Extraction, Isolation, Stabilization, and Identification of Plant Bioactives

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Biological Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2024) | Viewed by 4876

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: fruit; vegetables and herbs composition and processing; fresh-cut processing; plant bioactive compounds (polyphenols, pigments, sterols, fatty acids); conventional and advanced extraction techniques; antioxidant capacity; high-performance liquid chromatography; gas-chromatography; volatiles; essential oils
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: polyphenols; pigments; extraction techniques; encapsulation; spray drying; fruit and vegetables processing; chromatographic techniques; antioxidant activity; bioavailability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco A.C., (CIATEJ) Subsede Sureste, Tablaje Catastral 31264, Km. 5.5 Carretera Sierra Papacal‐Chuburná Puerto, Parque Científico Tecnológico de Yucatán, Mérida, Sierra Papacal 97302, Yucatan, Mexico
Interests: identification; extraction and encapsulation of biomolecules; especially polyphenols; capsaicinoids and carotenoids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to contribute to the Special Issue "Extraction, Isolation, Stabilization and Identification of Plant Bioactives" in the Processes journal. Recently, bioactives from plant-based sources have gained the interest of both consumers and the scientific community due to the spreading knowledge of their beneficial health properties. Fruits, vegetables, grains, herbs and spices have shown to be a source of various bioactive substances. Furthermore, the food industry produces a significant amount of waste that is rich in bioactives, which can be revalorized for application in food and nutraceutical industries. However, the extraction, purification, and stability of these bioactives is a major concern. Recent studies emphasize the advantages of “green” extraction techniques for bioactives’ isolation versus conventional ones. Although based on different mechanisms, all these techniques have similar advantages, mainly enhancement of the extraction yield, shortening of the extraction time, reduced solvent consumption, and minimized degradation of thermosensitive compounds. Another important segment in bioactives’ utilization is their stability. One of the most reliable methods for protecting and stabilizing the bioactives is encapsulation. Additionally, encapsulation provides controlled delivery to the target place in the organism and protection in the GI tract and has been reported to increase the bioavailability of plant bioactives. The selection of the proper isolation and stabilization procedure depends on the properties of the bioactives and the final purpose and designation of the product.

Therefore, the present Special Issue aims to provide a platform for the scientific community to present high-quality research focused primarily on the extraction, processing, identification and encapsulation of plant bioactives.

Dr. Maja Repajić
Dr. Ivona Elez Garofulić
Dr. Ingrid Mayanin Rodríguez-Buenfil
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant bioactives
  • extraction techniques
  • encapsulation
  • stability
  • high-performance liquid chromatography
  • gas-chromatography

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

12 pages, 1594 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Capsaicinoid Extraction Conditions from Mexican Capsicum chinense Var. Mayapan with Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)
by Kevin Alejandro Avilés-Betanzos, Matteo Scampicchio, Giovanna Ferrentino, Manuel Octavio Ramírez-Sucre and Ingrid Mayanin Rodríguez-Buenfil
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2272; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082272 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Capsaicin (Cp) is a secondary metabolite produced by the Capsicum plant family. This molecule exhibits various biological properties such as antioxidant capacities, anti-obesogenic effects, and antidiabetic properties, among others. However, conventional extraction methods for Cp present several disadvantages including toxicity, extraction time, and [...] Read more.
Capsaicin (Cp) is a secondary metabolite produced by the Capsicum plant family. This molecule exhibits various biological properties such as antioxidant capacities, anti-obesogenic effects, and antidiabetic properties, among others. However, conventional extraction methods for Cp present several disadvantages including toxicity, extraction time, and low purity. Therefore, the utilization of supercritical fluid extraction techniques represents a viable option for obtaining highly pure and low-toxicity oleoresins (capsaicin-rich extracts). This approach involves the use of CO2 in the supercritical state and finds applicability in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. The Capsicum chinense variety from the Yucatán Peninsula is a crop with significant economic impact in the region, due to having the highest concentrations of Cp in Mexico. This significant characteristic is attributed to its adaptation to the unique conditions (climate, soil, solar radiation, humidity) of the southeastern region of Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature (45 °C, 60 °C), pressure (1450 psi, 2900 psi), and extraction time (60 min, 120 min) on the supercritical fluid extraction of Cp and dihydrocapsaicin (DhCp) from Capsicum chinense Jacq. The results obtained demonstrated that the extraction conditions of 45 °C, 1450 psi, and 60 min yielded the highest concentration of Cp (37.09 ± 0.84 mg/g extract) and DhCp (10.17 ± 0.18 mg/g extract), while the highest antioxidant capacity (91.48 ± 0.24% inhibition) was obtained with 60 °C, 2900 psi, and 60 min. The findings of this study indicate that the lower the pressure and extraction time, the higher the concentrations of Cp and DhCp compared to previous reports. This represents an opportunity for cost reduction in production lines and improved utilization of Capsicum chinense in the agrifood industry through additional optimization processes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2999 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Conventional and Green Extraction Techniques for the Isolation of Phenolic Antioxidants from Sea Fennel
by Maja Veršić Bratinčević, Rea Kovačić, Marijana Popović, Sanja Radman and Ivana Generalić Mekinić
Processes 2023, 11(7), 2172; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11072172 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
In this study, different extraction methods were compared for the isolation of bioactive phenolic compounds from sea fennel: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and conventional solvent extraction (CSE). Total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were determined spectrophotometrically. In contrast, the determination of individual [...] Read more.
In this study, different extraction methods were compared for the isolation of bioactive phenolic compounds from sea fennel: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and conventional solvent extraction (CSE). Total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were determined spectrophotometrically. In contrast, the determination of individual phenolics was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet/visible detector (HPLC-UV/VIS). Two in vitro assays (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH)) were performed to determine antioxidant activity. The maximum extraction of phenolic compounds was achieved with 50% ethanol, while the MAE method showed the highest extraction efficiency, with a total phenolic content of more than 25 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mg and a chlorogenic acid content of more than 10 mg/g, respectively. The highest antioxidant potential was also observed in the samples from MAE (the FRAP value ranged from 173 to 185 µmol Fe2+/g, and the DPPH inhibition ranged from 55 to 59%), which was consistent with the extraction results. Although the phenolic antioxidants of sea fennel have been extensively studied recently, to the authors’ knowledge, this study was the first to evaluate the application of the new techniques for their isolation and to show the advantages of MAE compared to the other techniques used. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4367 KiB  
Article
Capsicum chinense Polyphenols Extraction by Supercritical Fluids Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
by Kevin Alejandro Avilés-Betanzos, Matteo Scampicchio, Giovanna Ferrentino, Manuel Octavio Ramírez-Sucre and Ingrid Mayanin Rodríguez-Buenfil
Processes 2023, 11(7), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11072055 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Capsicum chinense, commonly known as the habanero pepper, is renowned for its culinary and medicinal value due to a great abundance of polyphenolic compounds. The pursuit of eco-friendly methods for extracting these metabolites, which produce high-purity extracts applicable to the food and [...] Read more.
Capsicum chinense, commonly known as the habanero pepper, is renowned for its culinary and medicinal value due to a great abundance of polyphenolic compounds. The pursuit of eco-friendly methods for extracting these metabolites, which produce high-purity extracts applicable to the food and pharmaceutical sectors, has led to the adoption of green technologies such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). In this methodology, by manipulating factors like temperature, pressure, and extraction time, the goal of producing extracts with elevated phenolic content from plant materials can be achieved. In this study, a central compound design (CCD) was conducted with the response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction of polyphenols from Capsicum chinense using supercritical fluids. The optimal conditions for total polyphenol extraction were determined as 63.1 °C, 1161.82 psi, and an extraction time of 132 min, with a total polyphenol content (TPC) of 1870 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g extract. Additionally, concentration of several individual polyphenols were optimized, including catechin (236.27 mg/100 g extract, 62.8 °C, 1150 psi, and 132 min), chlorogenic acid (447.08 mg/100 g extract, 63.1 °C, 1150 psi, and 131.9 min), vanillic acid (136.38 mg/100 g extract, 41.9 °C, 1150 psi, and 132 min), diosmin + hesperidin (92.80 mg/100 g extract, 63 °C, 3200 psi, and 132 min), rutin (40 mg/100 g extract, 63.03 °C, 3200 psi, and 132 min), among others. These findings highlight the potential of supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining high yields of polyphenols from Capsicum chinese. The use of SFE-RSM also may optimize the extraction of specific phenolic compounds, and at the same time, it provides valuable insights for the development of extracts with enhanced bioactive properties for various applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Spray-Drying Conditions on the Characteristics of Powdered Pistacia lentiscus Leaf Extract
by Tanja Jović, Ivona Elez Garofulić, Patricija Čulina, Sandra Pedisić, Erika Dobroslavić, Ena Cegledi, Verica Dragović-Uzelac and Zoran Zorić
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041229 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Pistacia lentiscus is an evergreen shrub widely used in folk medicine due to the high biological potential of the leaves’ phenolic compounds. Since phenolic compounds are susceptible to degradation under different heat, light and oxygen conditions, various microencapsulation techniques, such as spray drying, [...] Read more.
Pistacia lentiscus is an evergreen shrub widely used in folk medicine due to the high biological potential of the leaves’ phenolic compounds. Since phenolic compounds are susceptible to degradation under different heat, light and oxygen conditions, various microencapsulation techniques, such as spray drying, can be used to increase their stability. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of different carriers (gum arabic (GA), maltodextrin 13–17 DE (MD), β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and their mixtures), carrier concentrations in feed (12.8, 16 and 19.2% (m/V)) and drying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 °C) on the physiochemical properties, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of Pistacia lentiscus leaf extract powders. Product yields of powders ranged from 23.53 to 65.51%, moisture content from 2.89 to 12.03%, hygroscopicity up to 4.45 g/100 g, solubility from 27.11 to 86.84% and bulk density from 0.24 to 0.45 g/mL. All obtained powders had satisfactory physicochemical properties, except BCD powders, which resulted in the lowest product yield, solubility and bulk density. However, BCD powders and those produced with GA containing mixtures retained the highest amounts of TPC and AOA. Thereby, the carrier mixtures with GA at a concentration of 19.2% and dried at 150 °C are recommended as the most suitable for the production of encapsulated Pistacia lentiscus leaf extracts with desirable physicochemical properties, rich in phenolics and with high antioxidant activity. Full article
19 pages, 3150 KiB  
Article
Effect of UV-C Irradiation and High Hydrostatic Pressure on Microbiological, Chemical, Physical and Sensory Properties of Fresh-Cut Potatoes
by Zdenka Pelaić, Zrinka Čošić, Maja Repajić, Filip Dujmić, Sandra Balbino and Branka Levaj
Processes 2023, 11(3), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030961 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1296
Abstract
UV-C irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) successfully reduce the number of bacteria and their growth but can also affect phenolic and sugar content, as well as other physicochemical properties. Therefore, in this work, the effect of UV-C irradiation, HHP, and their combination, [...] Read more.
UV-C irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) successfully reduce the number of bacteria and their growth but can also affect phenolic and sugar content, as well as other physicochemical properties. Therefore, in this work, the effect of UV-C irradiation, HHP, and their combination, UV-C/HHP, on total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count (TAMBC), chlorogenic acid and sugar content, and other physicochemical properties of raw FCP were examined. Acrylamide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were also monitored in treated FCP after frying. Vacuum-packed potato slices pretreated with an antibrowning agent were irradiated with UV-C (2.70 kJ m−2), treated with HHP (400 MPa/3 min) and combined UV-C/HHP, and stored for 15 days. The greatest reduction in TAMBC was achieved in the UV-C/HHP-treated samples, followed by the HHP treatment, and they both resulted in the slowest bacterial growth during storage. All treatments decreased the contents of chlorogenic acid, but the greatest reduction was observed in the HHP-treated samples. All treatments increased the content of reducing sugars, and UV-C/HHP did so significantly, which also led to an increase in acrylamide content in the fried FCP. PAH levels were below the established limits. Acceptable sensory attributes of all samples (raw, boiled, and fried) remained relatively stable during storage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Green Separation and Extraction of Isofraxidin from Acanthopanax senticosus Using Deep Eutectic Solvent Synthesized from Choline Chloride and Citric Acid
by Chang-hai Sun, Jing-hua Hou, Shi-yuan Sun, Yu Zhang, Xin-ran Zhang and Li-ting Mu
Processes 2023, 11(3), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030943 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Maxim.; AS) is a medicinal plant used in the clinical treatment of cerebrovascular diseases and central nervous system disorders, and it significantly improves blood lipid levels and endothelial cell function in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Isofraxidin, one of the [...] Read more.
Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Maxim.; AS) is a medicinal plant used in the clinical treatment of cerebrovascular diseases and central nervous system disorders, and it significantly improves blood lipid levels and endothelial cell function in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Isofraxidin, one of the active ingredients of AS, is the core of the plant’s medical effects, and its extraction depends on organic solvents. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are new green solvents synthesized by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between hydrogen bond donors (HBD) and hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA) which are non-toxic, have a high separation and extraction efficiency, and are environmentally friendly compared to traditional organic solvents. In this paper, DES was used for the extraction of isofraxidin from AS. The primary findings demonstrated that the DES had a viscosity higher than that of ethanol, and even adding a small amount of water (approximately 10%) would trigger solvent redistribution, leading to a considerable reduction in solvent viscosity. In comparison to ethanol, the extraction rate of isofraxidin by DES was 2–3 times higher. Thus, this work developed a new technique for using green extraction of isofraxidin that has some practical implications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 711 KiB  
Article
Influence of Encapsulation Parameters on the Retention of Polyphenols in Blackthorn Flower Extract
by Nikolina Gaćina, Ivona Elez Garofulić, Zoran Zorić, Sandra Pedisić and Verica Dragović-Uzelac
Processes 2022, 10(12), 2517; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10122517 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
In order to utilize the benefits of blackthorn flower polyphenols and provide their stabilization during processing and storage, and to facilitate their application in functional food products, this study aimed to evaluate the encapsulation parameters during the spray-drying process of blackthorn flower extract. [...] Read more.
In order to utilize the benefits of blackthorn flower polyphenols and provide their stabilization during processing and storage, and to facilitate their application in functional food products, this study aimed to evaluate the encapsulation parameters during the spray-drying process of blackthorn flower extract. The effect of the type of wall material (maltodextrin (MD) and its mixtures with gum arabic (GA) and inulin (IN)), its ratio to extract dry matter (0.5, 1, and 2) and drying temperature (120, 150, and 180 °C) on the concentration of different polyphenolic groups was studied. While the lowest applied amount of wall material at the lowest drying temperature enabled efficient encapsulation of all polyphenolic groups, the type of wall material applied caused significant differences in retention. The highest concentrations of both phenolic acids and flavonoids were achieved with the addition of 25% of GA in MD. Unlike the addition of GA, mixtures of MD with IN did not show a positive effect on the retention of polyphenols. Selected encapsulation parameters ensured the high retention of total phenolics, namely 87.87% of the content determined in the liquid extract prior to spray drying, thereby providing a polyphenol-rich product with great potential for application in functional food and the nutraceutical industry. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop