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Dent. J., Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 30 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Toothpaste abrasivity is important for dentists and patients to recommend products for clinical requirements and individual needs. Relative dentin abrasion (RDA) has to be determined in certified laboratories, making monitoring the abrasive properties during toothpaste development difficult. This new in vitro approach combining toothbrush simulator tests with laser scan profilometry can be carried out in any dedicated laboratory. A comparison of roughness parameters and volume loss values of increasingly abrasive model toothpastes measured on PMMA substrates with commissioned RDA values shows that the RDA can be predicted with high confidence. An abrasion classification corresponding to the RDA classification established for marketed toothpastes is deduced to assist product developers. View this paper
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12 pages, 788 KiB  
Article
Vaccine Acceptance, Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Study among Dentists in Trinidad and Tobago
by Reisha Rafeek, Bidyadhar Sa and William Smith
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030086 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Background: This study’s aim was to assess Trinidad and Tobago dentists’ vaccine acceptance, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: All dentists registered with the Trinidad and Tobago Dental Association were invited to complete an online anonymous questionnaire between June and [...] Read more.
Background: This study’s aim was to assess Trinidad and Tobago dentists’ vaccine acceptance, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: All dentists registered with the Trinidad and Tobago Dental Association were invited to complete an online anonymous questionnaire between June and October 2021. Results: A total of 46.2% of dentists responded. The majority of respondents had excellent knowledge of COVID-19 (94.8%), use of personal protective equipment (98.7%) and N95 masks (93.5%), but had poor knowledge about the reuse of N95 masks (27.5%). A total of 34.9% were comfortable providing emergency care to positive or suspected cases of COVID-19, and 64.5% were afraid of becoming infected from a patient. PPE usage was reported at 97.4% and 67.3% for N95 masks. All surfaces of waiting areas were disinfected every 2 h by 59.2%. A total of 90.8% agreed to be vaccinated straight away if a vaccine were made available. Conclusion: Dentists in Trinidad and Tobago have good levels of knowledge, attitude, practices regarding COVID-19. Dentists also have high levels of vaccine acceptance and can play a role in advocating for the COVID-19 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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2 pages, 183 KiB  
Editorial
Dental Materials Design and Innovative Treatment Approach
by Francesco Gianfreda and Patrizio Bollero
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030085 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
In recent years, technological innovation has had exponential growth, resulting in positive implications in dentistry [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials Design and Innovative Treatment Approach)
10 pages, 2481 KiB  
Case Report
A Combination of Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Collagen Membranes for Sinus Membrane Repair: A Case Report (Repair of Sinus Membrane Perforation)
by Anass Koleilat, Alaa Mansour, Fatma M. Alkassimi, Alfredo Aguirre and Bandar Almaghrabi
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030084 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Maxillary sinus lift surgery is applied to compensate for the reduced vertical height in the posterior maxilla to facilitate placing a dental implant of a suitable length. Pathological conditions may be accidentally discovered, which necessitate careful assessment and management to prevent the infection [...] Read more.
Maxillary sinus lift surgery is applied to compensate for the reduced vertical height in the posterior maxilla to facilitate placing a dental implant of a suitable length. Pathological conditions may be accidentally discovered, which necessitate careful assessment and management to prevent the infection of the maxillofacial complex and eventually bone grafting and dental implant failure. This case report describes an approach for the management of Schneiderian membrane perforation associated with the removal of an antral pseudocyst for successful dental implant therapy. A 70-year-old healthy Caucasian male presented for implant therapy to replace a non-restorable maxillary molar. Initial examination revealed the need for a sinus lift procedure to prepare the site for implant placement. A 3D CBCT evaluation before surgery revealed an incidental finding of a pathological lesion at the surgical site. The histological analysis of a biopsy specimen retrieved during implant site preparation showed findings consistent with antral pseudocyst. The resulting perforation of the sinus membrane was treated, and an adequate period of healing was given. A thickened sinus membrane was detected upon surgical exposure for implant placement. The novel technique illustrated could result in a fibrotic repaired sinus membrane and help shorten the time required for dental implant treatment. Full article
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16 pages, 946 KiB  
Review
Management of Oral Hygiene in Head-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Oncological Surgery and Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review
by Jacopo Lanzetti, Federica Finotti, Maria Savarino, Gianfranco Gassino, Alessandro Dell’Acqua and Francesco M. Erovigni
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030083 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3436
Abstract
Background: In the literature, among oral health prevention programs dedicated to cancer patients, a wide heterogeneity is evident. The purpose of this work is to analyze the available scientific evidence for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing resective surgery [...] Read more.
Background: In the literature, among oral health prevention programs dedicated to cancer patients, a wide heterogeneity is evident. The purpose of this work is to analyze the available scientific evidence for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing resective surgery and radiotherapy and to draw up a diversified oral hygiene protocol during oncological therapy. Methods: PubMed was used as database. Studies published from 2017 to September 2022 were analyzed. Studies investigating the effectiveness of the preventive procedures carried out by the dental professionals in HNC patients undergoing postoperative adjuvant therapy have been taken into account. Results: The application of the search string on PubMed allowed the selection of 7184 articles. The systematic selection of articles led to the inclusion of 26 articles in this review, including 22 RCTs, 3 observational studies, and 1 controlled clinical study. Articles were divided according to the debated topic: the management of radiation-induced mucositis, xerostomia, the efficacy of an oral infection prevention protocol, and the prevention of radiation-induced caries. Conclusions: Dental hygienists are fundamental figures in the management of patients undergoing oncological surgery of the maxillofacial district. They help the patient prevent and manage the sequelae of oncological therapy, obtaining a clear improvement in the quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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11 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Efficacy of Low-Particle-Size Toothpastes against Extrinsic Pigmentations: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
by Andrea Butera, Maurizio Pascadopoli, Simone Gallo, Alessia Pardo, Giulia Stablum, Marco Lelli, Anna Pandolfi and Andrea Scribante
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030082 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Stain-removing domiciliary protocols are focused on the elimination of dental extrinsic pigmentations by the application of abrasive toothpastes, extensively available in commerce. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of two different stain removal molecule-formulated toothpastes by the reduction [...] Read more.
Stain-removing domiciliary protocols are focused on the elimination of dental extrinsic pigmentations by the application of abrasive toothpastes, extensively available in commerce. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of two different stain removal molecule-formulated toothpastes by the reduction of clinical parameters: the micro-cleaning crystals and activated charcoal. A total of 40 participants with extrinsic dental pigmentations were enrolled and divided into two groups: a Control group, assigned to a toothpaste with micro-cleaning crystals (Colgate Sensation White); and a Trial group, with microparticle-activated charcoal toothpaste (Coswell Blanx Black). At T0 (baseline), T1 (10 days), T2 (1 month), and T3 (3 months), clinical parameters, including Lobene stain index calculated for intensity and extension, plaque control record, and bleeding on probing, were measured. Statistically significant differences were found in both groups (p < 0.05): a reduction of extrinsic pigmentation, both in intensity and extension, was obtained in the Control group, but their total elimination could be achieved only in the Trial group with the activated charcoal molecule, though without significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). No intergroup differences were found for each timeframe for PCR, BoP, LSI-I, and LSI-E. Both tested toothpastes can be recommended for domiciliary oral hygiene of patients with extrinsic pigmentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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11 pages, 2703 KiB  
Article
A Cephalometric Analysis Assessing the Validity of Camper’s Plane to Establishing the Occlusal Plane in Edentulous Patients
by Lina Sharab, David Jensen, Gregory Hawk and Ahmad Kutkut
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030081 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Complete denture fabrication requires multiple clinical and laboratory steps. One of the most critical clinical steps is establishing an anatomical occlusal plane based on hard and soft tissue references. The aim of this study was to determine whether age or gender affects the [...] Read more.
Complete denture fabrication requires multiple clinical and laboratory steps. One of the most critical clinical steps is establishing an anatomical occlusal plane based on hard and soft tissue references. The aim of this study was to determine whether age or gender affects the level of the Ala-Tragus plane to establish which reference point on the Tragus should be used when fabricating the occlusal plane in edentulous patients. Clinical photographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs with complete dentitions were taken from 58 volunteers at the DMD clinic at the University of Kentucky. Each photograph was superimposed over its corresponding cephalometric image. An analysis was conducted to establish the angle of the occlusal plane relative to the Ala-Tragus landmarks; this data was then grouped according to age and gender. The analysis shows that age and gender did not significantly affect where the Camper’s plane should be approximated for complete denture treatment. However, it was found that the most parallel line to the occlusal plane was Ala’s inferior border to the ‘Tragus’s inferior border. It should be noted that the volunteers’ skeletal classification was significantly related to a Cl III malocclusion tendency. Still, with this new information, functionality and esthetics can be more adequately addressed for patients undergoing complete denture treatment. Given our results, we suggest redefining the ‘Camper’s plane with a line extending from ‘Ala’s inferior border to the ‘Tragus’s inferior border instead of the superior border. Further consideration should be taken if the patient is a skeletal CL III malocclusion. Full article
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14 pages, 1510 KiB  
Review
Remineralization Strategies for Teeth with Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH): A Literature Review
by Joachim Enax, Bennett T. Amaechi, Rayane Farah, Jungyi Alexis Liu, Erik Schulze zur Wiesche and Frederic Meyer
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030080 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4174
Abstract
Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a highly prevalent dental developmental disorder with a significant health burden for patients and high treatment needs, yet no comprehensive review article on all remineralization systems as a non-invasive treatment approach for MIH has been published. Typical characteristics [...] Read more.
Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a highly prevalent dental developmental disorder with a significant health burden for patients and high treatment needs, yet no comprehensive review article on all remineralization systems as a non-invasive treatment approach for MIH has been published. Typical characteristics of MIH-affected teeth are a lower mineral density and lower hardness compared to healthy teeth leading to sensitivity and loss of function. Thus, the use of formulations with calcium phosphates to remineralize MIH-affected teeth is reasonable. This review presents an up-to-date overview of remineralization studies focusing on active ingredients investigated for remineralization of MIH, i.e., casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP), hydroxyapatite, calcium glycerophosphate, self-assembling peptide, and fluoride. Overall, 19 studies (in vitro, in situ, and in vivo) were found. Furthermore, an additional search for studies focusing on using toothpaste/dentifrices for MIH management resulted in six studies, where three studies were on remineralization and three on reduction of sensitivity. Overall, the studies analyzed in this review showed that MIH-affected teeth could be remineralized using calcium phosphate-based approaches. In conclusion, calcium phosphates like CPP-ACP, calcium glycerophosphate, and hydroxyapatite can be used to remineralize MIH-affected teeth. In addition to MIH-remineralization, CPP-ACP and hydroxyapatite also offer relief from MIH-associated tooth sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Dentistry)
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19 pages, 3961 KiB  
Article
Toothpaste Abrasion and Abrasive Particle Content: Correlating High-Resolution Profilometric Analysis with Relative Dentin Abrasivity (RDA)
by Joachim Enax, Frederic Meyer, Erik Schulze zur Wiesche, Ines Christin Fuhrmann and Helge-Otto Fabritius
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030079 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3573
Abstract
In this in vitro study, the influence of the concentration of abrasive particles on the abrasivity of toothpastes was investigated using laser scan profilometry on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) surfaces with the aim of providing an alternative method to developers for screening of new [...] Read more.
In this in vitro study, the influence of the concentration of abrasive particles on the abrasivity of toothpastes was investigated using laser scan profilometry on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) surfaces with the aim of providing an alternative method to developers for screening of new toothpaste formulations. PMMA plates were tested in a toothbrush simulator with distilled water and four model toothpastes with increasing content of hydrated silica (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 wt%). The viscosity of the model toothpaste formulations was kept constant by means of varying the content of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and water. The brushed surfaces were evaluated using laser scan profilometry at micrometer-scale resolutions, and the total volume of the introduced scratches was calculated along with the roughness parameters Ra, Rz and Rv. RDA measurements commissioned for the same toothpaste formulations were used to analyze the correlation between results obtained with the different methods. The same experimental procedure was applied to five commercially available toothpastes, and the results were evaluated against our model system. In addition, we characterize abrasive hydrated silica and discuss their effects on PMMA-sample surfaces. The results show that the abrasiveness of a model toothpaste increases with the weight percentage of hydrated silica. Increasing roughness parameter and volume loss values show good correlation with the likewise increasing corresponding RDA values for all model toothpastes, as well as commercial toothpastes without ingredients that can damage the used substrate PMMA. From our results, we deduce an abrasion classification that corresponds to the RDA classification established for marketed toothpastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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8 pages, 1338 KiB  
Brief Report
Histological Evaluation of Root Canals by Performing a New Cleaning Protocol “RUA” in Endodontic Surgery
by Alfredo Iandolo, Alessandra Amato, Massimo Pisano, Giuseppe Sangiovanni, Dina Abdellatif, Roberto Fornara and Michele Simeone
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030078 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Aim: To enhance cleaning during retro-preparation in endodontic microsurgery. Materials and Methods: Forty mandibular premolars were instrumented, filled with a single cone technique, and then retro-preparation was performed and assigned to experiment A. In group A1, the cavity created by the retro preparation [...] Read more.
Aim: To enhance cleaning during retro-preparation in endodontic microsurgery. Materials and Methods: Forty mandibular premolars were instrumented, filled with a single cone technique, and then retro-preparation was performed and assigned to experiment A. In group A1, the cavity created by the retro preparation was cleansed with 2 mL of normal sterile saline. In group A2, the retro cavity was cleaned with 2 mL of sterile saline after the retro preparation. All the irrigation solutions mentioned above were delivered using an endodontic needle with a lateral vent and a gauge of 30. Subsequently, in group A2, 17% EDTA gel and 5.25% gel were inserted into the cavity and activated using ultrasonic tips. After the irrigation protocols, the specimens were decalcified for histological evaluation. Results: In the experiment, the amount of hard tissue debris was significantly greater in group A1 compared to group A2 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The samples in group A2, where the new protocol was performed, showed statistically significant results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Endodontics)
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17 pages, 4476 KiB  
Article
Stamp Technique: An Explorative SEM Analysis
by Francesca Zotti, Stefano Vincenzi, Alessandro Zangani, Paolo Bernardi and Andrea Sbarbati
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030077 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3990
Abstract
Background: Achieving correct tooth anatomy and saving time at the dental chair are some of the goals of modern restorative dentistry. Stamp technique has gained acceptance in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique in [...] Read more.
Background: Achieving correct tooth anatomy and saving time at the dental chair are some of the goals of modern restorative dentistry. Stamp technique has gained acceptance in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique in terms of microleakage, voids, overhangs and marginal adaptation of Class I restorations, and to analyse the operative times in comparison with traditional restorative procedures. Methods: Twenty extracted teeth were divided into 2 groups. Ten teeth in the study group (SG) were Class I prepared and restored using stamp technique, and ten teeth in the control group (CG) were Class I restored traditionally. SEM analysis was performed to evaluate voids, microleakage, overhangs, and marginal adaptation, and operative times were recorded. A statistical analysis was performed. Results: There were no significant differences in microleakage, marginal adaptation and filling defects between the two groups, however, the stamp technique seems to facilitate the formation of large overflowing margins that require a careful finishing phase. Conclusions: Stamp technique does not seem to have any critical aspects in terms of restoration durability and it can be performed in a short time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials Design and Innovative Treatment Approach)
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12 pages, 5030 KiB  
Article
Fracture Resistance of Repaired 5Y-PSZ Zirconia Crowns after Endodontic Access
by Andreas Greuling, Mira Wiemken, Christoph Kahra, Hans Jürgen Maier and Michael Eisenburger
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030076 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
This study analyzed the fracture load before and after a chewing simulation of zirconia crowns that were trepanned and repaired using composite resin. Overall, 3 groups with 15 5Y-PSZ crowns in each group were tested. For group A, the fracture load of the [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the fracture load before and after a chewing simulation of zirconia crowns that were trepanned and repaired using composite resin. Overall, 3 groups with 15 5Y-PSZ crowns in each group were tested. For group A, the fracture load of the unmodified crowns was evaluated. For group B, the crowns were trepanned and repaired using composite resin, also followed by a fracture test. For group C, crowns were prepared like in group B but received thermomechanical cycling before the final fracture tests. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microscopy (XRM) analysis were performed for group C. The mean fracture loads and standard deviation were 2260 N ± 410 N (group A), 1720 N ± 380 N (group B), and 1540 N ± 280 N (group C). Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons showed a significant difference between groups A and B (p < 0.01) and groups A and C (p < 0.01). After ageing, surface fissures were detected via SEM, but no cracks that reached from the occlusal to the inner side of the crown were detected via XRM. Within the limitations of this study, it can be stated that trepanned and composite-repaired 5Y-PSZ crowns show lower fracture loads than 5Y-PSZ crowns without trepanation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Material Science in Endodontics)
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18 pages, 1013 KiB  
Article
Exploring Customer Journeys in the Context of Dentistry: A Case Study
by Bhaven Modha
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030075 - 07 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3418
Abstract
This case study aims to explore how customer journey concepts can apply to a hypothetical scenario, centring on a patient (customer persona) within the dentistry arena, and with a particular focus on special care dentistry. As an educational exercise, this paper may inform [...] Read more.
This case study aims to explore how customer journey concepts can apply to a hypothetical scenario, centring on a patient (customer persona) within the dentistry arena, and with a particular focus on special care dentistry. As an educational exercise, this paper may inform dental and allied professionals on how aspects of the customer journey notion may be embedded into their own practices, so that patient-centricity might be better optimised. The hypothetical scenario considers the organisational context, customer persona, contemporary customer purchase decision-making models, and marketing approaches. These components are used to create a customer journey map to help visualise and identify the varying customer–business interactions. The customer journey, focussing on the awareness, initial consideration, active evaluation, pre-purchase, purchase and post-purchase stages, is then conceptually analysed. The analyses reveal that there are areas of friction, attributable to numerous factors. The case study recommends that by introducing digitalisation and omnichannel marketing, alongside existing internally generated and multi-channel marketing approaches, considerable improvements may be achievable. As the patient technology landscape becomes more digital and dental organisations face fiercer competition, dental care providers relying on traditional marketing approaches may well need to adapt and introduce innovative, yet cost-effective digitalisation and omnichannel marketing approaches. Nevertheless, dental care providers, and dental and allied professionals must uphold an underlying duty of care, ensuring that all practises are legal, decent, honest, truthful, and above all ethical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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13 pages, 842 KiB  
Review
Association between the Risk of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Women: An Umbrella Review
by Tania Padilla-Cáceres, Heber Isac Arbildo-Vega, Luz Caballero-Apaza, Fredy Cruzado-Oliva, Vilma Mamani-Cori, Sheyla Cervantes-Alagón, Evelyn Munayco-Pantoja, Saurav Panda, Hernán Vásquez-Rodrigo, Percy Castro-Mejía and Delsi Huaita-Acha
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030074 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2627
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this review is to determine the association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns and periodontal disease in pregnant women. Methods: A bibliographic search was carried out until November 2021 in the following biomedical [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this review is to determine the association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns and periodontal disease in pregnant women. Methods: A bibliographic search was carried out until November 2021 in the following biomedical databases: PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scielo, LILACS and Google Scholar. Studies reporting the association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns with periodontal disease in pregnant women, which were systematic reviews, in English and without time limits were included. AMSTAR-2 was used to assess the risk of the included studies, and the GRADEPro GDT tool was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the strength of the recommendation of the results. Results: The preliminary search yielded a total of 161 articles, discarding those that did not meet the selection criteria, leaving only 15 articles. Seven articles were entered into a meta-analysis, and it was found that there is an association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns with periodontal disease in pregnant women. Conclusions: There is an association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns with periodontal disease in pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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18 pages, 532 KiB  
Review
Health Coaching-Based Interventions for Oral Health Promotion: A Scoping Review
by Remus Chunda, Peter Mossey, Ruth Freeman and Siyang Yuan
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030073 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2447
Abstract
Background: Health coaching-based interventions can support behaviour change to improve oral health. This scoping review aims to identify key characteristics of health coaching-based interventions for oral health promotion. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist [...] Read more.
Background: Health coaching-based interventions can support behaviour change to improve oral health. This scoping review aims to identify key characteristics of health coaching-based interventions for oral health promotion. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist and the Joanna Briggs Institute manual for evidence synthesis were used in this review. A search strategy using medical subject heading terms and keywords was developed and applied to search the following databases: CINAHL, Ovid, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus. Thematic analysis was used to synthesise the data. Results: Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These studies were predominantly based on health coaching and motivational interviewing interventions applied to oral health promotion. The following are the characteristics of health coaching-based interventions extracted from themes of the included studies: (a) Health professionals should be trained on the usage of motivational interviewing/health coaching interventions; (b) oral health professionals should acquire motivational techniques in their practice to engage patients and avoid criticisms during the behaviour change process; (c) routine brief motivational interviewing/health coaching intervention sessions should be introduced in dental clinics; (d) traditional oral health education methods should be supplemented with individually tailored communication; and (e) for cost-effectiveness purposes, motivational interviewing/health coaching strategies should be considered. Conclusions: This scoping review reveals that health coaching-based techniques of health coaching and motivational interviewing can significantly impact oral health outcomes and behaviour change and can improve oral health professional–patient communication. This calls for the use of health coaching-based techniques by dental teams in community and clinical settings. This review highlights gaps in the literature, suggesting the need for more research on health coaching-based intervention strategies for oral health promotion. Full article
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12 pages, 2389 KiB  
Article
Effect of Particle Sizes and Contents of Surface Pre-Reacted Glass Ionomer Filler on Mechanical Properties of Auto-Polymerizing Resin
by Naoyuki Kaga, Sho Morita, Yuichiro Yamaguchi and Takashi Matsuura
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030072 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Herein, the mechanical properties of an auto-polymerizing resin incorporated with a surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) filler were evaluated. For this, S-PRG fillers with particle sizes of 1 μm (S-PRG-1) and 3 μm (S-PRG-3) were mixed at 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% [...] Read more.
Herein, the mechanical properties of an auto-polymerizing resin incorporated with a surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) filler were evaluated. For this, S-PRG fillers with particle sizes of 1 μm (S-PRG-1) and 3 μm (S-PRG-3) were mixed at 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% to prepare experimental resin powders. The powders and a liquid (powder/liquid ratio = 1.0 g/0.5 mL) were kneaded and filled into a silicone mold to obtain rectangular specimens. The flexural strength and modulus (n = 12) were recorded via a three-point bending test. The flexural strengths of S-PRG-1 at 10 wt% (62.14 MPa) and S-PRG-3 at 10 and 20 wt% (68.68 and 62.70 MPa, respectively) were adequate (>60 MPa). The flexural modulus of the S-PRG-3-containing specimen was significantly higher than that of the S-PRG-1-containing specimen. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the specimen fracture surfaces after bending revealed that the S-PRG fillers were tightly embedded and scattered in the resin matrix. The Vickers hardness increased with an increasing filler content and size. The Vickers hardness of S-PRG-3 (14.86–15.48 HV) was higher than that of S-PRG-1 (13.48–14.97 HV). Thus, the particle size and content of the S-PRG filler affect the mechanical properties of the experimental auto-polymerizing resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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11 pages, 730 KiB  
Article
Distribution of Dental Fluorosis in the Southern Zone of Ecuador: An Epidemiological Study
by Eleonor María Vélez-León, Alberto Albaladejo-Martínez, Paulina Ortíz-Ortega, Katherine Cuenca-León, Ana Armas-Vega and María Melo
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030071 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
In recent decades, the increase in fluoride exposure has raised the numbers of dental fluorosis in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities In Ecuador, but the last national epidemiological study on DF was conducted more than a decade ago. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the increase in fluoride exposure has raised the numbers of dental fluorosis in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities In Ecuador, but the last national epidemiological study on DF was conducted more than a decade ago. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, distribution and severity of dental fluorosis (DF) using the Dean index in 1606 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years from urban and rural environments in provinces that make up the Southern Region of Ecuador. Participants met the inclusion criteria which were age, locality, informed consent document and no legal impediment. The results are presented using percentage frequency measures and chi-square associations. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 50.1% in the areas of Azuay, Cañar and Morona Santiago, with no significant differences (x2 = 5.83, p = 0.054). The types of DF found most frequently were very mild and mild in all provinces; a moderate degree was more prevalent in Cañar (17%). There was no significant association (p > 0.05) between sex and the presence of dental fluorosis and, with respect to severity, the most frequent degree was moderate at the age of 12 years. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the area evaluated is high, especially in the light and very light degrees, with a tendency toward moderate levels. It is necessary to carry out studies on the factors that are predisposing to the development of this pathology in the population studied. This research is an update regarding this pathology in Ecuador, so it is concluded that it is necessary to continue developing studies based on the findings obtained, thus contributing to the public health of the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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14 pages, 902 KiB  
Concept Paper
Classifying Children’s Behaviour at the Dentist—What about ‘Burnout’?
by Christopher C. Donnell
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030070 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
In children and young people, complex and prolonged dental treatment can sometimes be met with resistance despite previously successful treatment appointments. While this has traditionally been referred to as a ‘loss of cooperation’ or ‘non-compliance’, these children may actually be experiencing ‘burnout’, of [...] Read more.
In children and young people, complex and prolonged dental treatment can sometimes be met with resistance despite previously successful treatment appointments. While this has traditionally been referred to as a ‘loss of cooperation’ or ‘non-compliance’, these children may actually be experiencing ‘burnout’, of which many may have the potential to recover and complete their course of treatment. Burnout has been defined as “the extinction of motivation or incentive, especially where one’s devotion to a cause or relationship fails to produce the desired results”. Traditionally, burnout is experienced by those who deliver services rather than be in receipt of a service; however, the burnout concept proposed in this paper explores it as an alternative perspective to other dentally relevant psychosocial conditions and should be considered when employing appropriate behaviour management techniques and coping strategies for paediatric patients. The intention of this paper is not to establish firm grounds for this new concept in healthcare, but to start a discussion and motivate further theoretical and empirical research. The introduction of the ‘burnout triad model’ and the importance of communication aims to highlight the tripartite influence of patients, parents and professionals engaged in the central ‘care experience’ and underlines the belief that early recognition and management of potential signs of burnout may help reduce the likelihood of those involved developing the condition. Full article
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20 pages, 2435 KiB  
Article
A 23-Year Observational Follow-Up Clinical Evaluation of Direct Posterior Composite Restorations
by Marie O. von Gehren, Stefan Rüttermann, Georgios E. Romanos, Eva Herrmann and Susanne Gerhardt-Szép
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030069 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
The purpose of this observational follow-up clinical study was to observe the quality of posterior composite restorations more than 23 years after application. A total of 22 patients, 13 male and 9 female (mean age 66.1 years, range 50–84), with a total of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this observational follow-up clinical study was to observe the quality of posterior composite restorations more than 23 years after application. A total of 22 patients, 13 male and 9 female (mean age 66.1 years, range 50–84), with a total of 42 restorations attended the first and second follow-up examinations. The restorations were examined by one operator using modified FDI criteria. Statistical analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon exact matched-pairs test with a significance level of p = 0.05. Bonferroni–Holm with an adjusted significance level of alpha = 0.05 was applied. With the exception of approximal anatomical form, significantly worse scores were seen for six out of seven criteria at the second follow-up evaluation. There was no significant difference in the first and second follow-up evaluations in the grades of the restorations with regard to having been placed in the maxilla or mandible, as well as for one-surface or multiple-surface restorations. The approximal anatomical form showed significantly worse grades at the second follow-up when having been placed in molars. In conclusion, the study results show that significant differences regarding FDI criteria in posterior composite restorations occur after more than 23 years of service. Further studies with extended follow-up time and at regular and short time intervals are recommended. Full article
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9 pages, 913 KiB  
Article
Chewing Efficiency Test in Subjects with Clear Aligners
by Luca Levrini, Salvatore Bocchieri, Federico Mauceri, Stefano Saran, Andrea Carganico, Piero Antonio Zecca and Marzia Segù
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030068 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1287
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with clear aligners and to propose a simple and repeatable method for the clinical and experimental evaluation of masticatory function. For the testing we used almonds, a natural substance that [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with clear aligners and to propose a simple and repeatable method for the clinical and experimental evaluation of masticatory function. For the testing we used almonds, a natural substance that can be easily found and stored, has intermediate consistency and hardness, is insoluble in saliva, and has the ability easily lose the moisture absorbed in the mouth. Thirty-four subjects using the Invisalign® (Align Technology, Santa Clara, CA, USA) protocol were randomly selected. This was an “intercontrol test”, i.e., all subjects under the same conditions acted as controls but also as cases whilst wearing the clear aligners. Patients were asked to chew an almond for 20 s, once with aligners and once without aligners. The material was then dried, sieved, and weighted. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate any significative differences. In all our subjects, the efficiency of chewing with clear aligners was found to be comparable to the efficiency of chewing without clear aligners. In detail, the average weight after drying was 0.62 g without aligners and 0.69 g with aligners, while after sieving at 1 mm, the average weight was 0.08 g without aligners and 0.06 g with aligners. The average variation after drying was of 12%, and after sieving at 1 mm, it was 25%. In summary, there was no substantial difference between chewing with or without clear aligners. Despite some discomfort in chewing, the clear aligners were well tolerated by most subjects, who wore them without difficulty even during meals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthodontics and New Technologies)
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11 pages, 934 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Transmission of 2940 nm Wavelength in Six Different Aesthetic Orthodontic Brackets
by Mohammad Khare Zamzam, Omar Hamadah, Toni Espana-Tost and Josep Arnabat-Dominguez
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030067 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Background: Previous studies have confirmed the superiority of using erbium lasers (2940, 2780 nm) over other lasers in the debonding of ceramic brackets due to their safety and effectiveness. The most important factor in the debonding of aesthetic brackets is the transmission of [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies have confirmed the superiority of using erbium lasers (2940, 2780 nm) over other lasers in the debonding of ceramic brackets due to their safety and effectiveness. The most important factor in the debonding of aesthetic brackets is the transmission of the erbium laser through the aesthetic bracket to the adhesive resin. Objective: To identify the transmission of the 2940 nm wavelength through different types of aesthetic brackets. Materials and methods: A total of 60 aesthetic brackets were divided into six equal groups (10 monocrystalline sapphire brackets—Radiance, AO; 10 monocrystalline sapphire brackets—Absolute, Star Dentech; 10 polycrystalline brackets—20/40, AO; 10 polycrystalline brackets—3M Unitek Gemini Clear Ceramic; 10 silicon brackets—Silkon Plus, AO; 10 composite brackets—Orthoflex, OrthoTech). The aesthetic brackets were mounted in a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR IRPrestige-21, SHIMADZU) following the typical spectroscopy lab procedure for such samples. The transmission ratio for the 2940 nm wavelength was obtained using IRsolution software. The mean transmission values of the tested groups were compared using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by a Bonferroni test (post-hoc test). Results: The highest transmission ratio was observed for the Radiance sapphire brackets (64.75%) and the lowest was observed for the 3M polycrystalline brackets (40.48%). The differences among the Aesthetic brackets were significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The thick polycrystalline and composite brackets have the lowest transmissibility, whereas the monocrystalline sapphire brackets have the highest transmissibility for the 2940 nm wavelength, meaning that there is a higher possibility of debonding them with a hard tissue laser through thermal ablation. Full article
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11 pages, 593 KiB  
Review
The Shear Bond Strength between Milled Denture Base Materials and Artificial Teeth: A Systematic Review
by Vladimir Prpic, Amir Catic, Sonja Kraljevic Simunkovic, Lana Bergman and Samir Cimic
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030066 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
The data about bond strength between digitally produced denture base resins and artificial teeth are scarce. Several studies investigated shear bond strength values of milled denture base resins and different types of artificial teeth. The purpose of the present study was to compare [...] Read more.
The data about bond strength between digitally produced denture base resins and artificial teeth are scarce. Several studies investigated shear bond strength values of milled denture base resins and different types of artificial teeth. The purpose of the present study was to compare and evaluate the available evidence through a systematic review. A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science to assess adequate studies published up to 1 June 2022. This review followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The appropriate studies that determined the shear bond strength values between milled denture base resins and artificial teeth were selected. The initial search identified 103 studies, which were included in the PRISMA 2020 flow diagram for new systematic reviews. Three studies met the inclusion criteria, and all of them present a moderate risk of bias (score 6). Two studies found no statistical differences between heat-polymerized and CAD/CAM (milled) denture base materials when attached with different types of artificial teeth, while one study showed higher values of CAD/CAM (milled) denture base materials. Bonding agents ensure bonding strength at least similar to the conventional methods. In order to improve the quality of future studies, it would be advantageous to use a larger number of specimens with standardized dimensions and a blinded testing machine operator to decrease the risk of bias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentures)
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15 pages, 489 KiB  
Review
Irrigation in Endodontics: Polyhexanide Is a Promising Antibacterial Polymer in Root Canal Treatment
by Zurab Khabadze, Yulia Generalova, Alena Kulikova, Irina Podoprigora, Saida Abdulkerimova, Yusup Bakaev, Mariya Makeeva, Marina Dashtieva, Mariya Balashova, Fakhri Gadzhiev, Oleg Mordanov, Adam Umarov, Haddad Tarik, Andrei Zoryan, Amina Karnaeva and Yakup Rakhmanov
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030065 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2396
Abstract
Background:chronic apical periodontitis is a common pathology in dentistry, especially in endodontics. It is necessary to systematize data concerning commonly used irrigation solutions. The development of new protocols for endodontic treatment is a very promising direction. The use of a polyhexanide-based antiseptic can [...] Read more.
Background:chronic apical periodontitis is a common pathology in dentistry, especially in endodontics. It is necessary to systematize data concerning commonly used irrigation solutions. The development of new protocols for endodontic treatment is a very promising direction. The use of a polyhexanide-based antiseptic can positively affect the results of endodontic treatment. Methods: the review was carried out involving the search for English language research and meta-analyses in the Google Scholar and PubMed databases. Results: the number of literary sources that were identified during the literature review is 180. After excluding publications that did not match the search criteria, the total number of articles included in the systematic review was determined to be 68. Conclusions: polyhexanide is a promising solution for infected root canal irrigation. The antibacterial activity of this substance is suitable for the elimination of pathogens responsible for the appearance of apical periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontics and Restorative Sciences)
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11 pages, 1513 KiB  
Article
Association of Masticatory Efficiency and Reduced Number of Antagonistic Contacts Due to Extraction, Changing Dentition or Malocclusion in Children
by Odri Cicvaric, Renata Grzic, Marija Simunovic Erpusina, Suncana Simonic-Kocijan, Danko Bakarcic and Natasa Ivancic Jokic
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030064 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
Background: Tooth extraction, changing dentition and malocclusion can decrease area of occlusal contact and negatively affect masticatory efficiency. Aim of this study was to evaluate difference in masticatory efficiency in association with previously named factors. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study masticatory [...] Read more.
Background: Tooth extraction, changing dentition and malocclusion can decrease area of occlusal contact and negatively affect masticatory efficiency. Aim of this study was to evaluate difference in masticatory efficiency in association with previously named factors. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study masticatory efficiency parameters (number of particles, mean diameter and mean surface of particles) determined with optical scanning method were compared between children with healthy dentition (12 girls, 12 boys, age 3 to 14) and children with lost antagonistic contacts due to tooth extraction, changing dentition and malocclusions (12 girls, 12 boys, age 3 to 14). Results: Number of chewed particles is significantly higher in a group of children with healthy dentition (p < 0.001), and chewed particles’ mean diameter and surface are significantly higher in the Group 2 (p < 0.001; p < 0.001). Number of lost occlusal contacts is not in correlation with masticatory efficiency parameters (p= 0.464; p= 0.483; p= 0.489). Conclusions: Children with lost antagonistic contacts have an impaired masticatory efficiency in comparison to children with complete dentition, but there is no difference regarding the aetiology of contact loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Care in Paediatric Dentistry Volume 2)
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12 pages, 415 KiB  
Review
Comparison of Lasers and Desensitizing Agents in Dentinal Hypersensitivity Therapy
by Francesca Cattoni, Lucrezia Ferrante, Sara Mandile, Giulia Tetè, Elisabetta Maria Polizzi and Giorgio Gastaldi
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030063 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3739
Abstract
The main objective of this review is to verify the validity of laser therapy in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity, an extremely common problem in patients, with Nd: YAG lasers or high- and/or low-power diode lasers to obtain a definitive protocol for the [...] Read more.
The main objective of this review is to verify the validity of laser therapy in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity, an extremely common problem in patients, with Nd: YAG lasers or high- and/or low-power diode lasers to obtain a definitive protocol for the treatment of hypersensitivity, given the multiplicity of laser treatments proposed by the numerous authors evaluated. The authors performed an electronic search on PubMed, favouring it as a search engine. Lasers represent a means of treating dentin hypersensitivity, used alone and/or in conjunction with specific products for the treatment of such a pathology. The selected articles that examined diode lasers were divided according to the wattage (w) used: low-level laser therapy protocols, i.e., those using a wattage of less than 1 W, and high-level laser therapy protocols, i.e., those using a wattage of 1 W or more. Regarding the Nd: YAG laser, it was not necessary to subdivide the studies in this way, as they used a wattage of 1 W or more. A total of 21 articles were included in the final selection. Laser therapy was found to be effective in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. However, the level of effectiveness depends on the laser used. The results obtained from this review show that both the Nd: YAG laser and the diode laser (high and low power) are effective in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. However, the high-power laser appears to be more effective in combination with fluoride varnish and the Nd: YAG laser achieved greater long-term benefits than the diode laser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photobiomodulation and Its Application in Dentistry)
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15 pages, 2077 KiB  
Review
Robotics in Dentistry: A Narrative Review
by Lipei Liu, Megumi Watanabe and Tetsuo Ichikawa
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030062 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3762
Abstract
Background: Robotics is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the basic and applied research status of robotics in dentistry and discusses its development and application prospects in several major professional fields of dentistry. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background: Robotics is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the basic and applied research status of robotics in dentistry and discusses its development and application prospects in several major professional fields of dentistry. Methods: A literature search was conducted on databases: MEDLINE, IEEE and Cochrane Library, using MeSH terms: [“robotics” and “dentistry”]. Result: Forty-nine articles were eventually selected according to certain inclusion criteria. There were 12 studies on prosthodontics, reaching 24%; 11 studies were on dental implantology, accounting for 23%. Scholars from China published the most articles, followed by Japan and the United States. The number of articles published between 2011 and 2015 was the largest. Conclusions: With the advancement of science and technology, the applications of robots in dental medicine has promoted the development of intelligent, precise, and minimally invasive dental treatments. Currently, robots are used in basic and applied research in various specialized fields of dentistry. Automatic tooth-crown-preparation robots, tooth-arrangement robots, drilling robots, and orthodontic archwire-bending robots that meet clinical requirements have been developed. We believe that in the near future, robots will change the existing dental treatment model and guide new directions for further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Dentistry)
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14 pages, 1181 KiB  
Article
Surgical Treatment of Peri-Implantitis Using a Combined Nd: YAG and Er: YAG Laser Approach: Investigation of Clinical and Bone Loss Biomarkers
by Ioannis Fragkioudakis, Antonios Kallis, Evangelia Kesidou, Olympia Damianidou, Dimitra Sakellari and Ioannis Vouros
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030061 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of the combined Nd-Er: YAG laser on the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis by evaluating clinical markers and biomarkers of bone loss (RANKL/OPG). Twenty (20) patients having at least 1 implant diagnosed with peri-implantitis were randomly [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of the combined Nd-Er: YAG laser on the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis by evaluating clinical markers and biomarkers of bone loss (RANKL/OPG). Twenty (20) patients having at least 1 implant diagnosed with peri-implantitis were randomly assigned to two groups for surgical treatment. In the test group (n = 10), Er: YAG laser was used for granulation tissue removal and implant surface decontamination, while Nd: YAG laser was employed for deep tissue decontamination and biomodulation. In the control group (n = 10), an access flap was applied, and mechanical instrumentation of the implant surface was performed by using titanium curettes. The following clinical parameters were evaluated at baseline and six months after treatment: Full-mouth Plaque Score (FMPS), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Probing Attachment Levels (PAL), recession (REC), and Bleeding on probing (BoP). Peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) was collected at baseline and six months for the evaluation of soluble RANKL and OPG utilizing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Baseline clinical values were similar for both groups, with no statistical differences between them. The study results indicated statistically significant improvements in the clinical parameters during the 6-month observation period in both groups. More specifically, PPD, PAL, and REC were improved in the test and control groups with no differences in the between-groups comparisons. However, a greater reduction in the BoP-positive sites was noted for the laser group (Mean change 22.05 ± 33.92 vs. 55.00 ± 30.48, p = 0.037). The baseline and six-month comparisons of sRANKL and OPG revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The combined Nd: YAG—Er: YAG laser surgical therapy of peri-implantitis seemed to lead to more favorable improvements in regard to bleeding on probing six months after treatment compared to the conventional mechanical decontamination of the implant surface. None of the methods was found superior in the modification of bone loss biomarkers (RANKL, OPG) six months after treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodontal Health: Disease Prevention and Treatment)
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12 pages, 1840 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Magneto-Dynamic, Piezoelectric, and Conventional Surgery for Dental Extractions: A Pilot Study
by Francesco Bennardo, Selene Barone, Camillo Vocaturo, Dorin Nicolae Gheorghe, Giorgio Cosentini, Alessandro Antonelli and Amerigo Giudice
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030060 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
This pilot split-mouth study aimed to evaluate and compare early postoperative discomfort and wound healing outcomes in post-extraction sockets after dental extraction performed with a Magnetic Mallet (MM), piezosurgery, and conventional instruments (EudraCT 2022-003135-25). Twenty-two patients requiring the extraction of three non-adjacent teeth [...] Read more.
This pilot split-mouth study aimed to evaluate and compare early postoperative discomfort and wound healing outcomes in post-extraction sockets after dental extraction performed with a Magnetic Mallet (MM), piezosurgery, and conventional instruments (EudraCT 2022-003135-25). Twenty-two patients requiring the extraction of three non-adjacent teeth were included. Each tooth was randomly assigned to a specific treatment (control, MM, or piezosurgery). Outcome measures were the severity of symptoms after surgery, wound healing assessed at the 10-days follow-up visit, and the time taken to complete each procedure (excluding suturing). Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons tests were performed to evaluate eventual differences between groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the compared methods in postoperative pain and healing, and no additional complications were reported. MM required significantly less time to perform a tooth extraction, followed by conventional instruments and piezosurgery, in increasing order (p < 0.05). Overall, the present findings suggest the use of MM and piezosurgery as valid options for dental extractions. Further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm and extend this study’s results, facilitating the selection of the optimal method for an individual patient depending on the patient’s needs and preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 362 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Materials for Caries Management: A Literature Review
by Olivia Lili Zhang, John Yun Niu, Iris Xiaoxue Yin, Ollie Yiru Yu, May Lei Mei and Chun Hung Chu
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030059 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3185
Abstract
Researchers have developed novel bioactive materials for caries management. Many clinicians also favour these materials, which fit their contemporary practice philosophy of using the medical model of caries management and minimally invasive dentistry. Although there is no consensus on the definition of bioactive [...] Read more.
Researchers have developed novel bioactive materials for caries management. Many clinicians also favour these materials, which fit their contemporary practice philosophy of using the medical model of caries management and minimally invasive dentistry. Although there is no consensus on the definition of bioactive materials, bioactive materials in cariology are generally considered to be those that can form hydroxyapatite crystals on the tooth surface. Common bioactive materials include fluoride-based materials, calcium- and phosphate-based materials, graphene-based materials, metal and metal-oxide nanomaterials and peptide-based materials. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a fluoride-based material containing silver; silver is antibacterial and fluoride promotes remineralisation. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate is a calcium- and phosphate-based material that can be added to toothpaste and chewing gum for caries prevention. Researchers use graphene-based materials and metal or metal-oxide nanomaterials as anticaries agents. Graphene-based materials, such as graphene oxide-silver, have antibacterial and mineralising properties. Metal and metal-oxide nanomaterials, such as silver and copper oxide, are antimicrobial. Incorporating mineralising materials could introduce remineralising properties to metallic nanoparticles. Researchers have also developed antimicrobial peptides with mineralising properties for caries prevention. The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of current bioactive materials for caries management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates and Highlights in Cariology)
10 pages, 673 KiB  
Article
Tomographic Evaluation of Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Bone Substitutes and Collagen Membranes—A Retrospective Pilot Study
by Tegan S. Binkhorst, Andrew Tawse-Smith, Rayner Goh, Getulio R. Nogueira and Momen Atieh
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030058 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) reduces dimensional changes following tooth extraction. We evaluated the changes in alveolar ridge dimensions after ARP using bone substitutes and collagen membranes. Objectives included the tomographic evaluation of sites prior to extraction and six months after ARP and the [...] Read more.
Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) reduces dimensional changes following tooth extraction. We evaluated the changes in alveolar ridge dimensions after ARP using bone substitutes and collagen membranes. Objectives included the tomographic evaluation of sites prior to extraction and six months after ARP and the assessment of the extent ARP preserved the ridge and reduced the need for additional augmentation at the time of implant placement. A total of 12 participants who underwent ARP in the Postgraduate Periodontics Clinic (Faculty of Dentistry) were included. Cone beam computed tomography images were used to retrospectively assess 17 sites prior to and six months after dental extraction. Alveolar ridge changes were recorded and analysed using reproducible reference points. The alveolar ridge height was measured at buccal and palatal/lingual aspects, whilst width was measured at crestal level, 2 mm, 4 mm and 6 mm below the crest. Statistically significant changes were found in alveolar ridge width at all four heights, with mean reduction differences ranging from 1.16 mm to 2.84 mm. Likewise, significant changes in the palatal/lingual alveolar ridge height (1.28 mm) were observed. However, changes of 0.79 mm in buccal alveolar ridge height were not significant (p = 0.077). Although ARP reduced dimensional changes following a tooth extraction, some degree of alveolar ridge collapse could not be avoided. The amount of resorption on the buccal aspect of the ridge was less compared to the palatal/lingual after ARP. This indicated that the use of bone substitutes and collagen membranes was effective in reducing changes in the buccal alveolar ridge height. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Implantology and Bone Regeneration)
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17 pages, 6127 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconia–Silica PMMA Nanocomposite for Endodontic Implants
by Puji Widodo, Wawan Mulyawan, Nina Djustiana and I. Made Joni
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030057 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
This study aimed to enhance the mechanical properties of PMMA composites by introducing various types of fillers, including ZrO2, SiO2, and a mixture of ZrO2-SiO2 nanoparticles, which were prepared as prototypes for an endodontic implant. The [...] Read more.
This study aimed to enhance the mechanical properties of PMMA composites by introducing various types of fillers, including ZrO2, SiO2, and a mixture of ZrO2-SiO2 nanoparticles, which were prepared as prototypes for an endodontic implant. The ZrO2, SiO2, and mixed ZrO2-SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using the sol–gel method and the precursors Tetraethyl Orthosilicate, Zirconium Oxychloride, and a mixture of both precursors, respectively. Before polymerization, the as-synthesized powders were subjected to the bead milling process to obtain a well-dispersed suspension. Two scenarios for the fillers were implemented in the preparation of the PMMA composite: a mixture of ZrO2/SiO2 and ZrO2-SiO2 mixed with two different types of silane: (3-Mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPTS) and 3-(Trimethoxysilyl) Propyl Methacrylate (TMSPMA). The observation of the characteristics of all of the investigated fillers included the use of a particle-size analyzer (PSA), a Zeta-potential analyzer, FTIR, XRF, XRD, and SEM. The mechanical properties of the MMA composites, as prepared under various scenarios, were observed in terms of their flexural strength, diametrical tensile strength (DTS), and modulus of elasticity (ME). These levels of performance were compared with a PMMA-only polymer. Each sample was measured five times for flexural strength, DTS, and ME. The results showed that the best PMMA composite was SiO2/ZrO2/TMSPMA, as revealed by measurements of the flexural strength, DTS, and ME corresponding to 152.7 ± 13.0 MPa, 51.2 ± 0.6 MPa, and 9272.8 ± 2481.4 MPa, which are close to the mechanical properties of dentin. The viability of these PMMA composites, as measured up to day 7, was 93.61%, indicating that they are nontoxic biomaterials. Therefore, it was concluded that the PMMA composite created with SiO2/ZrO2/TMSPMA can be considered to be an acceptable endodontic implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontics and Restorative Sciences)
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