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Processes, Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 328 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are promising candidates for the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry. Current limitations of RAS are the production and potential accumulation of nitrogenous wastes (ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate). The anammox (anaerobic ammonia oxidation) process is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way to remove nitrogen compounds from wastewater. This chemoautotrophic biological process can convert ammonium and nitrite directly into nitrogen gas. Because of its low requirements for both oxygen and organic carbon sources, this process has attracted more and more attention throughout the world and provides a new perspective for future RAS wastewater treatment. View this paper
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13 pages, 17076 KiB  
Article
A Novel Dead Time Design Method for Full-Bridge LLC Resonant Converters with SiC Semiconductors
by Longxiang Wang, Wenguang Luo, Yuewu Wang and Hongli Lan
Processes 2023, 11(3), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030973 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
As third-generation semiconductors become commercial, SiC semiconductors are gradually becoming more widely used in LLC resonant converters. The efficiency of the LLC resonant converter is improved by employing soft switching. However, when designing LLC resonant converters, semiconductors are usually regarded as ideal devices, [...] Read more.
As third-generation semiconductors become commercial, SiC semiconductors are gradually becoming more widely used in LLC resonant converters. The efficiency of the LLC resonant converter is improved by employing soft switching. However, when designing LLC resonant converters, semiconductors are usually regarded as ideal devices, and their turn-on and turn-off times are neglected. Furthermore, the method of designing the dead time relies on engineering experience and lacks precise theoretical foundations. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the current empirical method and to improve the generality and practicality of the dead time design method, a novel method for calculating the dead time of full-bridge LLC converters is proposed through theoretical research based on the operating principle of full-bridge LLC converters and the conditions for implementing soft switching. The method takes into account the switching characteristics of semiconductors and the on-state delay time of their body diodes, stray inductance, drive circuits, and errors arising from the first harmonic approximation (FHA) and improves the accuracy of the dead time calculation. It can implement good soft switching with full-bridge LLC converters, reduce switching losses, and improve system efficiency. Finally, the simulation experiment and the 2 kW experimental prototype are built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Systems)
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27 pages, 7553 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Pre-Reduction for a New Process of Acid Production from Phosphogypsum by Gas Sulfur Reduction
by Yanxin Chen, Xuyang Fan, Bo Zhao and Leilei Zhang
Processes 2023, 11(3), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030972 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The gas sulfur reduction of phosphogypsum in the acid co-production of sulfoaluminate cement clinker is a new process for treating phosphogypsum. The reduction furnace of this system was studied and analyzed by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental validation. The effects of [...] Read more.
The gas sulfur reduction of phosphogypsum in the acid co-production of sulfoaluminate cement clinker is a new process for treating phosphogypsum. The reduction furnace of this system was studied and analyzed by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental validation. The effects of n(CaSO4)/n(S2), particle residence time, and kiln tail flue gas temperature on the performance of the reduction furnace were obtained. A second-order response model based on the response surface methodology was developed using a three-factor Box–Behnken design (BBD). The results show that the comparison error between the simulation and test data of the reduction furnace is acceptable. The above three conditions arranged in order of significance in terms of their effect on the performance of the reduction furnace is n(CaSO4)/n(S2) > particle residence time > kiln tail gas temperature. Finally, by optimizing the response surface model, the predicted optimal operation parameter combination is n(CaSO4)/n(S2) = 3.04, with the particle residence time and flue gas temperature at the kiln end given as 8.90 s and 1265.39 K, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Waste Valorization and Utilization)
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12 pages, 2462 KiB  
Article
A Transfer Learning Methodology for Recognizing Unsafe Behavior during Lifting Operations in a Chemical Plant
by Hua Li, Xicheng Xue, Yanbin Wang, Lizhou Wu and Xinhong Li
Processes 2023, 11(3), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030971 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Large lifting equipment is used regularly in the maintenance operations of chemical plant installations, where safety controls must be carried out to ensure the safety of lifting operations. This paper presents a convolutional neural network (CNN) methodology, based on the PyTorch framework, to [...] Read more.
Large lifting equipment is used regularly in the maintenance operations of chemical plant installations, where safety controls must be carried out to ensure the safety of lifting operations. This paper presents a convolutional neural network (CNN) methodology, based on the PyTorch framework, to identify unsafe behavior among lifting operation drivers, specifically, by collecting 22,352 images of equipment lifting operations over a certain time period in a chemical plant. The lifting drivers’ behavior was divided into eight categories, and a ResNet50 network model was selected to identify the drivers’ behavior in the pictures. The results show that the proposed ResNet50 network model based on transfer learning achieves a 99.6% accuracy rate, a 99% recall rate and a 99% F1 value for the expected behaviors of eight lifting operation drivers. This knowledge regarding unsafe behavior in the chemical industry provides a new perspective for preventing safety accidents caused by the dangerous behaviors of lifting operation drivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Reliability Engineering of Process Operations)
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13 pages, 4745 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dry and Wet Cycles on the Strength Characteristics of Biochar–Clay Mixture
by Deyang Liu, Wenjing Sun, Yi Kong and Shuyun Zhang
Processes 2023, 11(3), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030970 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Biochar is an economical and environmentally friendly “green material” with potential benefits in greenhouse gas emission reduction, soil performance improvement, and environmental restoration. Mixing biochar with clay and using it as a landfill cover can effectively reduce the escape of greenhouse gases into [...] Read more.
Biochar is an economical and environmentally friendly “green material” with potential benefits in greenhouse gas emission reduction, soil performance improvement, and environmental restoration. Mixing biochar with clay and using it as a landfill cover can effectively reduce the escape of greenhouse gases into the air, which is important for environmental protection. It is suggested that biochar should be mixed with clay and used as a landfill covering layer. In this study, the shear strength was obtained by direct shear test, and the shear strength characteristics of biochar–clay mixture under the influence of different dry and wet cycles, biochar contents, and moisture conditions were studied. The results show that the shear strength of the biochar–clay mixture in the saturated state decreases with increasing wet and dry cycles, with shear strength decreases ranging from 6% to 19%. The cohesion and internal friction angles of the clays and mixtures show a decreasing trend under wet and dry cycles, with the cohesion and internal friction angles decreasing in the range of 2% to 16%. The shear stress–shear displacement curve for the biochar–clay mixture in the saturated state shows strain hardening after wet and dry cycles; the curve in the dry state shows strain softening with a distinct peak and a platform at the front end of the curve. The shear strength of clay in a dry state is larger than that of biochar–clay mixture and always larger than that of clay in a saturated state. The shear strength difference of the mixture between dry and saturated states is obviously smaller than that of pure clay. This paper, therefore, provides theoretical guidance for the application of biochar–clay mixtures to landfill covers. Full article
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18 pages, 2684 KiB  
Article
Effect of Heat–Moisture Treatment on Crystallinity, Digestibility Properties, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) Flour
by Methus Chuwech, Nuansri Rakariyatham, Jidapha Tinoi, Prapaipit Suwitchayanon and Nopakarn Chandet
Processes 2023, 11(3), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030969 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2249
Abstract
Purple rice flour was modified using heat–moisture treatment (HMT) in three cycles using an oven (OHMT) and autoclave (AHMT) at temperatures of 100 °C and 120 °C, and with moisture levels of 20%, 25%, and 30%. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the [...] Read more.
Purple rice flour was modified using heat–moisture treatment (HMT) in three cycles using an oven (OHMT) and autoclave (AHMT) at temperatures of 100 °C and 120 °C, and with moisture levels of 20%, 25%, and 30%. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the changes in the molecular structure. The swelling capacity, solubility, and starch digestibility, including rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS), were studied in both native and modified purple rice flour. the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Both OHMT and AHMT resulted in a decrease in swelling capacity, solubility, and RDS, but an increase in RS and SDS values compared to the native purple rice flour. All samples showed an increase in relative crystallinity. Both treatments also had an impact on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities, leading to a decrease in total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, and the scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS radicals compared to the native purple rice flour. The findings suggest that HMT can both improve the functional properties of purple rice flour and hold potential for use in various food industries. Full article
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14 pages, 1904 KiB  
Article
Effects of Drinking Electrolyzed Alkaline-Reduced Water on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Prospective Trial
by Johny Bajgai, Mihyun Lee, Yeon-Gyu Jang, Kiwon Lee, Subham Sharma, Yun Ju Jeong, Hong Jun Park, Seong Hoon Goh, Cheol-Su Kim, Hyun Il Kim and Kyu-Jae Lee
Processes 2023, 11(3), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030968 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4606
Abstract
A well-known functional gastrointestinal disorder called functional dyspepsia (FD) is defined by dyspeptic symptoms without any structural abnormalities. In alternative intervention, electrolyzed alkaline-reduced water (EARW) consumption is regarded as a treatment modality for gastrointestinal symptoms despite its mechanism not yet fully understood. The [...] Read more.
A well-known functional gastrointestinal disorder called functional dyspepsia (FD) is defined by dyspeptic symptoms without any structural abnormalities. In alternative intervention, electrolyzed alkaline-reduced water (EARW) consumption is regarded as a treatment modality for gastrointestinal symptoms despite its mechanism not yet fully understood. The present clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of EARW on gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with FD. Forty-eight participants with FD were screened, and 42 were enrolled. Participants were randomly allocated to the EARW (n = 21) and purified water (PW) (n = 21) groups. The EARW group ingested EARW (10 mL/kg body weight/day) for 6 weeks. The gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS), functional dyspepsia-related quality of life (FD-QoL), the Korean version of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI-K) were used as primary outcome measures at baseline and at 6 weeks, and inflammatory markers were measured as the secondary outcome. Two participants dropped out, and 40 participants (EARW = 20 and PW = 20) completed the trial. Total GSRS score was significantly lower in the EARW group (34.27%, p < 0.01) than in the PW (18.16%) group. In the five subcategories of GSRS, the decreased score between baseline and post-intervention for the EARW and PW groups were 43.59% and 21.33% in abdominal pain score, respectively; 38.98% and 18.92% in reflux syndrome, respectively; 25.42% and 20.90% in diarrhea, respectively; 35.87% and 21.48% in indigestion, respectively; and 32.81% and 10.71% in constipation, respectively, and all the parameters were significantly different in the EARW group compared with those in the PW group. The NDI-K score was also lower in the EARW group (p < 0.01) than in the PW group. FD-QoL score decreased significantly more in the EARW group after intervention than in the PW group (p < 0.05). Additionally, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) levels significantly suppressed in the EARW group after 6 weeks of drinking compared with the levels at the baseline. Our clinical study suggests that long-term drinking of EARW (pH 9.5) may improve FD-related symptoms and the quality of life of FD patients through home-based administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biological Processes and Systems)
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21 pages, 8847 KiB  
Article
Research on the Factors Affecting the Formation of Ore-Free Zone at Blast Furnace Throat Based on DEM
by Hao Xu, Yici Wang, Chuanhui Li, Hongwei Guo and Bingji Yan
Processes 2023, 11(3), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030967 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
The ore-free zone in the center of the blast furnace throat is a major feature of the charging system, ensuring the permeability of the center. Factors that influence the formation of the ore-free zone need to be researched to increase the control precision. [...] Read more.
The ore-free zone in the center of the blast furnace throat is a major feature of the charging system, ensuring the permeability of the center. Factors that influence the formation of the ore-free zone need to be researched to increase the control precision. In this paper, on the basis of a 1:1 3D model of a blast furnace, the formation of an ore-free zone at the burden surface at the throat was simulated by using the discrete element method (DEM). The effects of burden line depth, batch weight, and distribution angle on the formation of ore-free zones were investigated. The results showed that with increasing burden line depth, the width of the ore-free zone increased, the thickness decreased, the ore-to-coke ratio decreased, and the central airflow developed. Only changing the ore batch weight affected the thickness and width of the ore-free zone and had a greater impact on the permeability of the ore-free zone. The greater the ore batch weight was, the worse the permeability, while changing the batch weight of both coke and ore mainly affected the thickness of the ore-free zone. The greater the batch weight of coke and ore was, the greater the thickness of the ore-free zone. In the case of changing only the angle of ore in the matrix, with the angle increasing, the ore-to-coke ratio around the ore-free zone decreased, the ore-to-coke ratio around the furnace wall increased, and the edge airflow was suppressed. In the case of changing the angle of coke and ore at the same time, with the simultaneous increase in both angles, the ore-free area was compressed in the direction of smaller charge segregation, the area with better permeability in the center of the furnace throat was reduced, and the central airflow was suppressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallurgical Process: Optimization and Control)
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10 pages, 1783 KiB  
Article
Microbiological Contamination of Brine Feeding a Closed-Cycle Graduation Tower and Its Potential Human Exposure
by Stanisław Bodziacki and Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka
Processes 2023, 11(3), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030966 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Given the growing interest among residents of large agglomerations in inhalation treatments in urban graduation towers, as well as the lack of research on the microbiological safety of brine, an attempt was made to provide new and unique information on the potential epidemiological [...] Read more.
Given the growing interest among residents of large agglomerations in inhalation treatments in urban graduation towers, as well as the lack of research on the microbiological safety of brine, an attempt was made to provide new and unique information on the potential epidemiological risks that may occur in such places. The study covered one of Krakow’s brine graduation towers, opened in 2020, attracting crowds of city residents and tourists every spring/summer season. Based on a two-year microbiological study of brine, which included analysis of the presence of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria in it, as well as indicators of microbiological water quality, i.e., Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus spp., and Salmonella spp., it was concluded that contamination increased periodically. According to standards for inhalation waters, acceptable counts of selected microorganisms were exceeded, especially during the holiday season. It was, undoubtedly, related to weather conditions conducive to outdoor inhalation treatments, and thus the large number of heath resort visitors present near the graduation tower. Despite the fact that our study provides epidemiologically disturbing results, it is extremely valuable because it constitutes a starting point for discussion of the health safety of urban graduation towers. The study is also an opportunity to take measures to improve the microbiological quality of the brine in the closed cycle of graduation towers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental and Green Processes)
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17 pages, 2776 KiB  
Article
Application of High-Gradient Magnetic Separation for the Recovery of Super-Paramagnetic Polymer Adsorbent Used in Adsorption and Desorption Processes
by Jyi-Yeong Tseng, Chia-Chi Chang, Cheng-Wen Tu, Min-Hao Yuan, Ching-Yuan Chang, Chiung-Fen Chang, Yi-Hung Chen, Je-Lueng Shie, Dar-Ren Ji, Bo-Liang Liu and Matthias Franzreb
Processes 2023, 11(3), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030965 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
This study examined the application of high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) for recycling of super-paramagnetic polymer adsorbent (MPA), namely, polyvinyl acetate-iminodiacetic acid. The HGMS can be incorporated with the adsorption and desorption processes (ADPs) with fresh or regenerated desorbed MPAs and exhausted adsorbed MPAs, [...] Read more.
This study examined the application of high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) for recycling of super-paramagnetic polymer adsorbent (MPA), namely, polyvinyl acetate-iminodiacetic acid. The HGMS can be incorporated with the adsorption and desorption processes (ADPs) with fresh or regenerated desorbed MPAs and exhausted adsorbed MPAs, respectively. This combines the permanent magnet’s advantage of low running costs with the easy operation using the solenoid to flush the filter in place. The effects of the inlet concentration of MPA in solution (CLF,i) and the fluid velocity (v0) or volumetric flow rate (QLF) on the performance of the recovery of MPA via HGMS were assessed. The results indicated that the separation efficiency (η or P0), breakthrough time (tB) and exhaustion time (tE) of HGMS reduce as CLF,i, as well as v0, increases. Further, the filter saturated capture capacity (σS) of HGMS also decreases with increasing v0. The effect of v0 on tB proportional to 1/v02 is more significant than that on σS proportional to 1/v0. A kinetic model of HGMS shows good agreements for the experimental and predicted breakthrough results, with determination coefficients of 0.985–0.995. The information obtained in this study is useful for the rational design and proper operation of a HGMS system for the recycling and reuse of MPA in ADPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liquid Waste and Gas Waste Treatment Processes)
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17 pages, 6322 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Interpretation Model of Interwell Tracer for Fracture-Cavity Reservoir Based on Fracture-Cavity Configuration
by Cheng Jing, Qiong Duan, Guangshun Han, Jianfeng Nie, Lu Li and Mingxu Ge
Processes 2023, 11(3), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030964 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
The fracture-cavity combination structure between wells in fracture-cavity reservoirs is complex and changeable. Reliably identifying and quantitatively characterizing the fracture-cavity combination structure between wells has become an important prerequisite for flow channel adjustment in fracture-cavity reservoirs after water channeling and flooding. Aiming at [...] Read more.
The fracture-cavity combination structure between wells in fracture-cavity reservoirs is complex and changeable. Reliably identifying and quantitatively characterizing the fracture-cavity combination structure between wells has become an important prerequisite for flow channel adjustment in fracture-cavity reservoirs after water channeling and flooding. Aiming at the problems that it is difficult for the existing carving technology to characterize the flow characteristics of the injected fluid in the interwell fracture-cavity composite structure during the production process, and it is difficult for the existing interwell tracer proxy model to consider the specific fracture-cavity composite structure, this paper proposes a quantitative interpretation model for interwell tracers in fracture-cavity reservoirs with different architectures. Taking the Tahe fracture-cavity reservoir as the object, the matching relationship between the interwell fracture-cavity structure and the tracer curve was analyzed, and the tracer curve characteristics of five types of fracture-cavity structures were clarified. Considering the basic idea of tracing, a unified quantitative interpretation model of tracers under different fracture-cavity configurations based on branched flow channels and karst caves was deduced and established, and the input parameters required to apply the model, the parameters obtained directly by fitting, and further expandable calculated parameters were clarified. The interpretation model was used to fit, quantitatively interpret, and verify the reliability of the tracer curves of three wells in group TK411 of fracture-cavity unit S48 in the fourth area of Tahe Oilfield. The results show that the tracer curve fitting effect of each well was good, and the average relative error between the total flow rate explained by the tracer and the daily water production during the tracer monitoring period in the mine was only 3.02%, which effectively shows that the applicability and reliability of the quantitative interpretation model are established. The research results provide an effective way to apply tracer data in deep mining while improving the quantitative characterization ability of interwell tracer monitoring in fracture-cavity reservoirs. Full article
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15 pages, 3479 KiB  
Article
Eco-Friendly Synthesis of TiO2/ZIF-8 Composites: Characterization and Application for the Removal of Imidacloprid from Wastewater
by Lucija Bogdan, Ana Palčić, Marina Duplančić, Mirela Leskovac and Vesna Tomašić
Processes 2023, 11(3), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030963 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
The aim of this work was to develop hybrid TiO2/ZIF-8 photocatalysts and test their activity for the removal of agricultural pollutants in water. The hybrid photocatalysts were prepared by an innovative method involving hydrothermal synthesis at 150 °C using a mechanochemically [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to develop hybrid TiO2/ZIF-8 photocatalysts and test their activity for the removal of agricultural pollutants in water. The hybrid photocatalysts were prepared by an innovative method involving hydrothermal synthesis at 150 °C using a mechanochemically synthesized zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) and titanium tetraisopropoxide as a titanium dioxide (TiO2) precursor. Three composite photocatalysts with different mass fractions of titanium dioxide (5, 50, and 95 wt%) were synthesized and characterized, and their adsorption and photocatalytic properties investigated for the removal of imidacloprid. The equilibrium adsorption test showed that ZIF-8 is a good adsorbent and can adsorb 65% of the model component under the working conditions used in this work, while the hybrid photocatalysts can adsorb 1–3% of the model component. It is assumed that the adsorption is hindered by the TiO2 layer on the surface of ZIF-8, which blocks the interactions of ZIF-8 and imidacloprid. A significant decrease in band gap energies (3.1–3.6 eV) was observed for the hybrid TiO2/ZIF-8 photocatalysts compared to the values obtained with ZIF-8 (5 eV), depending on the mass fractions of TiO2. The highest removal efficiency of imidacloprid was achieved with the hybrid photocatalysts containing 5 wt% TiO2. Full article
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14 pages, 7228 KiB  
Article
A Non-Uniform Interference-Fit Size Investigation of CFRP/Al Alloys by Riveting Mold Design
by Xingxing Wang, Zhenchao Qi, Mu Lu and Haicheng Pan
Processes 2023, 11(3), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030962 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The interference-fit size has a significant effect on the riveted lap joints of CFRP/Al alloy laminates. The requirements for the interference-fit size are different because of the strengthening of heterogeneous materials. However, in the riveting process of CFRP/Al alloys, the heterogeneous laminates lead [...] Read more.
The interference-fit size has a significant effect on the riveted lap joints of CFRP/Al alloy laminates. The requirements for the interference-fit size are different because of the strengthening of heterogeneous materials. However, in the riveting process of CFRP/Al alloys, the heterogeneous laminates lead to poor structural strength because of the different interference-fit size requirements. Therefore, differently assembled riveting molds are designed to acquire a novel interference-fit size, and the tensile test is adopted to evaluate their tensile properties. In addition, the fracture failure of CFRP/Al alloy laminate riveted lap joints is observed with an ultra-depth-of-field microscope. Finally, the best assembly type is identified as the trapezoid riveting mold combined with an arc riveting die, and the sidewall intersection angle of the trapezoid riveting mold is 66°, which could achieve a suitable interference-fit size and a better mechanical performance. Full article
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19 pages, 3150 KiB  
Article
Effect of UV-C Irradiation and High Hydrostatic Pressure on Microbiological, Chemical, Physical and Sensory Properties of Fresh-Cut Potatoes
by Zdenka Pelaić, Zrinka Čošić, Maja Repajić, Filip Dujmić, Sandra Balbino and Branka Levaj
Processes 2023, 11(3), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030961 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1412
Abstract
UV-C irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) successfully reduce the number of bacteria and their growth but can also affect phenolic and sugar content, as well as other physicochemical properties. Therefore, in this work, the effect of UV-C irradiation, HHP, and their combination, [...] Read more.
UV-C irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) successfully reduce the number of bacteria and their growth but can also affect phenolic and sugar content, as well as other physicochemical properties. Therefore, in this work, the effect of UV-C irradiation, HHP, and their combination, UV-C/HHP, on total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count (TAMBC), chlorogenic acid and sugar content, and other physicochemical properties of raw FCP were examined. Acrylamide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were also monitored in treated FCP after frying. Vacuum-packed potato slices pretreated with an antibrowning agent were irradiated with UV-C (2.70 kJ m−2), treated with HHP (400 MPa/3 min) and combined UV-C/HHP, and stored for 15 days. The greatest reduction in TAMBC was achieved in the UV-C/HHP-treated samples, followed by the HHP treatment, and they both resulted in the slowest bacterial growth during storage. All treatments decreased the contents of chlorogenic acid, but the greatest reduction was observed in the HHP-treated samples. All treatments increased the content of reducing sugars, and UV-C/HHP did so significantly, which also led to an increase in acrylamide content in the fried FCP. PAH levels were below the established limits. Acceptable sensory attributes of all samples (raw, boiled, and fried) remained relatively stable during storage. Full article
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23 pages, 7295 KiB  
Article
Highly Efficient CO2 Capture and Utilization of Coal and Coke-Oven Gas Coupling for Urea Synthesis Process Integrated with Chemical Looping Technology: Modeling, Parameter Optimization, and Performance Analysis
by Qiang Wang, Yong Yang and Huairong Zhou
Processes 2023, 11(3), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030960 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1968
Abstract
The resource endowment structure of being coal-rich and oil-poor makes China’s production of coal-based ammonia and urea, with a low production cost and a good market, a competitive advantage. However, the process suffers from high CO2 emissions and low energy efficiency and [...] Read more.
The resource endowment structure of being coal-rich and oil-poor makes China’s production of coal-based ammonia and urea, with a low production cost and a good market, a competitive advantage. However, the process suffers from high CO2 emissions and low energy efficiency and carbon utilization efficiency due to the mismatch of hydrogen-to-carbon ratio between raw coal and chemicals. Based on the coal-to-urea (CTU) process and coal-based chemical looping technology for urea production processes (CTUCLAS&H), a novel urea synthesis process from a coal and coke-oven gas-based co-feed chemical looping system (COG-CTUCLAS&H) is proposed in this paper. By integrating chemical looping air separation and chemical looping hydrogen production technologies and the synergies between coal gasification, low-energy consumption CO2 capture and CO2 utilization are realized; the excess carbon emissions of the CTU process are avoided through coupling the pressure swing adsorption of COG, and the low carbon emissions of the proposed system are obtained. In this work, the novel process is studied from three aspects: key unit modeling, parameter optimization, and technical-economic evaluation. The results show that COG-CTUCLAS&H achieves the highest system energy efficiency (77.10%), which is much higher than that of the CTU and CTUCLAS&H processes by 40.03% and 32.80%, respectively, when the optimized ratio of COG to coal gasified gas is 1.2. The carbon utilization efficiency increases from 35.67% to 78.94%. The product cost of COG-CTUCLAS&H is increased compared to CTU and CTUCLAS&H, mainly because of the introduction of COG, but the technical performance advantages of COG-CTUCLAS&H make its economic benefits obvious, and the internal rate of return of COG-CTUCLAS&H is 26%, which is larger than the 14% and 16% of CTU and CTUCLAS&H, respectively. This analysis will enable a newly promising direction of coal and COG-based co-feed integrated chemical looping technology for urea production. Full article
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15 pages, 4712 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cold-Spray Parameters on Surface Roughness, Thickness and Adhesion of Copper-Based Composite Coating on Aluminum Alloy 6061 T6 Substrate
by Ling Shao, Na Xue, Weiwei Li, Song Liu, Zhibiao Tu, Yingwei Chen, Jitang Zhang, Sheng Dai, Qijie Liu, Xinxing Shi, Tianle Wang, Mengliang Chen, Yingqi Huang, Feilong Xu and Liu Zhu
Processes 2023, 11(3), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030959 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
A solid-state cold-spray technique was employed for depositing the copper-coated graphite reinforced copper-based composite coatings on aluminum alloy 6061 T6 substrate under different process parameters. The optimum process parameters of the cold-sprayed coatings were predicted in terms of surface roughness, thickness and adhesion. [...] Read more.
A solid-state cold-spray technique was employed for depositing the copper-coated graphite reinforced copper-based composite coatings on aluminum alloy 6061 T6 substrate under different process parameters. The optimum process parameters of the cold-sprayed coatings were predicted in terms of surface roughness, thickness and adhesion. The surface roughness was measured using a 3D profilometer, the thickness and element constitution were detected by an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope furnished with an energy-dispersive spectral analyzer and the adhesion was detected by the scratch test method. The microstructures of the deposited coatings were also observed by a scanning electron microscope. The results show that when the coating is not oxidized and dense, the copper-coated graphite reinforced copper-based composite coating at 800 °C, 5.5 MPa, possesses the lowest surface roughness, the maximum thickness and the highest adhesion among the cold-sprayed coatings. In addition, the surface roughness, thickness and adhesion of the deposited coatings are all linear with particle velocity. Full article
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16 pages, 13557 KiB  
Article
Evaluation Techniques for Shale Oil Lithology and Mineral Composition Based on Principal Component Analysis Optimized Clustering Algorithm
by Wenyuan Cai, Rui Deng, Chengquan Gao, Yingjie Wang, Weidong Ning, Boyu Shu and Zhanglong Chen
Processes 2023, 11(3), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030958 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Shale oil reservoirs are characterized by complex lithology, complex mineral composition and strong heterogeneity. This causes great difficulty in lithologic evaluation. In this paper, a method of lithology identification is proposed by means of intersection plot method and machine learning method, and lithology [...] Read more.
Shale oil reservoirs are characterized by complex lithology, complex mineral composition and strong heterogeneity. This causes great difficulty in lithologic evaluation. In this paper, a method of lithology identification is proposed by means of intersection plot method and machine learning method, and lithology evaluation is carried out by combining the calculation of mineral content with a multi-mineral optimization model. The logging response characteristics of five lithologies are analyzed by using the logging curves selected by principal component analysis (PCA) discriminant analysis. In lithology identification, the system clustering algorithm is selected to identify shale oil reservoir lithology through layer-by-layer subdivision of sample lithology classification. Logging data has high vertical resolution and good continuity, and mineral prediction using logging data can ensure high accuracy. In this paper, the method of calculating mineral content by using multi-mineral optimization model has achieved good results in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Chemical Smart Manufacturing in Industry 4.0)
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15 pages, 8518 KiB  
Article
Resonance-Enhanced Pulsing Water Injection for Improved Oil Recovery: Micromodel Experiments and Analysis
by Yawen Tan, Yiqun Zhang, Chengyu Hui, Chao Yu, Shouceng Tian, Tianyu Wang and Fei Wang
Processes 2023, 11(3), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030957 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is a crucial technology in the petroleum industry, influenced by several factors, including flooding fluids and methods. The adjustment of injection strategies and the application of vibration stimulation can significantly impact oil recovery, especially residual oil. In this study, [...] Read more.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is a crucial technology in the petroleum industry, influenced by several factors, including flooding fluids and methods. The adjustment of injection strategies and the application of vibration stimulation can significantly impact oil recovery, especially residual oil. In this study, we conducted experiments using a glass micromodel to investigate the effect of pulsing water injection on oil recovery. Our results show that when the pulse frequency matches the natural frequency of the micromodel, resonance occurs during the two-phase flow of pulse driving, which causes an increase in the amplitude of oscillation, enhances the mobility of oil, and improves recovery. The efficiency of the kinetic energy of displacement is also improved. However, when the frequency is 3 Hz, the absence of resonance leads to the opposite effect. In addition, we found that a greater amplitude increases the fluidity of oil. These findings have significant implications for the design of EOR strategies and methods. Our experimental results provide insight into the effect of pulse water injection on oil recovery and offer a potential strategy for the optimization of EOR techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Flow and Heat/Mass Transfer Technology)
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24 pages, 4700 KiB  
Article
Cenozoic Subsidence History of the Northern South China Sea: Examples from the Qiongdongnan and Yinggehai Basins
by Ming Ma, Jiafu Qi, Jinshan Ma, Heng Peng, Linlin Lei, Qian Song, Qing Zhang and Mengen Bai
Processes 2023, 11(3), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030956 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
The Qiongdongnan and Yinggehai Basins are important petroliferous basins. To study the Cenozoic subsidence characteristics of these two basins, their controlling factors, and their implications, we studied the basins’ subsidence characteristics via one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and holistic subsidence. Then, we compared the basins’ subsidence [...] Read more.
The Qiongdongnan and Yinggehai Basins are important petroliferous basins. To study the Cenozoic subsidence characteristics of these two basins, their controlling factors, and their implications, we studied the basins’ subsidence characteristics via one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and holistic subsidence. Then, we compared the basins’ subsidence characteristics based on the evolution of several particular geological processes that occurred in the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent areas. The results indicated that the change in the holistic subsidence of both basins occurred episodically. In addition, the subsidence in these two basins differed, including their subsidence rates, the migration of the depocenters, and the changes in the holistic subsidence. The dynamic differences between the two basins were the main factors controlling the differences in the subsidence in the two basins. In the Qiongdongnan Basin, the subsidence characteristics were primarily controlled by the mantle material flowing under the South China Block in the Eocene and the spreading of the SCS from the Oligocene to the Miocene. In the Yinggehai Basin, the subsidence characteristics were primarily controlled by the coupling between the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the strike-slip motion of the Red River Fault before the Early Miocene and by only the effect of the strike-slip motion of the Red River Fault from the Middle Miocene to the Late Miocene. Since the Pliocene, the subsidence characteristics of both basins have been principally controlled by the dextral strike-slip motion of the Red River Fault. The major faults contributed to the spaciotemporal variations in the subsidence within each basin. Full article
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9 pages, 714 KiB  
Article
Spirometric Profile among Detergents Factory Workers in the North West Bank of Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Belal Rahhal, Zaher Nazzal, Abrar Jamal, Ola Quqa, Tasneem Makharze and Noora Aqel
Processes 2023, 11(3), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030955 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Background: The exposure to chemicals in detergent factories, as some studies have shown, has a negative impact the health of workers’ respiratory systems. The aim of the study was to assess the lung function parameters of detergent factory workers and compare it with [...] Read more.
Background: The exposure to chemicals in detergent factories, as some studies have shown, has a negative impact the health of workers’ respiratory systems. The aim of the study was to assess the lung function parameters of detergent factory workers and compare it with those of a group of non-chemical workers using spirometry. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed involving male detergent factory workers and a comparison group of non-chemical workers. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to record workers’ characteristics, and the data were entered to the spirometry device. The spirometry test was performed to assess workers’ lung functions; we recorded the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25–75%), and lung age. Results: A total of 94 participants (28 detergent factory workers and 66 non-chemical workers) were included in the study. Detergent factory workers showed significant decreasing in the values of FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, PEF, FEF25–75%, and increased lung age compared to non-workers group (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that detergent factory workers have significantly lower pulmonary functions compared to workers in other non-chemical occupations. Further studies are needed to find the cause of this difference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Processes: Women's Special Issue Series)
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20 pages, 4499 KiB  
Article
Energy-Saving Analysis of Epichlorohydrin Plant Based on Entransy
by Wenjiao Ma, Shuguang Xiang and Li Xia
Processes 2023, 11(3), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030954 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1165
Abstract
To improve energy efficiency and to recover energy, various mathematical models, such as pinch analysis, entropy analysis, exergy analysis, and entransy analysis, have been established to analyze heat transfer networks. In this study, these methods were applied to analyze the energy-saving effect of [...] Read more.
To improve energy efficiency and to recover energy, various mathematical models, such as pinch analysis, entropy analysis, exergy analysis, and entransy analysis, have been established to analyze heat transfer networks. In this study, these methods were applied to analyze the energy-saving effect of the epichlorohydrin unit in a certain enterprise. The results showed that when the minimum heat transfer temperature difference (ΔTmin) was 10K, 15K, and 20K, the efficiencies of the second law of thermodynamics calculated by entropy analysis were 88.02%, 93.52%, and 99.49%, respectively. The analytical method calculated an efficiency of 61.01%, 59.28%, and 57.27%, respectively, with public works’ savings of 16.59%, 14.86%, and 12.02%. The pinch analysis method achieved public works’ savings of 22.80%, 21.50%, and 19.35%. The entransy analysis method calculated an entransy transfer efficiency of 42.81%, 42.13%, and 41.00%, respectively, with public works’ savings of 19.41%, 18.01%, and 15.70%. Based on the results, entropy analysis was found to be contrary to the principle of minimum entropy production. Exergy analysis was not able to establish a heat transfer network. The pinch analysis method was not suitable for determining the thermal efficiency of a heat transfer network as the criterion for evaluating energy saving. On the other hand, the entransy analysis method was able to establish a heat transfer network and evaluate the heat utilization of the network by entransy transfer efficiency. Overall, the data analysis was reasonable. Full article
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23 pages, 2005 KiB  
Article
The Paradox of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) between High-Efficiency Energy and Waste Management Concerns in the Context of Disasters Worldwide
by Laura Elly Naghi, Narcis Sebastian Păvălașcu and Manuela Rozalia Gabor
Processes 2023, 11(3), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030953 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
With the uncertainty concerning the future use of natural resources due to depletion and lack of access caused by the pandemic and recent political events that led to increased prices, nuclear energy may become an alternative efficient energy. NPPs raise serious concerns, including [...] Read more.
With the uncertainty concerning the future use of natural resources due to depletion and lack of access caused by the pandemic and recent political events that led to increased prices, nuclear energy may become an alternative efficient energy. NPPs raise serious concerns, including waste management, and any case of an NPP accident has the potential to disrupt the positive impact of energy production in terms of circular economies. Our research analyzed the impact of nuclear incidents as examples of disasters worldwide to decide whether any of the different forms of insurance coverage could be useful in future events. By using 2533 historical records of incidents from 1901 to June 2022, we set out to find the best predictor of damage causes and further observe whether the validation of current forms of insurance may be possible. The disaster subtype and declaration represent the best predictor of the total damage value (adjusted or not) for all types of disasters, including nuclear. The results are important inputs for underwriters working in insurance, including in radioactive waste management, which must consider historical data in order to tailor future contracts, adjusting the cost and coverage to the type of disaster. Our results highlight that with an increase of only one event involving a nuclear source, the total adjusted damages will increase by USD 1,821,087.09 thousand, representing 75% of the damage costs of the rest of the disaster subtypes. The results are useful for public entities to evaluate nuclear energy as a new solution and can help further adapt existing policies to include better responses for waste prevention, reuse and recycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy and Efficient Use of Resources (Volume II))
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19 pages, 5875 KiB  
Article
Modeling of a Wind Power System Using the Genetic Algorithm Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator for the Supply of Power to the Electrical Grid
by Abdelkarim Guediri, Messaoud Hettiri and Abdelhafid Guediri
Processes 2023, 11(3), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030952 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
This paper is interested in studying a system consisting of a wind turbine operating at variable wind speeds, and a two-feed asynchronous machine (DFIG) connected to the grid by a stator and fed by a transducer at the side of the rotor. The [...] Read more.
This paper is interested in studying a system consisting of a wind turbine operating at variable wind speeds, and a two-feed asynchronous machine (DFIG) connected to the grid by a stator and fed by a transducer at the side of the rotor. The conductors are separately controlled for active and reactive power flow between the stator (DFIG) and the grid. The proposed controllers generate reference voltages for the rotor to ensure that the active and reactive power reaches the required reference values, to ensure effective tracking of the optimum operating point and to obtain the maximum electrical power output. Dynamic analysis of the system is performed under variable wind speeds. This analysis is based on active and reactive energy control. The new work in this paper is to introduce theories of genetic algorithms into the control strategy used in the switching chain of wind turbines in order to improve performance and efficiency. Simulation results applied to genetic algorithms give greater efficiency, impressive results, and stability to wind turbine systems are compared to classic PI regulators. Then, artificial intelligent controls, such as genetic algorithms control, are applied. Results obtained in the Matlab/Simulink environment show the efficiency of this proposed unit. Full article
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19 pages, 5854 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy Harmony Search Technique for Cyber Risks in Industry 4.0 Wireless Communication Networks
by Zhifeng Diao and Fanglei Sun
Processes 2023, 11(3), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030951 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Industry 4.0 houses diverse technologies including wireless communication and shared networks for internal and external operations. Due to the wireless nature and remote operability, the exposure to security threats is high. Cyber risk detection and mitigation are prominent for secure industrial operations and [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 houses diverse technologies including wireless communication and shared networks for internal and external operations. Due to the wireless nature and remote operability, the exposure to security threats is high. Cyber risk detection and mitigation are prominent for secure industrial operations and planned outcomes. In addition, the system faces the threat of intelligence attacks, security standards issues, privacy concerns and scalability problems. The cyber risk related research problems influence overall data transmission in industry wireless communication networks. For augmenting communication security through cyber risk detection, this article introduces an Explicit Risk Detection and Assessment Technique (ERDAT) for cyber threat mitigation in the industrial process. A fuzzy harmony search algorithm powers this technique for identifying the risk and preventing its impact. The harmony search algorithm mimics the adversary impact using production factors such as process interruption or halting and production outcome. The search performs a mimicking operation for a high objective function based on production output for the admitted plan. The fuzzy operation admits the above factors for identifying the cyber impacting risk, either for its impacts or profitable outcome. In this process, the fuzzy optimization identifies the maximum or minimum objective output targeted for either outcome or risk interrupts, respectively. The fuzzy threshold is identified using a mediated acceptable range, computed as the ratio between minimum and maximum, mimicking occurrences between the risk and scheduled production outcomes. Therefore, the mimicking crossing or falling behind the threshold for the interruption/halting or production, respectively, are identified as risks and their source is detected. The detection communication source is disconnected from the industrial process for preventing further adversary impacts. The introduced system achieves 8.52% high-risk detection, 12.5% fewer outcome interrupts, 8.3% fewer halted schedules, 8.08% less interrupt span, and 7.94% less detection time compared to traditional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends of Machine Learning in Multidisciplinary Engineering Processes)
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19 pages, 4777 KiB  
Article
Multiple-Rack Strategies Using Optimization of Location Assignment Based on MRCGA in Miniload Automated Storage and Retrieval System
by Miao He, Zailin Guan, Chuangjian Wang and Guoxiang Hou
Processes 2023, 11(3), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030950 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
This paper aimed to introduce multiple-rack strategies in miniload automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RSs), which included first fit (FF) and best fit (BF) assignment methods based on a matrix real-coded genetic algorithm (MRCGA) in the storage and retrieval process. We validated the [...] Read more.
This paper aimed to introduce multiple-rack strategies in miniload automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RSs), which included first fit (FF) and best fit (BF) assignment methods based on a matrix real-coded genetic algorithm (MRCGA) in the storage and retrieval process. We validated the probability occurrence of item sizes as a contributory factor in multiple-rack strategies, and compared their capacities, utilization of units and space by equal probabilities or the 80/20 law. According to the analytical methods, BF showed a reduction of more than 11.2% than FF on travel distance, and Type B-FF, Type B-BF and Type C-BF were better able to meet high-density requirements. These strategies provide diversified storage and retrieval solutions for the manufacturing and express delivery industry. Full article
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20 pages, 6125 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of the Blockage Effect of the Tunnel Drainage System on the E-Han Expressway
by Yun Li, Shiyang Liu, Shaojie Guan, Feng Gao and Yian Zhang
Processes 2023, 11(3), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030949 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The discharge of groundwater and the load on the lining structure are both significantly impacted by the obstruction of the tunnel drainage system. In this study, the fluid–structure interaction model was established based on the finite difference software FLAC3D. Then, this [...] Read more.
The discharge of groundwater and the load on the lining structure are both significantly impacted by the obstruction of the tunnel drainage system. In this study, the fluid–structure interaction model was established based on the finite difference software FLAC3D. Then, this research explored the effects of symmetric and asymmetric blockage in the circular drainpipe, the transverse drainpipe and at the pipe joint in the tunnel on the pore water pressure, displacement and stress of surrounding rock. Our research revealed the following points: (1) When a symmetrical or asymmetrical blockage occurred in a circular drainpipe, only the blocked part of the drainpipe would be affected, but the pore water pressure at the back side of the tunnel crown and side wall lining between two adjacent circular drainpipes would increase by 200%, stress increase would increase by 22% and displacement would increase by 41%. (2) When a symmetrical or asymmetrical blockage occurred in a transverse drainpipe, the pore water pressure at the back side of the tunnel crown and side wall lining between two adjacent circular drainpipes increased by a maximum of 146%, the stress on the tunnel crown lining increased by a maximum of 4% and the tunnel crown lining was displaced by 8% to a maximum extent. (3) Both symmetrical and asymmetrical blockage of the tunnel drain joint led to the failures of the circular drainpipe and the transverse drainpipe connected with the tunnel drain joint. This increased the pore water pressure on the back side of the lining between the two adjacent drain sections and had an impact on the pore water pressure, stress and displacement of the surrounding rock nearby. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Fluid Dynamics Modeling and Simulation)
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27 pages, 6858 KiB  
Review
Agrivoltaic, a Synergistic Co-Location of Agricultural and Energy Production in Perpetual Mutation: A Comprehensive Review
by Aminata Sarr, Y. M. Soro, Alain K. Tossa and Lamine Diop
Processes 2023, 11(3), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030948 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 11991
Abstract
Agrivoltaic systems, which consist of the combination of energy production by means of photovoltaic systems and agricultural production in the same area, have emerged as a promising solution to the constraints related to the reduction in cultivated areas due to solar panels used [...] Read more.
Agrivoltaic systems, which consist of the combination of energy production by means of photovoltaic systems and agricultural production in the same area, have emerged as a promising solution to the constraints related to the reduction in cultivated areas due to solar panels used in agricultural production systems. They also enable optimization of land use and reduction in conflicts over land access, in order to meet the increasing demand for agricultural products and energy resulting from rapid population growth. However, the selected installation configurations, such as elevation, spacing, tilt, and choice of panel technology used, can have a negative impact on agricultural and/or energy production. Thus, this paper addresses the need for a review that provides a clear explanation of agrivoltaics, including the factors that impact agricultural and energy production in agrivoltaic systems, types of panel configurations and technologies to optimize these systems, and a synthesis of modelling studies which have already been conducted in this area. Several studies have been carried out in this field to find the appropriate mounting height and spacing of the solar panels that optimize crop yields, as this later can be reduced by the shade created with the solar panels on the plants. It was reported that yields have been reduced by 62% to 3% for more than 80% of the tested crops. To this end, an optimization model can be developed to determine the optimal elevation, spacing, and tilt angle of the solar panels. This model would take into account factors that influence crop growth and yield, as well as factors that affect the performance of the photovoltaic system, with the goal of maximizing both crop yield and energy production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy for Sustainable Agriculture)
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19 pages, 6004 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Creep Characteristics and Long–Term Strength of Anthracite
by Jianbing Yan, Xiaoqiang Zhang, Kai Wang, Xuanmin Song, Shaofei Yue and Jian Hou
Processes 2023, 11(3), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030947 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
Coal pillars from old mines undergo creep, a type of time−dependent deformation. Research on underground engineering stability of coal mines has increasingly focused on long−term strength as an important mechanical index of the creep characteristics of coal pillars. This study performed conventional triaxial [...] Read more.
Coal pillars from old mines undergo creep, a type of time−dependent deformation. Research on underground engineering stability of coal mines has increasingly focused on long−term strength as an important mechanical index of the creep characteristics of coal pillars. This study performed conventional triaxial compression and triaxial creep tests of anthracite under different confining pressures. The creep law of anthracite and the long−term strength of anthracite was studied according to the test results. The test results demonstrated the following: (1) The conventional elastic modulus and peak strain of anthracite increased exponentially with the confining pressure. (2) Under low stress levels, anthracite exhibited only instantaneous deformation and attenuation creep. In contrast, anthracite exhibited instantaneous deformation, attenuation creep, and steady creep under high stress levels; accelerated creep occurred until failure when the stress reached a particular value. (3) By fitting the steady−state creep rate of anthracite under high stress levels, the functional relationship between axial stress and steady−state creep rate was established, and the threshold of the steady−state creep rate in high−stress−level areas was suggested as the optimum long−term strength of anthracite. (4) The ratio of the long−term strength to instantaneous strength under various confining pressure grades ranged from 70% to 91%. Full article
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16 pages, 2050 KiB  
Article
Separation of Molar Weight-Distributed Polyethylene Glycols by Reversed-Phase Chromatography—II. Preparative Isolation of Pure Single Homologs
by Malvina Supper, Rosanna Jost, Benedikt Bornschein and Malte Kaspereit
Processes 2023, 11(3), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030946 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1804
Abstract
The isolation of single homologs of polyethylene glycol by preparative reversed-phase chromatography is investigated. A thermodynamic model developed accurately previously describes the retention times of individual homologs as function of their size, temperature, and mobile phase composition under linear, diluted conditions. The model [...] Read more.
The isolation of single homologs of polyethylene glycol by preparative reversed-phase chromatography is investigated. A thermodynamic model developed accurately previously describes the retention times of individual homologs as function of their size, temperature, and mobile phase composition under linear, diluted conditions. The model is extended to predict limiting retention times for linear gradient operation in preparative applications. Isocratic and gradient-based separations are studied under strongly overloaded conditions. Baseline separation of homologs up to 3000 g/mol is demonstrated. Quantitative production of pure single homologs up to molar weights of 1000 g/mol was performed using an automated setup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Separation Processes)
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16 pages, 5474 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation and Process Enhancement of the Hydrolysis of 2-Chlorobenzal Chloride
by Fei Li, Liang Dong, Shenghu Yan, Yue Zhang, Jianwu Liu, Wenping Tao, Lichun Nian and Shuangcheng Fu
Processes 2023, 11(3), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030945 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Hydrolysis of 2-Chlorobenzal chloride is the primary production method of 2-chlobrobenzaldehyde in industry, but the reactor technologies and reaction processes of this method are traditional and underdeveloped, in which the dichotomous leaf hydrolysis agitator is commonly used, resulting in low efficiency during the [...] Read more.
Hydrolysis of 2-Chlorobenzal chloride is the primary production method of 2-chlobrobenzaldehyde in industry, but the reactor technologies and reaction processes of this method are traditional and underdeveloped, in which the dichotomous leaf hydrolysis agitator is commonly used, resulting in low efficiency during the hydrolysis process. In this article, ANSYS software was utilized to enhance the hydrolytic reactors used in industrial production by simulating and analyzing the dispersion characteristics of droplets in the reactor. The particle size distribution of dispersed phase droplets and the Sauter mean diameter (D32) were used to characterize the dispersion effect, and the dispersion characteristics of the dichotomous leaf agitator and the three-bladed back-curved impeller, three-bladed propeller impeller, open turbine impeller, and crescent impeller were compared and studied. The results showed that there was a log-linear relationship between the D32 of the dispersed phase and the stirring speed in different systems; the number of tiny droplets in the three-bladed back-curved impeller system increased remarkably, and the droplets size distribution width decreased significantly, achieving mass transfer enhancement in the hydrolysis reaction system. The reliability of the simulation results was verified by the measurement experiment using the Sauter mean diameter (D32) of dispersed phase droplets. The results showed that the Sauter mean diameter (D32) variation trend is consistent with that of the simulation, and the error between them is less than 10%. A lab-scale hydrolytic reactor was designed and produced based on the scheme of an industrial hydrolytic reactor equipped with a three-bladed back-curved impeller, the effect of the hydrolytic reaction was verified, and the process conditions were strengthened under the same conditions. The results showed that, compared with the case in the reactor using a dichotomous leaf hydrolysis agitator at the same reaction temperature and catalyst conditions, the reaction time of hydrolysis completion reduced to 58.33% at the lab-scale, and to 63.89% at the industrial-scale at the stirring rate of 446 r/min, using a three-bladed back-curved impeller. These results provide a technical scheme and a basis for process strengthening for improving the production efficiency of 2-chlorobenzaldehyde production equipment in industry. Full article
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19 pages, 4865 KiB  
Article
A Mechanistic Model on Catalyst Deactivation by Coke Formation in a CSTR Reactor
by Ishaka Muhammad, Nura Makwashi, Tariq Galadanchi Ahmed, George Manos and Donglin Zhao
Processes 2023, 11(3), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030944 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3059
Abstract
A mechanistic model on catalyst deactivation by coke formation in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) has been developed in the paper. Catalyst deactivation by coke formation was treated as a surface reaction. Four reaction mechanisms representing coke formation through different routes were [...] Read more.
A mechanistic model on catalyst deactivation by coke formation in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) has been developed in the paper. Catalyst deactivation by coke formation was treated as a surface reaction. Four reaction mechanisms representing coke formation through different routes were proposed. The evolved system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) was solved numerically using MATLAB. This approach was validated by applying it to the skeletal isomerization of 1-pentene over ferrierite. Simulation results were compared qualitatively to those obtained from the literature. Simulation results indicated that coke formation is an extremely rapid process with fast formation of coke components on the strongest acid sites leading to final coke. The coke deposition is slower at higher residence times resulting in more stable product formation and weaker deactivation. The results obtained from this work revealed that the developed model is indeed able to successfully demonstrate the most essential features of catalyst deactivation by coke formation and are in agreement with the findings in the literature. Future work is aimed to extend the study to different reactors such as a plug flow reactor, in addition to analysis of the reaction system’s sensitivity to variables such as temperature and pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification in Chemical Reaction Engineering (Volume II))
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