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Processes, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 325 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study successfully converted waste polystyrene (PS) into oil and char products through slow pyrolysis at 475–575°C for 30 min under 10–15psi. The PS-oil product contained predominantly styrene with the presence of dimers and trimers. Styrene can produce PS or vinyl-ester resins but needs to be refined and distilled to obtain a pure fraction. The PS-char product contained partially reacted PS, and further pyrolysis is required for complete conversion. The results show that styrene was produced at 57–60% from all leading oil compounds (2,4-diphenyl-1-butene, 2,4,6-triphenyl-1-hexene, and toluene), and 475 °C had the major average of conversion effectiveness of 91.3%. View this paper
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24 pages, 3883 KiB  
Article
Some Logarithmic Intuitionistic Fuzzy Einstein Aggregation Operators under Confidence Level
by Khaista Rahman, Ibrahim M. Hezam, Darko Božanić, Adis Puška and Miloš Milovančević
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041298 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to introduce some new logarithm operational laws for intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Some structure properties have been developed and based on these, various aggregation operators, namely confidence logarithmic intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein weighted geometric (CLIFEWG) operator, confidence logarithmic intuitionistic [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to introduce some new logarithm operational laws for intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Some structure properties have been developed and based on these, various aggregation operators, namely confidence logarithmic intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein weighted geometric (CLIFEWG) operator, confidence logarithmic intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein ordered weighted geometric (CLIFEOWG) operator, confidence logarithmic intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid geometric (CLIFEHG) operator, confidence logarithmic intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein weighted averaging (CLIFEWA) operator, confidence logarithmic intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein ordered weighted averaging (CLIFEOWA) operator, confidence logarithmic intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid averaging (CLIFEHA) operator have been presented. To show the validity and the superiority of the proposed operators, we compared these methods with the existing methods and concluded from the comparison and sensitivity analysis our proposed techniques are more effective. Full article
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23 pages, 10426 KiB  
Article
The Academic Development Trajectories and Applications of Flexible Manufacturing Systems Based on Main Path Analysis Method
by Yun-Wen Chen, Wei-Hao Su and Kai-Ying Chen
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041297 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Rapid shifts in consumer preferences have prompted enterprises to offer products in small quantities and various options. To meet market demands, enterprises must be able to research the development of modern conceptions of manufacturing systems which has revolved around new practical and scientific [...] Read more.
Rapid shifts in consumer preferences have prompted enterprises to offer products in small quantities and various options. To meet market demands, enterprises must be able to research the development of modern conceptions of manufacturing systems which has revolved around new practical and scientific results that are able to meet the assumptions of focused flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs) and the challenges of the Industry 4.0 philosophy. These FMSs, which incorporate automated facilities and computer control systems, play a crucial role in boosting the productivity of enterprises. In this study, the development trajectory and applications of FMS research were investigated. Scopus was used to collect and organize voluminous data, and main path analysis was used to identify the most relevant studies on FMS research. The results revealed that early FMS research concentrated on fundamental property analysis. After the flexibility and productivity of these systems were enhanced, the elimination of loading problems was discussed. Generally, FMS research has emphasized factor identification, flexibility evaluation, pre-simulation, and optimization. In this study, cluster analysis was used to identify five subfields: loading problem mitigation through scheduling, decision-making facilitation through simulation, FMS deadlock prevention, FMS flexibility measurement, and FMS composition. This study provides planning directions for industry, and the findings serve as a reference for manufacturing systems. The integrated analysis successfully determined the trajectory of FMS based technological development and applications as well as forecast the direction of future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems, 2nd Volume)
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25 pages, 2548 KiB  
Review
Computational Models That Use a Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Approach Based on Deep Learning
by Yasunari Matsuzaka and Yoshihiro Uesawa
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041296 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
In the toxicological testing of new small-molecule compounds, it is desirable to establish in silico test methods to predict toxicity instead of relying on animal testing. Since quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) can predict the biological activity from structural information for small-molecule compounds, QSAR [...] Read more.
In the toxicological testing of new small-molecule compounds, it is desirable to establish in silico test methods to predict toxicity instead of relying on animal testing. Since quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) can predict the biological activity from structural information for small-molecule compounds, QSAR applications for in silico toxicity prediction have been studied for a long time. However, in recent years, the remarkable predictive performance of deep learning has attracted attention for practical applications. In this review, we summarize the application of deep learning to QSAR for constructing prediction models, including a discussion of parameter optimization for deep learning. Full article
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25 pages, 9325 KiB  
Article
Reducing the Scrap Rate on a Production Process Using Lean Six Sigma Methodology
by Ioana-Cătălina Enache, Oana Roxana Chivu, Ana-Maria Rugescu, Elena Ionita and Ionut Valentin Radu
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041295 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 4036
Abstract
The aim of this case study is to implement the Lean Six Sigma methodology to reduce the scrap rate of the edge-bending process of a metal door case used in the assembly process of refrigeration appliances. This study was initiated because the assembly [...] Read more.
The aim of this case study is to implement the Lean Six Sigma methodology to reduce the scrap rate of the edge-bending process of a metal door case used in the assembly process of refrigeration appliances. This study was initiated because the assembly process of refrigerators does not work at maximum capacity due to the scrap that occurs for this component. Losses have direct effects on a company’s profits and on its competitiveness on the market. This research provides an overview of the identification of the most optimal and useful tools that can be used in each context; this will help to establish a protocol which can be applied in similar contexts. Although this study is limited to one process, the results will have direct effects on the assembly line of the organization. The purpose of this study is to increase the capability of the process and to improve the efficiency of the delivery of the component parts to the assembly line. This case study provides further evidence of the effectiveness of the use of the Six Sigma methodology in identifying and reducing scrap rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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21 pages, 6536 KiB  
Article
Application of a Full-Scale Horizontal Anaerobic Digester for the Co-Digestion of Pig Manure, Food Waste, Excretion, and Thickened Sewage Sludge
by Yongwoon Park, Jeehyeong Khim and Jong Doo Kim
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041294 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Many laboratory- and pilot-scale studies on anaerobic co-digestion have been conducted in Republic of Korea; however, studies on full-scale demonstration facilities are lacking. This study aimed to present a successful case of a large-scale anaerobic co-digestion facility in Republic of Korea for biogas [...] Read more.
Many laboratory- and pilot-scale studies on anaerobic co-digestion have been conducted in Republic of Korea; however, studies on full-scale demonstration facilities are lacking. This study aimed to present a successful case of a large-scale anaerobic co-digestion facility in Republic of Korea for biogas generation from four organic wastes (pig manure, food waste, excretion, and thickened sewage sludge) using a horizontal anaerobic digester. A preliminary biochemical methane potential test was performed for the individual and mixed organic waste to design a treatment facility for 320 m3/day of organic waste generated in Seosan City. Subsequently, a horizontal anaerobic digester with a 35 day-retention time (based on 320 m3/day input) was constructed. Each organic waste was placed in an anaerobic reactor after pretreatment. The input was gradually increased after the first seeding, and the operation continued for 158 days. Total and volatile solids made up 4.1% and 3.3%, respectively. Throughout the operating period, the digester temperature was maintained at 35–40 °C for mesophilic digestion, and the pH was maintained at 7–8. The average organic matter removal efficiency (volatile solids basis) was 64% and the methane gas production rates were 0.35, 0.6, 0.26, 0.28, and 0.39 Nm3CH4/kg vs. for pig manure, food waste, excretion, thickened sewage sludge, and mixed waste, respectively, resulting in an average methane content of the biogas 68.8%. Full article
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17 pages, 5269 KiB  
Article
Poplar Wood Pretreatment Using Deep Eutectic Solvents for Promoting Enzymatic Hydrolysis
by Xuyang Zhao, Ying Zhan, Lihua Han, Xiaoran Sun, Tianyu Zhang and Zheng Zhao
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041293 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Bioethanol produced from lignocellulose is a renewable energy substitute for traditional fossil fuels. Poplar wood as forest waste is popular in bioethanol production. Nonetheless, the complex structure of lignocellulose leads to low reducing sugar and ethanol yields. Thus, lignocellulose pretreatment is necessary to [...] Read more.
Bioethanol produced from lignocellulose is a renewable energy substitute for traditional fossil fuels. Poplar wood as forest waste is popular in bioethanol production. Nonetheless, the complex structure of lignocellulose leads to low reducing sugar and ethanol yields. Thus, lignocellulose pretreatment is necessary to promote enzymatic hydrolysis. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have good dissolution capacity, low vapor pressure, a simple synthesis procedure, low synthesis cost and low toxicity. More and more researchers have begun paying attention to the application of DESs in lignocellulose pretreatment. In this work, poplar wood was pretreated using a series of basic DESs based on diol. The effects of the DES species, the basicity of the solvents, the pretreatment temperature and the pretreatment time on the effectiveness of pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis for poplar wood were investigated, and characterization analysis (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy) of poplar wood was carried out to reveal the pretreatment mechanism. The best pretreatment effect was obtained from K: 1, 2-PG, which removed 89.2% and 71.6% of the lignin and hemicellulose, respectively, while preserving 97.5% of the cellulose at 130 °C for 7 h. This enhanced the reducing sugar yield to 82.5% relative to that of the raw sample (3.3%) after 72 h of hydrolysis. The results of the characterization analysis demonstrated that lignin and hemicellulose were removed. Therefore, the DES based on K: 1, 2-PG is a promising solvent for poplar wood pretreatment, and could improve the industrial production of reducing sugar and bioethanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction, Utilization and Conversion of Woody Biomass)
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23 pages, 5837 KiB  
Article
Coil High Voltage Spark Plug Boots Insulators Material Selection Using MCDM, Simulation, and Experimental Validation
by Javier Martínez-Gómez and Jaime Eduardo Portilla
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041292 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
The examination and choice of an alternate composite material for the high-voltage circuit of Otto cycle internal combustion engines—more commonly known as gasoline engines—are presented in the research that follows. To do this, multicriteria selection procedures are employed, and the outcomes are validated [...] Read more.
The examination and choice of an alternate composite material for the high-voltage circuit of Otto cycle internal combustion engines—more commonly known as gasoline engines—are presented in the research that follows. To do this, multicriteria selection procedures are employed, and the outcomes are validated through the use of thermal character simulation software and standard laboratory tests. Nylon is the recommended material for Coils on Plug (COP) high-voltage insulators. Four of the six multicriteria selection techniques utilized in this study were found to be effective. It was discovered through the virtual simulation process that, even in the same environment with the same edge circumstances, the thermal behavior of the materials differs dramatically because the quadrants exhibit different behavior depending on the material. Given that nylon has a lower elasticity modulus than silicone, it was determined that the dimensions are crucial for the nylon Spark Plug Boot (SPB) to comply with the dielectric isolation process. It must have a minimal clearance in order to be related to the geometry of the spark plug and perform the perfect insulation in this manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Simulation, Control, and Optimization of Processes)
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12 pages, 1625 KiB  
Article
A Peptide Potential Based on a Bond Dipole Representation of Electrostatics
by Yan-Min Li, Xiao-Han Zheng, Chao-Ming Li, Qi Liu, Lei Wang, Qiang Hao and Chang-Sheng Wang
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041291 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
A potential based on a bond dipole representation of electrostatics is reported for peptides. Different from those popular force fields using atom-centered point-charge or point-multipole to express the electrostatics, our peptide potential uses the chemical bond dipole–dipole interactions to express the electrostatic interactions. [...] Read more.
A potential based on a bond dipole representation of electrostatics is reported for peptides. Different from those popular force fields using atom-centered point-charge or point-multipole to express the electrostatics, our peptide potential uses the chemical bond dipole–dipole interactions to express the electrostatic interactions. The parameters for permanent and induced bond dipoles are derived from fitting to the MP2 three-body interaction energy curves. The parameters for van der Waals are taken from AMBER99sb and further refined from fitting to the MP2 stacking interaction energy curve. The parameters for bonded terms are taken from AMBER99sb without any modification. The scale factors for intramolecular dipole–dipole interactions are determined from reproducing the highly qualified ab initio conformational energies of dipeptides and tetrapeptides. The resulting potential is validated by use to evaluate the conformational energies of polypeptides containing up to 15 amino acid residues. The calculation results show that our peptide potential produces the conformational energies much closer to the famous density functional theory M06-2X/cc-pVTZ results than the famous AMBER99sb and AMOEBAbio18 force fields. Our potential also produces accurate intermolecular interaction energies for hydrogen-bonded and stacked dimers. We anticipate the peptide potential proposed here could be helpful in computer simulations of polypeptides and proteins. Full article
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13 pages, 4305 KiB  
Article
Anisotropic Analysis of Etch Rates for Sapphire Based on a Layer-by-Layer Removal Model of Surface Atoms
by Yang Li and Guorong Wu
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041290 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
In this paper, a layer-by-layer removal model of surface atoms (Al) is established according to the atomic structure of sapphire, which can accurately calculate etch rates of crystal planes and analyze the anisotropy of etch rates of sapphire. Firstly, etch rate distributions of [...] Read more.
In this paper, a layer-by-layer removal model of surface atoms (Al) is established according to the atomic structure of sapphire, which can accurately calculate etch rates of crystal planes and analyze the anisotropy of etch rates of sapphire. Firstly, etch rate distributions of sapphire are gained through different etching experiments of sapphire hemispheres, and the effect of concentrations of the etching solution on etch rate distributions are analyzed. Then, different types of surface atoms are classified based on the types of chemical bonds of surface atoms, the arrangement laws of surface atoms of different crystal planes are analyzed and a general formula for calculating etch rates of different planes is proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of the layer-by-layer removal model of surface atoms (Al) is proved by small errors between calculated rates of the model and experimental rates at different concentrations, and the factors affecting the anisotropy of etch rates of sapphire are summarized, which include: (1) the vertical distances between two adjacent layers of surface atoms of crystal planes; (2) the configurations of the types of surface atoms of crystal planes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Processes)
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14 pages, 2424 KiB  
Article
Study and Optimization Defect Layer in Powder Mixed Electrical Discharge Machining of Titanium Alloy
by Dragan Rodic, Marin Gostimirovic, Milenko Sekulic, Borislav Savkovic and Andjelko Aleksic
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041289 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) has recently become very popular for processing titanium alloys, but surface quality is a major problem. During machining, a defect layer inevitably forms on the surface, which can have a negative impact on surface quality. One of the ways [...] Read more.
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) has recently become very popular for processing titanium alloys, but surface quality is a major problem. During machining, a defect layer inevitably forms on the surface, which can have a negative impact on surface quality. One of the ways to reduce the defect layer is to add powder to the dielectric. However, it is not yet completely clear which powder and in what quantity it should be added to reduce the defect layer. In this sense, the present study aims to investigate the effects of machining parameters on the defect layer in powder-mixed electrical discharge machining of titanium alloys. The main goal is to achieve the minimum thickness of the defect layer by optimally adjusting the input parameters. Experimental studies were performed using the Taguchi orthogonal array L9, considering discharge current, pulse duration, duty cycle, and graphite powder concentration as input parameters. Based on the Taguchi and ANOVA analyses, the discharge current was found to have the greatest effect on the defect layer. In addition, analysis of variance revealed that pulse duration was the second influential parameter, followed by graphite powder and duty cycle. The minimum thickness of the defect layer is obtained at a discharge current of 1.5 A, a pulse duration of 30 µs, a duty cycle of 50%, and a graphite powder concentration of 12 g/L. The results obtained in this study provided answers to some of the unresolved research questions and confirmed the findings that the proposed method can be applied in the industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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17 pages, 2526 KiB  
Article
Studies of Niobium Sorption from Chloride Solutions with the Use of Anion-Exchange Resins
by Almagul Ultarakova, Zaure Karshyga, Nina Lokhova, Azamat Yessengaziyev, Kaisar Kassymzhanov and Arailym Mukangaliyeva
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041288 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
This paper presents the results of studies for niobium sorption from chloride solutions with the use of anion-exchange organic sorbents: Amberlite IRA-67, Purolite A-100, AB-17-8, and AN-2FN. Niobium sorption was performed from model niobium-containing solutions. Data on comparative sorption characteristics of the studied [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of studies for niobium sorption from chloride solutions with the use of anion-exchange organic sorbents: Amberlite IRA-67, Purolite A-100, AB-17-8, and AN-2FN. Niobium sorption was performed from model niobium-containing solutions. Data on comparative sorption characteristics of the studied sorbents were obtained, and the static exchange capacity of the sorbents, values of distribution coefficients, and extraction degree during the niobium sorption from chloride solutions were calculated. The Purolite A-100 anion-exchange resin exhibited the highest affinity for niobium ions under the conditions studied. Its distribution coefficient was 184 mL/g; the niobium extraction degree was 41.5%. To study the equilibrium sorption of niobium from solution on the Purolite A-100 anionite, three well-known models of isotherms were applied: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin–Radushkevich. The data obtained confirm the good agreement of the Langmuir model with the results of experiments and indicate that the process takes place in a monomolecular layer on the adsorbent having homogeneous adsorption centers. The optimum conditions of niobium sorption by the Purolite A-100 anion-exchange resin were determined as follows: hydrochloric acid concentration—5–10 wt.%, process temperature—35–40 °C, and duration—40–50 min. The calculated activation energy values for niobium sorption from hydrochloric acid solution in the temperature range of 20–50 °C were 25.32 kJ/mol, which corresponds to the intermediate region corresponding to the transition from the diffusion to the kinetic mode. Full article
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16 pages, 3937 KiB  
Article
Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Modelling and Control of Flux Decline in Cross-Flow Whey Ultrafiltration
by Maria Teresa Gaudio, Stefano Curcio, Sudip Chakraborty and Vincenza Calabrò
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041287 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
This study is part of the re-valorisation of the dairy waste industry through the use of membrane ultrafiltration (UF), in order to recover whey proteins and remove as much water as possible from the permeate. This study aimed to predict and control the [...] Read more.
This study is part of the re-valorisation of the dairy waste industry through the use of membrane ultrafiltration (UF), in order to recover whey proteins and remove as much water as possible from the permeate. This study aimed to predict and control the permeate flux decline in cross-flow whey UF through a step procedure, and to compare different Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), followed by a genetic algorithm (GA), as the optimization strategy. Models were developed in Matlab® Neural Network Toolbox. ANNs of one or two hidden layers were trained and simulated. A trial-and-error procedure identified the best network based on its performance values. The networks were trained through a selected set of experimental data obtained for lab-scale hollow-fibre membrane modules used to re-value scotta, the final waste of the dairy industry. The operating conditions considered as the input of the ANN were: operating time (top), sampling time (tsample), cross-flow velocity (CFV) and transmembrane pressure (TMP), while the output of the network was exclusively the normalized permeate flux (Jn). GA optimization was carried out to the following range of operating conditions to reach the best performances and to manage the fouling effect: 225 < top < 300 min, 8.33 < tsample < 15.9 min, 6.25 < CFV < 8.33 L/min, and TMP equal to 1.33 bar, otherwise it can be ignored. In fact, it has been noted that the networks with only three inputs, without TMP, predict and control Jn output better. Moreover, considering the normalized flux, it was possible to ignore some other important operating conditions, such as the membrane geometry. Consequently, the proposed general solution could also be used for other kinds of membrane applications. Finally, a hybrid approach among the ANN networks and a theoretical model was also used to better predict the resistance trend. It also returned more evident correspondence results than the ANN simulation alone, especially in the initial drop of Jn. The use of the theoretical part in the hybrid approach acts as a filter and returned the following order of significance of the operational input conditions on the resistance: top, tsample, CFV and TMP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Process Engineering)
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14 pages, 4950 KiB  
Article
CFD Evaluation of Thermal Conditioning in a House of Social Interest with a Solar Chimney Arrangement in Guanajuato, Mexico
by Sergio Rodriguez Miranda, G. O. Gamboa, Marco Antonio Zamora-Antuñano, Neín Farrera-Vázquez and Raúl García-García
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041286 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The aim of using electromechanical air conditioning in buildings is to maintain thermal comfort for its occupants; however, this type of air conditioning represents 40% of the total energy consumption of a building, generating economic and environmental impacts, because fossil fuels are the [...] Read more.
The aim of using electromechanical air conditioning in buildings is to maintain thermal comfort for its occupants; however, this type of air conditioning represents 40% of the total energy consumption of a building, generating economic and environmental impacts, because fossil fuels are the main source of energy. To reduce the use of electromechanical conditioning, it is possible to take advantage of the climatic conditions of the region to improve its performance. Due to the small number of works that quantitatively support measures aimed at improving the thermal behavior of houses in an integral way and the growth of mass construction in Mexico, in the present work, a solar chimney is incorporated in a typical type of social interest housing in Guanajuato. The incorporation of the solar chimney was simulated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using ANSYS and evaluated by ASHRAE Standard 55-2017. The selected arrangement induces air flow inside without the need for external flow and obtains speeds of 0.2 m/s; thus, it could be considered for rooms within comfort zones up to an operating temperature of 29 °C according to the ASHRAE Standard 55-2017, PMV method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic (PV) Systems: Modelling, Measurement and Assessment)
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23 pages, 8555 KiB  
Article
Exponential Curve-Based Control Strategy for Auxiliary Equipment Power Supply Systems in Railways
by Shoeb Azam Farooqui, Chang-Hua Lin, Shiue-Der Lu, Hwa-Dong Liu, Adil Sarwar and Liang-Yin Huang
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041285 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
An exponential curve-based (ECB) control strategy has been proposed in this paper. The proposed ECB control strategy is based on the growth and decay of charge in the series RC circuit and the harmonic elimination by detecting the Fourier expansion series of the [...] Read more.
An exponential curve-based (ECB) control strategy has been proposed in this paper. The proposed ECB control strategy is based on the growth and decay of charge in the series RC circuit and the harmonic elimination by detecting the Fourier expansion series of the auxiliary equipment power supply system’s (AEPSS) three-phase output voltage level. It can quickly adjust each duty cycle to the best value for driving the isolated three-phase inverter (ITPI) and produce a three-phase 380 VAC/60 Hz output. A comparison of the AEPSS output performance using the traditional voltage cancellation method (VCM) and the proposed ECB control strategy was performed. The hardware implementation of the system was performed on the prototype developed in the laboratory. These control strategies are tested under three conditions, i.e., (i) Vi = 550 VDC. (ii) Vi = 750 VDC. (iii) Vi = 800 VDC. The total harmonic distortion (THD) is 13.7%, 14.5%, and 14.9%, and the output voltage Vo is 372.3 VAC, 377.3 VAC, and 385.3 VAC using the traditional control strategy at three test conditions, respectively. However, the THD is 7.2%, 7.8%, and 8.0%, and the output voltage Vo is 382.2 VAC, 381.2 VAC, and 381.9 VAC using the proposed ECB control strategy under the test conditions. It is obvious from the hardware results that the output voltage harmonics and output voltage level for the proposed ECB control strategy are superior to the traditional VCM. The voltage produced from the AEPSS using the proposed ECB control strategy is more stable and has better quality. In addition, the filter size is also reduced. Full article
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17 pages, 1047 KiB  
Article
Using the Fuzzy Best Worst Method for Evaluating Strategic Planning Models
by Iman Ajripour and Thomas Hanne
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041284 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
During the last few decades, various strategic planning models have been suggested in the literature. It is difficult for a company to decide which of these models is most useful to adopt, as each of them shows different strengths and weaknesses. We consider [...] Read more.
During the last few decades, various strategic planning models have been suggested in the literature. It is difficult for a company to decide which of these models is most useful to adopt, as each of them shows different strengths and weaknesses. We consider this problem a multicriteria decision problem and investigate the evaluation of six strategic planning models in the context of smaller and medium-sized manufacturing companies in Iran. We consider a methodology that supports the analysis of the input from several decision-makers based on multiple criteria and assume vagueness in the input data elicited from them. For the purpose considered, the fuzzy best worst method (FBWM) appears appropriate. Based on a literature review, six evaluation criteria for strategic management models are considered: formality, clarity, measurability, objectivity, coverage, and consistency. These criteria are evaluated based on the input provided by thirteen managers using linguistic variables. FBWM is used to provide criteria weights that are used to determine fuzzy scores for the six considered strategic planning models. Finally, a defuzzification of the scores indicates the model by Wright is best suited for the application purpose. A consistency analysis included in FBWM shows that the input provided by the managers is sufficiently consistent. Full article
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24 pages, 5304 KiB  
Article
Study on Screening Parameter Optimization of Wet Sand and Gravel Particles Using the GWO-SVR Algorithm
by Jiacheng Zhou, Libin Zhang, Longchao Cao, Zhen Wang, Hui Zhang, Min Shen, Zilong Wang and Fang Liu
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041283 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
The optimization of screening parameters will directly improve the screening performance of vibration screens, which has been a concern of the industry. In this work, the discrete element model of wet sand and gravel particles is established, and the vibration screening process is [...] Read more.
The optimization of screening parameters will directly improve the screening performance of vibration screens, which has been a concern of the industry. In this work, the discrete element model of wet sand and gravel particles is established, and the vibration screening process is simulated using the discrete element method (DEM). The screening efficiency and time are used as evaluation indices, and the screening parameters including amplitude, vibration frequency, vibration direction angle, screen surface inclination, the long and short half-axis ratio of the track, feeding rate, and screen surface length are investigated. The results of an orthogonal experiment and range analysis show that the amplitude, screen surface inclination, and vibration frequency are significant factors affecting screening performance. Then, the support vector regression optimized with the grey wolf optimizer (GWO-SVR) algorithm is used to model the screening data. The screening model with excellent learning and prediction ability is obtained with the Gaussian kernel function setting. Moreover, the GWO-SVR algorithm is used to optimize the screening parameters, and the screening parameters with optimal screening efficiency and time are obtained. Furthermore, the effectiveness and reliability of the optimized model are verified using the discrete element calculation. The optimization strategy proposed in this work could provide guidance for the structural design of vibration screens and screening process optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Separation Processes)
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25 pages, 9811 KiB  
Article
Saturation Determination and Fluid Identification in Carbonate Rocks Based on Well Logging Data: A Middle Eastern Case Study
by Jianhong Guo, Zongfa Ling, Xiaori Xu, Yufang Zhao, Chunding Yang, Beilei Wei, Zhansong Zhang, Chong Zhang, Xiao Tang, Tao Chen, Gang Li and Qing Zhao
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041282 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
In the Middle East, there remain many technical challenges in the water saturation evaluation of carbonate rocks and the effective identification of reservoir fluid properties. The traditional Archie equation is not applicable to carbonate reservoirs with complex pore structures and varying reservoir space [...] Read more.
In the Middle East, there remain many technical challenges in the water saturation evaluation of carbonate rocks and the effective identification of reservoir fluid properties. The traditional Archie equation is not applicable to carbonate reservoirs with complex pore structures and varying reservoir space distribution, as there are obvious “non-Archie” phenomena. In this paper, by analyzing the experimental data on the rock resistivity of the target formation in the study area and analyzing the relationship between stratigraphic factors and porosity, the previous fitting method was modified as a result of using the actual data while avoiding the cementation index as a way to improve Archie’s formula to evaluate the water saturation. Based on the improved Archie formula, the mathematical differential operation of water saturation and porosity was carried out using the formation resistivity. The calculation results of irreducible water saturation were used to calibrate the oil layer, and the water layer was calibrated when the water saturation was 100%, allowing for a novel reservoir fluid property identification method. This total differential method can effectively identify the oil-down-to (ODT) and water-up-to (WUT) levels in an oil–water system and then accurately divide the transition zone of the oil–water layer. When this method was applied, the identification results were in good agreement with production conclusions and test data with an accuracy rate of 89.95%. Although the use of geophysical logging data from open-hole wells combined with the total differential method is only applicable to wells with similar logging time and production time, it is possible to compare geophysical logging data from different periods to construct oil–water profiles to observe the changes in ODT over time to guide development and adjust production plans. The proposed reservoir fluid property identification method and the improved water saturation calculation formula can meet the requirements of water saturation evaluation in the target block with low calculation cost and easy implementation, which provides a new method for water saturation evaluation and rapid identification of reservoir fluid properties. Full article
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24 pages, 3740 KiB  
Review
Review of Motion Simulation of Particulate Matter in the Respiratory System and Further CFD Simulations on COVID-19
by Di Zhu, Ezanee Gires, Huizhen Dong, Aolin Chen and Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041281 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1743
Abstract
Respirable particulate matter (RSP) is currently very harmful to the human body, potentially causing pulmonary silicosis, allergic rhinitis, acute bronchitis, and pulmonary heart disease. Therefore, the study of the deposition pattern of RSP in the human respiratory system is key in the prevention, [...] Read more.
Respirable particulate matter (RSP) is currently very harmful to the human body, potentially causing pulmonary silicosis, allergic rhinitis, acute bronchitis, and pulmonary heart disease. Therefore, the study of the deposition pattern of RSP in the human respiratory system is key in the prevention, treatment, and research of related diseases, whereby the main methods are computer simulation, in vitro solid models, and theoretical analysis. This paper summarizes and analyzes past deposition of RSP in the respiratory tract and also describes them in specific case studies such as COPD and COVID-19 patients, based on the review of the evidence, direction, and focus of future research focusing on simulation, experimentation, and related applications of RSP deposition in the respiratory tract. Full article
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15 pages, 2007 KiB  
Article
Solar and Convective Drying: Modeling, Color, Texture, Total Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) Slices
by Diana Paola García-Moreira, Harumi Hernández-Guzmán, Neith Pacheco, Juan Carlos Cuevas-Bernardino, Emanuel Herrera-Pool, Ivan Moreno and Erick César López-Vidaña
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041280 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Peach is a fruit highly appreciated by consumers; however, it is highly perishable, so drying is an alternative to preserve its physical and chemical properties. In this study, the effect of drying in natural and forced convection at three different temperatures (40 °C, [...] Read more.
Peach is a fruit highly appreciated by consumers; however, it is highly perishable, so drying is an alternative to preserve its physical and chemical properties. In this study, the effect of drying in natural and forced convection at three different temperatures (40 °C, 45 °C and 50 °C) and solar drying with two air velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s) on the color, texture, total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), were evaluated. The experimental data of the drying kinetics were adjusted to five different mathematical models (Page, Logarithmic, Two-term exponential, Wang and Singh, and Verma et al.). The model that best represented the experimental data in natural convection was the Wang and Singh model (r2 > 0.998; RMSE < 0.016; χ2 < 2.85 × 10−4); in forced convection (45 °C and 50 °C), it was the Verma et al. model (r2 > 0.997; RMSE < 0.025; χ2 < 8.12 × 10−4); and finally, for solar drying, it was the Logarithmic model at 3 m/s (r2 = 0.999; RMSE < 0.012; χ2 < 1.12 × 10−4) and Wang and Sing model (1 m/s) (r2 = 0.998; RMSE = 1.31 × 10−4; χ2 = 1.92 × 10−4). The highest color difference was in samples dried by the natural convection method. The highest values of hardness were obtained by the solar drying method. The value of chlorogenic acid increased with the temperature of natural convection, while the concentration of neochlorogenic acid increased with the temperature at forced convection. For solar drying, the values of chlorogenic acid were greater at 3 m/s; in contrast, the neochlorogenic acid was greater at 1 m/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Food Processing)
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17 pages, 5298 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Activation of Peroxymonosulfate via Sulfate Radicals and Singlet Oxygen by SrCoxMn1−xO3 Perovskites for the Degradation of Rhodamine B
by Penghui Shao, Xiping Yin, Chenyu Yu, Shuai Han, Baohuai Zhao, Kezhi Li, Xiang Li, Zhenyu Yang, Zhiwei Yuan, Qinzhi Shi, Jing Ren, Haiqiang Hu, Kai Cui, Tengfei Li and Jun Jiang
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041279 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Perovskite is of burgeoning interest in catalysis, principally due to such material having high thermal stability, modifiable variability, ferromagnetism, and excellent catalytic performance in peroxomonosulfate (PMS) activation. In this study, the SrCoxMn1−xO3 perovskites with different Mn doping [...] Read more.
Perovskite is of burgeoning interest in catalysis, principally due to such material having high thermal stability, modifiable variability, ferromagnetism, and excellent catalytic performance in peroxomonosulfate (PMS) activation. In this study, the SrCoxMn1−xO3 perovskites with different Mn doping were synthesized by a facile sol-gel method for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation to degrade Rhodamine B. The obtained SrCo0.5Mn0.5O3 perovskite exhibited the best catalytic efficiency, as Rhodamine B (40 mg/L) was removed completely within 30 min. In the system of SrCo0.5Mn0.5O3–PMS, several reactive species were produced, among which sulfate radicals and the singlet oxygen mainly contributed to Rhodamine B degradation. The relatively high catalytic performance could be attributed to the coupled redox cycle between Mn and Co, and the abundant oxygen vacancies. Moreover, the SrCo0.5Mn0.5O3 catalyst showed excellent stability and reusability, maintaining a high catalytic activity after several cycling tests. This study demonstrated that the Mn doping of SrCoO3 could not only enhance the B-site activation in SrCo0.5Mn0.5O3 but also enrich the oxygen vacancies, thus improving the efficiency of PMS activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Support Interactions in Heterogeneous Catalysis)
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19 pages, 2968 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Study on Space Reorientation for Liquid Hydrogen Tanks by Means of Evaporated Exhaust Gas
by Jiajia Liang, Yuan Ma, Yanzhong Li, Lei Wang and Xiaozhong Luo
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041278 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 971
Abstract
A thermal equilibrium model is established to investigate the heat leak of a space liquid hydrogen tank under different thermal adiabatic structures. The feasibility of the common bulkhead tank in realizing thrust or rotation reorientation by evaporated exhaust gas has been systematically studied. [...] Read more.
A thermal equilibrium model is established to investigate the heat leak of a space liquid hydrogen tank under different thermal adiabatic structures. The feasibility of the common bulkhead tank in realizing thrust or rotation reorientation by evaporated exhaust gas has been systematically studied. The results indicate that the space radiation heat leak is the primary heat leak in spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) adiabatic tanks. However, the common bulkhead heat leak is dominant in the tank with multilayer insulation (MLI) or self-evaporation vapor cooled shield (VCS). For the continuous stable adiabatic exhaust, the tank with SOFI (over 114 W/m2) could realize reorientation with the acceleration of over 5.5 × 10−4 m/s2 generated by the exhaust. Meanwhile, the tank that adopted MLI or VCS (below 18 W/m2) struggled to achieve gas–liquid separation with the acceleration below 8.7 × 10−5 m/s2 generated by exhausting. The rotational angular velocity of the tank through exhausting increases with the fill level dropping and exhaust pressure rising. Reorientation by a TVS intermittent exhaust may be possible in some cases, with sufficient exhaust time. This study provides a theoretical basis for reorientation using the exhaust gas of liquid hydrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Hydrogen Production and Application)
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13 pages, 8117 KiB  
Article
The Potential Anti-Cancerous Activity of Prunus amygdalus var. amara Extract
by Mohammed Helmy Faris Shalayel, Ghassab M. Al-Mazaideh, Abdulkareem A. Alanezi, Afaf F. Almuqati and Meshal Alotaibi
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041277 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
The extract of P. amygdalus var. amara is known for its health benefits, which include lowering diabetes and heart disease risks. In eight human tumor cell lines, P. amygdalus var. amara demonstrated potent anti-cancer activity, including NB4, Huh-7, A-549, SKOV-3, PC-3, T-24, U937, [...] Read more.
The extract of P. amygdalus var. amara is known for its health benefits, which include lowering diabetes and heart disease risks. In eight human tumor cell lines, P. amygdalus var. amara demonstrated potent anti-cancer activity, including NB4, Huh-7, A-549, SKOV-3, PC-3, T-24, U937, and Hep-2. There was a notable change in the morphology of nearly all cancer cell lines, and cancer cells continued to exist. Incubation for 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h resulted in the lowest viable cell concentration at 48 h, which was 34.65% lower than that of the non-treated cells. During exposure to the extract, the majority of cells lost their typical morphology and shrank in size. According to the cell viability data, the P. amygdalus var. amara treatment significantly decreased the cancer cells’ growth in most cancer cell lines when doses and time were taken into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biological Processes and Systems)
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22 pages, 2412 KiB  
Article
Stability Analysis and Network Topology Optimization of Multi-Agent Systems for Material Transport in Industrial Parks
by Jichao Fei, Linfeng Zhang, Xiaorong Zhu and Yiming Wu
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041276 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1241
Abstract
Multiple Automated Guided Vehicles promise to be an effective solution for executing tasks such as material transportation and inspection in industrial parks. In particular, system stability is the key to maintaining connectivity among multiple agents. In this paper, we build the stability model [...] Read more.
Multiple Automated Guided Vehicles promise to be an effective solution for executing tasks such as material transportation and inspection in industrial parks. In particular, system stability is the key to maintaining connectivity among multiple agents. In this paper, we build the stability model of multi-agent system (MAS) under the background of swarm robots transporting materials in an industrial park, and propose a network topology optimization method to improve the stability of MAS. In concrete, we first analyze the effect of channel environment on network topology, and the communication delay is analyzed. Then considering the communication delay and artificial potential field, we establish the stability analysis model of MAS and obtain the stability condition of the MAS by using Lyapunov correlation theorem. Finally, we formulate the network topology optimization problem of MAS by maximizing the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian and get the optimal solutions. Analysis and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm. Full article
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11 pages, 5844 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behavior and Low-Cycle Fatigue Performance of a Carburized Steel for GTF Engines
by Juan Cao and Junjie Yang
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041275 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Using nanoindentation technology to analyze the hardness and elastic modulus distributions of the local microzones within materials, it can be determined that the case-carburized specimen is a composite of the carburized case and the pseudo-carburized material in the core. The overall mechanical behavior [...] Read more.
Using nanoindentation technology to analyze the hardness and elastic modulus distributions of the local microzones within materials, it can be determined that the case-carburized specimen is a composite of the carburized case and the pseudo-carburized material in the core. The overall mechanical behavior of the case-carburized material is much closer to that of the completely carburized material, indicating that the carburized case dominates the case-carburized material. Stress fatigue tests conducted on carburized tubular specimens, pseudo-carburized solid specimens, and case-carburized solid specimens showed that the fatigue performance of the completely carburized material is slightly lower than that of the pseudo-carburized specimens due to lower plasticity. However, the fatigue performance of the case-carburized specimens is significantly better than that of the two homogeneous materials. This could be attributed to the graded material behavior and the larger compressive residual stress in the carburized case, which are the primary positive factors for improving the fatigue life of case-carburized materials. SEM fractographs revealed that the fatigue nucleation in the case-carburized specimen initiates from the transition zone rather than from the surface of the specimens as observed in the homogeneous materials. Low-cycle fatigue evaluation of ultra-high-power gear transmission systems should focus on the influences of the carburized case. Full article
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29 pages, 1506 KiB  
Article
Evaluation Methodology of Interoperability for the Industrial Domain: Standardization vs. Mediation
by Yuhan Chen, David Annebicque, Alexandre Philippot, Véronique Carré-Ménétrier and Thierry Daneau
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041274 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
With the arrival of Industry 4.0, interoperability has become a major subject for companies worldwide. It is a crucial asset that enables new technologies and possibilities (Industrial Internet of Things, predictive maintenance or traceability solutions). With the increasing importance of data in business [...] Read more.
With the arrival of Industry 4.0, interoperability has become a major subject for companies worldwide. It is a crucial asset that enables new technologies and possibilities (Industrial Internet of Things, predictive maintenance or traceability solutions). With the increasing importance of data in business use cases, companies are faced with a choice between two interoperability approaches to deal with the challenge of reconciling different domains: standardization and mediation. This paper presents an analysis of each approach and proposes a decision-making methodology based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) that aims to help companies in choosing the most suitable solution to resolve interoperability challenges. Full article
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10 pages, 2580 KiB  
Article
Natural Fiano Wines Fermented in Stainless Steel Tanks, Oak Barrels, and Earthenware Amphora
by Massimo Di Renzo, Francesco Letizia, Catello Di Martino, Julian Karaulli, Renata Kongoli, Bruno Testa, Pasquale Avino, Ettore Guerriero, Gianluca Albanese, Mario Monaco and Massimo Iorizzo
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041273 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
The growing sensitivity toward sustainability is being demonstrated by an increase in sales of natural wines. Natural wines are obtained using exclusively native vines, indigenous yeasts, absence of additives, irregular temperature control during fermentation, and smaller quantities of sulfites even compared to organic [...] Read more.
The growing sensitivity toward sustainability is being demonstrated by an increase in sales of natural wines. Natural wines are obtained using exclusively native vines, indigenous yeasts, absence of additives, irregular temperature control during fermentation, and smaller quantities of sulfites even compared to organic wines. In this work, natural wines were obtained from Fiano grape, a historical cultivar of Irpinia (Campania, Italy). The main objective of this study was to compare the chemical and sensory characteristics of natural wines produced using different vessels (10 HL): Test A: stainless steel; Test B: earthenware amphora; Test C: mulberry wood barrel; and Test D: cherry wood barrel without the use of starter yeasts and chemical additives, including sulfites. Our results show a greater concentration of higher alcohols and esters in wines obtained in amphora and wooden barrels. The results of this work reveal that the type of container influences the composition of wine to an important extent. In addition, the Fiano wines obtained have a distinctive sensory profile also due to the ancestral winemaking process used, which did not involve the use of starter yeasts or technological and chemical adjuvants. Full article
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14 pages, 2282 KiB  
Article
Thermal Processing of Acidified Vegetables: Effect on Process Time-Temperature, Color and Texture
by Harsimar Singh and Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041272 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2541
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the quality of low-acid vegetables conventionally thermal processed with those subjected to modified thermal processing following acidification to pH < 4.6. For conventional processing, a process lethality (Fo value) equivalent of 5 min at 121.1 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the quality of low-acid vegetables conventionally thermal processed with those subjected to modified thermal processing following acidification to pH < 4.6. For conventional processing, a process lethality (Fo value) equivalent of 5 min at 121.1 °C (commercially sterilization) was used, while those that are acidified were pasteurized, such as acidic foods, to a lethality value of 10 min at 90 °C. Acidification was performed with citric acid by immersion of vegetables in an ultrasonic bath. The quality of raw, blanched, acidified, pasteurized and sterilized products were compared for color and textural characteristics. The acidified thermal processing yielded significantly better retained color and textural properties, almost similar to blanched vegetables, while those subjected to the conventional processing resulted in significant texture loss. The process temperatures were significantly lower, and corresponding process intensities were significantly less severe with the acidified thermal process, providing significant energy saving opportunities. The absorbed acid could easily be leached out by heating/holding the vegetables in tap water, if it was desired, to reduce the acidity level in the processed vegetables. There is significant current interest in acidified thermal processing of low acid- foods with quality retention being the main focus. While it is possible that some meat products may suffer quality loss, for vegetables, in general, the negative influence is significantly low, and the positive potential for quality retention, energy savings and process efficiency are very high. Full article
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14 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Group Technology Scheduling with Due-Date Assignment and Controllable Processing Times
by Weiguo Liu and Xuyin Wang
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041271 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
This paper investigates common (slack) due-date assignment single-machine scheduling with controllable processing times within a group technology environment. Under linear and convex resource allocation functions, the cost function minimizes scheduling (including the weighted sum of earliness, tardiness, and due-date assignment, where the weights [...] Read more.
This paper investigates common (slack) due-date assignment single-machine scheduling with controllable processing times within a group technology environment. Under linear and convex resource allocation functions, the cost function minimizes scheduling (including the weighted sum of earliness, tardiness, and due-date assignment, where the weights are position-dependent) and resource-allocation costs. Given some optimal properties of the problem, if the size of jobs in each group is identical, the optimal group sequence can be obtained via an assignment problem. We then illustrate that the problem is polynomially solvable in O(3) time, where is the number of jobs. Full article
15 pages, 7877 KiB  
Article
Short-Process Preparation of High-Purity V2O5 from Shale Acid Leaching Solution via Chlorination
by Dou Huang, Jing Huang, Yimin Zhang, Yong Fan and Pengcheng Hu
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041270 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
The conventional V2O5 preparation processes include ion exchange, chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, and other processes. Given the long process and complex operation nature of traditional V2O5 production methods, we herein developed a short-process, low-temperature, and convenient operation [...] Read more.
The conventional V2O5 preparation processes include ion exchange, chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, and other processes. Given the long process and complex operation nature of traditional V2O5 production methods, we herein developed a short-process, low-temperature, and convenient operation method of isolating vanadium (in the form of V2O5) from shale acid leaching solution. The acid leaching solution was oxidized with NaClO3 and pH-adjusted with NaOH to form a vanadium-containing precipitate, which was mixed with AlCl3 (V:AlCl3 = 1:5, mol/mol) and roasted for 120 min at 170 °C to afford vanadium oxytrichloride (VOCl3) with a purity of 99.59%. In addition, the vanadium-containing precipitate was mixed with AlCl3 and NaCl (V:AlCl3:NaCl = 3:12:8, mol/mol/mol) and roasted for 120 min at 170 °C to afford VOCl3 with a purity of 99.94%. VOCl3 (purity of 99.94%) was dissolved in ultrapure water, and the solution (32 gvanadium/L) was treated with NH3·H2O (NH3:V = 1.34, mol/mol) at 50 °C for 120 min. The obtained precipitate (vanadium precipitation rate = 99.28%) was roasted at 550 °C for 3 h to afford high-purity vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) with a purity of 99.86%. Compared with the traditional hydrometallurgical method of V2O5 preparation, our method avoided solvent extraction and other undesired processes and the overall process flow is greatly shortened, thus having high practical value. Full article
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21 pages, 12049 KiB  
Article
New Energy Power System Dynamic Security and Stability Region Calculation Based on AVURPSO-RLS Hybrid Algorithm
by Saniye Maihemuti, Weiqing Wang, Jiahui Wu, Haiyun Wang, Muladi Muhedaner and Qing Zhu
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041269 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
Using a high proportion of new energy is becoming the development trend of the modern power industry, with broad application prospects and potential threats to power system operation safety. This paper proposes a hybrid adaptive velocity update relaxation particle swarm optimization algorithm (AVURPSO) [...] Read more.
Using a high proportion of new energy is becoming the development trend of the modern power industry, with broad application prospects and potential threats to power system operation safety. This paper proposes a hybrid adaptive velocity update relaxation particle swarm optimization algorithm (AVURPSO) and recursive least square (RLS) method to quickly estimate the DSSR boundary using hyper-plane expression. Firstly, the operating point data in the high-dimension nodal injection space are analyzed using the AVURPSO algorithm to identify the key generators, equivalent search space, and critical points, which have relatively great effects on transient angle stability. The hyper-plane expression of the DSSR boundary, which matches the critical points best, is finally fitted by the RLS approach. Hence, the adopted algorithm is applied to rapidly approximate the DSSR boundary by hyper-plane expression in power injection spaces. Finally, the proposed algorithm is validated using a simulation case study on three wind farm regions of the actual Hami Power Grid of China using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software. Consequently, the mentioned method effectively captures the security stability boundary of the new energy power system and realizes the three-dimensional visualization space of DSSR. By leveraging the DSSR, the state analysis can be conducted rapidly on several parameters, including security and stability assessments in relation to various energy supply capabilities. Meanwhile, these indices are calculated offline and applied online. The findings of this investigation confirm the efficacy and accuracy of the suggested modeling used in the analyzed system, offering technical assistance ensuring the stability of the new energy power system. The DSSR allows the rapid analysis of several parameters, including security and stability assessments with various energy supply capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electrical Systems and Power Networks)
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