Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767). This special issue belongs to the section "Preventive Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2024 | Viewed by 25955

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
Interests: dental caries; community dentistry; evidence-based dentistry; clinical trials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Preventive dental care, much like the term suggests, refers to activities that work to prevent oral health issues. In fact, preventive dental care is not limited to simple actions such as toothbrushing and dental flossing to keep teeth clean and clear of diseases. The aim of prevention is to bring disease status to the lowest stage. Actions should be taken at any stage of the disease progression, ideally as early as possible. Three-level prevention strategies have been widely advocated. Primary prevention strategies are used to prevent the onset of oral diseases, including but not limited to the provision of health-related information, oral health education and promotion, the application of topical fluoride, chlorhexidine, and other health technologies. Secondary prevention includes strategies that detect disease early and intervene to prevent its progression, such as regular dental check-ups and the utilization of early detection tools. Tertiary prevention strategies are used to prevent function loss and lower morbidity by restoring function and reducing disease‐related complications, for example, replacing missing teeth with dental implants and rehabilitating function with residual parts.

It is important to be proactive in preventive dental care which is not restricted to the chairside in the dentist’s office. Topical fluoride application and fissure sealant are far from sufficient in terms of preventive actions. Community involvement is considered a promising strategy to make prevention a priority, and to make it sustainable. As the time spent in a dentist’s office is usually quite limited, community involvement helps preventive dental care to sustain and endure in achieving success. In addition, peer influence within the community may boost the effectiveness of preventive actions.

This Special Issue welcomes original research articles, reviews and case reports (with good quality photos) related to preventive dental care. Preventive strategies include but are not limited to oral health promotion, early diagnosis, the assessment or management of oral diseases and conditions, novel dental care protocols to lower disease levels, and the rehabilitation of oral function. Strategies can be considered at both individual and community levels.

This Special Issue will provide readers with up-to-date information on preventive dental care in minimizing severity of diseases. Further, it will raise awareness of the importance of preventive actions for dental professionals as well as general readers.

Prof. Dr. Chun Hung Chu
Dr. Chloe Jiang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Teeth Whitening Procedure on the Mineral Composition of Oral Fluid
by Elena A. Ryskina, Oksana A. Magsumova, Mikhail A. Postnikov, Tatiana A. Lobaeva, Bahovaddin B. Ahmedzhanov, Anastasia N. Shishparenok and Dmitry D. Zhdanov
Dent. J. 2024, 12(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12010009 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1943
Abstract
The basis of modern tooth whitening systems is the use of a whitening gel, which usually contains hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide. The study included 81 patients aged 22 to 35 years with a tooth color A2 and a darker color on the [...] Read more.
The basis of modern tooth whitening systems is the use of a whitening gel, which usually contains hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide. The study included 81 patients aged 22 to 35 years with a tooth color A2 and a darker color on the Vita Classic scale. The purpose of our research was to identify a new approach to whitening teeth to improve safety and gentleness. To perform this, we assessed the effect of the tooth whitening procedure on the mineral composition of the oral fluid. A new approach to the teeth whitening procedure was to use a mouth retractor and a tool for aspirating the whitening gel, which we developed. Before the procedure, a protective film-forming aerosol, which included sodium ascorbate, was applied. After the tooth whitening procedure, the enamel was remineralized with a sealing liquid for 14 days. The concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in the oral fluid were determined using a spectrophotometer with a set of reagents (Human). The results obtained indicate that the new approach to the teeth whitening procedure contributed to less pronounced changes in the concentrations of calcium (+29.07, p < 0.001) and phosphorus (−14%, p < 0.001) in the oral fluid immediately after the procedure and in combination with the standard procedure for teeth whitening; immediately after this procedure, the calcium concentration increased by 74.4% (p < 0.001), and the phosphorus concentration decreased by 23.07% (p < 0.001). The use of remineralizing agents led to a faster recovery of the initial levels of calcium and phosphorus in the oral fluid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
15 pages, 3463 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Toothpastes on the Nanomechanical Properties and Chemical Composition of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement and Composite Resin Restorations
by Mariana Dias Moda, Paulo Henrique Dos Santos, Nubia Inocencya Pavesi Pini, Leonardo Negri Furini, André Luiz Fraga Briso, André Assmann and Ticiane Cestari Fagundes
Dent. J. 2023, 11(7), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11070173 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Purpose: This study evaluates the effects of different toothpastes on the nanohardness and chemical compositions of restorative materials and dental surfaces. Methods: Bovine enamel (n = 72) and dentin (n = 72) blocks were obtained and restored using RMGIC (n [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study evaluates the effects of different toothpastes on the nanohardness and chemical compositions of restorative materials and dental surfaces. Methods: Bovine enamel (n = 72) and dentin (n = 72) blocks were obtained and restored using RMGIC (n = 36) or CR (n = 36) to create the following surfaces: dentin adjacent to RMGIC (DRMGIC), enamel adjacent to RMGIC (ERMGIC), dentin adjacent to CR (DCR), and enamel adjacent to CR (ECR). After restoration, one hemiface of each specimen was coated with an acid-resistant varnish to facilitate the creation of control (C) and eroded (E) sides; the latter were achieved by erosion–abrasion cycles as follows: erosion with 1% citric acid: 5 days, four times for 2 min each day; 1% citric acid/abrasion, two times for 15 s, followed by immersion in a toothpaste slurry for 2 min. Toothpastes without fluoride (WF; n = 12), with sodium fluoride (NaF; n = 12), and with stannous fluoride (SnF2; n = 12) were used for RMGIC or CR. The specimens were analyzed for nanohardness (H), and chemical composition using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman microscopy. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). Results: Lower H values were obtained with NaF for DRMGIC-C, with a statistically significant difference from the H value obtained with WF (p < 0.05). The calcium and phosphorus concentrations in DCR-E were significantly lower with WF than with the other types of toothpaste (p < 0.05). Fluoride-containing toothpastes are capable of preserving the main chemical components of the dentin adjacent to the restorative materials under erosive–abrasive conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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11 pages, 1608 KiB  
Article
Phosphoric Acid Etch Partially Restores the Initial Bond Strength of Composite to Silver Diamine Fluoride–Treated Enamel Using Universal Adhesives
by Zaher Jabbour, Mijoo Kim, Marc Hayashi and Reuben Kim
Dent. J. 2023, 11(7), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11070161 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1755
Abstract
Background: Restoring bonding composite to silver diamine fluoride (SDF)-treated enamel is challenging. This study investigates if phosphoric acid etch restores composite bond strength to SDF-treated enamel using universal adhesives. Methods: Twenty-four recently extracted permanent teeth were randomly divided into 4 (2 experimental (SDF) [...] Read more.
Background: Restoring bonding composite to silver diamine fluoride (SDF)-treated enamel is challenging. This study investigates if phosphoric acid etch restores composite bond strength to SDF-treated enamel using universal adhesives. Methods: Twenty-four recently extracted permanent teeth were randomly divided into 4 (2 experimental (SDF) and 2 control (CTR)) groups: SDF+Water: SDF (1 min) then water rinse (15 mL); CTR+Water: no treatment and water rinse (15 mL); SDF+Etch+Water: SDF (1 min), 35% phosphoric acid (40 s) then water rinse (15 mL); CTR+Etch+Water no treatment, 35% phosphoric acid (40 s) then water rinse (15 mL). The enamel surface in all the groups was bonded (All-Bond Universal) to 4–5 mm composite blocks (Z-250). Each sample was sectioned, and 6–8 beams (1 mm × 1 mm) were selected. The micro-tensile bond strength was measured by dividing the micro-tensile force peak by the adhesive surface area. Univariate ANOVA and Chi-square were used for between-group comparisons with p < 0.05. Results: SDF+Water had significantly lower tensile strength compared to all the groups (p < 0.05). Although no difference was found in the tensile strength between the SDF+Etch+Water and the CTR+Etch+Water, the SDF+Etch+Water had significantly more adhesive failures compared to the CTR+Etch+Water (p = 0.047). Conclusions: While phosphoric acid etch seems to restore the initial composite bond strength to SDF-treated enamel, the long-term success of composite restorations bonded to SDF-treated enamel may need further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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18 pages, 1013 KiB  
Article
Exploring Customer Journeys in the Context of Dentistry: A Case Study
by Bhaven Modha
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030075 - 7 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3653
Abstract
This case study aims to explore how customer journey concepts can apply to a hypothetical scenario, centring on a patient (customer persona) within the dentistry arena, and with a particular focus on special care dentistry. As an educational exercise, this paper may inform [...] Read more.
This case study aims to explore how customer journey concepts can apply to a hypothetical scenario, centring on a patient (customer persona) within the dentistry arena, and with a particular focus on special care dentistry. As an educational exercise, this paper may inform dental and allied professionals on how aspects of the customer journey notion may be embedded into their own practices, so that patient-centricity might be better optimised. The hypothetical scenario considers the organisational context, customer persona, contemporary customer purchase decision-making models, and marketing approaches. These components are used to create a customer journey map to help visualise and identify the varying customer–business interactions. The customer journey, focussing on the awareness, initial consideration, active evaluation, pre-purchase, purchase and post-purchase stages, is then conceptually analysed. The analyses reveal that there are areas of friction, attributable to numerous factors. The case study recommends that by introducing digitalisation and omnichannel marketing, alongside existing internally generated and multi-channel marketing approaches, considerable improvements may be achievable. As the patient technology landscape becomes more digital and dental organisations face fiercer competition, dental care providers relying on traditional marketing approaches may well need to adapt and introduce innovative, yet cost-effective digitalisation and omnichannel marketing approaches. Nevertheless, dental care providers, and dental and allied professionals must uphold an underlying duty of care, ensuring that all practises are legal, decent, honest, truthful, and above all ethical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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10 pages, 618 KiB  
Communication
Challenge-Based Learning in Dental Education
by Mohammed Zahedul Islam Nizami, Vicky Wenqing Xue, Amy Wai Yee Wong, Ollie Yiru Yu, Conson Yeung and Chun Hung Chu
Dent. J. 2023, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11010014 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3020
Abstract
Challenge-based learning (CBL) is a novel learning framework for a collaborative and multidisciplinary learning experience. It allows students, teachers, stakeholders, researchers, families, and society to work together to identify and solve real-world challenges. CBL helps students develop a deeper knowledge of the subjects [...] Read more.
Challenge-based learning (CBL) is a novel learning framework for a collaborative and multidisciplinary learning experience. It allows students, teachers, stakeholders, researchers, families, and society to work together to identify and solve real-world challenges. CBL helps students develop a deeper knowledge of the subjects they are studying. The concepts of CBL originate from a variety of educational theories and approaches, such as problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning. The precursor to the CBL framework is problem-based learning. However, unlike in problem-based learning and other approaches, students formulate the challenges they will address in CBL. Furthermore, students need to create a solution resulting in concrete action. CBL takes into account the social impact of an idea rather than just the corporate benefits. Therefore, it can help students expand the scope and depth of learning, encourage teamwork capabilities, and raise their awareness about considering quality and ethics in decision-making. CBL is implemented in universities, schools, and institutions worldwide and its use is well-recognized in science, engineering, and medicine, but it has not been translated into dentistry. The aim of this paper is to describe the concept of inclusion, principles and design, implementation, and supervision of the CBL framework in a dental course for the adaption of this learning framework to dental education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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10 pages, 1323 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of 38% Silver Diamine Fluoride in Reducing Dentine Hypersensitivity on Exposed Root Surface in Older Chinese Adults: Study Protocol for a Randomised Double-Blind Study
by Alice Kit Ying Chan, Manisha Tamrakar, Chloe Meng Jiang, Yiu Cheung Tsang, Katherine Chiu Man Leung and Chun Hung Chu
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100194 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Background: Dentine hypersensitivity on an exposed root surface induces pain, affects daily oral hygiene practice, limits dietary choices and negatively affects quality of life. Silver diamine fluoride is marketed in the United States as a desensitising agent, but well-designed clinical trials are limited. [...] Read more.
Background: Dentine hypersensitivity on an exposed root surface induces pain, affects daily oral hygiene practice, limits dietary choices and negatively affects quality of life. Silver diamine fluoride is marketed in the United States as a desensitising agent, but well-designed clinical trials are limited. This study evaluates the anti-hypersensitivity effect of silver diamine fluoride on hypersensitive teeth due to an exposed root surface in older Chinese adults. Methods/design: We will conduct a randomised double-blind clinical trial with a sample size of at least 148 Chinese older adults aged 65 or above who have dentine hypersensitivity due to an exposed root surface. We will collect written consent before the study. A trained examiner will examine the participants’ teeth with a blast of compressed air from a 3-in-1 syringe. Those adults who report a self-perceived sensitivity score (SS) (0 to 10) of 8 or more on at least one tooth with an exposed root surface will be recruited. The recruited older adults will be randomly allocated into two groups using a block randomisation of six. Group 1 participants will receive the application of 38% silver diamine fluoride solution every 4 weeks. Group 2 participants will receive the application of 5% potassium nitrate solution every 4 weeks. Dietary advice, oral hygiene instruction and fluoride toothpaste at 1450 ppm will be provided to participants in both groups. The same trained examiner will perform follow-up examinations for the participants and determine the dentine hypersensitivity in SS of the most hypersensitive tooth (with the highest pre-treatment SS) immediately after the intervention and at 4-week and 8-week intervals. Discussion: There is no consensus on the standard of care for a professionally applied desensitising agent in older adults. This trial will provide evidence for clinicians to devise an effective dental care plan for older adults with dentine hypersensitivity. Trial registration: NCT05392868 Registered on 22 May 2022. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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8 pages, 233 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Biochemical Parameters of the Oral Fluid before and after Using Office Teeth Whitening Systems
by Elena A. Ryskina, Frida N. Gilmiyarova, Oksana A. Magsumova, Mikhail A. Postnikov, Tatiana A. Lobaeva and Dmitry D. Zhdanov
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100178 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
One of the most important functions of the oral fluid is to maintain oral homeostasis. In-office teeth whitening systems are able to change the mineral metabolism and the activity of a number of enzymes in the oral fluid, but there are conflicting data [...] Read more.
One of the most important functions of the oral fluid is to maintain oral homeostasis. In-office teeth whitening systems are able to change the mineral metabolism and the activity of a number of enzymes in the oral fluid, but there are conflicting data in publications about this. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Opalescense Boost, ZOOM Advance POWER, and ZOOM Phillips White Speed, which contain different percentages of hydrogen peroxide, on the performance of oral fluid. After the procedure of whitening teeth with the studied in-office systems, the concentration of calcium in the oral fluid increased, and the activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased. Calcium levels returned to baseline values after 30 days, and alkaline phosphatase activity returned after 14 days. There was no significant difference in the changes in calcium concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity between different tooth whitening systems. Chemical teeth whitening with the Opalescense Boost system caused the largest change in the activity of superoxide dismutase in the oral fluid compared to the ZOOM Advance POWER and ZOOM Phillips White Speed photocatalytic teeth whitening systems. An increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase by +75.5% was shown immediately after the procedure of teeth whitening with the Opalescense Boost system, which indicated an increase in the power of antioxidant defense mechanisms. To assess the effectiveness and safety of using various whitening systems, it is possible to study the dynamics of the activity of superoxide dismutase, which reflects the processes of antioxidant protection of the oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
15 pages, 1383 KiB  
Article
Dental Caries Risk Assessment in Children 5 Years Old and under via Machine Learning
by Seyed-Ali Sadegh-Zadeh, Ali Rahmani Qeranqayeh, Elhadj Benkhalifa, David Dyke, Lynda Taylor and Mahshid Bagheri
Dent. J. 2022, 10(9), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10090164 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3254
Abstract
Background: Dental caries is a prevalent, complex, chronic illness that is avoidable. Better dental health outcomes are achieved as a result of accurate and early caries risk prediction in children, which also helps to avoid additional expenses and repercussions. In recent years, artificial [...] Read more.
Background: Dental caries is a prevalent, complex, chronic illness that is avoidable. Better dental health outcomes are achieved as a result of accurate and early caries risk prediction in children, which also helps to avoid additional expenses and repercussions. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has been employed in the medical field to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of medical diseases. This technology is a critical tool for the early prediction of the risk of developing caries. Aim: Through the development of computational models and the use of machine learning classification techniques, we investigated the potential for dental caries factors and lifestyle among children under the age of five. Design: A total of 780 parents and their children under the age of five made up the sample. To build a classification model with high accuracy to predict caries risk in 0–5-year-old children, ten different machine learning modelling techniques (DT, XGBoost, KNN, LR, MLP, RF, SVM (linear, rbf, poly, sigmoid)) and two assessment methods (Leave-One-Out and K-fold) were utilised. The best classification model for caries risk prediction was chosen by analysing each classification model’s accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results: Machine learning helped with the creation of computer algorithms that could take a variety of parameters into account, as well as the identification of risk factors for childhood caries. The performance of the classifier is almost unbiased, making it generalizable. Among all applied machine learning algorithms, Multilayer Perceptron and Random Forest had the best accuracy, with 97.4%. Support Vector Machine with RBF Kernel (with an accuracy of 97.4%) was better than Extreme Gradient Boosting (with 94.9% accuracy). Conclusion: The outcomes of this study show the potential of regular screening of children for caries risk by experts and finding the risk scores of dental caries for any individual. Therefore, in order to avoid dental caries, it is possible to concentrate on each individual by utilizing machine learning modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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8 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Radiographic Changes to Silver Diamine Fluoride Treated Carious Lesions after a Rinsing Step
by Zaher Jabbour, Maryam Esmaeili, Marc Hayashi and Reuben Kim
Dent. J. 2022, 10(8), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10080149 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is radiopaque. This in vitro study compares the changes in the radiopacity of carious lesions after SDF application, potassium iodide (PI) application, and water rinse. Ten recently extracted human teeth were sectioned and divided into two groups (n [...] Read more.
Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is radiopaque. This in vitro study compares the changes in the radiopacity of carious lesions after SDF application, potassium iodide (PI) application, and water rinse. Ten recently extracted human teeth were sectioned and divided into two groups (n = 10 in each group): Group 1 = SDF, Group 2 = SDF + PI. Teeth in Group 1 received SDF for 1 min and rinsed with 15 mL water. Group 2 received the same protocol with the addition of PI application for 1 min after SDF application. All samples were scanned with micro-computed tomography before SDF application, after SDF application, after PI application (group 2) and after water rinse. The radiopacity of the carious lesions increased significantly after SDF application in Group 1 and 2 (p < 0.017, p < 0.008, respectively). A significant increase in radiopacity after PI application was also observed in Group 2 (p < 0.008). Water rinsing significantly decreased the radiopacity in Group 1 and 2 (p < 0.017, p < 0.008, respectively), but the radiopacity remained significantly higher than the preoperative values (Group 1 p < 0.017, Group 2 p < 0.008). The radiopacity of carious lesions increases after SDF and SDF + PI applications. Water rinsing could reduce the radiopacity of SDF and SDF + PI treated carious lesions, and might reduce the content of SDF in carious lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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Review

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17 pages, 582 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of the Use of mHealth in Oral Health Education among Older Adults
by Reinhard Chun Wang Chau, Khaing Myat Thu, Akhilanand Chaurasia, Richard Tai Chiu Hsung and Walter Yu-Hang Lam
Dent. J. 2023, 11(8), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11080189 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Oral diseases are largely preventable. However, as the number of older adults is expected to increase, along with the high cost and various barriers to seeking continuous professional care, a sustainable approach is needed to assist older adults in maintaining their oral health. [...] Read more.
Oral diseases are largely preventable. However, as the number of older adults is expected to increase, along with the high cost and various barriers to seeking continuous professional care, a sustainable approach is needed to assist older adults in maintaining their oral health. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies may facilitate oral disease prevention and management through oral health education. This review aims to provide an overview of existing evidence on using mHealth to promote oral health through education among older adults. A literature search was performed across five electronic databases. A total of five studies were identified, which provided low to moderate evidence to support using mHealth among older adults. The selected studies showed that mHealth could improve oral health management, oral health behavior, and oral health knowledge among older adults. However, more quality studies regarding using mHealth technologies in oral health management, oral health behavior, and oral health knowledge among older adults are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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Other

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7 pages, 1726 KiB  
Case Report
Long-Term Sequalae of Undiagnosed Intrusion of a Primary Tooth
by Thikrayat Bani-Hani, Rona Leith and Anne C. O’Connell
Dent. J. 2022, 10(11), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10110202 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
Aims: This case demonstrates the adverse sequelae that can follow a traumatic dental injury at a young age. It also highlights the importance of taking a full history and undertaking a thorough exam, independent of the information in the referral. Case presentation: A [...] Read more.
Aims: This case demonstrates the adverse sequelae that can follow a traumatic dental injury at a young age. It also highlights the importance of taking a full history and undertaking a thorough exam, independent of the information in the referral. Case presentation: A 9-year-old boy was referred for treatment of “an extra tooth” and “hypoplastic and non-vital” maxillary left permanent incisors. Examination revealed a sinus tract labial to these incisors (21,22) with increased probing depth. However, the teeth were otherwise normal. The child sustained a fall as a baby and lost one of his primary teeth that was never recovered. Information collected suggested the most likely diagnosis was an undiagnosed complete intrusion of a primary incisor, with subsequent hypoplasia and malalignment in the developing teeth. Management included the removal of the intruded primary tooth and monitoring of the hypoplastic permanent incisors until complete eruption and root maturation. Aesthetic restorations were then provided. The patient was referred for orthodontic correction of the malalignment. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis and inappropriate management of dental trauma can cause additional damage. In this case, endodontic therapy in the permanent incisors was avoided by correct diagnosis. Clinicians have to correctly assess and justify their decisions on each individual case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dental Care, Chairside and Beyond)
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