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Dent. J., Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study was an in vitro evaluation of the tooth-whitening potential of peroxide-free OTC dental bleaching agents compared with high-peroxide teeth-whitening products and an experimental tooth-whitening solution containing 0.1% hydrogen peroxide complexed with doping agents. The whitening power of these products was tested on extracted bovine permanent incisors previously exposed to four staining agents: tea, coffee, red wine, and curry. The results of the study demonstrated that non-peroxide teeth-whitening products can achieve some level of teeth whitening, but may not be as effective as the traditional highly hydrogen-peroxide-based products; however, an experimental tooth-whitening solution containing 0.1% hydrogen peroxide complexed with doping agents showed very promising results. View this paper
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14 pages, 7236 KiB  
Case Report
Camouflage Correction of Skeletal Class III Severe Open Bite with Tooth Ankylosis Treated by Temporary Anchorage Devices: A Case Report
by Yuka Yashima, Masato Kaku, Taeko Yamamoto, Cynthia Concepcion Medina, Shigehiro Ono, Yosuke Takeda and Kotaro Tanimoto
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040107 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Tooth ankylosis is a disorder characterized by the fusion of tooth and alveolar bone. This case report describes the treatment of a severe open bite due to tooth ankylosis. A 14-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of masticatory dysfunction was diagnosed with [...] Read more.
Tooth ankylosis is a disorder characterized by the fusion of tooth and alveolar bone. This case report describes the treatment of a severe open bite due to tooth ankylosis. A 14-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of masticatory dysfunction was diagnosed with skeletal Class III severe anterior open bite and tooth ankylosis. She visited our university hospital with a chief complaint of an anterior open bite. After the surgical luxation of the ankylosed maxillary right central incisor, the tooth was orthodontically retracted using a nickel-titanium wire. The right mandibular lateral incisor and canine were luxated and retracted using intermaxillary elastics from a temporary anchorage device (TAD), which was inserted in the opposite jaw. During the treatment, skeletal Class III malocclusion deteriorated due to anterior growth of the mandible. Therefore, TADs were inserted into the retromolar pad on both sides of the mandible and retracted into the mandibular dental arch. Although the mandibular right canine was luxated several times, it could not be brought to the occlusal line, and was thus extracted; the extraction space was replaced with a prosthesis. Consequently, a normal overjet and overbite with a straight profile were achieved. Extrusion of ankylosed teeth by intermaxillary elastics from a TAD is a valid treatment option for patients with severe open bites. Full article
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14 pages, 9590 KiB  
Case Report
Mandibular Reconstruction after Resection of Ameloblastoma by Custom-Made CAD/CAM Mandibular Titanium Prosthesis: Two Case Reports, Finite Element Analysis and Discussion of the Technique
by Antonio Cortese, Francesca Spirito, Pier Paolo Claudio, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Alessandro Ruggiero and Maurizio Gargiulo
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040106 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2574
Abstract
Virtual surgical planning for CAD/CAM mandibular reconstruction by titanium prosthesis was recently reported for resected cases. Even if some advantages are evident, difficulties that may arise for TMJ function after reconstruction originate from prosthesis contamination through oral mucosa dehiscence. In these two cases [...] Read more.
Virtual surgical planning for CAD/CAM mandibular reconstruction by titanium prosthesis was recently reported for resected cases. Even if some advantages are evident, difficulties that may arise for TMJ function after reconstruction originate from prosthesis contamination through oral mucosa dehiscence. In these two cases reported of mandibular reconstruction after resection of ameloblastoma by custom-made CAD/CAM titanium prosthesis, the procedures were aimed to preserve the TMJ glenoid cavity and articular disc avoiding functional problems for hemi-mandibular resections that included the condyle (as in case #1) or with condylar preservation (as in case #2) and avoiding intraoral incisions in both cases. The entire surgical planning and prosthetic fabrication were explained with specifications and the sequence of the surgical procedure. Finite elements analysis (FEA) was performed to check the force distribution and efficacy of the prosthetic device (case 1 with hemi-mandibular resection and rehabilitation). Although successful in these two cases, surgical reconstruction of the mandibular defect after resection by a CAD-CAM custom-made prosthesis still shows some drawbacks and failure risks. Several advantages of this technique and the surgical success in these two cases were presented, but limitations and side effects must be considered when cases are selected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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22 pages, 3227 KiB  
Systematic Review
Esthetic Perception of Different Clinical Situations of Maxillary Lateral Incisor Agenesis According to Populations with Dental and Non-Dental Backgrounds: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Maria João Calheiros-Lobo, Mafalda Calheiros-Lobo and Teresa Pinho
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040105 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Treatment of unilateral or bilateral maxillary lateral incisor agenesis is challenging, time-consuming, expensive, and requires careful treatment planning, predictability, and esthetics. This review aimed to identify differences in esthetic perception among orthodontists, general dentists, differentiated dentists, and laypersons, which may interfere with treatment [...] Read more.
Treatment of unilateral or bilateral maxillary lateral incisor agenesis is challenging, time-consuming, expensive, and requires careful treatment planning, predictability, and esthetics. This review aimed to identify differences in esthetic perception among orthodontists, general dentists, differentiated dentists, and laypersons, which may interfere with treatment options. EBSCO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library databases, and Google Scholar were searched using keyword pairing and a Boolean expression, “(congenitally missing OR agenesis OR hypodontia) AND (maxillary lateral incisors) AND (esthetic perception OR smile) AND (laypersons OR dental professional OR general dentist OR orthodontists).” Reviews and case studies were excluded. A total of 13 studies were selected for qualitative analysis (adapted ROBINS-I) and 11 were selected for meta-analysis (p < 0.05) after being sub-grouped into “Opening vs. Closure” and “No remodeling vs. Dental remodeling vs. Dental and gingival remodeling” groups. A meta-analysis evaluated the magnitude of the difference between groups based on differences in means and effect sizes (α = 0.05; 95% CI; Z-value 1.96), revealing that the esthetic perception of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis treatment remains controversial even among professionals. Gingival remodeling was not valued compared to isolated dental remodeling. Studies lack rigorously comparable methodologies. Discussion with the patient is pertinent in doubtful situations, as the best treatment option remains unclear, and overtreatment should be avoided. Full article
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9 pages, 1365 KiB  
Case Report
Multiple-Drugs-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in a Patient Affected by Multiple Myeloma: A Case Report
by Mario Caggiano, Federica Di Spirito, Alfonso Acerra, Marzio Galdi and Laura Sisalli
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040104 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
A 60-year-old woman suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) was treated with zoledronic acid (bisphosphonate), dexamethasone (corticosteroid), bortezomib (a chemotherapeutic agent), and lenalidomide (thalidomide analog) for about a year and with lenalidomide alone as maintenance therapy for almost two years and developed stage three [...] Read more.
A 60-year-old woman suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) was treated with zoledronic acid (bisphosphonate), dexamethasone (corticosteroid), bortezomib (a chemotherapeutic agent), and lenalidomide (thalidomide analog) for about a year and with lenalidomide alone as maintenance therapy for almost two years and developed stage three medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) in the upper left dental arch approximately two weeks after tooth extraction, which was treated with a medical nonoperative conservative approach until reversion to stage one. The present case report describing the development of multi-drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaws during the pharmacologic MM maintenance phase draws attention to the complex multidisciplinary and multistage management of MM subjects and also that during disease remission, crucially involving oral healthcare providers for MRONJ prevention and pharmacovigilance. To prevent similar cases, cancer patient management should ensure proper dental care not only before starting but also throughout therapy duration and ensure continuous interdisciplinary consensus between oncologists and dentists. Moreover, also considering the independent negative and potentially synergistic effect on bone metabolism and mucosal healing processes of employed medicaments, additionally combined with the cumulative one of previous intravenous bisphosphonates, further studies should highlight the polypharmacy effect and hopefully aid in patient-specific MRONJ risk assessment in cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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11 pages, 1159 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Perception of Dental Undergraduate Students and Faculty on Environmental Sustainability in Dentistry: A Cross-Sectional Survey in 26 Dental Schools in Saudi Arabia
by Hasan Jamal, Abdullah A. Marghalani, Ahmed Al-Sharif, Albatool Shinawi, Balgis Gaffar, Ebtsam Abdullah Al-Edaili, Ghaliah Al-Baqami and Mayson AlQarni
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040103 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
There are few published studies assessing dental students’ and faculty’s perception regarding environmental sustainability in dentistry (ESD) and its existence within the dental curricula along with barriers and enablers for its integration. As far as the authors know, no published study has looked [...] Read more.
There are few published studies assessing dental students’ and faculty’s perception regarding environmental sustainability in dentistry (ESD) and its existence within the dental curricula along with barriers and enablers for its integration. As far as the authors know, no published study has looked into this in Saudi Arabia, and this is what the current study aims to explore. A cross-sectional survey using validated online questionnaires for dental students and faculty was carried out in 26 dental schools in Saudi Arabia. The validated questionnaire utilized 25 questions using Qualtrics (XM) software. Both descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were included in the data analysis. ESD content is not formally embedded within the dental curricula in all 26 included universities in Saudi Arabia. Although the majority of students and faculty members agreed or strongly agreed on the importance of ESD as a whole and the importance of teaching it, more than 82% and 81% of students and faculty, respectively, demonstrated a lack of basic knowledge concerning ESD. The preliminary findings of the current study suggest that there is a high demand for incorporating ESD content in dental education in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this, resources and policy changes are necessary. A top-down approach is needed, including incorporating ESD into dental education standards, using evidence-based practices in revising infection control regulations, and providing institutional support through training, materials, and incentives. National dental associations and governments should provide practical solutions and actively support dental professionals in implementing ESD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
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11 pages, 4658 KiB  
Case Report
Orthodontic Treatment of Palatally Impacted Maxillary Canines with the Use of a Digitally Designed and 3D-Printed Metal Device
by Georgios Vasoglou, Ioannis Lyros, Athanasia Patatou and Michail Vasoglou
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040102 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3476
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to present a computer designed and 3D-printed metal device, which was used for the surgical exposure and orthodontic treatment of maxillary palatally impacted canines. In two cases which presented a palatally impacted canine, a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to present a computer designed and 3D-printed metal device, which was used for the surgical exposure and orthodontic treatment of maxillary palatally impacted canines. In two cases which presented a palatally impacted canine, a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was acquired and an intraoral scanning was performed, to determine the exact location of the canine. Based on a digital model, a device leaning on the teeth and mucosa was designed to serve as a guiding tool for the oral surgeon to expose the crown of the canine and help the orthodontist to provide proper traction. The device was then 3D-printed in biocompatible dental alloy and placed in the patients’ mouth. After the surgical exposure of the canine’s crown in both cases, a gold chain apparatus was bonded on and it was mounted on the metal projection of the device through an elastic chain. Within 3 months of traction, the crown of the canines appeared in the patients’ palate to the exact location that was predicted and guided. A 3D-designed and manufactured metal device, with information acquired by CBCT and intraoral scanning, can be used for the exposure and traction of palatally impacted canines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthodontics and New Technologies)
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10 pages, 3388 KiB  
Case Report
Partial Ceramic Veneer Technique for Challenging Esthetic Frontal Restorative Procedures
by Gustavo Marotto Caetano, Cilea Slomp, Jonas Pereira Andrade, Ana Maria Spohr and Marcel Ferreira Kunrath
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040101 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
Frontal darkened teeth have shown to be one of the most challenging treatments for esthetic dentistry in recent years. This case report, along with a 30-month follow-up, describes the application of a partial ceramic veneer, restricted to the mid-cervical third region, made in [...] Read more.
Frontal darkened teeth have shown to be one of the most challenging treatments for esthetic dentistry in recent years. This case report, along with a 30-month follow-up, describes the application of a partial ceramic veneer, restricted to the mid-cervical third region, made in the upper left central incisor darkened by trauma. The procedure consisted of maintenance of the entire incisal face, as well as esthetic and morphological rehabilitation of the smile line with veneers and ultra-thin partial ceramic veneers. The planning process was thoroughly elaborated by photographs, study models, a virtual smile designed, diagnostic waxing, and reproduction in the patient’s mouth through mock-up. Following, dental home bleaching, esthetic gingival contouring, and minimally invasive tooth preparation were performed. Two types of glass ceramics (lithium disilicate and feldspathic) were used in different regions due to the peculiar characteristics of resistance, finishing, and polishing. According to the present case report, preparing a cervical partial ceramic veneer is an innovative, viable, and safe approach to maintaining the incisal portion of the tooth preserved and setting a detailed tooth morphology/color. The application of partial ceramic veneer provides incisal edge preservation and simplifies the reproduction of the adjacent tooth characteristics, avoiding multiple esthetic appointments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontics and Restorative Sciences)
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14 pages, 487 KiB  
Review
Enamel Matrix Derivatives as an Adjunct to Alveolar Ridge Preservation—A Systematic Review
by Omid Fakheran, Kai R. Fischer and Patrick R. Schmidlin
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040100 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
Purpose: To systematically assess the current evidence regarding the adjunctive application of enamel matrix derivatives (EMDs) during alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) following tooth extraction. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus [...] Read more.
Purpose: To systematically assess the current evidence regarding the adjunctive application of enamel matrix derivatives (EMDs) during alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) following tooth extraction. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus to identify relevant randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). The primary outcome parameters of this systematic review were histomorphometric and radiographic data; secondary outcomes were the feasibility of implant placement after ARP as well as patient-related outcomes such as postoperative discomfort. Results: The search identified 436 eligible articles published from 2011 to 2022, but only five were ultimately included for data extraction (146 patients). Given the substantial heterogeneity among the included studies, no meta-analysis could be performed. The authors’ qualitative analysis showed marginally improved outcomes regarding an increased percentage of new bone formation after tooth extraction and a reduction in postoperative discomfort. Conclusions: Given the potential value of EMDs in other fields of regenerative dentistry, more consideration should be given to EMDs as an adjunctive treatment option in ARP. However, more well-controlled randomized clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the exact potential and impacts of EMDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Implantology and Bone Regeneration)
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28 pages, 4087 KiB  
Article
The Oral Health of a Group of 19th Century South Australian Settlers in Relation to Their General Health and Compared with That of Contemporaneous Samples
by Angela Gurr, Maciej Henneberg, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Derek Lerche, Lindsay Richards and Alan Henry Brook
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040099 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2584
Abstract
The aims of this study are to determine the oral health status of a rare sample of 19th-century migrant settlers to South Australia, how oral conditions may have influenced their general health, and how the oral health of this group compares with contemporaneous [...] Read more.
The aims of this study are to determine the oral health status of a rare sample of 19th-century migrant settlers to South Australia, how oral conditions may have influenced their general health, and how the oral health of this group compares with contemporaneous samples in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain. Dentitions of 18 adults and 22 subadults were investigated using non-destructive methods (micro-CT, macroscopic, radiographic). Extensive carious lesions were identified in seventeen adults and four subadults, and from this group one subadult and sixteen adults had antemortem tooth loss. Sixteen adults showed evidence of periodontal disease. Enamel hypoplastic (EH) defects were identified in fourteen adults and nine subadults. Many individuals with dental defects also had skeletal signs of comorbidities. South Australian individuals had the same percentage of carious lesions as the British sample (53%), more than other historic Australian samples, but less than a contemporary New Zealand sample. Over 50% of individuals from all the historic cemeteries had EH defects, suggesting systemic health insults during dental development were common during the 19th century. The overall oral health of the South Australian settlers was poor but, in some categories, (tooth wear, periapical abscess, periodontal disease), better than the other historic samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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60 pages, 7298 KiB  
Review
Synchrotron X-ray Studies of the Structural and Functional Hierarchies in Mineralised Human Dental Enamel: A State-of-the-Art Review
by Cyril Besnard, Ali Marie, Sisini Sasidharan, Robert A. Harper, Richard M. Shelton, Gabriel Landini and Alexander M. Korsunsky
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040098 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6984
Abstract
Hard dental tissues possess a complex hierarchical structure that is particularly evident in enamel, the most mineralised substance in the human body. Its complex and interlinked organisation at the Ångstrom (crystal lattice), nano-, micro-, and macro-scales is the result of evolutionary optimisation for [...] Read more.
Hard dental tissues possess a complex hierarchical structure that is particularly evident in enamel, the most mineralised substance in the human body. Its complex and interlinked organisation at the Ångstrom (crystal lattice), nano-, micro-, and macro-scales is the result of evolutionary optimisation for mechanical and functional performance: hardness and stiffness, fracture toughness, thermal, and chemical resistance. Understanding the physical–chemical–structural relationships at each scale requires the application of appropriately sensitive and resolving probes. Synchrotron X-ray techniques offer the possibility to progress significantly beyond the capabilities of conventional laboratory instruments, i.e., X-ray diffractometers, and electron and atomic force microscopes. The last few decades have witnessed the accumulation of results obtained from X-ray scattering (diffraction), spectroscopy (including polarisation analysis), and imaging (including ptychography and tomography). The current article presents a multi-disciplinary review of nearly 40 years of discoveries and advancements, primarily pertaining to the study of enamel and its demineralisation (caries), but also linked to the investigations of other mineralised tissues such as dentine, bone, etc. The modelling approaches informed by these observations are also overviewed. The strategic aim of the present review was to identify and evaluate prospective avenues for analysing dental tissues and developing treatments and prophylaxis for improved dental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 651 KiB  
Systematic Review
Dental Infection Requiring Hospitalisation Is a Public Health Problem in Australia: A Systematic Review Demonstrating an Urgent Need for Published Data
by Mafaz Ullah, Muhammad Irshad, Albert Yaacoub, Eric Carter, Andrew Thorpe, Hans Zoellner and Stephen Cox
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040097 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Background: The aim of this systematic review was to analyse the published literature on dental infections leading to hospitalisations in Australia. It was hoped that understanding the patterns and trends would form a basis for improved preventive and management policies. Methods: An [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this systematic review was to analyse the published literature on dental infections leading to hospitalisations in Australia. It was hoped that understanding the patterns and trends would form a basis for improved preventive and management policies. Methods: An electronic search was performed using Web of Science, Medline via Ovid and Google Scholar. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The included studies were analysed for demographics, aetiology, management, length of hospital stay and outcome of dental infections requiring hospitalisation. Results: Nine retrospective studies were eligible for inclusion. A total of 2196 cases of dental infections leading to hospitalisations were reported, with a male predominance (55–67%). Mental health issues, illicit substance abuse and immunosuppression were the main associated comorbidities (up to 58%). Dental caries (59–90%) and pericoronitis (10–19%) were the leading causes of dental infections. Empirical antibiotics were utilised in up to 75% of cases prior to hospital presentation. Six mortalities were reported. Conclusions: The available published data show that dental infection is a significant public health problem. However, only general conclusions were possible due to the variably small sample size and data collection that was inconsistent and incomplete across studies. Improved data collection is required to develop policies for prevention and management. Full article
14 pages, 714 KiB  
Article
Antigingivitis, Desensitizing, and Antiplaque Effects of Alkaline Toothpastes: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Nina Novozhilova, Elena Andreeva, Maria Polyakova, Irina Makeeva, Inna Sokhova, Vladlena Doroshina, Alexandr Zaytsev and Ksenia Babina
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040096 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2776
Abstract
Gingivitis is a widespread disease commonly associated with dentin hypersensitivity, that, in turn, may complicate routine dental care, leading to plaque accumulation. We aimed to assess the antigingivitis, desensitizing, and antiplaque effects of a fluoride-containing (TWF) alkaline toothpaste and a fluoride-free (TW) alkaline [...] Read more.
Gingivitis is a widespread disease commonly associated with dentin hypersensitivity, that, in turn, may complicate routine dental care, leading to plaque accumulation. We aimed to assess the antigingivitis, desensitizing, and antiplaque effects of a fluoride-containing (TWF) alkaline toothpaste and a fluoride-free (TW) alkaline toothpaste. Eighty-four consenting patients aged 20–25 years with diagnosed gingivitis and dentin hypersensitivity (DH) were recruited in this double-blind, parallel-group study and randomly divided into two groups (each n = 42). Eighty-two patients completed the entire study protocol. The outcomes were assessed after 4 weeks of intervention. A significant improvement in gingival condition was found according to the modified gingival index, with effect sizes of 0.99 [CI95%: 0.52–1.46] and 1.71 [CI95%: 1.18–2.24], and the gingival bleeding index, with effect sizes of 3.17 [CI95%: 2.39–3.94] and 2.64 [CI95%: 1.96–3.32] in the TW and TWF groups, respectively. DH also decreased in both groups, with a significantly greater reduction in the TWF group (effect sizes of 3.28 [CI95%: 2.51–4.04] and 3.10 [CI95%: 2.40–3.80] according to the visual analog scale and Schiff scale, respectively). No side effects were registered. In conclusion, the use of alkaline toothpaste provided a significant reduction in gingival inflammation and bleeding, DH, and oral hygiene after 4 weeks of daily use in young adults. Trial Registration: NCT0562376. Funding: none. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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18 pages, 4564 KiB  
Review
Morphological and Ultrastructural Collagen Defects: Impact and Implications in Dentinogenesis Imperfecta
by Lubabah S. A. Gadi, David Y. S. Chau and Susan Parekh
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040095 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
Collagen is the building block for the extracellular matrix in bone, teeth and other fibrous tissues. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), or brittle bone disease, is a heritable disorder that results from defective collagen synthesis or metabolism, resulting in bone fragility. The dental manifestation of [...] Read more.
Collagen is the building block for the extracellular matrix in bone, teeth and other fibrous tissues. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), or brittle bone disease, is a heritable disorder that results from defective collagen synthesis or metabolism, resulting in bone fragility. The dental manifestation of OI is dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), a genetic disorder that affects dentin structure and clinical appearance, with a characteristic feature of greyish-brown discolouration. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to identify and/or define any ultrastructural changes in dentinal collagen in DI. Established databases were searched: Cochrane Library, OVID Embase, OVID Medline and PubMed/Medline. Search strategies included: Collagen Ultrastructure, DI and OI. Inclusion criteria were studies written in English, published after 1990, that examined human dental collagen of teeth affected by DI. A Cochrane data extraction form was modified and used for data collection. The final dataset included seventeen studies published from 1993 to 2021. The most prevalent findings on collagen in DI teeth were increased coarse collagen fibres and decreased fibre quantity. Additional findings included changes to fibre orientation (i.e., random to parallel) and differences to the fibre organisation (i.e., regular to irregular). Ultrastructural defects and anomalies included uncoiled collagen fibres and increased D-banding periodicity. Studies in collagen structure in DI reported changes to the surface topography, quantity, organisation and orientation of the fibres. Moreover, ultrastructural defects such as the packing/coiling and D-banding of the fibrils, as well as differences in the presence of other collagens are also noted. Taken together, this study provides an understanding of the changes in collagen and its impact on clinical translation, paving the way for innovative treatments in dental treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 856 KiB  
Article
Periodontal Disease and Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on the OHRQoL of the Patient: A Pilot Study of Case Series
by María José Moya-Villaescusa, Arturo Sánchez-Pérez, Jesús Esparza-Marín, Alfonso Jornet-García and José María Montoya-Carralero
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040094 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
The objective of this prospective study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) in patients with periodontitis and nonsurgical periodontal treatment. A prospective, longitudinal case series study was carried out at the University Dental Clinic of the Morales Meseguer Hospital in [...] Read more.
The objective of this prospective study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) in patients with periodontitis and nonsurgical periodontal treatment. A prospective, longitudinal case series study was carried out at the University Dental Clinic of the Morales Meseguer Hospital in Murcia. Eighty periodontal patients with periodontitis, aged 22 to 72 years, were included in this study. The Spanish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14sp) questionnaire was used on two occasions: at the first visit and one month after completing the nonsurgical periodontal treatment. Clinical measurements of probing depth, plaque index and bleeding on probing were performed at baseline and after periodontal therapy. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance. We found statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the pre- and post-treatment in all the dimensions studied except disability. Similarly, statistically significant differences were also found according to the degree or stage of the disease. However, these differences were not observed with respect to the extent of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease has a negative impact on the OHRQoL of periodontal patients, especially in severe stages (III–IV). Basic periodontal treatment can improve the OHRQoL of periodontal patients one month after treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodontal Health: Disease Prevention and Treatment)
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2 pages, 175 KiB  
Editorial
A Retrospect of the Special Issue “Advances in Oral Implant Health”
by Andrea Butera and Andrea Scribante
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040093 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Research on modern dental implantology focuses on the development of increasingly more advanced techniques with the aim of improving the reliability of dental implants while reducing patient morbidity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oral Implant Health)
16 pages, 2882 KiB  
Article
Effects of Minocycline Hydrochloride as an Adjuvant Therapy for a Guided Bone Augmentation Procedure in The Rat Calvarium
by Bob Biewer, Eric Rompen, Michel Mittelbronn, Gaël P. Hammer, Pascale Quatresooz and Felix Kleine Borgmann
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040092 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
This in vivo study reports the influence of minocycline-HCl administration on extra-skeletal bone generation in a Guided Bone Augmentation model, utilizing titanium caps placed on the intact as well as perforated calvaria of rats. The test group was administered 0.5 mg/mL minocycline-HCl with [...] Read more.
This in vivo study reports the influence of minocycline-HCl administration on extra-skeletal bone generation in a Guided Bone Augmentation model, utilizing titanium caps placed on the intact as well as perforated calvaria of rats. The test group was administered 0.5 mg/mL minocycline-HCl with the drinking water, and the amount of bone tissue in the caps was quantified at three time points (4, 8 and 16 weeks). A continuously increased tissue fill was observed in all groups over time. The administration of minocycline-HCl as well as perforation of the calvaria increased this effect, especially with regard to mineralization. The strongest tissue augmentation, with 1.8 times that of the untreated control group, and, at the same time, the most mineralized tissue (2.3× over untreated control), was produced in the combination of both treatments, indicating that systemic administration of minocycline-HCl has an accelerating and enhancing effect on vertical bone augmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regenerative Approaches in Dental Sciences)
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10 pages, 3467 KiB  
Brief Report
In Vivo Assessment of the Calcium Salt-Forming Ability of a New Calcium Silicate-Based Intracanal Medicament: Bio-C Temp
by Naoki Edanami, Razi Saifullah Ibn Belal, Shoji Takenaka, Kunihiko Yoshiba, Rosa Edith Baldeon Gutierrez, Shintaro Takahara, Nagako Yoshiba, Naoto Ohkura and Yuichiro Noiri
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040091 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Calcium salt precipitation induced by intracanal medicaments contributes to the formation of apical hard tissue during apexification. This study compared the calcium salt-forming ability of a new calcium silicate-based intracanal medicament (Bio-C Temp) with that of two commercial calcium hydroxide pastes (Calcipex Plane [...] Read more.
Calcium salt precipitation induced by intracanal medicaments contributes to the formation of apical hard tissue during apexification. This study compared the calcium salt-forming ability of a new calcium silicate-based intracanal medicament (Bio-C Temp) with that of two commercial calcium hydroxide pastes (Calcipex Plane II and Vitapex) in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. Polytetrafluoroethylene tubes containing each of the three materials were subcutaneously implanted in 4-week-old male Wistar rats. After 28 days, the composition and amount of calcium salts formed at the material–tissue interface were assessed using micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental mapping. The tested materials produced white precipitates that had Raman spectra with peaks corresponding to hydroxyapatite and calcite. X-ray diffraction detected hydroxyapatite formation on Calcipex Plane II and Vitapex implants, as well as calcite formation on all three materials. Elemental mapping revealed that Bio-C Temp generated significantly smaller calcium- and phosphorus-rich calcified regions within the subcutaneous connective tissue than Vitapex. These results indicate that Bio-C Temp produced less calcium salt in rat subcutaneous tissue than Vitapex, although all materials formed hydroxyapatite and calcite in rat subcutaneous tissue. Bio-C Temp could be less effective than Vitapex in promoting apical hard tissue formation during apexification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontics and Restorative Sciences)
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14 pages, 4221 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Antifungal Activity of a Soft Denture Liner Loaded with Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs)
by Amal Qasim Ahmed, Sattar Jabbar Abdul-Zahra Al-Hmedat, Dunya Malhan Hanweet and Julfikar Haider
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040090 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
Aim: Soft denture lining materials are susceptible to be colonized by different microorganisms, especially by Candida albicans (C. albicans), causing denture-induced stomatitis. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) into a soft [...] Read more.
Aim: Soft denture lining materials are susceptible to be colonized by different microorganisms, especially by Candida albicans (C. albicans), causing denture-induced stomatitis. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) into a soft denture liner towards reducing microbial activity. Method: A total of 40 PEMA-TiO2 nanocomposites samples were fabricated by adding 0.0 wt.% (control), 1.0 wt.%, 1.5 wt.%, and 2 wt.% TiO2 NPs to a heat cured soft denture lining material (polyethyl methacrylate, PEMA). The prepared samples were divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the content of TiO2 NPs. The uniformity of TiO2 NPS distribution within the denture liner matrix was assessed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The viable count of C. albicans was evaluated to test the antifungal resistance of the developed composite. Results: The SEM images showed fairly homogeneous dispersion, with patches of TiO2 NPs agglomeration within the PEMA matrix and an increasing concentration of NPs with higher NP content. The particle map and EDX analysis confirmed the evidence of the TiO2 NPs. The mean viable count results for the control (0.0 wt.%) and 1.0 wt.%, 1.5 wt.%, and 2 wt.% TiO2 groups were 139.80, 12.00, 6.20, and 1.00, respectively, with a significant difference from the control group (p < 0.05). The antifungal activity also increased with the increase in the concentration of TiO2 NPs. Conclusions: The addition of TiO2 NPs into a heat-cured soft denture liner provided antifungal activity as evidenced by the reduced colonization of C. albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the liner material increased with the increased concentration of TiO2 NPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
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16 pages, 1899 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Tooth-Whitening Potential of Peroxide-Free OTC Dental Bleaching Agents
by Marlene Grillon, Enrico Di Bella, Ivo Krejci and Stefano Ardu
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040089 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate and compare the tooth-whitening potential of five over-the-counter (OTC), peroxide-free dental bleaching methods as well as an experimental tooth-whitening solution containing 0.1% hydrogen peroxide complexed with doping agents with a gold standard (positive control) containing 16% carbamide peroxide. Material [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate and compare the tooth-whitening potential of five over-the-counter (OTC), peroxide-free dental bleaching methods as well as an experimental tooth-whitening solution containing 0.1% hydrogen peroxide complexed with doping agents with a gold standard (positive control) containing 16% carbamide peroxide. Material and Methods: Eighty permanent bovine incisor teeth were randomly allocated to eight different groups. Two teeth from each group were immerged into five staining solutions represented by coffee, tea, red wine, and curry mixed in warm oil or distilled water (control group) and stored at 37 °C for 28 days in an incubator. The teeth were then reallocated to the eight groups, resulting in ten samples per group, and each group was matched with a bleaching product. The bleaching procedures were executed following the manufacturer’s recommendations. The color of each sample was assessed over a white and black background using a quantitative numerical measurement approach with a calibrated spectrophotometer. Spectrophotometric measurements were performed after exposing the teeth to the bleaching agent for 60 min (T2), 100 min (T3), and 200 min (T4), and ΔE00 was calculated. Results: When analyzed over a white background, the mean ΔE00 values ranged from 2.14 (placebo) to 6.32 (Opalescence PF). When analyzed over a black background, the mean ΔE00 values ranged from 2.31 (placebo) to 5.78 (Opalescence PF). Statistically significant ΔE00 color changes over time for the eight groups and five staining solutions at T1 and T4 were assessed for both backgrounds using repeated ANOVA followed by Fisher’s LSD post hoc test (p-value < 0.01). Conclusions: All tested over-the-counter whitening kits except one exhibited positive color variation. However, the individual performance differed vastly from one brand to the other, and the overall performance was less effective compared to the conventional carbamide-peroxide-based positive control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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11 pages, 1025 KiB  
Article
Five-Year Clinical Performance of Complex Class II Resin Composite and Amalgam Restorations—A Retrospective Study
by Maria Jacinta M. C. Santos, Heleine Maria C. Rêgo, Imad Siddique and Abbas Jessani
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040088 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3134
Abstract
The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the clinical performance of posterior complex resin composite (RC) and amalgam (AM) restorations after a five-year period. One hundred and nineteen complex Class II restorations placed by dental students were evaluated using the USPHS [...] Read more.
The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the clinical performance of posterior complex resin composite (RC) and amalgam (AM) restorations after a five-year period. One hundred and nineteen complex Class II restorations placed by dental students were evaluated using the USPHS criteria. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann–Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests at a 0.05 level of significance. After five years, the percentages of clinically satisfactory complex Class II RC and AM restorations were 78% and 76.8%, respectively. The main reasons for the failure of AM restorations included secondary caries (Bravo—10.1%), defective marginal adaptation (Charlie—8.7%), and fracture of the tooth (Bravo—7.2%). RC restorations presented failures related to the fracture of the restoration (Bravo—16%) and defective marginal adaptation (Charlie—8.2%). There was a significantly higher incidence of secondary caries for AM restorations (AM—10.1%; RC—0%; p = 0.0415) and a higher number of fractures for RC restorations (AM—4.3%; RC—16%; p = 0.05). Regarding anatomy, AM restorations presented a significantly higher number of Alfa scores (49.3%) compared to RC restorations (22.4%) (p = 0.0005). The results of the current study indicate that complex class II RC and AM restorations show a similar five year clinical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women's Research in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 672 KiB  
Article
Anticholinergic Medication and Caries Status Predict Xerostomia under 65
by Hui Ling Cheah, Michael Gray, Shahenda Aboelmagd, Abdul Basir Barmak and Szilvia Arany
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040087 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1690
Abstract
The use of anticholinergic medications is increasing in younger ages, yet information about xerostomia, the most common anticholinergic side effect, is limited. This case–control retrospective study examines the relationship between anticholinergic medication-induced xerostomia and caries status among adults between 18 and 65 years [...] Read more.
The use of anticholinergic medications is increasing in younger ages, yet information about xerostomia, the most common anticholinergic side effect, is limited. This case–control retrospective study examines the relationship between anticholinergic medication-induced xerostomia and caries status among adults between 18 and 65 years of age. The study sample comprised 649 cases with xerostomia and 649 age- and gender-matched controls. The anticholinergic burden was estimated using the anticholinergic drug scale (ADS). Caries experience was recorded by calculating the Decayed, Missing, Filled Tooth (DMFT) index. Individuals with xerostomia had a higher mean DMFT index (16.02 ± 9.50), which corresponded with a higher level of anticholinergic exposure from medications (3.26 ± 2.81) compared to their age and gender-matched controls without xerostomia (13.83 + 8.83 and 1.89 ± 2.45, respectively). Logistic regression analysis verified the effects of DMFT, the total number of AC medications, and the ADS burden on xerostomia status. Comparing adults with or without xerostomia revealed statistical differences in several risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes, sleep apnea, and the utilization of anticholinergic medications. A personalized dental care plan should include the evaluation of the anticholinergic burden from medications regardless of the patient’s age to prevent increased caries severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates and Highlights in Cariology)
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