognize and adapt to these states is an essential part of development-friendly caring. It affects the neonate’s sleep, influencing their brain development, while improving the bonding between mother and baby, and feeding is more successful during the state of quiet awakened. It can be a more difficult task to determine the level of arousal in premature neonates. In preterm clinics, the general practice is continuous observation, requiring the attention of the hospital staff. To create an automated, more objective system, helping the hospital staff and the parents, we developed a multi-RNN (multi-recurrent neural network) network-based solution to solve this classification problem, which works on a time-series-like feature set, extracted from cameras’ video feeds. The set is composed of video actigraphy features, video-based respiration signal and additional descriptors. We separate infant caring from undisturbed presence based on our previous ensemble network solution. The network was trained and evaluated using our database of 402 h of footage, collected at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Dept. of Neonatology of Pediatrics, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary, with all-day recordings of 10 babies. Full article
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7 pages, 1746 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Identification of Dominant Microbes and Functional Analysis of Sourdough Starters Made of Dried Longan and Raisin
by Yen-Chih Liu, Pei-Shan Wu, Shih-Hua Teng and Ming-Jiuan Wu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055017 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Baking bread is currently experiencing a profound transformation, propelled by an escalating interest in health and wellness, global cuisines, and sustainability efforts. The surface of fruits harbors various microbes, such as yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, [...] Read more.
Baking bread is currently experiencing a profound transformation, propelled by an escalating interest in health and wellness, global cuisines, and sustainability efforts. The surface of fruits harbors various microbes, such as yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a commercial yeast, the microbial flora present on the surface of fruits allows bread with greater flavor, texture, and health benefits as seen in sourdough starters. In this research, sourdough starters were created using dried longan and raisin. The microbial flora of the sourdough starters and the fermentation profile were examined, and possible bacteriocin genes were identified. The dried longan starter exhibited bubbling, stickiness, and a drop in pH value from 5.80 to 4.45 at the third day of fermentation. Meanwhile, the raisin starter began bubbling on the sixth day with no change in fluid viscosity, and a small pH value decreased from 4.00 to 3.82. The dried longan starter contained Weissella cibaria, W. paramesenteroides, S. cerevisiae, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Leuconostoc citreum. On the other hand, raisin starter only contained Candida krusei and T. delbrueckii. To detect antibacterial property in W. paramesenteroides and P. pentosaceus, four bacteriocins, Gassericin A (gaaA), Lactacin F (lafA), Plantaricin S (pls) and Pediocin (ped) were explored. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results revealed that gaaA and lafA were present in W. paramesenteroides, which suggested that this strain possessed antimicrobial properties. Full article
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7 pages, 2281 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effectiveness of Small Amount of Surface Penetrant against Chloride Ion Penetration
by Rinchen Gyeltshen and Shinichi Miyazato
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055018 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 288
Abstract
To increase the durability of concrete structures, surface coating is widely used as a preventive maintenance strategy against de-icing salts. We investigated the effectiveness of a small amount of surface penetrant for chloride-induced corrosion on concrete structures exposed to low NaCl concentrations. The [...] Read more.
To increase the durability of concrete structures, surface coating is widely used as a preventive maintenance strategy against de-icing salts. We investigated the effectiveness of a small amount of surface penetrant for chloride-induced corrosion on concrete structures exposed to low NaCl concentrations. The diffusion coefficient of mortar specimens with and without coating was determined using the electric migration test. The results indicated that even a small amount of Silane-based penetrant was effective against chloride ion penetration. Full article
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6 pages, 364 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
ISO 27001 Information Security Survey of Medical Service Organizations
by Hung-Hsiou Hsu and Jyun-Rong Shih
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055019 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 340
Abstract
The differences between medical institutions in the security management of information systems were investigated by comparing the differences and the means used by personnel in different units in public and private hospitals. Personnel responsible for information security require the protocol of relevant units [...] Read more.
The differences between medical institutions in the security management of information systems were investigated by comparing the differences and the means used by personnel in different units in public and private hospitals. Personnel responsible for information security require the protocol of relevant units to solve information security issues. Based on ISO 27001 as a reference standard, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the need for information security management in medical institutions. The information system security in each unit of medical institutions needs to pursue the goal of more perfection for a fully optimized information system. To help medical institution personnel understand the importance of information security and allow appropriate decision making, the results of this study can be used as a reference. Full article
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7 pages, 976 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Estimation and Implication of Time-Varying Reproduction Numbers during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the UK
by Jiangjiang Yan, Ruochen Huang and Wuliang Yin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055020 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Infectious illness prevention and control is an important part of public health management. The early monitoring and numerical modelling of incidence data can help with the efficient prevention and control of infectious disease prevalence. The reproduction number R, as an essential index to [...] Read more.
Infectious illness prevention and control is an important part of public health management. The early monitoring and numerical modelling of incidence data can help with the efficient prevention and control of infectious disease prevalence. The reproduction number R, as an essential index to understand the dynamics of COVID-19, can be predicted by using confirmed new incidence cases and serial interval data in the datasets provided by UK government. In this paper, an extended model is proposed to account for variable reporting rates instead of 1 for the estimation of the R number. The impact of using various modelling parameters is also evaluated, which provides insight into how to select a set of suitable parameters in modelling. The variation of the estimation of the R number by incorporating variable reporting rates can be observed and assessed. Full article
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7 pages, 896 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Face Masks on Respiratory Performance: A Within-Subject Design Study
by Eng Keat Kwa and Poh Foong Lee
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055021 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 438
Abstract
There is an ongoing debate about whether wearing a facemask impacts respiratory performance, which is especially crucial in the prevention of COVID-19 transmission. This pre- and post-intervention within-subject design study aimed to quantify the impact of wearing a medical facemask during deep breathing [...] Read more.
There is an ongoing debate about whether wearing a facemask impacts respiratory performance, which is especially crucial in the prevention of COVID-19 transmission. This pre- and post-intervention within-subject design study aimed to quantify the impact of wearing a medical facemask during deep breathing on respiratory functions and compare it to deep breathing without a facemask. A total of 100 samples (n = 100) were obtained from a single healthy young male adult (age = 24 years) who underwent pulmonary function measurement before and after 5 min of deep breathing twice a day (morning and night) for 25 days without a facemask, followed by wearing a 4-ply medical face mask for the following 25 days. Significant improvements in all parameters (mean ± SD), including tidal volume (38.04 ± 46.97 mL, p < 0.005), vital capacity (34.08 ± 105.36 mL, p = 0.027), forced vital capacity (0.11 ± 0.11 L, p < 0.005), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (0.13 ± 0.13 L, p < 0.005), peak expiratory flow (0.36 ± 0.74 L/s, p < 0.005), and forced expiratory flow at 25–75% of forced vital capacity (0.04 ± 0.55 L/s, p < 0.005), were found without the facemask, whereas significant an improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (0.05 ± 0.18 L, p = 0.049), a significant reduction in vital capacity (−29.98 ± 103.39 mL, p = 0.046), and no other significant changes were observed with the medical facemask. It was suggested that face masks exert breathing resistance but do not affect deep breathing performance. These results provide further knowledge of the effect of a facemask during deep breathing on respiratory performance. Full article
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8 pages, 3237 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Electric Power Generator by Using Hydrogen
by Ning Zhu, Yuta Takeuchi, Katsuhiro Amano and Kazuhito Fukuda
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055022 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 294
Abstract
In this research, we developed a hydrogen (H2) electric generator in an H2 generation system based on chemical reactions. In the experiment, we tested the performance of the H2 electric generator and measured the amount of H2 generated. [...] Read more.
In this research, we developed a hydrogen (H2) electric generator in an H2 generation system based on chemical reactions. In the experiment, we tested the performance of the H2 electric generator and measured the amount of H2 generated. The maximum output was 700 W and the thermal efficiency was 18.2%. The theoretical value and measured value were almost the same, and the maximum error was 4%. Full article
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5 pages, 1577 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Development of a High-Concentration Oxygenated Water Generator Based on Nanobubbles and Its Application
by Ning Zhu, Minyu Li and Kohei Shibata
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055023 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Water with a high concentration of oxygen is needed for the aquaculture industry in Japan. In the current study, the pressurized dissolution method was employed to generate high-concentration oxygenated water (HCOW) by producing oxygen nanobubbles in the water. In order to investigate factors [...] Read more.
Water with a high concentration of oxygen is needed for the aquaculture industry in Japan. In the current study, the pressurized dissolution method was employed to generate high-concentration oxygenated water (HCOW) by producing oxygen nanobubbles in the water. In order to investigate factors such as temperature, geometric conditions, and their influence on the oxygen concentration, a special nanobubble generator was improved by changing the number and the diameter of the holes of the perforated plate in this study. Then, an experimental system where oxygen and water were separately introduced inside the proposed nanobubble generator was designed. The dissolved oxygen concentration was measured under different conditions. Finally, the produced HCOW was used to cultivate a mini-sunflower. Through a series of experiments, it was found that with the improved perforated plate, the dissolved oxygen concentration was increased and the nanobubble generator reached the saturation state quickly, while the mini-sunflower cultivated with the HCOW appeared to grow larger than that with tap water. Full article
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6 pages, 225 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Performance Assessment of Food Safety and Hygiene in Physical Stores Engaged in Online Food Business in Taiwan
by Kuan-Chuan Tao, Jia-Jia Wu, Kai-Ling Chan and Mei-Chin Mong
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055024 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 320
Abstract
To examine the safety of food purchased online, a food safety project was conducted by the Office of Food and Drug Safety (OFDS) of Taichung City. Through collaboration with eight universities, the performance of food safety and hygiene in the physical stores engaged [...] Read more.
To examine the safety of food purchased online, a food safety project was conducted by the Office of Food and Drug Safety (OFDS) of Taichung City. Through collaboration with eight universities, the performance of food safety and hygiene in the physical stores engaged in online food businesses was assessed from October 2021 to January 2022. A total of 80 physical stores were involved in the present project. The results indicate that the most common nonconformities were as follows: (1) the food service standard form contract for distance transactions was not correctly displayed on websites (71%), (2) the food-related items were not sorted, were not stored on pallet boards or racks, and were not kept clean (46%), (3) the food preparation area and sales area did not have appropriate and adequate equipment for hand washing and drying (33%), and (4) the food safety and hygiene self-evaluation checklist was not prepared (33%). More efforts regarding food safety and hygiene are needed to improve and secure the knowledge of, attitude towards, and skills for good food safety and hygiene practices of online food businesses. Full article
9 pages, 4056 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prediction and Property Characterization of Injection Machining Parts Using Analysis for Relationship between Melt-Filling Pressure Measurement and Calculation Viscosity Index
by Chin-Chun Lee, Hsin-Shu Peng, Po-Wei Huang, Kai-Fu Liew, Dian-Ru Wu and Wei-Jie Su
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055025 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 372
Abstract
We examine the effects of different process parameter settings on variations in melt-filling pressure, viscosity index, and part weight based on the use of real-time pressure sensor readings of the inside of the injection melt flow path. In the experiment, widely used polypropylene [...] Read more.
We examine the effects of different process parameter settings on variations in melt-filling pressure, viscosity index, and part weight based on the use of real-time pressure sensor readings of the inside of the injection melt flow path. In the experiment, widely used polypropylene materials and round-shaped molded parts are selected as the molding and study object. At the same time, pressure sensors are used at different positions to perform data acquisition to enable research into the variation process of the melt-filling pressure, allowing for a viscosity index equation to simultaneously calculate viscosity indexes and observe weight variations in the samples. The obtained data will be a basis for setting up smart manufacturing in the future. The research showed the following: (i) the installation of the real-time pressure sensing modules allowed the variation process of the melt-filling pressure to be monitored along a path from the injection barrel to the mold cavity; (ii) the viscosity index was subject to changing the melt temperature, the injection speed, and the V/P switch-over point of the screw; and (iii) the melt temperature change had a considerable impact on part weight and changes in the injection speed had a relatively significant impact on viscosity variation. Full article
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6 pages, 1441 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Innovative Recall Farm Situation with Sharing Experiential Learning by VR Technology
by Chi-Hui Chiang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055026 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 366
Abstract
In the early days of southern Taiwan, agriculture was important for living. Farmers used various agricultural implements for the cultivation and planting of rice, vegetables, and fruits for food and clothing. With the progress of the social environment, they gradually forgot the traditional [...] Read more.
In the early days of southern Taiwan, agriculture was important for living. Farmers used various agricultural implements for the cultivation and planting of rice, vegetables, and fruits for food and clothing. With the progress of the social environment, they gradually forgot the traditional agricultural implements that they depended on for a living. Recently, the government has promoted agricultural experience activities, and citizens’ health concept has been improved. Growing vegetables and fruits on farms leads to the concept of shared experience. In particular, technological equipment has become popular. For leisure activities, the public has gradually accepted novel technologies (such as virtual reality games) and integrated them into their usual leisure and entertainment. For this reason, we investigate the degree of virtual interaction with the recall farm as a development basis and use the experiential learning theory to encourage the Silvers to learn the innovative recall farm situation to bring about the effect of leisure and entertainment. The results of this study show that the Silvers experience early agricultural situations and farming implements for entertainment purposes and listen to the agricultural stories to reminisce. Full article
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6 pages, 524 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Engagement with Music Technology in Special Educational Settings for Children with Disabilities
by Liza Lee and Han-Ju Ho
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055027 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 455
Abstract
In line with the broader learning of integrating technology into science, there is growing demand for educational learning to apply electronic technologies in educational practice. Despite a handful of accounts indicating the advantages of this equipment and these tools, objective empirical research on [...] Read more.
In line with the broader learning of integrating technology into science, there is growing demand for educational learning to apply electronic technologies in educational practice. Despite a handful of accounts indicating the advantages of this equipment and these tools, objective empirical research on their role in learning and their application in the learning process is lacking. Over the past ten years, studies have proven the Holistic Music Educational Approach for Young Children (HMEAYC) to be an effective method to assist in the learning and development of children with special needs. HMEAYC and technology integrated into instruction are both learning modes that expect learners to achieve learning orientation through musical expression. This study aimed to measure children with specific needs’ language comprehension and self-conduct abilities when HMEAYC was combined with technology integrated into instruction in curriculum design. The research, conducted at an early-intervention center in central Taiwan, included 389 children aged between 4 and 6 years old with specific needs. These participants’ traits of learning and developing more slowly than typical children of the same age were referred to as “specific needs” for this study. They all participated in one 40 min session per week for a total of 16 weeks. The research results showed that HMEAYC combined with music technology could enhance the development of language comprehension and the self-conduct of children with specific needs. Full article
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8 pages, 1023 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Research on User Experience and Needs of Virtual Reality Learning Home Appliances
by Yu-Hsuan Huang, Chien-Hsiung Chen and Yo-Wen Liang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055028 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 512
Abstract
The surge in e-commerce and the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically driven the demand for home appliances. However, this surge has also resulted in a proportional increase in electrical accidents. Furthermore, the current product manual does not provide users with intuitive and timely information. [...] Read more.
The surge in e-commerce and the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically driven the demand for home appliances. However, this surge has also resulted in a proportional increase in electrical accidents. Furthermore, the current product manual does not provide users with intuitive and timely information. Virtual reality (VR) can deliver effective learning information with its exceptional simulation capabilities and immersive content. Thus, we explored the application of VR to enhance home appliances’ display and user experience for user demand to deliver the manuals on the appliances and promote safe uses. A purposive sampling technique was employed, and 12 target users participated in the in-depth interviews. In the study, the VR application of the home appliance product experience and learning showed positive outcomes. The results can be used as a reference for future design. According to the users’ feedback, we summarized and proposed eight future design directions for enhancing the virtual home appliance experience. Full article
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7 pages, 3195 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Near-Infrared Wavelength Selection and Optimizing Detector Location for Apple Quality Assessment Using Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) Software
by Quy Tan Ha, Thao Nguyen Dang Thi, Ngoc Tuyet Le Nguyen, Hoang Nhut Huynh, Anh Tu Tran, Hong Duyen Trinh Tran and Trung Nghia Tran
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055029 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 398
Abstract
As an alternate non-destructive analytical modality for monitoring from pre-harvest to post-storage, optical imaging with near-infrared wavelength is used to forecast the quality of numerous fruits. In the near-infrared spectrum, bio-chemicals are identified and measured with light by penetrating deeply into food components. [...] Read more.
As an alternate non-destructive analytical modality for monitoring from pre-harvest to post-storage, optical imaging with near-infrared wavelength is used to forecast the quality of numerous fruits. In the near-infrared spectrum, bio-chemicals are identified and measured with light by penetrating deeply into food components. In addition, apples and other fruits with a high water content benefit from water absorption capabilities. The optical approaches are efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally beneficial. This study is performed to examine the setup of reflection imaging to pick the near-infrared wavelength and optimize the distance between the detector and the light source. Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) and Monte Carlo multi-layered programs (MCML) were used to simulate the light propagation in a model of apple tissue to select the appropriate wavelength for evaluating food quality in experiments and optimize the position of the reflected signal receiver. As a consequence, the 700–900 nm wavelength has great promise for use in assessing food quality, particularly apple quality. One centimeter is the optimal distance between the detector and the light source. The data may be used to organize an experiment and create an evaluation tool for determining the quality of fruits using optical methods, particularly apples. Full article
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7 pages, 619 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Systematic Review of Fuzzy Scales for Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Issues during COVID-19
by Venkateswarlu Nalluri, Yi-Yun Wang and Long-Sheng Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055030 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 321
Abstract
The COVID-19 epidemic, which can be compared to the economic catastrophe of World War II, slowed down business activities and had a significant impact on all aspects of business operations. Fuzzy scales are popular MCDM (multi-criteria decision-making) methods in modeling COVID-19 problems owing [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 epidemic, which can be compared to the economic catastrophe of World War II, slowed down business activities and had a significant impact on all aspects of business operations. Fuzzy scales are popular MCDM (multi-criteria decision-making) methods in modeling COVID-19 problems owing to the multi-dimensionality and complexity of health and socio-economic systems. This study aims to examine 104 works that used MCDM approaches with fuzzy scales in various COVID-19 pandemic issues and were published in top peer-reviewed journals indexed in Web of Science and Scopus. This study presents a systematic review of (1) the prevalence of fuzzy scales in scientific research for multiple criteria decision-making during COVID-19; (2) bibliometric analysis was used to identify the most important articles, authors, journals, themes, and countries; and (3) the impact of fuzzy scales on spreading established fields of research in new directions was iew of Fuzzy Scales for Multiple Criteriaconsidered. Furthermore, it addresses pertinent filed criticism, validating certain claims and dispelling others. Finally, the present study result helps regulators, academic scholars, and policy-makers to understand the current perspective and trends on multiple criteria decision-making with fuzzy scales during COVID-19 and understand the relevant areas that require further investigation. Full article
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7 pages, 1240 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Comparison of Online and Offline Digital Gameplay Activities in Promoting Computational Thinking in K-12 Education
by Li-Xian Chen, Shih-Wen Su, Yen-Yun Chen, Chia-Hung Liao and Shyan-Ming Yuan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055031 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, courses for all ages in many countries moved online. The ability to use information technology fluently for learning has become a vital issue. Whether students can develop computational thinking (CT) literacy in online or offline learning environments is [...] Read more.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, courses for all ages in many countries moved online. The ability to use information technology fluently for learning has become a vital issue. Whether students can develop computational thinking (CT) literacy in online or offline learning environments is investigated. Two web games, Rummikub and Robozzle, are applied to teach computational thinking through Google Meet, Google Classroom, and offline live teaching. The results indicate that offline training activities are more appropriate for middle school students. Full article
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8 pages, 2484 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Impact of Generative Artificial Intelligence on Footwear Design Concept and Ideation
by Shih-Hung Cheng
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055032 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
The impact of Generative artificial intelligence (GAI) on footwear design creativity and feasibility was investigated in this study. Using a text-to-image GAI tool called Midjourney, 17 prompts were tested to generate footwear concepts. Ten distinct outcomes were selected from the results and evaluated [...] Read more.
The impact of Generative artificial intelligence (GAI) on footwear design creativity and feasibility was investigated in this study. Using a text-to-image GAI tool called Midjourney, 17 prompts were tested to generate footwear concepts. Ten distinct outcomes were selected from the results and evaluated by seven experts in footwear design. Prompt implementation correlated weakly positively with design creativity and feasibility. A set of prompts in the Japanese style showed significantly higher creativity due to explicit style descriptions. Sharp generative design features had higher creativity but lower feasibility. Concepts generated without subcategories induced lower feasibility and prompt implementation. These findings offer insights into GAI’s role in footwear design innovation. Full article
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10 pages, 1934 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Following the Leader’s Innovation or Leading Follower’s Innovation: Taiwan’s Banking Industry Analysis
by Jen-Ying Shih and Tsai-Hsiu Lin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055033 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 554
Abstract
In response to the rapid development of the global economy and FinTech innovation, Taiwan’s government has continuously promoted digital transformation policies for the financial industry and encouraged the industry to strengthen infrastructure constructions and upgrade innovative financial services and patents. Novel ideas are [...] Read more.
In response to the rapid development of the global economy and FinTech innovation, Taiwan’s government has continuously promoted digital transformation policies for the financial industry and encouraged the industry to strengthen infrastructure constructions and upgrade innovative financial services and patents. Novel ideas are proposed to create a new situation and make banks invincible but it is questionable if such innovations necessarily bring competitiveness or business performance. To answer this question, we analyzed market competition using the PR test and data envelopment analysis (DEA) to study the operational efficiency of banks. K-means were also used to segment banks into three groups, Leader, Chaser, and Laggard. The data included financial (business performance) and patent data (innovation) of Taiwan’s banks from 2013 to 2020. The research results revealed that the market competition in the Leader group was the most intense. Quasi-public banks were relatively inefficient in creating revenue, while private banks were more efficient. The Chaser group showed the most apparent changes in operational efficiency from 2013 to 2020. The banks in the Laggard group needed to strengthen the relative efficiency of revenue, and financial innovation needed to be individualized in this competitive market group. Full article
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6 pages, 431 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Trends of Adaptive/Personalized Learning and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Mathematics: A Review of Academic Publications from 2010 to 2022
by Thanyaluck Ingkavara, Wararat Wongkia and Patcharin Panjaburee
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055034 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Technology is used in research to satisfy the needs of the public. As there is a growing trend for adaptive/personalized learning, intelligent tutoring systems are used in various studies to overcome personal limitations. Thus, we reviewed the trends and characteristics of adaptive/personalized learning [...] Read more.
Technology is used in research to satisfy the needs of the public. As there is a growing trend for adaptive/personalized learning, intelligent tutoring systems are used in various studies to overcome personal limitations. Thus, we reviewed the trends and characteristics of adaptive/personalized learning and intelligent tutoring systems in mathematics learning. Fifty-four relevant research articles (from 2010 to 2022) were selected and analyzed to investigate system parameters, roles of the systems in learning, mathematics contents, and learning outcomes. The analysis results showed the trends in research issues and challenges to be solved. Full article
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5 pages, 1207 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Performance Evaluation of Lithium Nitrite-Based Gel against Corrosion of Rebar with Partial Short Cover Depth in Chloride Environment
by Muhammad Afaq Khalid, Shinichi Miyazato, Hibiki Mizuguchi and Katsuichi Miyaguchi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055035 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 356
Abstract
Surface coatings are widely used for preventive maintenance, as they prolong the durability of concrete structures. Partial short cover depth may result due to poor construction quality and uneven formwork. In this study, lithium nitrite-based gel was used as an anodic corrosion inhibitor [...] Read more.
Surface coatings are widely used for preventive maintenance, as they prolong the durability of concrete structures. Partial short cover depth may result due to poor construction quality and uneven formwork. In this study, lithium nitrite-based gel was used as an anodic corrosion inhibitor coating material to investigate its influence on the corrosion of rebar embedded in a partial short cover depth in the presence of chloride. The specimens were cured at a temperature of 20 °C and a relative humidity of higher than 95%. (a) Macrocell corrosion current density, (b) microcell corrosion current, and (c) polarization curves were measured, and the results were compared with those of uncoated specimens after aging for 28 days. The results revealed that the corrosion rate was reduced considerably due to the application of the coating with the gel type. Full article
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8 pages, 7146 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Innovative Design for Drawlooms with an Open-Type Heald
by Jian-Liang Lin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055036 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 7190
Abstract
An innovative and simple design for a weaving loom was proposed to simplify the pattern design and the decoding process of weaving. Using the structural analysis of the existing looms and based on the concepts of weaving, a creative open-type rigid heald was [...] Read more.
An innovative and simple design for a weaving loom was proposed to simplify the pattern design and the decoding process of weaving. Using the structural analysis of the existing looms and based on the concepts of weaving, a creative open-type rigid heald was developed to replace the traditional one and generate warp shedding. Corresponding to the raster graphics of the designed pattern, the heald shape had convex–concave features to control warping in shedding. The pattern design was integrated into the heald design using mechanical coding. Full article
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8 pages, 1942 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Catalytic Reduction of Acetophenone Promoted with Quinuclidinol-Based Quaternary Ammonium Ionic Liquid as a Sustainable Solvent
by Gaojin Zhou, Hangping Chen, Ruoheng Li, Yu Cao and Shun Yao
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055037 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 604
Abstract
As a new sustainable catalyst and green solvent, ionic liquid has important applications in catalytic reduction. In this study, four quinuclidinol-based quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs)were at first prepared using simple procedures, and then they were used as catalyst for acetophenone reduction. The [...] Read more.
As a new sustainable catalyst and green solvent, ionic liquid has important applications in catalytic reduction. In this study, four quinuclidinol-based quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs)were at first prepared using simple procedures, and then they were used as catalyst for acetophenone reduction. The main catalytic conditions were studied and screened through a comparison among the reaction results. It showed that the highest yield of 1-phenylethanol was 88.6% when [MenQu]Cl was used as a catalyst; the ideal solvent was ethanol; the amount of catalyst was 20 mol%, and the reaction temperature was 25 °C. More substrates were employed to validate the universality of the developed method using such an IL. Moreover, potential reaction mechanisms and an IL recovery method were also suggested, which laid the foundation for its further applications in the field of sustainable chemistry and cleaner industrial production. Full article
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7 pages, 18734 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Geospatial Data to Architectural Design Education
by Kenji Sato
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055038 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The objective of this study is to incorporate varied geospatial data into CAD/BIM systems, which are now essential design tools for architects. Those geospatial data include digital information of topography, water features, roads and streets, existing buildings, and so on. Those data have [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to incorporate varied geospatial data into CAD/BIM systems, which are now essential design tools for architects. Those geospatial data include digital information of topography, water features, roads and streets, existing buildings, and so on. Those data have been released by the government as public information, and their full utilization in actual design projects would be highly beneficial. Full article
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6 pages, 6936 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Using Machine Learning to Identify Product Styles
by Hung-Hsiang Wang and Yen-Ling Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055039 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA), a machine learning tool, was used to develop a model to identify product styles, and the style of classic chairs was determined using the model. Data used to develop the model consisted of 100 images of [...] Read more.
The Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA), a machine learning tool, was used to develop a model to identify product styles, and the style of classic chairs was determined using the model. Data used to develop the model consisted of 100 images of four styles of chairs such as Windsor, Shaker, Thonet, and Ming. After pre-processing the images using the image filters of WEKA, the images were used to train the model to classify chair styles. The accuracy of the model ranged from 96 to 98%. This validated the performance of the proposed method in classifying the styles of chairs, which helps the design of new chairs. Full article
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7 pages, 390 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Learning Style on Non-Programmed Computational Thinking Activities
by Yen-Yun Chen, Shih-Wen Su, Li-Xian Chen, Chia-Hung Liao and Shyan-Ming Yuan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055040 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 452
Abstract
As information explosion and algorithms are proliferated in the digital age, computational thinking becomes more critical. Nevertheless, most activities that promote computational thinking are always presented in a programming or block language, which tends to horrify students. This study aimed to develop a [...] Read more.
As information explosion and algorithms are proliferated in the digital age, computational thinking becomes more critical. Nevertheless, most activities that promote computational thinking are always presented in a programming or block language, which tends to horrify students. This study aimed to develop a series of non-programmed, computational-thinking training activities to demonstrate if they improve students’ computational thinking skills without writing code. In the meantime, it is checked whether students’ learning styles influence their outcomes. After an investigation consisting of a 16 h gamified learning session, we observed that students’ computational thinking skills improved overall. Furthermore, the initial learning style of the students influenced the effect of different dimensions of computational thinking in the learning procedures. Full article
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7 pages, 2768 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Necessity of Notification System Application According to Elementary School Teacher’s Environmental Behavior
by Haruno Ishikawa
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055041 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 384
Abstract
In rural regions of Japan, specifically in Shizuoka, the majority of elementary school classrooms lack ventilation systems, and the operation is manually conducted by teachers and students. Instead of relying on the implementation of high-performance hardware solutions, the aim is to strive for [...] Read more.
In rural regions of Japan, specifically in Shizuoka, the majority of elementary school classrooms lack ventilation systems, and the operation is manually conducted by teachers and students. Instead of relying on the implementation of high-performance hardware solutions, the aim is to strive for a harmonious coexistence of COVID-19 mitigation and Zero Energy Building (ZEB) realization through appropriate information dissemination and proactive environmental behavior. This paper investigates the environmental behavior of educators and its indicators, and assuming homeroom teachers in X City implement classroom ventilation based on threshold value notifications, it is demonstrated that a reduction of up to 20% in the current air conditioning heat load can be achieved. Full article
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9 pages, 1676 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study on Low-Frequency Acoustic Environment of Hospital Buildings by Acoustic Simulation Software
by Chiung Yao Chen and Xiao Lin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055042 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 308
Abstract
The noisy environment of hospitals has always been a problem for medical workers and patients as people in hospitals need a quiet environment more than others. Thus, the study of the noisy environment of hospital buildings has been carried out for a long [...] Read more.
The noisy environment of hospitals has always been a problem for medical workers and patients as people in hospitals need a quiet environment more than others. Thus, the study of the noisy environment of hospital buildings has been carried out for a long time. This study aims to find out the existing problems and explore solutions for improvement through research. The purpose is to investigate and analyze the lower frequency range of current noise (25–200 Hz) in four central hospitals (single building or group of buildings using a single lobby), following the research of “Characterizing the subjective noise in hospital lobbies”. In this research, the acoustic environment condition in the lobby after the road noise spread into the hospital and its environmental noise problems were analyzed by the commercial acoustic simulation software SoundPLAN for scene restoration and simulation. Focusing on reconstructing the noisy condition of the hospital lobby and comparing the measurements with those of our previous study, acoustic experimental simulations are conducted to acquire the indoor frequency spectrum. The experimental data are also compared with the live measurement data to verify the reliability of SoundPlAN. Finally, the experimental result is analyzed with the psychological experimental noisiness values in our previous study to identify the sources of the main noise existing in the lobbies of the four hospitals. Full article
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8 pages, 2250 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Architectural Design Guidelines Based on Computer Core Evaluation and Processing Paradigms
by Jose L. Reategui
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055043 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The architectural design process may utilize decision-making algorithms; usually, this takes a long time when using analog methods. Today, sequential processing (CPU) or parallel processing (GPU) works with architectural design in different ways, such as Graphical User Interfaces using CPU or ray-tracing rendering [...] Read more.
The architectural design process may utilize decision-making algorithms; usually, this takes a long time when using analog methods. Today, sequential processing (CPU) or parallel processing (GPU) works with architectural design in different ways, such as Graphical User Interfaces using CPU or ray-tracing rendering using GPU. Architectural design paradigms have not yet fully adapted to the processing computer core paradigm. Thus, this research proposes design guidelines to take the computing core paradigm and transport it to architectural design with a practical case that tests the core’s performance with a genetic algorithm (form-finding process). The genetic algorithm was tested on a computer based on a central processing unit (CPU), another on a graphics processing unit (GPU), and the last one on quantum computers (Quantum Gates). The guidelines operate these cores under the cloud computing paradigm, supported by new components made in Rhinoceros–Grasshopper 3D. The discussion shows the integration of the computation core paradigm with the current digital architecture design process. Full article
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8 pages, 3437 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Regression Analysis to Investigate Contributions of Process Parameters on Transesterification of Waste Soybean Oil
by Masjudin and Wei-Chin Chang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055044 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Four process parameters were investigated via regression analysis for their effects on biodiesel production in the transesterification of biodiesel from waste soybean oil (WSO). The maximum biodiesel conversion rate reached 98.56% at a methanol/oil ratio of 6:1, a reaction time of 60 min, [...] Read more.
Four process parameters were investigated via regression analysis for their effects on biodiesel production in the transesterification of biodiesel from waste soybean oil (WSO). The maximum biodiesel conversion rate reached 98.56% at a methanol/oil ratio of 6:1, a reaction time of 60 min, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a catalyst loading of 0.5 wt.%. The functional group was dominated by an ester with the wavenumber 1743.78, the group attribution C=O, a strong absorption intensity, and a stretching vibration. The major methyl ester compounds of the biodiesel yielded from the waste soybean oil were dominated by linoleic acid (37.53%), oleic acid (24.69%), and palmitic acid (12.95%). The regression analysis result showed that the parameters influenced the biodiesel yield, and that the reaction temperature contributed to the reaction more than the others. Full article
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7 pages, 6646 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Image Enhancement CNN Approach to COVID-19 Detection Using Chest X-ray Images
by Chamoda Tharindu Kumara, Sandunika Charuni Pushpakumari, Ashmini Jeewa Udhyani, Mohamed Aashiq, Hirshan Rajendran and Chinthaka Wasantha Kumara
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055045 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a fast-spreading virus-related disease. On 28 March 2022, Worldometer (COVID-19 live update) reported that there were about 482,338,923 COVID-19 cases and 6,149,387 fatalities worldwide. Moreover, there were about 416,884,712 recovered patients. The primary clinical mechanism currently utilized for COVID-19 identification [...] Read more.
Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a fast-spreading virus-related disease. On 28 March 2022, Worldometer (COVID-19 live update) reported that there were about 482,338,923 COVID-19 cases and 6,149,387 fatalities worldwide. Moreover, there were about 416,884,712 recovered patients. The primary clinical mechanism currently utilized for COVID-19 identification is the Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Hospitals only have small quantities of COVID-19 test kits available due to the daily increase in cases. As an alternative diagnosis possibility, an automatic detection system was implemented. A vigorous technique for the automatic COVID-19 identification is the deep learning approach. Chest X-ray (CXR) imaging is a modest tool that can be an alternate for diagnosing COVID-19-infected patients. With the use of deep learning, deep layer characteristics that are hidden from human sight may be observed using CXR imaging. One of the largest public databases, the “COVID-19 Radiography Database”, comprises 21,164 CXR images and was taken from Kaggle. To achieve the best accuracy in this work, data cleansing and the balanced dataset approach were applied. The primary goal of data cleansing is to remove duplicate CXR images from the database. The accuracy of three distinct pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) was compared and then analyzed (Xception, InceptionV3, and MobileNetV2). Among other models, Xception achieved the best testing accuracy of 94.13% with plain lung CXR pictures. The Gabor filtering image enhancement approach was also employed to identify COVID-19. Only for the MobileNetV2 model did enhance CXR images perform significantly better for classification than plain lung CXR images. This study attempts to enhance the system’s accuracy to 100%, outperforming previous tests. Full article
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6 pages, 1710 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
CameraEEG: Synchronous Recording of Electroencephalogram and Video Data for Neuroergonomics Applications
by Doli Hazarika, Srihari Madhavan and Cota Navin Gupta
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055046 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 456
Abstract
Lab-confined electroencephalogram experiments generally impel the subject’s mobility. Hence, we provide a wearable solution enabling human brain activity while monitoring during everyday activities, especially for neuroergonomics. This paper introduces CameraEEG, a new Android application that allows for synchronized smartphone acquisition of electroencephalogram (EEG) [...] Read more.
Lab-confined electroencephalogram experiments generally impel the subject’s mobility. Hence, we provide a wearable solution enabling human brain activity while monitoring during everyday activities, especially for neuroergonomics. This paper introduces CameraEEG, a new Android application that allows for synchronized smartphone acquisition of electroencephalogram (EEG) and camera data. Using a button on the app, the subject can record the witnessed audio-visual events of interest. Android SDK version 28 and mBrainTrain’s Smarting Mobi SDK were used to develop the app. The app can be used across all Android smartphones that have Android OS–Lollipop at least. In this paper, we used the app to record synchronized video and EEG data from four subjects during two tasks (namely, closed and open eyes), each under sitting conditions. We used the POz electrode data for analysis. There was a visible difference between the power spectrums of both the tasks, with the eyes-closed task reflecting an alpha band peak. Also, the obtained video and EEG data showed accurate synchronization. A download weblink for the .apk file along with a detailed help document for the developed app is provided for further testing. Full article
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8 pages, 2191 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploring Innovative Thinking of Bergson’s Philosophy and Modern Art via Computer-Aided Design—A Case Study with Three Works as Examples
by Chung-Ho Tien, Xia-Na Ma and Zi-Hui Sun
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055047 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 363
Abstract
The innovative thinking of artists highlights the influence of Bergson’s philosophy on modern art, and the perception of the relationship of the inner essence of “mind and matter” through observing and experiencing daily life helps artists design works according to the artists’ conception. [...] Read more.
The innovative thinking of artists highlights the influence of Bergson’s philosophy on modern art, and the perception of the relationship of the inner essence of “mind and matter” through observing and experiencing daily life helps artists design works according to the artists’ conception. The innovative thinking of learners is based on the creation of art, namely duration, movement, timeliness, and dynamics. We integrated the emotions of creators as the links of the creation of works with the “aesthetic duration” of the viewer, the “movement” rhythm of visual transformation of different “timeliness” provided by the workspace to evoke the “dynamics” of the viewers’ internal thoughts. In this article, the creative thinking of three works, namely Growth, Fisherman, and Virtuality and Reality, was analyzed for learners to discuss how the creators designed their works to connect and reflect their creative thinking and creation with the help of emotion. The results of this analysis of creative thinking helped students understand the process of artistic creation and have the creative characteristics of Bergerson’s philosophy. The emotional elements of the creator need to be integrated to evoke the deepest feelings and help viewers feel the beauty of works to the maximum. Full article
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7 pages, 7059 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ancient Chinese Repeating Crossbow: Basic Research to Science Education in Museums
by Jian-Liang Lin, Li-Chun Lin and Kuo-Hung Hsiao
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055048 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1442
Abstract
The single-shot crossbow is an important ancient Chinese invention dating back to 600 B.C. It was a weapon using elastic force to shoot arrows at targets at a distance. It was composed of a stock, a bow, a string, and a trigger. By [...] Read more.
The single-shot crossbow is an important ancient Chinese invention dating back to 600 B.C. It was a weapon using elastic force to shoot arrows at targets at a distance. It was composed of a stock, a bow, a string, and a trigger. By adding a magazine to a single-shot crossbow, the repeating crossbow was allowed to shoot repeatedly without hesitation by operating the operating handle. According to archaeological findings, the earliest repeating crossbow was excavated in Jiangling County, Hubei Province, China, and dated back to 400 B.C. Based on the restored design of ancient crossbows, we found six feasible designs of the earliest repeating crossbow. These designs adopted the mechanism of “six members and seven joints”. One feasible design was selected to construct its model, using computer animation as a DIY teaching aid. The research results can be used for STEM education in museum exhibitions. Full article
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9 pages, 7445 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Handcrafting Objects made with Machine Learning: An Object Design Approach with Computer Vision
by Jose L. Reategui
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055049 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Many of today’s computational design systems based on explicit or graphic programming software require designers to determine relationships for morphogenesis based on computational thinking supported by the abstraction process. This computational thinking process can reduce the ability to generate analogies in design development [...] Read more.
Many of today’s computational design systems based on explicit or graphic programming software require designers to determine relationships for morphogenesis based on computational thinking supported by the abstraction process. This computational thinking process can reduce the ability to generate analogies in design development and adverse vision related to computational tools. It also reduces the innovation capacity of small companies that produce handicrafts and design teaching in a customized way. This research promotes a computational model based on machine learning combined with an analog creation process. Machine learning engines determine the objects similarity percentage between students’ objects and master objects through a forecasting model. There is a proposal to combine parametric design systems, such as Grasshopper3D, with cloud computing and an edge computing device. Full article
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6 pages, 1073 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cyber Security in a 5G-Based Smart Healthcare Network: A Base Station Case Study
by Meng-Huan Lee, I-Hsien Liu, Hsiao-Ching Huang and Jung-Shian Li
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055050 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 649
Abstract
5G is transforming the healthcare industry by providing novel use cases and applications. With a lower latency, a higher bandwidth, and massive machine-type communication capabilities, 5G supports the smart healthcare system in expanding its applications. This rapid adoption of 5G technology increased the [...] Read more.
5G is transforming the healthcare industry by providing novel use cases and applications. With a lower latency, a higher bandwidth, and massive machine-type communication capabilities, 5G supports the smart healthcare system in expanding its applications. This rapid adoption of 5G technology increased the number of connected devices. However, the deployment of 5G networks also introduced security challenges, especially for sensitive patient data which must be secured. Base stations are a key component in connecting devices to the mobile network and need to be secured. As unauthorized base stations cause interference or can be used as fake base stations to attack devices in the network, it is crucial to address the security concerns associated with 5G-based smart healthcare networks. Thus, we studied the case of base station security to investigate different methods for detecting and mitigating the risks associated with unauthorized base stations. The results can be used to better secure 5G-based smart healthcare networks. Full article
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7 pages, 471 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Tabu Search for Job Shop Scheduling Based on Manufacturing Order Swapping
by Jung-Sing Jwo, Cheng-Hsiung Lee, Jian-Tan Chen, Ching-Sheng Lin, Chun-Yu Lin, Wen-Kai Cheng, Chun-Hao Chang and Jen-Kai King
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055051 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Due to the characteristics of small-volume-large-variety production in the aircraft industry, determining how to intelligently take men, machines, materials, methods, and environments into account is critical for production, posing the challenge of scheduling the job shop. The existing scheduling system is slow to [...] Read more.
Due to the characteristics of small-volume-large-variety production in the aircraft industry, determining how to intelligently take men, machines, materials, methods, and environments into account is critical for production, posing the challenge of scheduling the job shop. The existing scheduling system is slow to adapt when the requirements change and, most importantly, slow to consider the current situation of the production line. In this study, we apply the Tabu search algorithm to resolve the scheduling problem. This method swaps manufacturing orders with the consideration of the due date, working hours, and current delays via the finite capacity assumption. Meanwhile, we set up extreme bounds using the infinite capacity assumption for comparison. The case study is conducted in a work center that uses pliers to trim parts for use in the aircraft industry. The results show the closeness to the extreme bounds and indicate this method’s practical feasibility for industrial applications. Full article
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11 pages, 3433 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of AIoT Image Sensor for Lifting Operation Safety Monitoring of Mobile Crane
by Wen-Der Yu, Hsien-Chou Liao, Jian-Wei Li, Zi-Yi Lim and Wen-Ta Hsiao
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055052 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 445
Abstract
The emerging advances in deep learning and computer vision have enabled traditional cloud-based decision-making through edge computing with artificial intelligent internet of things (AIoT) image sensors (AIoT-IS). As a result, the timeliness and security of image recognition can be obtained. This study aims [...] Read more.
The emerging advances in deep learning and computer vision have enabled traditional cloud-based decision-making through edge computing with artificial intelligent internet of things (AIoT) image sensors (AIoT-IS). As a result, the timeliness and security of image recognition can be obtained. This study aims to develop an AIoT-IS-based smart safety control device for construction sites (“SmartCon” hereafter) for the operations of mobile cranes. The research is carried out to include the definition of hazardous control areas and the identification of unsafe scenarios for crane operations, the development of an intelligent prototype system for the safety control of lifting operations, system application demonstrations, and the evaluation of effectiveness. It is intended to assist labor inspection agencies and industry practitioners with a tool for monitoring lifting operations. The results of two empirical field tests show that the proposed SmartCon improves the safety monitoring of the operation of the machine through the real-time response to the identified potential risks on construction sites. Full article
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6 pages, 1319 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Preliminary Study on Taiwanese Sexual Rights from Medical and Legal Perspective
by Chun-Ming Shih, Jiin-Chyuan Mark Lai and Ming-Yuan Hsieh
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055053 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 925
Abstract
Under the influence of sexually conservative Chinese culture, sex has always been an untouchable issue for a long time. As “Sex” has been a long-standing social taboo, sex-related knowledge and discourses have become scarce. The knowledge of the majority of Taiwanese on sex [...] Read more.
Under the influence of sexually conservative Chinese culture, sex has always been an untouchable issue for a long time. As “Sex” has been a long-standing social taboo, sex-related knowledge and discourses have become scarce. The knowledge of the majority of Taiwanese on sex has been obtained from banned books and videos such as porn videos. This made people have the worst knowledge and information on it. No matter how open people are, the ability to feel sexuality rights among sexuality, sexuality education, sexology, trans/Gender studies, and LesBiGay due to the sexual legal norms (SLNs) in Taiwan is always lacking. Therefore, not only can young Taiwanese people enjoy the thrill of riding on the sexual waves, but as time passes, old Taiwanese people are also supposed to enjoy themselves without any pressure from society. Therefore, we developed sexual education on Taiwanese sexuality rights from a legal perspective by integrating the four essential SLNs: (1) the Sexual Harassment Prevention Act was instituted for establishing the sources of law in the various sexuality interactive behaviors; (2) the Act of Gender Equality in Employment was instituted for providing sources of law to promote male and female sexual employment; (3) the Communicable Disease Control Act was instituted for constructing the sources of law to prevent the STDs; and (4) the Gender Equity Education Act was instituted for instituting the sources of law. There is still unfair and unbalanced sexual violence in the current society. Thus, a future study is required to analyze and identify the legal determinants of sexual rights. For this, empirical suggestions were made to form more efficient SLNs for a harmonious and diverse Taiwanese society. Full article
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6 pages, 407 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prediction Model for Preoperative Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer Using Tumor Markers, CBC, and LFT
by Sorawit Tongyib and Teerapol Saleewong
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055054 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 398
Abstract
The preoperative diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC) was developed based on risk factor groups using secondary data. Binary and multiple logistic regression and its operating characteristic curve were used to analyze the data of risk factor groups for tumor markers, complete blood count [...] Read more.
The preoperative diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC) was developed based on risk factor groups using secondary data. Binary and multiple logistic regression and its operating characteristic curve were used to analyze the data of risk factor groups for tumor markers, complete blood count (CBC), and liver function tests (LFT), respectively, and to explore potential predictors for each risk factor group. The data of 202 patients with ovarian cancer were analyzed in this research. As the tumor markers group, menopausal status, human epididymal protein 4, and cancer antigen 19-9 were included as the derivation of the preoperative diagnosis index. For the CBC group, menopausal status, lymphocyte count, and basophil cell ratio were used as predictors. Menopausal status, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, and indirect bilirubin were used as predictors for the LFT group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for tumor markers, CBC, and LFT were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.845–0.935; sensitivity = 0.776, specificity = 0.919), 0.813 (95% CI, 0.755–0.871; sensitivity = 0.741, specificity = 0.767), and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.751–0.868; sensitivity = 0.664, specificity = 0.837), respectively. Full article
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7 pages, 4187 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Voronoi Diagram to School Districts in Shizuoka Prefecture
by Kenji Sato and Haruno Ishikawa
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055055 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Comparing the distribution of school districts in Shizuoka Prefecture with a Voronoi diagram generated for school locations, the application of Voronoi diagrams to the field of urban planning is pursued. The original statistics have been released by the government in the form of [...] Read more.
Comparing the distribution of school districts in Shizuoka Prefecture with a Voronoi diagram generated for school locations, the application of Voronoi diagrams to the field of urban planning is pursued. The original statistics have been released by the government in the form of GIS data. Data processing and analysis are carried out utilizing open-source libraries. Full article
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12 pages, 4276 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of Interior Decorations on Indoor Air Quality in Fitness Centers
by Po-Yen Kuo, Chiung-Yao Chen and Tzu-Yu Wu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055056 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 376
Abstract
In order to understand the air quality of fitness centers according to the Environmental Protection Administration’s “Indoor Air Quality Standards”, as well as to discuss how fitness center air-conditioning ventilation systems can effectively remove indoor air pollutants, this study focused on six Taichung [...] Read more.
In order to understand the air quality of fitness centers according to the Environmental Protection Administration’s “Indoor Air Quality Standards”, as well as to discuss how fitness center air-conditioning ventilation systems can effectively remove indoor air pollutants, this study focused on six Taichung fitness centers in a seven-sample air quality investigation, employing handheld precision instruments in space air testing and using linear regression analyses of the concentrations of indoor chemical pollutants, including factors such as temperature, relative humidity, CO2, O3, CO, CH2O, TVOC, PM2.5, and PM10. The results of this research are as follows: (1) Quantity of indoor decorations: The decorative materials used in each of the sample spaces and their sources are not the same. Even with the same quantity of decorations, the concentrations of CH2O and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) that escaped into the atmosphere were different across the samples, leading to a low correlation (R = 0.0316, R = −0.0976). Our findings on the influence of the fitness center’s establishment date on the concentrations of formaldehyde (CH2O) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) that escaped into the indoor air indicate that this correlation is low and insignificant (R = −0.3598, R = −0.5523), but show that the indoor concentration of formaldehyde decreases with time. (2) Occupants’ indoor activities: The CO2 concentration generated by the static and dynamic activities of indoor occupants is not reflected in real time but will gradually accumulate, resulting in a moderate to low and insignificant correlation between the number of active occupants and the level of CO2 (R = 0.4343). (3) The PM2.5 and PM10 sources of suspended particles are not only related to the external air and interior decoration materials, but also to coarse surfaces, which can easily attract dust accumulation. Therefore, materials made from fabric and artificial turf should be reduced in order to reduce dust accumulating on the materials’ surfaces. Full article
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7 pages, 6268 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fabrication of Titanium Oxide Thin-Film Electrodes with Photocatalytic Activities and an Evaluation of Their Photoelectrochemical Properties
by Naoya Wakatsuki and Tomohiro Tojo
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055057 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 375
Abstract
We synthesized hollow spherical titanium oxide particles, which are one of the structural features of fabricating a thin-film photoelectrode, using the particles and evaluated their properties. The XRD diffraction results confirmed the main phase peaks of the target rutile-type hollow spherical titanium oxide [...] Read more.
We synthesized hollow spherical titanium oxide particles, which are one of the structural features of fabricating a thin-film photoelectrode, using the particles and evaluated their properties. The XRD diffraction results confirmed the main phase peaks of the target rutile-type hollow spherical titanium oxide (HSTR) and bronze-type hollow spherical titanium oxide (TiO2(B)). The calcium carbonate used in the core material was also removed. The photocatalytic reaction measurement result showed that the activity of TiO2(B) in ultraviolet light of 365 nm was higher than that of TiO2(B). As shown in the visible spectrum, the photo adsorption wavelength of HSTR was approxim ately 700 nm, whereas TiO2(B) was generally absorbed around 400 nm. A relationship between an electric current peak and the square root of a scan potential speed suggested a reversible reaction system in light irradiation. Full article
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6 pages, 2398 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
AI-DAS: AI-Based Driving Assistance System for Scooters for Traffic Accident Avoidance
by Yen-Da Chen and Yu-Cheng Chang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055058 - 6 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 408
Abstract
Due to strong mobility, low costs, and easy parking, the scooter has become an important mode of transportation in Taiwan. The number of traffic accidents is also increasing because of drivers’ bad driving habits. For road traffic injury prevention, the government has approved [...] Read more.
Due to strong mobility, low costs, and easy parking, the scooter has become an important mode of transportation in Taiwan. The number of traffic accidents is also increasing because of drivers’ bad driving habits. For road traffic injury prevention, the government has approved the road safety policy to promote awareness of road safety. Thus, we propose an AI-based driving assistance system (AI-DAS) for scooter riders to prevent traffic accidents. In the AI-DAS, Raspberry Pi controls the camera and sensors for the scooter. The AI-DAS detects pedestrians and monitors lanes not only to warn riders and pedestrians by sound and light but also to drastically reduce accidents and traffic jams. The AI-DAS is implemented using the python programming language and is tested on the Raspberry Pi hardware platform. Full article
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10 pages, 3075 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water Treatment of Manganese Oxides and Organic Matter through Pre-Oxidation and Coagulation/Sedimentation
by Yi-Chang Wu, Chi-Chuan Kan, Shih-Chieh Lee and Feng-Yu Yang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055059 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 581
Abstract
We investigated the reducing rate of manganese oxides (MnOs) and organic matter in water by using pre-oxidation and coagulation/sedimentation methods with different chemicals. The reduction rate using NaOCl for organic matter was about 11%, while that of manganese was 12%. The reduction rate [...] Read more.
We investigated the reducing rate of manganese oxides (MnOs) and organic matter in water by using pre-oxidation and coagulation/sedimentation methods with different chemicals. The reduction rate using NaOCl for organic matter was about 11%, while that of manganese was 12%. The reduction rate using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) was only 7% for organic matter. However, the rate of manganese was 29% when using ClO2. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) removed organic matter and MnOs more effectively, with a rate of 18 and 71%. Moreover, aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3), ferric chloride (FeCl3), and polysilicate iron (PSI) worked more effectively, with a reduction rate of 99% and 55% for turbidity and organic matter. Full article
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5 pages, 1548 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of a New Heat Source Based on Inducing Heat for Greenhouses
by Ning Zhu, Minyu Li, Ben Nanzai, Shigeru Kubono, Hiromi Fujimura and Mitsuhiro Sakamoto
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055060 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 338
Abstract
In Fukuroi City Japan, greenhouses are usually used for crown musk melon (CMM) cultivation. When the temperature inside the greenhouse is lower than 25 °C, the CMM quality deteriorates. Hence, from late autumn until the middle of spring, oil is used to supply [...] Read more.
In Fukuroi City Japan, greenhouses are usually used for crown musk melon (CMM) cultivation. When the temperature inside the greenhouse is lower than 25 °C, the CMM quality deteriorates. Hence, from late autumn until the middle of spring, oil is used to supply hot water to greenhouses from a boiler through a heat exchanger . However, since oil prices have recently soared, fuel expenses have drastically increased which heavily pressures the CMM business. In addition, with the promotion of the carbon-neutral policy, environmentally friendly heat sources are emphasized instead of fossil fuels. The TSK corporation has produced a new inducing heating (IH) source where heat is generated by rotating a plate on which a couple of permanent magnets are mounted using a motor. Since the rotation speed is easily controlled, the IH heat source capacity can be freely adjusted. To apply the IH source to the greenhouse, an experimental system was created in this study. During the experiment, water inside a vessel (maximum volume of 90 L) was heated to 70 °C by the IH system. Then, the heated water was circulated for heat dissipation through a heat exchanger by a pump. When the temperature of the water was lower than the target temperature, the IH system restarted to heat the water back up to 70 °C. Under several experimental conditions, the heating time, reheating time, and electric power were measured and evaluated. It was confirmed that the new IH heat source could possibly be applied to greenhouses. Full article
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12 pages, 3015 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Applying the Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate Procedure in STEAM Education for Primary Students: A Sample with the Topic “My Green Garden”
by Hang Nguyen Thi Thu, Bich Tran Ngoc and Thanh-Binh Nguyen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055061 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 596
Abstract
STEM education has been a topic of interest in many countries around the world. Many STEM research studies have been conducted; however, most of them focus on middle-school students and high-school students. At the primary level, STEAM education is known as an advanced [...] Read more.
STEM education has been a topic of interest in many countries around the world. Many STEM research studies have been conducted; however, most of them focus on middle-school students and high-school students. At the primary level, STEAM education is known as an advanced mode of STEM education, which is highly integrated between science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics. This study proposes a procedure of organizing primary-school students’ learning activities in STEAM education as an approach to help students experience positive emotions and stimulate passion, thereby developing the capacity of problem solving and creativity for students—one of the common competencies emphasized in the General Education Program 2018 in Vietnam. The procedure of organizing STEAM education activities in this study is close to the 5E procedure, but it is flexibly applied to suit the psycho-physiological characteristics of primary-school students in Vietnam. This research was conducted under the project title “Developing STEM education in a number of schools in Lang Son province to meet the new general school program” according to the cooperation document between the University of Education—Thai Nguyen University with the Department of Education and Training of Lang Son Province, No. 77/HT-SGD and DTLS-ĐHSPTN, dated 10 January 2020. The trial of this study was conducted at eight primary schools in Lang Son, Vietnam, with the theme “My green garden” in teaching nature and society in grade 1. Through observing the students’ participation in learning activities, evaluating the learning products made by those students, and collecting comments and feedback from teachers about the procedure of organizing the learning activities, it can be initially seen that the students actively participated in learning activities with joyful feelings, ready to cooperate with each other to complete assigned tasks, and that the students’ creativity was clearly expressed through many unique ideas. Full article
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7 pages, 1815 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Digital Game Approaches for Cultivating Computational Thinking Skills in College Students
by Li-Xian Chen, Shih-Wen Su, Chia-Hung Liao, Mei-Jin Hsiao and Shyan-Ming Yuan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055062 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Computational thinking (CT) has become one of the critical goals of teaching CS programming courses. Computational skills consist of skills taken in a computational form in learning programming and dealing with daily life. More research adopted games to teach CT skills. This paper [...] Read more.
Computational thinking (CT) has become one of the critical goals of teaching CS programming courses. Computational skills consist of skills taken in a computational form in learning programming and dealing with daily life. More research adopted games to teach CT skills. This paper investigated two games, Little Alchemy 2 and Dr. Sudoku, to promote CS students’ CT skills and applied international Bebras tests to measure their CT skills. The results showed that CT skills in problem decomposition and pattern recognition could be improved via digital games. Thus, this study contributes to computing education using available digital games to promote CS college students’ CT abilities. Full article
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6 pages, 450 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Decision Support from Financial Disclosures with Deep Reinforcement Learning Considering Different Countries and Exchange Rates
by Yi-Hsin Cheng and Hei-Chia Wang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055063 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 389
Abstract
The era of low-interest rates is coming. In addition to their basic salary, people hope to increase their income by doing part-time work, understanding how to use assets already on hand, and investing in assets to earn extra rewards. Goldman Sachs reports that [...] Read more.
The era of low-interest rates is coming. In addition to their basic salary, people hope to increase their income by doing part-time work, understanding how to use assets already on hand, and investing in assets to earn extra rewards. Goldman Sachs reports that over the past 140 years, the 10-year stock market return has averaged 9.2%. The investment firm also noted that the S&P 500 outperformed its 10-year historical average with an annual average return of 13.6% between 2010 and 2020. Nowadays, with increased computing power and advancements in artificial intelligence algorithms, the effective use of computing power for investment has become an important topic. In the investment process, venture capitalists form portfolios, a practice that improves investment efficiency and reduces risks in a relatively safe situation. Current investments are not limited to one country, allowing for investments in other countries. Given this situation, we must pay attention to Uncovered Equity Parity (UEP) conditions. Thus, we aim to find optimal dynamic trading strategies with Deep Reinforcement Learning, considering the aforementioned properties. Full article
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10 pages, 246 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Risk Management in Latvia Municipal Social Services for Sustainable Well-Being of the Population
by Svetlana Lanka, Undine Vevere and Santa Striguna
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055064 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 404
Abstract
The European Pillar of Social Rights, adopted in November 2017, sets out 20 principles with the explicit aim of promoting upward convergence to create better living and working conditions in Europe. This helps fight poverty in all its forms and ensures fair, adequate [...] Read more.
The European Pillar of Social Rights, adopted in November 2017, sets out 20 principles with the explicit aim of promoting upward convergence to create better living and working conditions in Europe. This helps fight poverty in all its forms and ensures fair, adequate and sustainable social security systems. For several years now, the world and Latvia have been witnessing a change in political systems and ideologies, and rapid technological developments, especially in information technology. Today, we can see how the methods of administration in local government and the forms of customer service in the public sector are changing and what the benefits of change are for the population; however, the risks that can significantly affect the organization of work and communication with customers in local government institutions for the promotion of social welfare in a sustainable way are not fully identified. The aim of the research—based on the scientific literature, regulatory framework and the findings of the empirical study—is to develop a risk assessment, in accordance with the specifics of social services in Latvia, to promote the social well-being of the population with sustainability. Methods of research: theoretical research methods—literature research and analysis and regulatory analysis—and empirical research methods—survey, statistical analysis and expert interviews. Results of the research: Summarized conclusions on the need for risk management in municipal social services and a risk assessment developed in accordance with the specifics of social services. The obtained research results can become a basis for further research and risk management approval in Latvian municipal services. Full article
11 pages, 5331 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
RG-Based (k, n)-Threshold Visual Cryptography with Abilities of OR and XOR Decryption
by Yu-Ru Lin and Justie Su-Tzu Juan
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055065 - 7 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 431
Abstract
A (k, n) visual cryptography (VCS) is used to build a system for secret sharing. The system divides a secret image (S) into n shares and recovers S by stacking shares bigger than or equal to k, [...] Read more.
A (k, n) visual cryptography (VCS) is used to build a system for secret sharing. The system divides a secret image (S) into n shares and recovers S by stacking shares bigger than or equal to k, while shares below k provide no information about S. The fundamental idea of VCS is that, rather than relying on mathematical or cryptographic skills, human vision can be used to decrypt the secret image. Typically, a Boolean OR operation can be used to indicate the stacking action in a VCS. The reconstructed secret image gradually darkens as more shares are stacked. However, this intractable issue can be overcome by designing an XOR-based VCS that uses the Boolean XOR operator rather than the OR operation. This indicates that by using the XOR-based VCS, higher image quality can be attained. Because the XOR operation requires the use of additional equipment, scholars consider that when no equipment is available, the traditional OR operation can still be used to reveal the secret images. That is, the secret image can be decrypted without a computing device by stacking enough shares, and if a lightweight computing device is available, a better-quality image can be produced via an XOR operation. In 2015, an RG-based (k, n) VCS to restore the secret image by using an OR or XOR operation was proposed. In this study, we improve the scheme and design a new (k, n) VCS, called (k, n) 2D_VCS to encrypt a secret image into n shares. The secret image can be recovered when k or more shares are gathered and stacked (OR operation) together or when an XOR procedure is utilized. Both the theoretical proof and experimental results show that the quality of the restored image obtained by our method is better than that of the previous methods. Full article
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7 pages, 3448 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Typicality in Predicting Product Appearance
by Hung-Hsiang Wang, Yu-Yang Lin and Hao-Ting Huang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055066 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 379
Abstract
The applications of image classification are useful, especially in the prediction of object categories at a high accuracy rate. The technique helps industrial designers classify the existing products by product appearance and assess the extent to which newly designed products belong to their [...] Read more.
The applications of image classification are useful, especially in the prediction of object categories at a high accuracy rate. The technique helps industrial designers classify the existing products by product appearance and assess the extent to which newly designed products belong to their brand or product family. By doing this, designers classify products by typicality. Yet, the application of image classification of products and brand styles based on typicality is still limited. Thus, we presented a case study in which the extent to which a chair was recognized as a typical Apple product was predicted. In the technique, Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) was used. The results show that the industrial designer can use product typicality for the image classification of products to manage the style of a brand and its products. Full article
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7 pages, 4532 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Predicting Consumer Preferences by the Deformation Threshold of Product Appearance
by Hung-Hsiang Wang, Cheng-Kang Liu and Shin-Bei Yu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055067 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Product appearance is essential in shaping consumers’ preferences. Thus, we predicted consumer preference by establishing a feasible threshold for appearance innovation with a novel method. We used deep learning (DL)-based image classification and the Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) as the implementation [...] Read more.
Product appearance is essential in shaping consumers’ preferences. Thus, we predicted consumer preference by establishing a feasible threshold for appearance innovation with a novel method. We used deep learning (DL)-based image classification and the Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) as the implementation tool. Advanced DL algorithms were adopted to classify images of disparate products according to their aesthetics. The results of the classification presented that the method could explain the level of innovation in appearance that consumers favored. The result can be used as a guideline for industrial designers in the creation of new products. Moreover, the method can be used to assess existing products that need enhancement to meet consumer preferences. The proposed method assists industrial designers in understanding consumer preferences and product innovation. Future research is required to ensure the successful design of new products. Full article
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9 pages, 7033 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Establishment of a Predictive Model for Cold Forging Force in Fastener Manufacturing Using Numerical Analysis
by Yi-Teng Wang and Shao-Yi Hsia
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055068 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Precise metal parts are manufactured using cold forged screw forming, but this method has drawbacks such as material damage and the possibility of imprecise parts. To ensure the accuracy and quality of parts, it is crucial to analyze and predict the forging force [...] Read more.
Precise metal parts are manufactured using cold forged screw forming, but this method has drawbacks such as material damage and the possibility of imprecise parts. To ensure the accuracy and quality of parts, it is crucial to analyze and predict the forging force in this process. There are various methods to predict the forging force including laboratory testing, numerical simulation techniques, and simulation techniques. To provide forging information that cannot be measured by forging-forming machines, we simulated the nut-forming process based on actual manufacturing conditions using SolidWorks (v2020) with DEFORM-3D (v6.1). The results showed that the performance of the prediction of forging force specifications by the currently available nut-forming machines was improved by 8−20%. As the product becomes larger, the difference in forging force also increases proportionally. This research result, combined with appropriate experimental analysis, can be used as parameter controls for manufacturers in the future implementation of smart manufacturing. Full article
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6 pages, 228 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Timing Matters: Impact of Meal Timing on Daily Calorie Intake of Office Workers
by Xueyun Han
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055069 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 483
Abstract
This research aims to investigate the role of meal timing on calorie intake. A database of a company’s cafeteria was used to track employees’ food-purchasing behaviors. The findings show that starting meals early leads to an overall reduction in total daily calorie intake. [...] Read more.
This research aims to investigate the role of meal timing on calorie intake. A database of a company’s cafeteria was used to track employees’ food-purchasing behaviors. The findings show that starting meals early leads to an overall reduction in total daily calorie intake. However, the effect of meal timing differed between meals, with breakfast timing having the most significant impact followed by lunch and dinner timings. In terms of calorie intake per meal, breakfast timing was a decisive factor, followed by dinner, and lunch timing showed a weaker correlation to lunch intake. This result implied that early breakfast and dinner were important in managing calorie intake, while lunch timing had a lower impact. This research is a guide on how to lose weight or boost overall health through an appropriate dietary habit. Full article
10 pages, 4441 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Procedure of Forming Power Law Functionally Graded Material (FGM) Plate Using ANSYS
by Thai Hien Nguyen, Nhat Tien Nguyen, Duy Anh Ly and Trung Nghia Tran
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055070 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 448
Abstract
The deflection, stress, and heat transfer of a plate made of functionally graded material (FGM) were investigated using the data of mechanical loads and temperatures using ANSYS Workbench. The 2D planar problem-solving method in ANSYS Workbench was used to simulate the FGM plate [...] Read more.
The deflection, stress, and heat transfer of a plate made of functionally graded material (FGM) were investigated using the data of mechanical loads and temperatures using ANSYS Workbench. The 2D planar problem-solving method in ANSYS Workbench was used to simulate the FGM plate with the neutral surface for the mechanical problem. The problem of stable heat transfer for the plate was assumed for the solid block for the FGM plate. The results were compared with those of previous studies to validate the reliability of the newly fabricated FGM. The thin plate theory for materials with mechanical properties was considered with the power law distribution as each layer had identical thickness and temperature. Each layer showed material properties that changed with the thickness of the plate. Full article
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7 pages, 1056 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bioinformatics of Serious Leisure in Playing Video Games and Learning English as a Sustainable Activity
by Li-Shiue Gau, Chung-Hsing Huang and You-Ni Gau
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055071 - 8 Dec 2023
Viewed by 326
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate why video gaming tends to become a serious leisure activity more easily than English learning, using a bioinformatics approach. Methods included interviews with 13 students aged 10–13 and an experimental research design with EEG (electroencephalograph) data from five [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate why video gaming tends to become a serious leisure activity more easily than English learning, using a bioinformatics approach. Methods included interviews with 13 students aged 10–13 and an experimental research design with EEG (electroencephalograph) data from five students during rest, gaming, and English learning prior to and after a 4-week treatment. Interviews revealed that cram schools, school assignments, and future career aspirations influenced English learning habits. EEGs showed greater situational involvement in video games, but no significant improvement in English learning after the treatment. Encouraging English learning was challenging, perhaps due to participants’ busy schedules. Full article
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9 pages, 2330 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Concurrent Design Strategy on the Design of Multifunction Hydrotherapy Bucket
by Shih-Wen Hsiao and Chu-Hsuan Lee
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055072 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 373
Abstract
This study employs a systematic concurrent design approach to achieve product outcomes. It involves market research and analysis of products from various manufacturers. Through functional analysis and problem identification, TRIZ theory and a morphological diagram method are utilized for finding solutions. The best [...] Read more.
This study employs a systematic concurrent design approach to achieve product outcomes. It involves market research and analysis of products from various manufacturers. Through functional analysis and problem identification, TRIZ theory and a morphological diagram method are utilized for finding solutions. The best design scheme is then determined using the PUGH method. Additionally, a 3D model is created to present the concept that meets design goals, aiding the development of related products and boosting market share for home hydrotherapy buckets. Full article
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8 pages, 4176 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Research on Rescue Guiding Mechanism in Buildings: Illustrated by the Building Information Guiding System
by Chyi-Gang Kuo, Benson P. C. Liu, Chi-Wei Lee and Chien-Wei Chiu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055073 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 371
Abstract
When disasters such as fires or earthquakes occur, rescue personnel entering buildings are prone to spatial disorientation when the buildings have complex indoor compartments or compartments with high uniformity and similarity. This situation may expose both the people waiting for help and the [...] Read more.
When disasters such as fires or earthquakes occur, rescue personnel entering buildings are prone to spatial disorientation when the buildings have complex indoor compartments or compartments with high uniformity and similarity. This situation may expose both the people waiting for help and the rescue personnel to dangerous conditions. Therefore, this research study proposes that government search and rescue units can pre-establish a database of indoor spatial information for buildings. When a disaster occurs, the spatial information needed by rescue personnel can be transmitted in real-time and displayed on wearable 3D display systems. Given this proposal, we have developed a “Building Information Guiding System” (BIGS) to provide spatial information in real-time through the “Wearable Augmented-reality Seeking System” (WASS). BIGS uses QR codes presented at different information anchors in a building to display various embedded spatial information on horizontal and vertical escape paths, the locations of exits, firefighting equipment, and electrical power generator sets. According to the information provided by BIGS, 3D virtual arrows can be displayed in the air by the HoloLens augmented reality helmet worn by the rescue personnel in order to guide the direction toward the target. The BIGS system can read the Building Information Modeling (BIM) file submitted with new construction projects to the government construction management units and then input necessary spatial information to the file to establish an exclusive 3D spatial database for that new construction. BIGS can also construct an entire 3D spatial database for an old building by reading the BIM 3D point cloud model created through 3D laser scanning. This study explores the feasibility of using the BIM model to construct the BIGS system, the presentation mechanism of serial QR codes in real space, and the steps and modes of inputting spatial information into the 3D spatial database. Full article
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7 pages, 234 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Effects of Footbath Therapy Proved with Physiology Parameters, including Meridian Energy for Health Promotion
by Hsiao-Hui Chen and Chih-Hung Lin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055074 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Footbath therapy is effective for health and wellness. We compared the effects of hot water footbaths (HFB), contrast water footbaths (CFB), and warm water footbaths (WFB) using physiological parameters, including blood pressure, calf volume, flexibility, and meridian energy for six weeks. Significant differences [...] Read more.
Footbath therapy is effective for health and wellness. We compared the effects of hot water footbaths (HFB), contrast water footbaths (CFB), and warm water footbaths (WFB) using physiological parameters, including blood pressure, calf volume, flexibility, and meridian energy for six weeks. Significant differences in diastolic blood pressure and calf volume were observed from the third to fifth week, and CFB showed the best effect. CFB and WFB demonstrated improvements in meridian energy, while HFB had no effect. These findings highlighted the effectiveness of CFB in managing stress and promoting health and well-being. Full article
8 pages, 1227 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Study on Consumer Preferences for Incorporating Sustainable Development Goal Indicators in the Design Attributes of Music Imagery Products
by Lu Chen, Ying-Chieh Wu and Jiann-Sheng Jiang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055075 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 454
Abstract
We explored consumer preferences for incorporating sustainable development goal (SDG) indicators into music imagery product design. Qualitative and quantitative investigations were conducted to survey and analyze consumer preferences and values. Through questionnaire surveys and focus group discussions, consumers’ perceptions and values toward SDG [...] Read more.
We explored consumer preferences for incorporating sustainable development goal (SDG) indicators into music imagery product design. Qualitative and quantitative investigations were conducted to survey and analyze consumer preferences and values. Through questionnaire surveys and focus group discussions, consumers’ perceptions and values toward SDG indicators in music imagery products were investigated. The results showed that consumers’ demands and preferences for music imagery products aligned with the SDGs. Consumer preferences and values were important in the design of music imagery products. By comparing the influence of different product design attributes on consumer attractiveness and purchase intention, this demonstrates the practical value of incorporating SDG indicators into music imagery products. The results serve as valuable references for the design and marketing of music imagery products to promote the application and advancement of the SDGs. Full article
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7 pages, 1064 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Digitalization of the Quranic Reading Learning Program for Collage Students, Indonesia
by Mutimmatul Faidah, Siti Makrufah, Eliya Najma Muntazeri and Safana Nejat Muntazeri
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055076 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 403
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the planning of an online Quranic Reading Learning (QRL) program for students, explain the implementation of the online QRL program, and reveal the students’ response on it. This study used a qualitative research approach. Data were collected using [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe the planning of an online Quranic Reading Learning (QRL) program for students, explain the implementation of the online QRL program, and reveal the students’ response on it. This study used a qualitative research approach. Data were collected using interviews, questionnaires, and observations that were conducted from July to October 2022. The results showed that the online QRL program was carried out as a response to the transition in lecturing mode from online to hybrid and fully offline. This program was attended by 4000 students programmed Islamic religious education courses and were guided by 50 teachers. Learning was carried out in eight online meetings. It progressed through a class grouping test, a grand opening, online learning, and a final evaluation. The identified problems were the large number of participants in a group, unequal assistance for individual participants, network constraints, noise that classical learning caused, and unclear articulation. The advantage of this program was the efficient cost, time, and place. All participants showed a positive response to the use of this program and suggested that it should be continued in the next semester with various improvements. Full article
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7 pages, 4860 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Research on the Wearable Augmented Reality Seeking System for Rescue-Guidance in Buildings
by Chyi-Gang Kuo, Chi-Wei Lee, Benson P. C. Liu and Chien-Wei Chiu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055077 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 470
Abstract
When a construction disaster occurs, the first-line rescue personnel often enter the disaster site immediately, and every second counts in rescuing the people who need help. However, the rescue personnel may not be familiar with the indoor layouts of different buildings. If the [...] Read more.
When a construction disaster occurs, the first-line rescue personnel often enter the disaster site immediately, and every second counts in rescuing the people who need help. However, the rescue personnel may not be familiar with the indoor layouts of different buildings. If the indoor paths are complicated, or when the fire smoke obstructs the line of sight, the rescue personnel are prone to spatial disorientation, which usually causes the rescue personnel to fall into danger. Therefore, we have developed the “Wearable Augmented reality Seeking System” (WASS) to assist rescue personnel in reading the information provided by the “Building Information Guiding System”. This system allows them to enter an unfamiliar space and reach the target rescue position, retreat to the entrance, or find an alternative escape route. The WASS is based on the HoloLens augmented reality system, which displays 3D digital information such as indoor layouts, one’s current location, spatial images captured by an infrared camera and a depth camera, and 3D virtual guiding symbols or text. The WASS includes two modules: First, the augmented reality gesture interaction module allows one to read the positioning anchor information of the “Building Information Guiding System” (BIGS). The rescue personnel can communicate via gestures, select the task target, and follow the 3D virtual guidance symbols in the air to reach the relay anchor points and finally arrive at the target position. Second, the service support module, including a lighting source and backup power, ensures that the QR code recognition process and long-term operation of the WASS are successful. Full article
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7 pages, 1284 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Integrating Sustainable Development Goals into Project-Based Learning and Design Thinking for the Instructional Design of a Virtual Reality Course
by Pai-Hsun Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055078 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
The integration of topics on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into project-based learning (PBL) and design thinking (DT) was attempted for the instructional design of a virtual reality (VR) course in this study. It was investigated how to enhance the students’ understanding of the [...] Read more.
The integration of topics on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into project-based learning (PBL) and design thinking (DT) was attempted for the instructional design of a virtual reality (VR) course in this study. It was investigated how to enhance the students’ understanding of the SDGs and promote critical thinking and design thinking skills by integrating SDG topics into PBL and DT. A research design with mixed methods was created based on quantitative and qualitative data from the reflections and feedback of students and teachers. The findings suggested that SDG topics in PBL and DT provided students with a meaningful and engaging learning experience and enhanced their understanding of the interconnections between the SDGs. The importance of incorporating real-world challenges into the instructional design of VR courses and the potential of VR technology were highlighted to support SDG-related learning outcomes. Integrating SDG into PBL and DT was effective for the instructional design of VR courses by preparing students to become responsible global citizens and contribute to achieving the SDGs. Full article
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10 pages, 1108 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study on the Impact of Public Attention Relative to Green Development Policies on the Return on Investment of Related Industries
by Jie He, Wen-Jia Zhao, Dong-Ni Jia and Zheng-Yun Zhuang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055079 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 386
Abstract
As an emerging development model, green development requires the participation of the government, the market, and the public. It needs the formation of a positive interaction between policy guidance, market demand, and public will in order to realize a win–win situation comprising sustainable [...] Read more.
As an emerging development model, green development requires the participation of the government, the market, and the public. It needs the formation of a positive interaction between policy guidance, market demand, and public will in order to realize a win–win situation comprising sustainable economic development and environmental protection. Thus, we explored green-development-related policies in China and defined four areas: industrial energy preservation, petrochemicals, agriculture, and the integration of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Then, we analyzed how public attention relative to green development policies impacted the return of stock indices in the green industry using the Baidu search index. The research study was conducted on all trading days of A-shares in China from 1 January 2013 to 1 January 2023. In total, 2430 valid datasets were observed and curated over these 10 years. The public attention to green development policies was classified into four categories: industrial energy efficiency, petrochemicals, agriculture, and the Yangtze River Economic Zone. The attention focused on a category was measured by the number of searches of keywords that were the category’s names on the Baidu platform. The number of searches was considered the variable representing the public’s attention relative to each area of green development policies. The results showed that the increase in public attention to green development policies was not correlated with the increase in the return on investment (ROI) of green and carbon-neutral industries. In addition, information on green development policies had no significant effect on encouraging individuals to participate in investments in the green industry and had little effect on the financing of the carbon-neutral industry. The lack of details for green development policies and effective guidelines for potential investors needs to be overcome in order to encourage investment and financing. Full article
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8 pages, 204 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Research on the Integration of the Bamboo Charcoal Industry as a Sustainable Development Goal for Creating Value Chains in Local Revitalization: A Case Study of the Longci District
by Fang-Ju Tsai, Chia-Hui Huang and Chun-Chih Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055080 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 739
Abstract
In the past, research on regional revitalization has mainly focused on local culture and cultural industry. There is less research on the value composition of introducing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into local industries. Thus, we analyzed existing local characteristic industries and the composition [...] Read more.
In the past, research on regional revitalization has mainly focused on local culture and cultural industry. There is less research on the value composition of introducing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) into local industries. Thus, we analyzed existing local characteristic industries and the composition of the industry value chain from a consumer perspective. The main observation factors were determined for the introduction of products with sustainable development, value creation networks, and the formation of a sixth industrial structure under SDGs. The value creation configuration of local industries was also analyzed. By applying the two-dimensional Kano model of quality, consumers’ attitudes towards products with SDG indicators were determined in local traditional industries more precisely. The correlation between the design of products with SDG indicators and satisfaction was also obtained. There was a two-dimensional correlation between the different qualities and satisfaction, rather than just a linear correlation. The research findings suggested that the value of the SDG indicators influenced consumers and societal trends significantly. Therefore, the value composition of the SDG indicators is the main determining factor for consumer expectations. The result provides a reference for stakeholders of local industries to construct a sustainable ecosystem in the regional revitalization system. Full article
7 pages, 2372 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Dynamic Model of Andrographolide Therapy for COVID-19
by Panittavee Yarnvitayalert and Teerapol Saleewong
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055081 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Andrographis paniculate extract (APE) has been used as a Thailand traditional medicine owing to andrographolide which is effective for the viral clearance and prevention of disease progression. Several viral infections have been treated with APE, including SARS-CoV-2. The recommended dosage is 180 mg [...] Read more.
Andrographis paniculate extract (APE) has been used as a Thailand traditional medicine owing to andrographolide which is effective for the viral clearance and prevention of disease progression. Several viral infections have been treated with APE, including SARS-CoV-2. The recommended dosage is 180 mg three times a day. We constructed a mathematical viral dynamic model of the SARS-CoV-2 model with andrographolide therapy by different doses. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model reduces the duration of viral clearance with a dose of 60 mg per day. Moreover, APE improved the therapeutic efficacy of COVID-19 therapy. Full article
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870 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Continuity versus Desertion in Pandemic Times: The Management of Engineering Schools in a Peruvian Private University via Big-Data Analysis
by Huber Nieto-Chaupis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055082 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 194
Abstract
The main consequence of the arrival of COVID-19 was the application of social distancing, which mainly had implications regarding the economies of affected countries. This affected students, whose economy was weakened because of social restrictions. Therefore, private universities that depend strongly on the [...] Read more.
The main consequence of the arrival of COVID-19 was the application of social distancing, which mainly had implications regarding the economies of affected countries. This affected students, whose economy was weakened because of social restrictions. Therefore, private universities that depend strongly on the continuity of students had to face some difficult periods, with an eventual increase in desertions. In this way, the general managers’ offices had to find new and consistent directions for correct decision making without reducing the quality of the service. This paper presents a scheme that was applied in a private university in the south of Lima city during the period of 2020–2021. It is shown that the usage of a set of variables and their combinations to make a decision only appears to be relevant if a such decision is free of either external or internal noise. The results exhibit a minimization of 70% in the potential number of desertions in 2021 due to the gained experiences of 2020. Full article
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12 pages, 16422 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Computer-Aided Simulation on the Impact of the Combination of High-Rise Building Wall and Roof Green Coverage Ratio on Urban Microclimate
by Ying-Ming Su and Yu-Ting Hsu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055083 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Environmental issues related to global warming and urbanization are becoming more serious. Many studies have shown that urban vertical planting can effectively reduce ambient temperature. However, the impact of different vertical planting combinations on urban microclimate has rarely been studied in Taiwan. Thus, [...] Read more.
Environmental issues related to global warming and urbanization are becoming more serious. Many studies have shown that urban vertical planting can effectively reduce ambient temperature. However, the impact of different vertical planting combinations on urban microclimate has rarely been studied in Taiwan. Thus, in this study, the impact of different proportions of green walls and green roofs on the environment is explored. Referring to 6 times 6 high-rise buildings of 90 m in the ideal city. FLUENT was used to simulate the average climatic conditions of the Taipei Station in the past ten years’ summer. Since the actual building has openings that cannot reach 100% vertical plant coverage, the coverage is calculated based on the proportion of the green coverage area to the area of bare walls and roof decks. We had four options, including case 1 without greening, case 2 (green wall 25% + green roof 75%), case 3 (50% green wall + 50% green roof), and case 4 (75% green wall + 25% green roof). The research results show that at the height of the pedestrian layer (1.5 m), the wind speed of urban streets is reduced due to the obstruction of surrounding buildings. The installation of wall greening slows down the wind speed and reduces the ambient temperature, which is better than roof greening. In the urban canopy (90.5 m), as the Z-axis height increases, the higher the green roof ratio, the higher the wind speed. To improve the overall urban wind below 100% of the total greening balance of walls and roofs, it is recommended that wall greening be 50–75% and roof greening be 25–50%. Full article
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8 pages, 956 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of Behavioral Sciences for Survival in the Food Industry during the COVID-19 Crisis
by Yung-Fu Huang, Ming-Wei Weng, Kuang-Mao Deng, Hung-Jen Tsai and Kai-Fu Yang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055084 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 446
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted the beverage industry. It directly causes job losses, reduced income, and changes in customer preferences, and it influences the relationship between franchisors and franchisees. COVID-19 has spread rapidly around the world in the past two years. Meanwhile, [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted the beverage industry. It directly causes job losses, reduced income, and changes in customer preferences, and it influences the relationship between franchisors and franchisees. COVID-19 has spread rapidly around the world in the past two years. Meanwhile, the impact has reverberated from abroad to the headquarters of companies in Taiwan. Eight Taiwanese food and beverage brands saw steep drops in sales as the pandemic grew in severity. Thus, it is important to identify the critical elements of running a franchise store. Collected with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technology, the results show that the five key factors in franchises are going direct-to-consumer, establishing a B2B portal for distributors, assessing supply chain elastic limit, optimizing inventory, and streamlining e-commerce to meet changing customer needs. Guidelines and directions are provided for decision-makers through this study to design mobile applications in the simplest platform. Full article
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8 pages, 182 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Delivering Sustainable G2B Messages to Ensure Food Safety: The Case of Taiwan’s Online Food Business
by Kuan Chuan Tao and Abbott Po Shun Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055085 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 373
Abstract
The Internet brings convenience and happiness to consumers. The government must guide food safety standards. The government must provide implementation details, schedule planning, description-of-use documents, relevant regulations on food safety, and address matters needing attention and critical points of on-site counseling and inspection, [...] Read more.
The Internet brings convenience and happiness to consumers. The government must guide food safety standards. The government must provide implementation details, schedule planning, description-of-use documents, relevant regulations on food safety, and address matters needing attention and critical points of on-site counseling and inspection, the formulation of pertinent form documents, the evaluation of the feasibility of the form, and the time required. The Taichung City Government mainly conducts this research to investigate and guide online food sale companies. The industries are food manufacturing, online sales, and catering. The information was surveyed from major website platforms, comprising 640 incidents. These sites include Shopee, PC Home, MOMO, PChome, eBay, and Gomaji. This study uses corporate interview surveys and narrative statistics. The research results show that there are ten food safety issues. The most common ones are the items that should and should not be recorded in the stereotypical food or catering service contract stipulated by communication transactions. That is the most common food safety violation by businesses. This research provides academic and practical references for the positive message transmission of online sales. Full article
11 pages, 667 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Urban Traffic Flow Prediction Using LSTM and GRU
by Hung-Chin Jang and Che-An Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055086 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 700
Abstract
For smart cities, the issue of how to solve traffic chaos has always attracted public attention. Many studies have proposed various solutions for traffic flow prediction, such as ARIMA, ANN, and SVM. With the breakthrough of deep learning technology, the evolutionary models of [...] Read more.
For smart cities, the issue of how to solve traffic chaos has always attracted public attention. Many studies have proposed various solutions for traffic flow prediction, such as ARIMA, ANN, and SVM. With the breakthrough of deep learning technology, the evolutionary models of RNN, such as LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) and GRU (Gated Recurrent Units) models, have been proven to have excellent performance in traffic flow prediction. By using LSTM and GRU models, we explore more features and multi-layer models to increase the accuracy of traffic flow prediction. We compare the prediction accuracy of LSTM and GRU models in urban traffic flow prediction. The data collected in this study are divided into three categories, namely “regular traffic flow data”, “predictable episodic event data”, and “meteorological data”. The regular traffic flow data source is the “Vehicle Detector (VD) data of Taipei Open Data Platform”. Predictable episodic event data are predictable as non-routine events such as concerts and parades. We use a crawler program to collect this information through ticketing systems, tourism websites, news media, social media, and government websites and the meteorological data from the Central Meteorological Bureau. Through these three types of data, the accuracy in predicting traffic flow is enhanced to predict the degree of traffic congestion that may be affected. Full article
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10 pages, 2615 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Age-of-Information-Based Transmission Protocol in Vehicular Network
by Hung-Chin Jang and Chung-Yen Huang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055087 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 356
Abstract
With the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and communication networks, the concept of a smart city emerged spontaneously. In the traffic control of a smart city, the vehicular network plays an important role. If the driving information of vehicles can be [...] Read more.
With the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and communication networks, the concept of a smart city emerged spontaneously. In the traffic control of a smart city, the vehicular network plays an important role. If the driving information of vehicles can be collected from the vehicular network and then aggregated into a smart city system, traffic control facilities can be adjusted in real time to improve traffic or increase traffic safety. This study is based on WAVE/DSRC under the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609 standards. When the vehicle is moving, the On-Board Unit (OBU) on the vehicle and the Roadside Unit (RSU) transmit data through the 5.9 GHz (5.85–5.925 GHZ) frequency band to establish vehicle-to-vehicle communication (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication (V2I). The immediacy of the transmission of beacon messages is also discussed over a vehicular network. A beacon message is essential for communication in a vehicular network, including various safety messages, such as driving directions, driving speed, and location. We introduce the Age-of-Information (AoI) indicator to reflect the immediacy of information. AoI is used for the elapsed time after the sender samples the message until the receiver receives the message. We propose a centralized AoI-based protocol and a decentralized AoI-based protocol. By using Random-Walk and SUMO, we simulate driving dynamics and various RSU setting scenarios. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed AoI-based protocol through experimental simulations. Full article
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9 pages, 4615 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of a Singing Evaluation System of Heyuan Hua Chao Opera Based on Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients
by Shuping Sun, Yulei Zhu and Yanhui Wang
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055088 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Heyuan Hua Chao opera is affected by modern culture and is facing a limited number of teaching staff, little time available for teachers to be dispatched, a small scope of popularity, the inability for continuous tracking in teaching, unsystematic and coherent learning among [...] Read more.
Heyuan Hua Chao opera is affected by modern culture and is facing a limited number of teaching staff, little time available for teachers to be dispatched, a small scope of popularity, the inability for continuous tracking in teaching, unsystematic and coherent learning among students, and difficulty of independent learning. Therefore, the voice feature parameters required for the evaluation model were extracted through MFCC coefficient features and later input into a convolutional neural network to generate data sets and training sets. These feature-labeled sets are segmented to output singing feedback. With a comprehensive overview of the artistic characteristics of Hua Chao opera singing and the research and interviews conducted by the Hua Chao opera heritage development center and local people, a system is designed to evaluate the singing voice of Hua Chao opera singers based on the MFCC. The aim is to effectively help students participate in learning and intelligently evaluate their learning effects. The model can be applied to other opera repertoires to promote the preservation and dissemination of traditional opera culture. Full article
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11 pages, 445 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cloud-Based Payment Systems in Australia: How Security Affects Consumer Satisfaction
by Domingos Mondego and Ergun Gide
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055089 - 5 Jan 2024
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Over the past years, online payments or cloud-based payments have significantly increased around the globe. Cloud-based payment systems (CBPS) are more involved in the payment process due to their convenience and flexibility. Although CBPS offers obvious benefits, their adoption rates among Australian users [...] Read more.
Over the past years, online payments or cloud-based payments have significantly increased around the globe. Cloud-based payment systems (CBPS) are more involved in the payment process due to their convenience and flexibility. Although CBPS offers obvious benefits, their adoption rates among Australian users are comparatively lower compared to those in other countries. People are dissatisfied with current payment methods or are unaware of the advantages of CBPS. Using the technology acceptance model (TAM) with perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, a qualitative research method was applied through semi-structured interviews to collect data from 20 consumers in Australia. The findings pointed out an appreciation for security features such as two-factor authentication and cutting-edge technologies. The banks were trusted by Australians, but a lack of education and additional fees on digital payment platforms were sources of concern. In the context of CBPS, it was observed that electronic devices were easy to use and proved to be useful. Service providers need to improve security measures and implement innovative technologies to enhance user privacy and prevent fraudulent activities. Overall, Australians expressed satisfaction with their banks; however, there are opportunities for enhancement, particularly in bolstering security measures and providing education on emerging payments options. Full article
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12 pages, 4797 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Computer-Aided Simulation Analysis on the Impact of Various Opening Patterns in High-Rise Opening Building towards Pollutants Dispersion
by Chih-Hsien Huang and Ying-Ming Su
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055090 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Taiwan is the fourth most urbanized country in Asia, where the urban spatial structure of high-rise and density hinders urban ventilation. Studies have proven that opening buildings reduce the area of windward surfaces, which can effectively mitigate the urban heat island effect and [...] Read more.
Taiwan is the fourth most urbanized country in Asia, where the urban spatial structure of high-rise and density hinders urban ventilation. Studies have proven that opening buildings reduce the area of windward surfaces, which can effectively mitigate the urban heat island effect and disperse pollutant accumulation. Until now, most researchers have discussed the differences in heights and sizes of openings in the opening buildings, but few discussed the influence of opening patterns on urban ventilation. Thus, we set the building unit to 30 × 30 m with 160-m height with the opening height as tall as 0.45 times the building height and a 9% opening rate, distributed in 6 × 6 ideal city configuration Four cases (case A: no opening, case B: middle square, case C: right square, and case D: middle rectangular) with different arrays of opening buildings were compared with ANSYS Fluent v18 to simulate the wind environment and NO2 pollutants. The results showed that the opening building improved the permeability of street ventilation and air circulation, which greatly increased the wind speed at a height of 72 m. The distribution of pollutants was affected by the distance from the pollution source and the width of the street. Pollutants were gradually dispersed as the height increased. Case D of a long-narrow rectangular opening (adjacent to the pedestrian floor) and the venture effects formed eddy currents above and below the opening, which effectively improved the ventilation in the street canyon. Therefore, it had the best wind speed on the pedestrian level among the cases. The wind speed of the 72 m-high floor was much higher than that of case A, and the vortex generated by the airflow flowing through the opening in the street canyon increased the diffusion effect of pollutants. Overall, the opening building with a rectangular opening was the optimum solution in terms of wind speed improvement and pollutant removal. In addition to the opening design in the building facade, it is recommended to provide sufficient open space to improve air circulation in the building block and disperse pollutants. Full article
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6 pages, 190 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Effectiveness of Lighting Design for Improved Patient Care Considering Energy Conservation
by Samaneh Aghajari and Cheng-Chen Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 55(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023055091 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Unquestionably, hospital patient rooms require a proper lighting design. Dissimilar to cultural and artistic settings, where artistic discourse on light has significant importance, in medical settings, the most crucial conversation refers to standards. Research indicates that light in hospital settings has an impact [...] Read more.
Unquestionably, hospital patient rooms require a proper lighting design. Dissimilar to cultural and artistic settings, where artistic discourse on light has significant importance, in medical settings, the most crucial conversation refers to standards. Research indicates that light in hospital settings has an impact on a patient’s physical and mental health. Effective lighting in medical settings can enhance the hospital’s positive experience and the speed at which patients recover from their diseases. It can also increase staff attentiveness and productivity. It is also critical to consider reducing electricity consumption in hospital settings that require lighting 24/7. Due to the high cost of lighting, access to natural light in combination with time-of-day controls minimizes energy consumption when daylight is available and impacts the hospital’s bottom line. The effect of light on hospital users was investigated in this article; therefore, it is important to understand both natural and artificial light sources in this regard. Natural light has many benefits for humans, and when it comes to electricity consumption, it is the best method because it is a free source; but, since natural light is not always available and cannot be used throughout the day, there is a need to have an artificial light source that gives the best lighting effect in terms of visual comfort and visual performance for users. Secondly, proper artificial light sources can reduce electricity consumption; hence, these two critical aspects were underlined in this study. Full article