Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 153146

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Spitalstrasse 21, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland
Interests: implantology; oral surgery; oral and maxillofacial surgery; jaw malpositions and craniofacial anomalies
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Guest Editor
Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, CH-8032 Zürich, Switzerland
Interests: dental implant; periodontitis; guided tissue regeneration; adhesive dentistry
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Guest Editor
1. Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Stony Brook University, Rockland Hall 106, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8700, USA
2. Department of Oral Surgery and Implant, Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Interests: advances in material research; bone regeneration; materials; periodontal regeneration
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Dental Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Liege, 4020 Liege, Belgium
Interests: oral surgery; laser dentistry; fluoride; dentinal adhesives; dentinal hypersensitivit; peri-implantitis; periodontitis
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Guest Editor
Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: oral medicine; dental materials; operative dentistry; oral health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The first issue of Dentistry Journal was published in 2013, and as Editor-in-Chief, it is my pleasure to announce this Special Issue in commemoration of our 10th anniversary. For this particular issue, we are inviting high-quality original papers and reviews covering any subject within the scope of Dentistry Journal. We look forward to receiving submissions that embody the expertise and knowledge of this scientific community.

Prof. Dr. Claude Jaquiéry
Prof. Dr. Patrick R. Schmidlin
Prof. Dr. Georgios Romanos
Prof. Dr. Samir Nammour
Prof. Dr. Gianrico Spagnuolo
Prof. Dr. Luigi Canullo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral biology
  • dental disease
  • oral health and epidemiology
  • periodontology
  • endodontology
  • traumatology
  • prosthodontics
  • oral surgery
  • maxillofacial surgery
  • implantology and peri-implant disease
  • pediatric dentistry
  • orthodontics
  • biomaterials and tissue engineering
  • medical emergencies in dentistry

Published Papers (55 papers)

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14 pages, 2664 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Efficacy of Chlorhexidine Gel in Single-Crown Implant Rehabilitation: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study
by Gianmaria D’Addazio, Eugenio Manciocchi, Giuseppe Tafuri, Ruggero Schiavone, Giovanna Murmura, Luan Mavriqi, Bruna Sinjari and Sergio Caputi
Dent. J. 2023, 11(10), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11100228 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) has shown the ability to significantly reduce inflammation and marginal bone loss (MBL) at the 1-year follow-up but limited data exist regarding its long-term efficacy in peri-implant stability. The objective was to compare the long-term effects (5 years of follow-up) [...] Read more.
Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) has shown the ability to significantly reduce inflammation and marginal bone loss (MBL) at the 1-year follow-up but limited data exist regarding its long-term efficacy in peri-implant stability. The objective was to compare the long-term effects (5 years of follow-up) of a placebo gel (16 patients in Group A) or a 0.20% CHX gel (15 patients in Group B) used at each previous surgical and prosthetic stage. Control visits were conducted in 2022, investigating the long-term effects by biological, radiological, and clinical evaluation. The data were statistically analyzed. The research achieved a 96.7% implant success rate over five years, but 41.9% of patients did not attend annual oral hygiene check-ups. The average MBL was 1.04 ± 0.39 mm, with no significant differences between the two groups. Notably, patients who attended regular periodontal check-ups experienced significantly less MBL than those who did not (p < 0.05). At five years, direct effects of CHX were absent, with both groups showing moderate bone loss. However, the results suggest that early disinfection could enhance both short- and long-term outcomes. In fact, patients with initial minor MBL due to use of CHX, preserve this advantage also after 5 years of follow-up. Additionally, the data underscore the importance of annual check-ups in early detection and management of biological complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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10 pages, 236 KiB  
Article
The Effects of the Myobrace® System on Peripheral Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) in Patients with Mixed Dentition with Oral Dysfunction
by Luca Levrini, Roberta Persano, Sofia Piantanida, Andrea Carganico, Alessandro Deppieri, Giulia Naboni, Rodolfo Francesco Mastrapasqua and Stefano Saran
Dent. J. 2023, 11(8), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11080191 - 09 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Introduction: Myobrace® is an orthodontic device that has the purpose of correcting oral dysfunctions, thus predisposing the physiological growth of the jaws, aligning teeth, and optimizing face development. This device is usually associated with Myobrace® Activities to reach this target. Considering [...] Read more.
Introduction: Myobrace® is an orthodontic device that has the purpose of correcting oral dysfunctions, thus predisposing the physiological growth of the jaws, aligning teeth, and optimizing face development. This device is usually associated with Myobrace® Activities to reach this target. Considering the lack of studies in the literature about peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the use of preformed oral devices, the aim of this study is to quantify the change in blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) in patients treated with the Myobrace® System in mixed dentition. Materials and Methods: In this study, 23 children (11 females and 12 males) were involved, who were affected by different oral dysfunctions and were treated with a Myobrace®. Blood oxygen saturation measurements were taken at baseline and after every four months for a year. The SpO2 measurements were taken in the rest position and with a closed mouth for a total of 12 min—6 min with and 6 min without the Myobrace® oral device. All data points were anonymized and recorded on an Excel spreadsheet. A statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Therapy with a Myobrace® in patients with mixed dentition resulted in a statistically significant increase in oxygen saturation. In particular, in patients with a closed mouth, a statistically significant increase in oxygen saturation was observed, bringing it from 97.66% to 99.00%, while in the rest position, the increase was from 98.03% to 99.07%. Conclusions: The use of Myobrace® devices in patients with mixed dentition could lead to a significant improvement in blood oxygen saturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
13 pages, 736 KiB  
Article
Possible Risk Factors for Dental Fear and Anxiety in Children Who Suffered Traumatic Dental Injury
by Anka Jurišić Kvesić, Miroslav Hrelja, Željka Lovrić, Luka Šimunović, Bruno Špiljak, Nika Supina, Lara Vranić and Dubravka Negovetić Vranić
Dent. J. 2023, 11(8), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11080190 - 09 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
Background: Children who undergo painful experiences such as traumatic dental injury (TDI) during their early years are more likely to be at an increased risk of developing dental fear and anxiety (DFA). The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors [...] Read more.
Background: Children who undergo painful experiences such as traumatic dental injury (TDI) during their early years are more likely to be at an increased risk of developing dental fear and anxiety (DFA). The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for DFA of these children. Methods: The study participants were 220 parents/caregivers and their children who experienced TDI. Their socio-demographic backgrounds were investigated with the modified WHO Oral Health Questionnaire for Children that included questions about parents’ knowledge and attitudes, while the DFA level was determined using the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S Index) was used to assess oral hygiene status. Results: The confirmed risk factors are parental knowledge, female gender, and degree of oral hygiene and pain in the last three months, while age, type of TDI, presence of soft-tissue injury, and number of subjective complaints were not confirmed. The overall model predicted approximately 54% of variance in DFA, R2 = 0.545, F (4.215) = 64.28 p < 0.001. Conclusions: These findings emphasise the importance of addressing pain management, improving oral hygiene, and enhancing parental knowledge to mitigate DFA in children with TDIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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12 pages, 4539 KiB  
Article
Remineralization of Early Enamel Lesions with Apatite-Forming Salt
by Clifton M. Carey
Dent. J. 2023, 11(8), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11080182 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the remineralization of ex vivo human teeth using commercially available artificial saliva, SalivaMAX®, a supersaturated calcium phosphate rinse (SSCPR). Methods: early enamel lesions were artificially induced on ex vivo human teeth by chemical means. The [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the remineralization of ex vivo human teeth using commercially available artificial saliva, SalivaMAX®, a supersaturated calcium phosphate rinse (SSCPR). Methods: early enamel lesions were artificially induced on ex vivo human teeth by chemical means. The teeth were exposed to the SSCPR for two minutes (experimental) or dH2O (control) four times per day for a total of 35 days. At time points of 0, 2.5, 21, and 35 days, micro-CT was utilized to determine the mineral density profile across the lesion and evaluate lesion depth. The relative percent remineralization was calculated from the initial lesion depth (Time 0) at each evaluation time. Student’s t-test was used to compare the extent of remineralization between the SSCPR and control groups for statistical significance at each time. To evaluate the changes in percent remineralization over time, a two-way ANOVA was used. Results: At Time 0 and 2.5 days, there was no difference in the percent remineralization between the SSCPR and control groups (p > 0.05). After 21 days, the teeth exposed to the SSCPR remineralized 56.7 ± 3.7%, while the control only remineralized 10.7 ± 11.0% (p < 0.0001). At day 35, the remineralization was 73.7 ± 5.4% and 18.2 ± 10.8% (p < 0.0001) for the SSCPR and control groups, respectively. Conclusions: A marked increase in remineralization occurred with the use of the SSCPR. Notably, the remineralization of the SSCPR occurred deep within the tooth and progressed toward the surface over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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12 pages, 8320 KiB  
Article
The Effect of a Zinc-L-Carnosine Mouthwash in the Management of Oral Surgical Wounds: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Cohort Study
by Fabio Dell’Olio, Rosaria Arianna Siciliani, Gianluigi Novielli, Angela Tempesta, Gianfranco Favia and Luisa Limongelli
Dent. J. 2023, 11(7), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11070181 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2085
Abstract
Background: Zinc L-carnosine promotes the transition from the inflammatory to the proliferative phase of wound healing by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory signals and enhancing the expression of anti-inflammatory signals. This prospective cohort study aims to test the effect of a zinc–L-carnosine mouthwash [...] Read more.
Background: Zinc L-carnosine promotes the transition from the inflammatory to the proliferative phase of wound healing by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory signals and enhancing the expression of anti-inflammatory signals. This prospective cohort study aims to test the effect of a zinc–L-carnosine mouthwash in promoting oral surgical wound healing. Methods: From October 2022 to February 2023, the authors enrolled healthy adult volunteers who needed the extraction of bilateral molars at the Unit of Dentistry of the University of Bari. The authors studied the baseline wound healing of each patient after the first extraction. Three months later, the patients underwent the second extraction and rinsed their mouths with zinc–L-carnosine mouthwash twice per day for the following 28 postoperative days. For a month after each extraction, the patients received weekly follow-up visits by an oral surgeon blinded about the study to record the modified healing index score of the wounds (range 0–6 points). For statistical analysis, we used the one-tailed t-test for paired samples with a significance level set at p < 0.05 to compare the baseline scores with those recorded during the exposure to the zinc–L-carnosine mouthwash. Results: The authors enrolled four women and six men (mean age = 44.60 ± 19.22 years). On the seventh and fourteenth postoperative days, the mean difference between the modified healing index scores obtained by using the zinc–L-carnosine mouthwash and the baseline was not significant. On the twenty-first postoperative day, the mean score obtained by using the mouthwash was 5.2 ± 1.3 points and was significantly higher than the 4.7 ± 1.8 points of the baseline (p = 0.026). On the twenty-eighth postoperative day, the mean difference was significant as well (5.9 ± 0.3 points and 5.4 ± 1.1 points, respectively). Conclusion: The preliminary results of this study showed that the zinc–L-carnosine mouthwash improved the quality of oral surgical wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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9 pages, 1822 KiB  
Article
A Survey on Attitude, Awareness, and Knowledge of Patients Regarding the Use of Dental Implants at a Swiss University Clinic
by Adib Al-Haj Husain, Olivia De Cicco, Bernd Stadlinger, Fabienne Andrina Bosshard, Valérie Schmidt, Mutlu Özcan and Silvio Valdec
Dent. J. 2023, 11(7), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11070165 - 05 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
Even though restoring missing teeth and oral tissue with dental implants is perceived by most patients as a positive experience, patients lack access to evidence-based information about different treatment options. In order to provide more accurate information for public dental education in Switzerland [...] Read more.
Even though restoring missing teeth and oral tissue with dental implants is perceived by most patients as a positive experience, patients lack access to evidence-based information about different treatment options. In order to provide more accurate information for public dental education in Switzerland and to compare it worldwide, this descriptive cross-sectional survey-based study assessed pre-operative attitudes, awareness, and knowledge of patients. A total of 160 patients with indication for tooth extraction were selected randomly from clinical routine between August 2022 and February 2023. Statistical analysis was performed including the chi-square test based on a significance level of 0.05. The results confirm that most patients (78%) were aware of implants as a treatment option for replacing missing teeth and consider them a prioritized solution (79%). Their primary sources of information are dentists (59%), the Internet (50%), relatives and friends (40%). The majority of patients (84%) wanted the surgical procedure to be performed by a board-certified clinical specialist expecting high functional and aesthetic outcomes. Low levels of knowledge could be observed regarding postoperative care, functionality, and clinical performance of implants. This survey-based study revealed a positive attitude and an acceptable level of awareness and knowledge regarding the use of dental implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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17 pages, 554 KiB  
Article
Oral Health-Related Quality of Life and Mental Health Impairment in Patients Affected by Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws: A Case–Control Pilot Study
by Elena Calabria, Alessandro Antonelli, Selene Barone, Daniela Adamo, Marianna Salviati, Maria Giulia Cerra, Francesco Bennardo and Amerigo Giudice
Dent. J. 2023, 11(6), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11060147 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
In the present case–control study, the impact of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) on patients’ oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), overall quality of life (QoL), and psychological status was evaluated using a set of questionnaires. These questionnaires included the Oral Health [...] Read more.
In the present case–control study, the impact of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) on patients’ oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), overall quality of life (QoL), and psychological status was evaluated using a set of questionnaires. These questionnaires included the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36), and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). A total of 25 MRONJ patients and 25 controls were included in the study. The results showed that MRONJ patients had a significantly poorer OHRQoL (OHIP-14 score p-value: 0.003) and lower general QoL, particularly in the domains of “physical functioning”, “physical role”, “body pain”, “general health”, and “vitality” in the SF-36 questionnaire (p-values: 0.001, 0.001, 0.013, 0.001, and 0.020). Although there were no significant differences between the groups in the SF-36 domains of “social functioning”, “emotional role”, and “mental health”, the mean sub-scores of the HADS, specifically the depression and anxiety scores (HADS-D and HADS-A), were significantly higher in MRONJ patients (p-values: 0.002 and 0.009). However, the “mental health” domain of the SF-36 questionnaire showed a correlation with both HADS-A and HADS-D scores (p-values: 0.003 and 0.031). Therefore, a comprehensive clinical examination of MRONJ patients should include the assessment of OHRQoL, overall QoL, and psychological profile using different questionnaires. This approach aims to gather detailed information about patients’ physical and psychological well-being, enabling the development of tailored treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 3037 KiB  
Article
Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia of the Jaw: Demographic and Clinical Analysis of 191 New Cases
by Katherine Decolibus, Shokoufeh Shahrabi-Farahani, Anmol Brar, Shane D. Rasner, Sarah E. Aguirre and Adepitan A. Owosho
Dent. J. 2023, 11(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11050138 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4746
Abstract
Cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) is a form of benign fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw. We sought to evaluate the demographic and clinical presentations of COD by collecting and analyzing the demographic, clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data of COD diagnosed in our institution from 2017 [...] Read more.
Cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) is a form of benign fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw. We sought to evaluate the demographic and clinical presentations of COD by collecting and analyzing the demographic, clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data of COD diagnosed in our institution from 2017 to 2022. Over this six-year period, the records of 191 patients with COD were reviewed. Most patients were African American and female. Eighty-five patients were diagnosed with florid COD (FLCOD), 63 with periapical COD (PCOD), and 43 with focal COD (FCOD). Twenty-eight (14.7%) patients presented symptoms. The most common symptom was pain. All the symptomatic cases of COD that were histopathologically diagnosed were osteomyelitis in the setting of COD. Symptomatic patients were older (mean of 61.3 years) than the asymptomatic patients (mean of 51.2 years). Due to the radiographic appearance of a radiolucency or a mixture of radiolucency and radiopacity, forty-five asymptomatic patients were biopsied. Most of the asymptomatic patients biopsied were patients with FCOD (n = 19, 54.3%), followed by PCOD (n = 16, 25.8%), and FLCOD (n = 10, 15.2%). FLCOD is the most common form of COD to present with symptoms. Due to the significant overlap in clinical and radiographic presentation with other entities, FCOD and PCOD remain a diagnostic challenge to dentists. In conclusion, we analyzed the demographic and clinical features of 191 new cases of COD, which reaffirms that cemento-osseous dysplasia is a condition that primarily affects middle-aged females of African descent and occurs more frequently in the mandible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 3020 KiB  
Article
Development and Comparison of Conventional and 3D-Printed Laboratory Models of Maxillary Defects
by Ahmad Alanezi, May Aljanahi, Keyvan Moharamzadeh, Ahmed Ghoneima, Abdel Rahman Tawfik, Amar Hassan Khamis and Moosa Abuzayeda
Dent. J. 2023, 11(5), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11050115 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2559
Abstract
Background: Recording accurate impressions from maxillary defects is a critical and challenging stage in the prosthetic rehabilitation of patients following maxillectomy surgery. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize conventional and 3D-printed laboratory models of maxillary defects and to compare [...] Read more.
Background: Recording accurate impressions from maxillary defects is a critical and challenging stage in the prosthetic rehabilitation of patients following maxillectomy surgery. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize conventional and 3D-printed laboratory models of maxillary defects and to compare conventional and digital impression techniques using these models. Methods: Six different types of maxillary defect models were fabricated. A central palatal defect model was used to compare conventional silicon impressions with digital intra-oral scanning in terms of dimensional accuracy and total time taken to record the defect and produce a laboratory analogue. Results: Digital workflow produced different results than the conventional technique in terms of defect size measurements which were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The time taken to record the arch and the defect using an intra-oral scanner was significantly less compared with the traditional impression method. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques in terms of the total time taken to fabricate a maxillary central defect model (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The laboratory models of different maxillary defects developed in this study have the potential to be used to compare conventional and digital workflow in prosthetic treatment procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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28 pages, 4087 KiB  
Article
The Oral Health of a Group of 19th Century South Australian Settlers in Relation to Their General Health and Compared with That of Contemporaneous Samples
by Angela Gurr, Maciej Henneberg, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Derek Lerche, Lindsay Richards and Alan Henry Brook
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040099 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2422
Abstract
The aims of this study are to determine the oral health status of a rare sample of 19th-century migrant settlers to South Australia, how oral conditions may have influenced their general health, and how the oral health of this group compares with contemporaneous [...] Read more.
The aims of this study are to determine the oral health status of a rare sample of 19th-century migrant settlers to South Australia, how oral conditions may have influenced their general health, and how the oral health of this group compares with contemporaneous samples in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain. Dentitions of 18 adults and 22 subadults were investigated using non-destructive methods (micro-CT, macroscopic, radiographic). Extensive carious lesions were identified in seventeen adults and four subadults, and from this group one subadult and sixteen adults had antemortem tooth loss. Sixteen adults showed evidence of periodontal disease. Enamel hypoplastic (EH) defects were identified in fourteen adults and nine subadults. Many individuals with dental defects also had skeletal signs of comorbidities. South Australian individuals had the same percentage of carious lesions as the British sample (53%), more than other historic Australian samples, but less than a contemporary New Zealand sample. Over 50% of individuals from all the historic cemeteries had EH defects, suggesting systemic health insults during dental development were common during the 19th century. The overall oral health of the South Australian settlers was poor but, in some categories, (tooth wear, periapical abscess, periodontal disease), better than the other historic samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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19 pages, 3961 KiB  
Article
Toothpaste Abrasion and Abrasive Particle Content: Correlating High-Resolution Profilometric Analysis with Relative Dentin Abrasivity (RDA)
by Joachim Enax, Frederic Meyer, Erik Schulze zur Wiesche, Ines Christin Fuhrmann and Helge-Otto Fabritius
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030079 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3502
Abstract
In this in vitro study, the influence of the concentration of abrasive particles on the abrasivity of toothpastes was investigated using laser scan profilometry on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) surfaces with the aim of providing an alternative method to developers for screening of new [...] Read more.
In this in vitro study, the influence of the concentration of abrasive particles on the abrasivity of toothpastes was investigated using laser scan profilometry on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) surfaces with the aim of providing an alternative method to developers for screening of new toothpaste formulations. PMMA plates were tested in a toothbrush simulator with distilled water and four model toothpastes with increasing content of hydrated silica (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 wt%). The viscosity of the model toothpaste formulations was kept constant by means of varying the content of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and water. The brushed surfaces were evaluated using laser scan profilometry at micrometer-scale resolutions, and the total volume of the introduced scratches was calculated along with the roughness parameters Ra, Rz and Rv. RDA measurements commissioned for the same toothpaste formulations were used to analyze the correlation between results obtained with the different methods. The same experimental procedure was applied to five commercially available toothpastes, and the results were evaluated against our model system. In addition, we characterize abrasive hydrated silica and discuss their effects on PMMA-sample surfaces. The results show that the abrasiveness of a model toothpaste increases with the weight percentage of hydrated silica. Increasing roughness parameter and volume loss values show good correlation with the likewise increasing corresponding RDA values for all model toothpastes, as well as commercial toothpastes without ingredients that can damage the used substrate PMMA. From our results, we deduce an abrasion classification that corresponds to the RDA classification established for marketed toothpastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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12 pages, 2389 KiB  
Article
Effect of Particle Sizes and Contents of Surface Pre-Reacted Glass Ionomer Filler on Mechanical Properties of Auto-Polymerizing Resin
by Naoyuki Kaga, Sho Morita, Yuichiro Yamaguchi and Takashi Matsuura
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030072 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Herein, the mechanical properties of an auto-polymerizing resin incorporated with a surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) filler were evaluated. For this, S-PRG fillers with particle sizes of 1 μm (S-PRG-1) and 3 μm (S-PRG-3) were mixed at 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% [...] Read more.
Herein, the mechanical properties of an auto-polymerizing resin incorporated with a surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) filler were evaluated. For this, S-PRG fillers with particle sizes of 1 μm (S-PRG-1) and 3 μm (S-PRG-3) were mixed at 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% to prepare experimental resin powders. The powders and a liquid (powder/liquid ratio = 1.0 g/0.5 mL) were kneaded and filled into a silicone mold to obtain rectangular specimens. The flexural strength and modulus (n = 12) were recorded via a three-point bending test. The flexural strengths of S-PRG-1 at 10 wt% (62.14 MPa) and S-PRG-3 at 10 and 20 wt% (68.68 and 62.70 MPa, respectively) were adequate (>60 MPa). The flexural modulus of the S-PRG-3-containing specimen was significantly higher than that of the S-PRG-1-containing specimen. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the specimen fracture surfaces after bending revealed that the S-PRG fillers were tightly embedded and scattered in the resin matrix. The Vickers hardness increased with an increasing filler content and size. The Vickers hardness of S-PRG-3 (14.86–15.48 HV) was higher than that of S-PRG-1 (13.48–14.97 HV). Thus, the particle size and content of the S-PRG filler affect the mechanical properties of the experimental auto-polymerizing resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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12 pages, 1840 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Magneto-Dynamic, Piezoelectric, and Conventional Surgery for Dental Extractions: A Pilot Study
by Francesco Bennardo, Selene Barone, Camillo Vocaturo, Dorin Nicolae Gheorghe, Giorgio Cosentini, Alessandro Antonelli and Amerigo Giudice
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030060 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2758
Abstract
This pilot split-mouth study aimed to evaluate and compare early postoperative discomfort and wound healing outcomes in post-extraction sockets after dental extraction performed with a Magnetic Mallet (MM), piezosurgery, and conventional instruments (EudraCT 2022-003135-25). Twenty-two patients requiring the extraction of three non-adjacent teeth [...] Read more.
This pilot split-mouth study aimed to evaluate and compare early postoperative discomfort and wound healing outcomes in post-extraction sockets after dental extraction performed with a Magnetic Mallet (MM), piezosurgery, and conventional instruments (EudraCT 2022-003135-25). Twenty-two patients requiring the extraction of three non-adjacent teeth were included. Each tooth was randomly assigned to a specific treatment (control, MM, or piezosurgery). Outcome measures were the severity of symptoms after surgery, wound healing assessed at the 10-days follow-up visit, and the time taken to complete each procedure (excluding suturing). Two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons tests were performed to evaluate eventual differences between groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the compared methods in postoperative pain and healing, and no additional complications were reported. MM required significantly less time to perform a tooth extraction, followed by conventional instruments and piezosurgery, in increasing order (p < 0.05). Overall, the present findings suggest the use of MM and piezosurgery as valid options for dental extractions. Further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm and extend this study’s results, facilitating the selection of the optimal method for an individual patient depending on the patient’s needs and preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 568 KiB  
Article
The Role of Social Media in Communication and Learning at the Time of COVID-19 Lockdown—An Online Survey
by Mohammed Nahidh, Noor F. K. Al-Khawaja, Hala Mohammed Jasim, Gabriele Cervino, Marco Cicciù and Giuseppe Minervini
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020048 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
This study aimed to assess orthodontic postgraduate students’ use of social media during the COVID-19 lockdown. Ninety-four postgraduate students (67 master’s students and 27 doctoral students) were enrolled in the study and asked to fill in an online questionnaire by answering questions regarding [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess orthodontic postgraduate students’ use of social media during the COVID-19 lockdown. Ninety-four postgraduate students (67 master’s students and 27 doctoral students) were enrolled in the study and asked to fill in an online questionnaire by answering questions regarding their use of social media during the COVID-19 lockdown. The frequency distributions and percentages were calculated using SPSS software. The results showed that 99% of the students used social media. The most frequently used type of social media was Facebook, 94%, followed by YouTube, 78%, and Instagram, 65%, while Twitter and Linkedin were used less, and no one used Blogger. About 63% of the students used elements of social media to learn more about orthodontics staging, biomechanics, and various approaches in managing orthodontic cases. About 56% of students tried uploading and downloading scientific papers, lectures, movies, presentations, and e-books from social media, while communication with professionals and searches about orthodontic products were reported in 47% of students’ responses. On the other hand, 43% of the responses favored sharing orthodontic information and posts for teaching and discussion purposes. Generally, social media plays leading roles in the communication with, learning of, sharing of information with, and supervision of patients from a far during the COVID-19 lockdown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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11 pages, 1875 KiB  
Article
Correlations of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) and Three Panoramic Indices Using Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) Bone Densitometry
by Bramma Kiswanjaya, Hanna H. Bachtiar-Iskandar and Akihiro Yoshihara
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020034 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) and three panoramic indices in relation to z-score and t-score values using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) bone densitometry. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) and three panoramic indices in relation to z-score and t-score values using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) bone densitometry. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of the OSTA index were also measured using the QUS tool to evaluate the method’s performance in identifying people at risk of osteoporosis. The study employed a cross-sectional design with 387 participants (190 men, 197 women). Patients’ mandibular cortical indexes (MCI), mandibular cortical widths (MCW), and panoramic mandibular indexes (PMI) were measured from panoramic images. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were calculated using an OSTA index cutoff of ≤−1 and a t-score of ≤−1.0 for the QUS bone densitometry. The coefficient correlation of the OSTA index with the z-score (r = −0.563, p < 0.001) and t-score (r = −0.740, p < 0.001) shows a higher value than the MCI, MCW, and PMI, per the QUS. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC values with a cutoff t-score of ≤−1.0 per the QUS in men was 90%, 50%, and 0.812, and in women, 96.8%, 30%, and 0.862. The OSTA index is a simple method that can be used in general dental practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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14 pages, 5312 KiB  
Article
Schneiderian Membrane Collateral Damage Caused by Collagenated and Non-Collagenated Xenografts: A Histological Study in Rabbits
by Yasushi Nakajima, Daniele Botticelli, Ermenegildo Federico De Rossi, Vitor Ferreira Balan, Eduardo Pires Godoy, Erick Ricardo Silva and Samuel Porfirio Xavier
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020031 - 26 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Background: The Schneiderian membrane (SM) that is in contact with biomaterial granules may become thinner and eventually perforate. It has been shown that these events are related to the biomaterial used. Hence, the main aim of the present study was to compare the [...] Read more.
Background: The Schneiderian membrane (SM) that is in contact with biomaterial granules may become thinner and eventually perforate. It has been shown that these events are related to the biomaterial used. Hence, the main aim of the present study was to compare the damaging effects of two xenografts with different resorbability rates on SM. The secondary aim was to evaluate the possible protection from damage offered by a collagen membrane placed adjacent to the SM and by inward displacement of the bone window with the SM during elevation. Methods: Thirty-six albino New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral sinus elevation. One group of 18 animals received deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM group) and the other received swine-collagenated corticocancellous bone (collagenated group). Moreover, in the DBBM group, the bone window was displaced inward during elevation in one sinus together with the SM. In the collagenated group, a collagen membrane was placed adjacent to the SM in one sinus. Six animals were assessed per period after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results: The mean pristine mucosa width ranged between 67 µm and 113 µm, and none had a width of <40 µm. In the 2-week group, the elevated mucosa of the DBBM group presented 59 thinned sites and five perforations, while in the collagenated group, 14 thinned sites and one perforation were observed. Damage to SM decreased in number in the 4-week treatment group. In the 8-week group, the number of thinned sites in the DBBM group increased to 124, and the perforations to 8. In the collagenated group, 7 thinned sites and 1 small perforation were observed. Conclusions: More damage to the Schneiderian membrane was observed in the DBBM group than in the collagenated group. The presence of the inward bone window offered protection from damage to the Schneiderian membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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10 pages, 801 KiB  
Article
Pandemic Financial Stress in Dental Medicine in Croatia
by Edi Orlic, Stjepan Spalj, Natasa Ivancic Jokic, Danko Bakarcic, Odri Cicvaric and Renata Grzic
Dent. J. 2023, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11010009 - 27 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1833
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional research was to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the activity of dental medicine in the Republic of Croatia in 2020. It included 136 doctors of dental medicine who completed an online survey regarding their personal and professional [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional research was to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the activity of dental medicine in the Republic of Croatia in 2020. It included 136 doctors of dental medicine who completed an online survey regarding their personal and professional information; work in dental offices; and level of fear for their own health, the health of others, and financial existence; and their attitude about vaccination. There was a significantly higher decrease in patient visits in dental offices that do not have a contract with public health insurance (70% vs. 37%; p < 0.001) and in dental offices that have a higher percentage of profit from dental tourism (32% vs. 14%; p < 0.001). Fear of financial existence was significantly higher in the group of dentists who do not have a contract with public health insurance (p = 0.0) and is positively correlated with the percentage of profit from dental tourism (r = 0.299; p < 0.001). Dentists with a higher level of fear that they or their loved ones would get infected due to the nature of their job are more likely to get vaccinated (p ≤ 0.007). The decision to get vaccinated and wearing a disposable coat/apron was related to fear when all other parameters were controlled for (R = 0.44; p = 0.037). In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic had a minimal impact on the profession of dental medicine in Croatia but represented a larger financial stress for dentists working in dental offices that do not have a contract with public health insurance and have a higher percentage of income from dental tourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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10 pages, 927 KiB  
Article
Brazilian Multiethnic Association Study of Genetic Variant Interactions among FOS, CASP8, MMP2 and CRISPLD2 in the Risk of Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate
by Renato Assis Machado, Lilianny Querino Rocha de Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayroza Rangel, Silvia Regina de Almeida Reis, Rafaela Scariot, Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli, Hercílio Martelli-Júnior and Ricardo D. Coletta
Dent. J. 2023, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11010007 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
Associations of CRISPLD2 (cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2) and genes belonging to its activation pathway, including FOS (Fos proto-oncogene), CASP8 (caspase 8) and MMP2 (matrix metalloproteinase 2), with nonsyndromic orofacial cleft risk, have been reported, but the results are yet unclear. [...] Read more.
Associations of CRISPLD2 (cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2) and genes belonging to its activation pathway, including FOS (Fos proto-oncogene), CASP8 (caspase 8) and MMP2 (matrix metalloproteinase 2), with nonsyndromic orofacial cleft risk, have been reported, but the results are yet unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FOS, CASP8 and MMP2 and to determine their SNP-SNP interactions with CRISPLD2 variants in the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL±P) in the Brazilian population. The SNPs rs1046117 (FOS), rs3769825 (CASP8) and rs243836 (MMP2) were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays in a case-control sample containing 801 NSCL±P patients (233 nonsyndromic cleft lip only (NSCLO) and 568 nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP)) and 881 healthy controls via logistic regression analysis adjusted for the effects of sex and genomic ancestry proportions with a multiple comparison p value set at ≤0.01. SNP-SNP interactions with rs1546124, rs8061351, rs2326398 and rs4783099 in CRISPLD2 were performed with the model-based multifactor dimensionality reduction test complemented with a 1000 permutation-based strategy. Although the association between FOS rs1046117 and risk of NSCL±P reached only nominal p values, NSCLO risk was significantly higher in carriers of the FOS rs1046117 C allele (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10–1.64, p = 0.004), TC heterozygous genotype (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.16–2.18, p = 0.003), and in the dominant model (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.10–2.02, p = 0.007). Individually, no significant associations between cleft risk and the SNPs in CASP8 and MMP2 were observed. SNP-SNP interactions involving CRISPLD2 variants and rs1046117 (FOS), rs3769825 (CASP8) and rs243836 (MMP2) yielded several significant p values, mostly driven by FOS rs1046117 and CASP8 rs3769825 in NSCL±P, FOS rs1046117 in NSCLO and CRISPLD2 rs8061351 in NSCLP. Our study is the first in the Brazilian population to reveal the association of FOS rs1046117 with NSCLO risk, and to support that CRISPLD2, CASP8, FOS and MMP2 interactions may be related to the pathogenesis of this common craniofacial malformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 4501 KiB  
Article
Implant-Supported Prostheses in the Edentulous Mandible: Biomechanical Analysis of Different Implant Configurations via Finite Element Analysis
by Eduardo Anitua, Naiara Larrazabal Saez de Ibarra and Luis Saracho Rotaeche
Dent. J. 2023, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11010004 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
This study explores the implant-supported prosthetic treatment alternatives of the edentulous mandible from a biomechanical point of view by means of a Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Finite element (FE) models were used to simulate cases treated with six, five, and four, implants and [...] Read more.
This study explores the implant-supported prosthetic treatment alternatives of the edentulous mandible from a biomechanical point of view by means of a Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Finite element (FE) models were used to simulate cases treated with six, five, and four, implants and a fixed prosthesis with a cantilever. In the four implant treatments, three cases were analyzed; the posterior implants were placed in axial positions, angled at 30° and 45°. Cases with six and four axially placed implants were also analyzed by placing the posterior implants distally to the foramen, thus eliminating the cantilever in the prostheses. In the cases with implants between foramina, the highest values for the principal strains and von Mises stresses were observed in the case with four implants where the posterior implants were angled at 45°. Cases with implants placed distally to the foramen and without a cantilever showed much lower bone stress and strain levels compared to cases with implants between foramina. From a biomechanical point of view, it seems to be a better option to use implants positioned distally to the foramen, eliminating cantilevers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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9 pages, 1158 KiB  
Article
Transepithelial Gingival Depigmentation Using a New Protocol with Q-Switched Nd:YAG: An In Vivo Observational Study
by Niccolò Giuseppe Armogida, Carlo Rengo, Mariangela Cernera, Flavia Iaculli and Gianrico Spagnuolo
Dent. J. 2023, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11010002 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3002
Abstract
Gingival melanin hyperpigmentation is a para-physiological condition that may have a negative impact on smile esthetics. In the present study, the use of the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser, according to a defined protocol, was proposed to treat Gingival Melanin Hyperpigmentation with a transepithelial approach. [...] Read more.
Gingival melanin hyperpigmentation is a para-physiological condition that may have a negative impact on smile esthetics. In the present study, the use of the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser, according to a defined protocol, was proposed to treat Gingival Melanin Hyperpigmentation with a transepithelial approach. A total of 10 Patients with different grades of gingival hyperpigmentation were treated with Q-Switched Nd:YAG in one to four laser sessions without local anesthesia. The grade of depigmentation was evaluated by comparing Oral Pigmentation Index (OPI) and Melanin Pigmentation Index (MPI) at baseline and three weeks after the laser session. Additionally, oral discomfort rated by the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was recorded one, three, and five days after the procedure. Complete depigmentation was achieved in all cases. Patients reported no-little discomfort (NRS 0 to 3) during the laser session that lasted a maximum of five days. No major complications were reported, and no recurrences were observed at least after one year of follow-up. In addition, patients were available to be re-treated if necessary. These findings suggested that the Q-Switched Nd:YAG could be an effective and well-tolerated approach in the treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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10 pages, 1281 KiB  
Article
Daytime Sleepiness and Quality of Life in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Patients before and after Long-Term Mandibular Advancement Device Treatment
by Signe Halfeld and Liselotte Sonnesen
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120226 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
This study compared daytime sleepiness and quality of life in OSA patients with healthy controls and compared sleepiness and quality of life in OSA patients before and after long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD). A total of 27 OSA patients (18 [...] Read more.
This study compared daytime sleepiness and quality of life in OSA patients with healthy controls and compared sleepiness and quality of life in OSA patients before and after long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD). A total of 27 OSA patients (18 men, 9 women, mean age 52.3 years) and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (20 men, 12 women, mean age 51.1 years) were included. At baseline and after MAD treatment, daytime sleepiness and quality of life were recorded by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Short Form-36 questionnaires (SF-36). Daytime sleepiness occurred significantly more often in OSA patients compared to controls at baseline (p = 0.01). The quality of life domains Energy and vitality (p < 0.0001), General perception of health (p = 0.0002), Mental health (p = 0.0031), Social functioning (p = 0.0119), Role limitations due to emotional problems (p = 0.0173) and Physical functioning (p = 0.0226) were significantly poorer in OSA patients compared to controls at baseline. After long-term MAD treatment, daytime sleepiness decreased (p < 0.01) and the quality of life domain Energy and Vitality increased (p < 0.01) in OSA patients compared to baseline. The results of the present study support the relevance of MAD treatment as an effective tool for decreasing daytime sleepiness and increasing the quality of life in OSA patients—also in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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8 pages, 6435 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Occlusal Vertical Dimension Change in Mechanical and Virtual Articulation: A Pilot Study
by Yu-Chun Lin, Rebecca Scialabba, Jason D. Lee, Jie Sun and Sang J. Lee
Dent. J. 2022, 10(11), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10110212 - 08 Nov 2022
Viewed by 3611
Abstract
The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the change in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) with dental casts mounted on a mechanical articulator using an average axis facebow and on a virtual articulator mounted using the Bonwill triangle and the Balkwill angle [...] Read more.
The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the change in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) with dental casts mounted on a mechanical articulator using an average axis facebow and on a virtual articulator mounted using the Bonwill triangle and the Balkwill angle and compare these groups with OVD change observed clinically in patients. Casts were obtained from each patient (n = 14) and mounted on a semi-adjustable articulator in the facebow preservation group (FPG) and on a virtual articulator using average anatomic values in the average mounting group (AMG). Customized mandibular anterior splints were virtually designed at an OVD increased by 3, 6, and 9 mm. Digital buccal scans were performed with the anterior devices in the participants’ mouths in the intraoral group (IOG), AMG, and FPG at the different OVD increases accordingly. While no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in the posterior interocclusal measurements with the incisal guide pin raised by 3 mm and 6 mm among all groups, a 9 mm increase resulted in a significant difference between AMG and IOG. The interocclusal posterior-to-anterior opening ratio observed clinically was 1:1.575. Increases in OVD up to 6 mm on dental casts mounted using average anatomic values performed similarly to the actual intraoral changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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12 pages, 2245 KiB  
Article
Home-Applied Dual-Light Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Stable Chronic Periodontitis (HOPE-CP)—Three-Month Interim Results
by Saila Pakarinen, Riitta K. T. Saarela, Hannamari Välimaa, Anna Maria Heikkinen, Esko Kankuri, Marja Noponen, Heikki Alapulli, Taina Tervahartiala, Ismo T. Räisänen, Timo Sorsa and Tommi Pätilä
Dent. J. 2022, 10(11), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10110206 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5975
Abstract
A single-site, randomized clinical trial was designed to determine the efficacy of regular home use of Lumoral® dual-light antibacterial aPDT in periodontitis patients. For the study, 200 patients were randomized to receive non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT), including standardized hygiene instructions and electric [...] Read more.
A single-site, randomized clinical trial was designed to determine the efficacy of regular home use of Lumoral® dual-light antibacterial aPDT in periodontitis patients. For the study, 200 patients were randomized to receive non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT), including standardized hygiene instructions and electric toothbrush, scaling and root planing, or NSPT with adjunctive Lumoral® treatment. A complete clinical intraoral examination was conducted in the beginning, at three months, and at six months. This report presents the three-month results of the first 59 consecutive randomized subjects. At three months, bleeding on probing (BOP) was lower in the NSPT + Lumoral®-group than in the NSPT group (p = 0.045), and more patients in the NSPT + Lumoral®-group had their BOP below 10% (54% vs. 22%, respectively, p = 0.008). In addition, patients in the NSPT + Lumoral®-group improved their oral hygiene by visible-plaque-index (p = 0.0003), while the NSPT group showed no statistical improvement compared to the baseline. Both groups significantly reduced the number of deep periodontal pockets, but more patients with a reduction in their deep pocket number were found in the NSPT + Lumoral® group (92% vs. 63%, p = 0.02). Patients whose number of deep pockets was reduced by 50% or more were also more frequent in the NSPT + Lumoral®-group (71% vs. 33%, p = 0.01). Patients with initially less than ten deep pockets had fewer deep pockets at the three-month follow-up in the Lumoral® group (p = 0.01). In conclusion, adjunctive use of Lumoral® in NSPT results in improved treatment outcomes at three months post-therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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10 pages, 1795 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Two Bracket Systems’ Bond Strength: Conventional and Self-Ligating
by Aurel-Claudiu Vartolomei, Dana-Valentina Ghiga, Dan-Cosmin Serbanoiu, Marioara Moldovan, Stanca Cuc, Mariana Pacurar and Maria Cristina Figueiredo Pollmann
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100196 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Adhesion remains a key element in dentistry, whether approached in prosthetics, odontology, or orthodontics. It is a continuously researched aspect, as improved materials and adhesive methods keep emerging in the market. No orthodontic treatment can be effective without the proper adhesion strength of [...] Read more.
Adhesion remains a key element in dentistry, whether approached in prosthetics, odontology, or orthodontics. It is a continuously researched aspect, as improved materials and adhesive methods keep emerging in the market. No orthodontic treatment can be effective without the proper adhesion strength of the bonded elements on the teeth. The objective of this research, in the broad context of self-ligating versus conventional brackets, was to compare active and passive self-ligating systems with a conventional one by conducting an in vitro study on human-extracted premolars. Shear bond strength tests were executed by means of an advanced materials-testing machine that generated maximum load and tensile strength values. The data obtained underwent statistical analysis with a statistical threshold of p < 0.05. The results regarding the statistical significance were acquired when comparing the passive self-ligating system with the active self-ligating and conventional systems (load-at-maximum-load mean 204.9, SD 91.09, and p < 0.05). In this study, the passive self-ligating bracket system appears to present increased shear bond strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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17 pages, 1912 KiB  
Article
Two Gingival Cell Lines Response to Different Dental Implant Abutment Materials: An In Vitro Study
by Muataz A. Osman, Evgeny Kushnerev, Rasha A. Alamoush, Kevin. G. Seymour and Julian M. Yates
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100192 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFB) and human gingival keratinocytes (HGKC) towards different dental implant abutment materials. Methods: Five materials were investigated: (1) titanium (Ti), (2) titanium nitride (TiN), (3) cobalt-chromium (CoCr), (4) zirconia [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFB) and human gingival keratinocytes (HGKC) towards different dental implant abutment materials. Methods: Five materials were investigated: (1) titanium (Ti), (2) titanium nitride (TiN), (3) cobalt-chromium (CoCr), (4) zirconia (ZrO2), and (5) modified polyether ether ketone (m-PEEK). Both cell lines were cultured, expanded, and seeded in accordance with the protocol of their supplier. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were evaluated at days 1, 3, 5, and 10 using colourimetric viability and cytotoxicity assays. Data were analysed via two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey’s post hoc test (p < 0.05 for all tests). Results: There was a statistically significant difference in cell proliferation of HGKC and HGFB cells in contact with different abutment materials at different time points, with no significant interaction between different materials. There was a significant effect on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity with different exposure times (p < 0.0001) for each material. Cell proliferation rates were comparable for both cell lines at the beginning of the study, however, HGFB showed higher proliferation rates for all materials at day 10 with better proliferation activities with ZrO and m-PEEK (40.27%) and (48.38%) respectively. HGKC showed significant interactions (p < 0.0001) in cytotoxicity between different materials. Conclusion: The present in vitro assessment investigated the biocompatibility of different abutment materials with soft tissue cells (HGFB and HGKC). The findings suggest that m-PEEK and TiN are biologically compatible materials with human cells that represent the soft tissue and can be considered as alternative implant abutment materials to Ti and ZrO2, especially when the aesthetic is of concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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10 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Knowledge and Perceptions of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation among General Dental Practitioners, Paediatric Dentists, and Other Dental Specialists in Indonesia
by Enrita Dian, Sarworini Bagio Budiardjo, Aghareed Ghanim, Lisa Rinanda Amir and Diah Ayu Maharani
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100190 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1525
Abstract
Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a qualitative, dental enamel hypomineralisation defect affecting one to four first permanent molars, characterised by the present of asymmetries demarcated opacities, and is prevalent worldwide. An early diagnosis of MIH is crucial, to prevent further complications including the [...] Read more.
Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a qualitative, dental enamel hypomineralisation defect affecting one to four first permanent molars, characterised by the present of asymmetries demarcated opacities, and is prevalent worldwide. An early diagnosis of MIH is crucial, to prevent further complications including the development of dental caries, hypersensitivity, pulp inflammation, and pain. Therefore, a thorough understanding of MIH is of clinical importance. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and perception of MIH among general dental practitioners (GD), paediatric dentists (PD), and other dental specialists (DS) in Indonesia using a self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square tests and Kruskal–Wallis tests were employed to analyse the data. A total of 266 dental practitioners—112 GD, 84 PD, and 60 DS—were included in this study and completed the online questionnaire. There were significant differences in the overall knowledge scores between GD, PD, and DS (p < 0.001). Specifically, the different between the tested groups were observed in the knowledge of caries pattern related to MIH and the aetiology of MIH. The majority of PD (83.3%) can differentiate the MIH-related caries pattern from the classic caries pattern. Moreover, the confident level in diagnosing and treating MIH teeth were higher in PD compared to GD and DS (p = 0.000). The majority of dental practitioners in all groups agreed on the necessity to obtain continuing education on MIH including the aetiology, diagnosis, and its treatment to improve their knowledge and confidence in MIH clinical management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
11 pages, 2498 KiB  
Article
Learning Curve and Comparison of Dynamic Implant Placement Accuracy Using a Navigation System in Young Professionals
by Johannes Spille, Eva Helmstetter, Paul Kübel, Jan-Tobias Weitkamp, Juliane Wagner, Henning Wieker, Hendrik Naujokat, Christian Flörke, Jörg Wiltfang and Aydin Gülses
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100187 - 02 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1924
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the learning curve and accuracy of implant placement by young professionals using a dynamic computer-assisted surgical system for dental implant placement. Ten students tried to place eight implants with a dynamic surgical system in [...] Read more.
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the learning curve and accuracy of implant placement by young professionals using a dynamic computer-assisted surgical system for dental implant placement. Ten students tried to place eight implants with a dynamic surgical system in predefined positions on two consecutive weekends, resulting in 160 implant placements in total. Postoperatively, the positions of the implants were scanned with an intraoral scanner and compared for deviations at the entry point, the apex, as well as angular deviations to the master model. The mean values of all measurements improved; statistical significance was found for the changes in the angle as well as for the position of the implants to the apex (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the young professionals indicated subjective improvement in handling the dynamic surgery system. Navigated surgical dental implant placement can be learned quickly and can support young professionals in everyday clinical practice, especially in difficult anatomic situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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10 pages, 249 KiB  
Article
Awareness and Attitudes of Dental Students toward Older Adults in Indonesia
by Anton Rahardjo, Fakhira Hanna Safira Firdaus, Peter Andreas, Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani and Diah Ayu Maharani
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100183 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to analyse the awareness and attitudes of dental students (DS) toward older adults (OAs) in Indonesia. Compromised oral health (OH) among OAs is a significant public health problem that is a global health burden. Furthermore, appropriate education can [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to analyse the awareness and attitudes of dental students (DS) toward older adults (OAs) in Indonesia. Compromised oral health (OH) among OAs is a significant public health problem that is a global health burden. Furthermore, appropriate education can provide DS with information about strategic and efficient treatments for OAs. An online invitation was provided to every dental student in Indonesia in the third to sixth year of study to answer a web-based questionnaire as a part of a survey on awareness and attitudes (14 questions) towards OAs. From 1288 valid forms submitted, it was evident that most students (87%) expressed a positive attitude toward OAs. Female students showed a more positive attitude compared to males, with an odds ratio of 1.539 (p = 0.036), and students who had a connection to an older adult demonstrated a more positive attitude than those who did not (OR = 2.076; p < 0.001). The majority of the DS (98%) were conscious of the importance of geriatrics in dentistry, with female students showing more awareness than their male counterparts (OR = 2.553; p = 0.033). Positive awareness and attitudes must be accompanied by knowledge so that DS can offer appropriate and effective oral care to geriatric patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
8 pages, 1088 KiB  
Article
Comparison in Terms of Accuracy between DLP and LCD Printing Technology for Dental Model Printing
by Ioannis A. Tsolakis, William Papaioannou, Erofili Papadopoulou, Maria Dalampira and Apostolos I. Tsolakis
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100181 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3338
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 3D printer compared to a Direct Light Processing (DLP) 3D printer for dental model printing. Methods: Two different printers in terms of 3D printing technology were [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 3D printer compared to a Direct Light Processing (DLP) 3D printer for dental model printing. Methods: Two different printers in terms of 3D printing technology were used in this study. One was a DLP 3D printer and one an LCD 3D printer. The accuracy of the printers was evaluated in terms of trueness and precision. Ten STL reference files were used for this study. For trueness, each STL file was printed once with each 3D printer. For precision, one randomly chosen STL file was printed 10 times with each 3D printer. Afterward, the models were scanned with a model scanner, and reverse engineering software was used for the STL comparisons. Results: In terms of trueness, the comparison between the LCD 3D printer and DLP 3D printer was statistically significant, with a p-value = 0.004. For precision, the comparison between the LCD 3D printer and the DLP 3D printer was statistically significant, with a p-value = 0.011. Conclusions: The DLP 3D printer is more accurate in terms of dental model printing than the LCD 3D printer. However, both DLP and LCD printers can accurately be used to print dental models for the fabrication of orthodontic appliances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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9 pages, 1042 KiB  
Article
Association of Craniofacial Patterns with the Curve of Spee and the Time Required for Orthodontic Levelling
by Annina Krüsi, Konstantinos Dritsas, Eleni Kalimeri, Dimitrios Kloukos and Nikolaos Gkantidis
Dent. J. 2022, 10(9), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10090175 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2074
Abstract
The curve of Spee (CoS) is an important parameter for an individualized treatment plan. The available information regarding a potential association of the depth of the curve of Spee with various skeletal craniofacial characteristics is conflicting and it is also unknown whether certain [...] Read more.
The curve of Spee (CoS) is an important parameter for an individualized treatment plan. The available information regarding a potential association of the depth of the curve of Spee with various skeletal craniofacial characteristics is conflicting and it is also unknown whether certain craniofacial parameters affect the duration of the levelling phase of orthodontic treatment. A prospective sample of 32 patients with mild to moderate crowding that underwent orthodontic treatment with full fixed appliances was used to study these topics. The craniofacial characteristics were captured on pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs and measurements of the CoS were performed on the initial 3D digital dental models using the Viewbox 4 software. Non-parametric statistics and Spearman’s correlations were applied. Weak negative correlations were detected between the CoS depth and the SNA and SNB angles. There was no other association between the CoS and craniofacial parameters, including various anteroposterior measurements. Furthermore, there was no significant association of any craniofacial parameter with the duration of the levelling. Contrary to certain clinical beliefs, it can be argued that the craniofacial characteristics are not associated with the CoS and the time required for its levelling in subjects with moderate pre-treatment CoS depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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9 pages, 899 KiB  
Article
Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRGF) Preserves Genomic Stability of Gingival Fibroblasts and Alveolar Osteoblasts after Long-Term Cell Culture
by Eduardo Anitua, María de la Fuente, María Troya, Mar Zalduendo and Mohammad Hamdan Alkhraisat
Dent. J. 2022, 10(9), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10090173 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) has several applications in dentistry that may require repeated applications of PRGF. Furthermore, it has been used for ex vivo expansion of human origin cells for their clinical application. One of the most relevant issues in these [...] Read more.
Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) has several applications in dentistry that may require repeated applications of PRGF. Furthermore, it has been used for ex vivo expansion of human origin cells for their clinical application. One of the most relevant issues in these applications is to guarantee the genetic stability of cells. In this study, the chromosomal stability of gingival fibroblasts and alveolar osteoblasts after long-term culture was evaluated. Cells were expanded with PRGF or foetal bovine serum (FBS) as a culture medium supplement until passage 7 or 8 for gingival fibroblast or alveolar osteoblasts, respectively. A comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array was used for the genetic stability study. This analysis was performed at passage 3 and after long-term culture with the corresponding culture medium supplements. The cell proliferative rate was superior after PRGF culture. Array CGH analysis of cells maintained with all the three supplements did not reveal the existence of alterations in copy number or genetic instability. The autologous PRGF technology preserves the genomic stability of cells and emerges as a safe substitute for FBS as a culture medium supplement for the clinical translation of cell therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 11803 KiB  
Article
Risk Characteristics of Peri-Implant Infections: A Retrospective Evaluation in a University Consultation Setting
by Achim V. Schwartzenberg, Chun Ching Liu, Philipp Sahrmann, Patrick R. Schmidlin, Ronald E. Jung and Nadja Naenni
Dent. J. 2022, 10(9), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10090159 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
Peri-implantitis is a common biological complication in dentistry. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze risk characteristics in a group of patients referred to a university-based consultation for peri-implantitis. In all, 190 initial cases from 2010 to 2019 were evaluated [...] Read more.
Peri-implantitis is a common biological complication in dentistry. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze risk characteristics in a group of patients referred to a university-based consultation for peri-implantitis. In all, 190 initial cases from 2010 to 2019 were evaluated and descriptively summarized. The evaluation included various parameters such as periodontitis, smoking and oral hygiene status, implant position, type of prosthetic restoration and retention, mucosal quality, and further anamnestic and clinical findings related to the potential risk of developing peri-implantitis. Peri-implantitis was diagnosed in 83% of the cases, with peri-implant mucositis alone in 16% of cases; furthermore, 38% of the patients were diagnosed with active/instable periodontitis, while 14% had stable periodontitis. Residual cement was considered as a potential co-factor of peri-implant inflammation in 43% of cases. Suboptimal implant positioning was found in 19% of patients. Peri-implantitis or peri-implant mucositis was present in about one-third of patients in the absence of smoking and periodontitis factors. Of note, 6% showed no identifiable risk factors. Factors related to an increased risk of peri-implantitis should be taken into consideration when planning implant treatment. Adequate prosthetic implant position, restoration, and cleanability remain important for long-term success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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8 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Funnel Technique: A Novel Approach for Implant Site Preparation: A Pilot Study
by Luigi Canullo, Roberta Iacono, Eduardo Pires Godoy, Andrea Punzo, Alessio Cavicchia, Francesco Gianfreda and Patrizio Bollero
Dent. J. 2022, 10(9), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10090157 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
(1) Background: Different techniques and tools have been developed for implant site preparation. In this clinical scenario, Hybrid Funnel Technique (HFT), a novel osteotomy procedure, has been proposed. (2) Aim: The aim of this retrospective observational study was to consider the different responses [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Different techniques and tools have been developed for implant site preparation. In this clinical scenario, Hybrid Funnel Technique (HFT), a novel osteotomy procedure, has been proposed. (2) Aim: The aim of this retrospective observational study was to consider the different responses to compression of the histological bony compartments (cancellus and cortical). HFT involves the use of multiple drills for the cortical layer preparation and of an osteotome for the osteocompaction of the cancellous bone. (3) Materials and Methods: Following computer-supported implant planning and guided surgery, 10 osteotomies with HFT were performed and 10 implants with the same length and diameter were placed in seven healthy and no daily smoking patients. Periapical X-ray and intraoral photographs were performed at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up to evaluate marginal bone level (MBL) changes and aesthetic results obtained from implant prosthetic rehabilitation. (4) Results: At 1 year of follow-up, 100% of the implants were successfully integrated, MBL change mean value was 0.17 mm ± 0.21. No differences in terms of MBL were noted between thin and thick biotypes. Pink esthetic score (PES) and white esthetic score (WES), assessed one year after definitive restoration placement, were 7.5 ± 2.3 and 8.5 ± 1.1, respectively. (5) Conclusions: Based on the findings of this preliminary clinical study, HFT has led to stability of peri-implant tissues and could represent a reliable technique for surgical preparation of the implant site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
9 pages, 2195 KiB  
Article
Incorporation of Fluoride into Human Teeth after Immersion in Fluoride-Containing Solutions
by Jana Storsberg, Kateryna Loza and Matthias Epple
Dent. J. 2022, 10(8), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10080153 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
Toothpastes and mouth rinses contain fluoride as a protective agent against caries. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of fluoride-uptake by human tooth mineral during immersion into fluoride-containing aqueous solutions as different pH. Human teeth were immersed in fluoride-containing [...] Read more.
Toothpastes and mouth rinses contain fluoride as a protective agent against caries. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of fluoride-uptake by human tooth mineral during immersion into fluoride-containing aqueous solutions as different pH. Human teeth were immersed in fluoride-containing solutions to assess the extent of fluoride incorporation into tooth enamel. A total of 16 extracted teeth from 11 patients were immersed at 37 °C for one minute into aqueous fluoride solutions (potassium fluoride; KF) containing either 250 ppm or 18,998 ppm fluoride (1-molar). Fluoride was dissolved either in pure water (neutral pH) or in a citrate buffer (pH 4.6 to 4.7). The elemental surface composition of each tooth was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in combination with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The as-received teeth contained 0.17 ± 0.16 wt% fluoride on average. There was no significant increase in the fluoride content after immersion in 250 ppm fluoride solution at neutral or acidic pH values. In contrast, a treatment with a 1-molar fluoride solution led to significantly increased fluoride concentrations by 0.68 wt% in water and 9.06 wt% at pH 4.7. Although such fluoride concentrations are far above those used in mouth rinses or toothpastes, this indicates that fluoride can indeed enter the tooth surface, especially at a low pH where a dynamic dissolution-reprecipitation process may occur. However, precipitations of calcium fluoride (globuli) were detected in no cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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12 pages, 1604 KiB  
Article
Bruxism’s Implications on Fixed Orthodontic Retainer Adhesion
by Anca Labuneț, Adriana Objelean, Oana Almășan, Andreea Kui, Smaranda Buduru and Sorina Sava
Dent. J. 2022, 10(8), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10080141 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
Background: Fixed retainers assist in maintaining the outcomes of orthodontic treatment. Fixed retention may be affected by bruxism. Objective: Evaluate two adhesives (an ormocer and a flowable composite) used for fixed orthodontic retention in simulated bruxism settings, compared to regular mastication, using a [...] Read more.
Background: Fixed retainers assist in maintaining the outcomes of orthodontic treatment. Fixed retention may be affected by bruxism. Objective: Evaluate two adhesives (an ormocer and a flowable composite) used for fixed orthodontic retention in simulated bruxism settings, compared to regular mastication, using a dual axis chewing simulator. Methods: Eighty human teeth were used. Periodontal tissues were simulated and exposed to 120,000 mechanical cycles, corresponding to 6 months of clinical service. Each set of two teeth was supplied with a pre-shaped, fixed, multi-braided, stainless steel wire retainer, in 1.5 cm portions, to establish passive contact with the lingual surface of the teeth. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was used to evaluate the shear bond strength. A stereomicroscope was used to assess the micro-infiltration. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean value of micro-infiltration between adhesives in the mastication group but in the bruxism group. During testing, one composite sample (ARI score 1) was broken in the mastication group, while three ormocer samples (ARI score 2) and one composite sample (ARI score 1) were broken in the bruxism group. Conclusions: The mean value for micro-infiltration in composite (0.31) was more than double that in ormocer (0.13). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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9 pages, 2067 KiB  
Article
Color Stability of Orthodontic Ceramic Brackets and Adhesives in Potentially Staining Beverages—In Vitro Study
by Luka Šimunović, Tadeja Blagec, Andrea Vrankić and Senka Meštrović
Dent. J. 2022, 10(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10070115 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of esthetic ceramic brackets and adhesive samples after immersion in most commonly consumed beverages. A hundred ceramic brackets from five different manufacturers (Forestadent®, G&H®, GC, DynaFlex®, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of esthetic ceramic brackets and adhesive samples after immersion in most commonly consumed beverages. A hundred ceramic brackets from five different manufacturers (Forestadent®, G&H®, GC, DynaFlex®, and American Orthodontics) and 120 samples of adhesives (3M™Transbond™ XT and American Orthodontics BracePaste® color change adhesive and BracePaste® adhesive) were immersed into four different solutions: coffee, Coca-Cola®, the vitamin drink Cedevita®, and artificial saliva (control group). The samples were kept in an incubator at 37 °C. Color readings were evaluated before (T0), at 24 h (T1), 72 h (T3), 7 days (T4), and 14 days (T5) after initial immersion using a spectrophotometer according to the L*a*b* color scale. All the examined brackets showed a statistically significant difference in discoloration (p = 0.001). 20/40™ Brackets (American Orthodontics) showed the best color stability, while the greatest color modification was recognized in QuicKlear® III (Forestadent®) brackets. Regarding adhesives, the greatest staining was observed in the BracePaste® color change adhesive and the least in the Transbond™ XT samples. In conclusion, color change occurs in all solutions, including control groups, and coffee has the greatest impact on color stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 3209 KiB  
Article
Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of a Novel Triangular Implant Neck Design: A Case Series
by James Rudolph Collins, Brendha P. Ogando, Houlin Hong, Wei Hou and Georgios E. Romanos
Dent. J. 2022, 10(6), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10060113 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2405
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic behavior of a novel triangular neck implant configuration in partially edentulous patients. Sixteen patients with a mean age of 58.3 years, were rehabilitated with 25 implants inserted in the healed sites [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic behavior of a novel triangular neck implant configuration in partially edentulous patients. Sixteen patients with a mean age of 58.3 years, were rehabilitated with 25 implants inserted in the healed sites of the maxilla and mandible; implant diameter was Ø3.3 and 3.9 mm. Clinical and radiographic measurements were first performed at prosthesis delivery that served as baseline; they were further evaluated after a mean period of 15.6 months. The interproximal peri-implant bone levels were the primary outcome; the mesial and distal data were recorded and a mean value was calculated. Secondary outcomes included peri-implant probing depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BoP). The paired t-test was used to compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes between baseline and follow-up. The mean bone levels at the mesial and distal aspects at baseline were 0.45 (0.47) and 0.57 (0.69), respectively; at follow-up they were 0.59 (0.42) and 0.78 (0.59), respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, no significant differences were found for the clinical parameters. Within the limitations of the present study, it could be concluded that this new triangular neck bone level implant macro-design was used successfully to treat partially edentulous patients. Larger controlled clinical studies are warranted to confirm the present radiographic and clinical findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Distally Tilted Implants According to the All-on-Four® Treatment Concept for the Rehabilitation of Complete Edentulism: A 3.5-Year Retrospective Radiographic Study of Clinical Outcomes and Marginal Bone Level Changes
by Árpád László Szabó, Ádám László Nagy, Csaba Lászlófy, Márió Gajdács, Péter Bencsik, Krisztina Kárpáti and Zoltán Baráth
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050082 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4076
Abstract
Bone grafting procedures during the use of dental implants may be avoided by the use of tilted implants in the maxilla and the mandible; advantages of angled implants are associated with the extension of the distal cantilever, leading to better implant survival rates. [...] Read more.
Bone grafting procedures during the use of dental implants may be avoided by the use of tilted implants in the maxilla and the mandible; advantages of angled implants are associated with the extension of the distal cantilever, leading to better implant survival rates. However, the bending effect on the single tilting implants may increase the marginal bone stress. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively assess the clinical success and proximal bone loss rate following the implantation of distally tilted implants according to the All-on-Four™ prosthetic concept—based on radiographic findings—in a single-center experience, in addition to the assessment of the outcomes in the context of various clinico-epidemiological correlates. During the study period, n = 36 patients (24 males and 12 females) with complete records of periapical radiographs, received a full-arch fixed bridge supported by two axial and two distal tilted implants; overall n = 144 and n = 144 implants (Nobel B) were place in the maxilla and mandibles of patients, respectively. Mean age of patients at the time of fixture installation was 58.75 ± 13.71 years; n =11 patients presented with relevant underlying conditions/habits. To assess peri-implant bone-level changes, matched and calibrated orthopantomogram (OPT) images were taken at follow-ups after 1.5 years, 2.5 years, and 3.5 years post-restoration, and marginal bone levels were assessed on the mesio- (MA) and disto-approximal (DA) aspects. All implants were successful, resulting in a 100% overall survival rate. The radiographic mean bone loss levels at baseline (mean ± SEM) were 0.181 ± 0.011 mm and 0.178 ± 0.017 mm in the maxilla and mandible, respectively, while by the 3.5-year mark, bone loss was 0.770 ± 0.029 mm and 0.713 ± 0.026 mm in the maxilla and mandible (p > 0.05), respectively; bone-level changes were significant over time (p = 0.035 and p = 0.033). Peri-implant bone loss was more aggressive around titled distal implants versus mesial actual position implants. The effect of smoking and other underlying conditions showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) bone resorption levels when assessed on an individual implant-level, while during patient-level analysis, only a tendency was shown for higher bone loss rates for both MA and DA implants (p > 0.05). Within its limitations, our study has concluded that the use of All-on-Four™ prosthetic concept for total arch rehabilitation yields higher bone loss in association with tilted implants and, in some cases, on the MA surfaces at vertically positioned implants after >40 months in function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
14 pages, 6020 KiB  
Article
Development of a Clinically Relevant Index for Tooth Wear Treatment Needs
by Yahya Deeban, Keyvan Moharamzadeh, Moosa Abuzayeda and Nicolas Martin
Dent. J. 2022, 10(5), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10050080 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4143
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to develop a tooth wear classification system that combined the extent, severity, and aesthetic impact of tooth wear and correlated them with the most appropriate clinical management strategy. Methods: Three hundred photographs were used to develop a classification tool [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to develop a tooth wear classification system that combined the extent, severity, and aesthetic impact of tooth wear and correlated them with the most appropriate clinical management strategy. Methods: Three hundred photographs were used to develop a classification tool that contained four levels of severity and aesthetic impact (0, 1, 2, and 3) in three age groups of patients. Ten examiners assessed and classified the cases using validated forms. Additionally, they selected the recommended treatment modality for each level. The analysis was conducted using a coefficient correlation test. Results: The coefficient correlation for the severity was 0.81, 0.82 in the upper anterior and posterior segments, and 0.85 and 0.77 for the lower anterior and posterior segments, respectively. The aesthetic impact correlation coefficient was 0.84. Examiners had agreed that minor cases required monitoring or simple restorative interventions. The moderate-level cases had variety in the recommended management options depending on the aim of treatment. The severe level cases often required rehabilitation at an increased occlusal vertical dimension. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this preliminary study, a good agreement between the examiners was found using the provided tools. More strict criteria in the classification part of the tool can further improve the examiners’ agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

60 pages, 7298 KiB  
Review
Synchrotron X-ray Studies of the Structural and Functional Hierarchies in Mineralised Human Dental Enamel: A State-of-the-Art Review
by Cyril Besnard, Ali Marie, Sisini Sasidharan, Robert A. Harper, Richard M. Shelton, Gabriel Landini and Alexander M. Korsunsky
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040098 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6371
Abstract
Hard dental tissues possess a complex hierarchical structure that is particularly evident in enamel, the most mineralised substance in the human body. Its complex and interlinked organisation at the Ångstrom (crystal lattice), nano-, micro-, and macro-scales is the result of evolutionary optimisation for [...] Read more.
Hard dental tissues possess a complex hierarchical structure that is particularly evident in enamel, the most mineralised substance in the human body. Its complex and interlinked organisation at the Ångstrom (crystal lattice), nano-, micro-, and macro-scales is the result of evolutionary optimisation for mechanical and functional performance: hardness and stiffness, fracture toughness, thermal, and chemical resistance. Understanding the physical–chemical–structural relationships at each scale requires the application of appropriately sensitive and resolving probes. Synchrotron X-ray techniques offer the possibility to progress significantly beyond the capabilities of conventional laboratory instruments, i.e., X-ray diffractometers, and electron and atomic force microscopes. The last few decades have witnessed the accumulation of results obtained from X-ray scattering (diffraction), spectroscopy (including polarisation analysis), and imaging (including ptychography and tomography). The current article presents a multi-disciplinary review of nearly 40 years of discoveries and advancements, primarily pertaining to the study of enamel and its demineralisation (caries), but also linked to the investigations of other mineralised tissues such as dentine, bone, etc. The modelling approaches informed by these observations are also overviewed. The strategic aim of the present review was to identify and evaluate prospective avenues for analysing dental tissues and developing treatments and prophylaxis for improved dental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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13 pages, 842 KiB  
Review
Association between the Risk of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Women: An Umbrella Review
by Tania Padilla-Cáceres, Heber Isac Arbildo-Vega, Luz Caballero-Apaza, Fredy Cruzado-Oliva, Vilma Mamani-Cori, Sheyla Cervantes-Alagón, Evelyn Munayco-Pantoja, Saurav Panda, Hernán Vásquez-Rodrigo, Percy Castro-Mejía and Delsi Huaita-Acha
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030074 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2571
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this review is to determine the association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns and periodontal disease in pregnant women. Methods: A bibliographic search was carried out until November 2021 in the following biomedical [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this review is to determine the association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns and periodontal disease in pregnant women. Methods: A bibliographic search was carried out until November 2021 in the following biomedical databases: PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scielo, LILACS and Google Scholar. Studies reporting the association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns with periodontal disease in pregnant women, which were systematic reviews, in English and without time limits were included. AMSTAR-2 was used to assess the risk of the included studies, and the GRADEPro GDT tool was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the strength of the recommendation of the results. Results: The preliminary search yielded a total of 161 articles, discarding those that did not meet the selection criteria, leaving only 15 articles. Seven articles were entered into a meta-analysis, and it was found that there is an association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns with periodontal disease in pregnant women. Conclusions: There is an association between the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in newborns with periodontal disease in pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 1012 KiB  
Review
Tooth Whitening with Hydroxyapatite: A Systematic Review
by Hardy Limeback, Frederic Meyer and Joachim Enax
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020050 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6716
Abstract
A steadily increasing public demand for whiter teeth has resulted in the development of new oral care products for home use. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a new ingredient to whiten teeth. This systematic review focuses on the evidence of whether HAP can effectively whiten [...] Read more.
A steadily increasing public demand for whiter teeth has resulted in the development of new oral care products for home use. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a new ingredient to whiten teeth. This systematic review focuses on the evidence of whether HAP can effectively whiten teeth. A systematic search using the PICO approach and PRISMA guidelines was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SciFinder, and Google Scholar as databases. All study designs (in vitro, in vivo) and publications in foreign language studies were included. Of the 279 study titles that the searches produced, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. A new “Quality Assessment Tool For In Vitro Studies” (the QUIN Tool) was used to determine the risk of bias of the 13 studies conducted in vitro. Moreover, 12 out of 13 studies had a low risk of bias. The in vivo studies were assigned Cochrane-based GRADE scores. The results in vitro and in vivo were consistent in the direction of showing a statistically significant whitening of enamel. The evidence from in vitro studies is rated overall as having a low risk of bias. The evidence from in vivo clinical trials is supported by modest clinical evidence based on six preliminary clinical trials. It can be concluded that the regular use of hydroxyapatite-containing oral care products effectively whitens teeth, but more clinical trials are required to support the preliminary in vivo evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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18 pages, 585 KiB  
Review
State of the Art of Different Zirconia Materials and Their Indications According to Evidence-Based Clinical Performance: A Narrative Review
by Alexia María Arellano Moncayo, Lissethe Peñate, María Arregui, Luis Giner-Tarrida and Rosario Cedeño
Dent. J. 2023, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11010018 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4312
Abstract
The aim of this study was to perform a narrative review to identify the modifications applied to the chemical structure of third- and fourth-generation zirconia ceramics and to determine the influence of these changes on the mechanical and optical properties. A bibliographical search [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to perform a narrative review to identify the modifications applied to the chemical structure of third- and fourth-generation zirconia ceramics and to determine the influence of these changes on the mechanical and optical properties. A bibliographical search using relevant keywords was conducted in the PubMed® and EBSCO databases. The abstracts and full texts of the resulting articles were reviewed for final inclusion. Fifty-four articles were included in this review. The analyzed topics were: (1) the composition of first- and second-generation zirconia materials (Y-TZP), (2) the behavior of the studied generations in relation to mechanical and optical properties, and (3) the modifications that were carried out on third-generation (5Y-TZP) and fourth-generation (4Y-TZP) zirconia materials. However, studies focusing on these specific characteristics in third- and fourth-generation zirconia materials are scarce. The review shows that there is a lack of sufficient knowledge about the chemical modifications of zirconia in the new generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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12 pages, 751 KiB  
Review
Oral Mucosal Lesions in Childhood
by Lorena Horvat Aleksijević, Jelena Prpić, Miranda Muhvić Urek, Sonja Pezelj-Ribarić, Nataša Ivančić-Jokić, Romana Peršić Bukmir, Marko Aleksijević and Irena Glažar
Dent. J. 2022, 10(11), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10110214 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6811
Abstract
Childhood diseases are a continuous source of interest in all areas of general and dental medicine. Congenital, developmental, and hereditary diseases may either be present upon birth or appear in early childhood. Developmental anomalies, although often asymptomatic, may become grounds for different infections. [...] Read more.
Childhood diseases are a continuous source of interest in all areas of general and dental medicine. Congenital, developmental, and hereditary diseases may either be present upon birth or appear in early childhood. Developmental anomalies, although often asymptomatic, may become grounds for different infections. Furthermore, they can indicate certain systemic disorders. Childhood age frequently brings about benign tumors and different types of traumatic lesions to the oral mucosa. Traumatic lesions can be caused by chemical, mechanical, or thermal injury. Mucocele and ranula are, by definition, traumatic injuries of the salivary glands or their ducts. Recurrent aphthous lesions are the most common type of ulcerations in childhood, and their etiology is considered multifactorial. Oral mucosal lesions in children require different treatment approaches depending on etiological factors and clinical presentation. Clinicians should have adequate knowledge of oral anatomy in order to diagnose and treat pathological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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14 pages, 1598 KiB  
Review
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Dental Fluorosis: A Systematic Review
by Carlos González-Casamada, Martina Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo Nevarez-Rascón, María González-Galván, Mario Alberto Isiordia-Espinoza, Ronell Bologna-Molina, Leonor Sánchez-Pérez and Nelly Molina-Frechero
Dent. J. 2022, 10(11), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10110211 - 06 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
Genetic factors contribute to susceptibility and resistance to fluoride exposure. The aim of this systematic review was to identify alleles/genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with dental fluorosis (DF) and to identify them as protective or risk factors. PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, [...] Read more.
Genetic factors contribute to susceptibility and resistance to fluoride exposure. The aim of this systematic review was to identify alleles/genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with dental fluorosis (DF) and to identify them as protective or risk factors. PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science were searched for articles; the last search was performed in August 2022. Human studies that analyzed the relationship between SNPs and DF published in English were included; systematic reviews and meta-analyses were excluded. Methodological quality was graded using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist and risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Eighteen articles were included, 44% of which showed high methodological quality and data from 5625 participants aged 6 to 75 years were analyzed. The SNPs COL1A2, ESR2, DLX1, DLX2, AMBN, TUFT1, TFIP11, miRNA17, and SOD2 were considered risk factors, and ESR1, MMP20, and ENAM were considered protective factors. In conclusion, there are alleles and genotypes of different single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in increasing or decreasing the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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8 pages, 1271 KiB  
Review
Calculus as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease: Narrative Review on Treatment Indications When the Response to Scaling and Root Planing Is Inadequate
by Stephen K. Harrel, Charles M. Cobb, Lee N. Sheldon, Michael P. Rethman and John S. Sottosanti
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100195 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3211
Abstract
Background: Based on the 2018 classification of periodontal disease, a series of articles have been published describing the decision points of periodontal therapy and how the findings collected at those decision points can be used as guidelines for periodontal therapy. The articles are [...] Read more.
Background: Based on the 2018 classification of periodontal disease, a series of articles have been published describing the decision points of periodontal therapy and how the findings collected at those decision points can be used as guidelines for periodontal therapy. The articles are reviewed with a focus on the finding of inadequate calculus removal at the decision points and how that finding impacts treatment outcomes. Methods: A narrative review of the literature discussing the influence of calculus on inflammation was performed and the effects of inadequate removal of calculus during periodontal therapy were analyzed in light of the 2018 classification of periodontal disease, the decision points of periodontal therapy, and the guidelines of periodontal therapy. Results: The published literature supports that calculus is a major risk factor for periodontal inflammation. Recent studies indicate that the pathologic risk of calculus goes beyond the retention of biofilm and may represent a different pathophysiologic pathway for periodontal disease separate from the direct action of biofilm. The inadequate removal of calculus is a factor in the failure of periodontal therapy. Conclusions: The inadequate removal of calculus plays an important role in the frequent failure of non-surgical periodontal therapy to eliminate inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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14 pages, 976 KiB  
Review
Cannabidiol in Dentistry: A Scoping Review
by Carla David, Alejandro Elizalde-Hernández, Andressa S. Barboza, Gabriela C. Cardoso, Mateus B. F. Santos and Rafael R. Moraes
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100193 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7087
Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) has been gaining increased attention in contemporary society but seems to have been little explored in dentistry. This scoping review mapped the scientific and technological scenarios related to the use of CBD in dentistry. Peer-reviewed publications were searched in five international [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol (CBD) has been gaining increased attention in contemporary society but seems to have been little explored in dentistry. This scoping review mapped the scientific and technological scenarios related to the use of CBD in dentistry. Peer-reviewed publications were searched in five international databases, patents were searched in five technological platforms. In total, 11 articles and 13 patents involving CBD in dentistry-related applications were included. The countries contributing to most articles were Brazil (27.3%) and USA (18.2%). The studies involved experiments on animals (63.6%) and/or using bacteria or cells (36.4%), and no clinical study was found. Three different applications of CBD were observed: periodontal therapy (45.4%), aid for bone regeneration (27.3%), and general use in oral therapies (27.3%). Patent inventors were based in China (53.8%) or USA (46.2%). The patent claims were mainly compositions for oral care, tooth whitening, injury repair, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. A total of 76.9% of the patents were filed in association with a company. In general, research suggests that CBD has promising biological properties for applications in dentistry, whereas patents indicate that the current interest of industry relies on compositions for oral care. There appears to be extensive room available for research and technological applications of CBD in dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 916 KiB  
Review
Tooth Agenesis Patterns in Orofacial Clefting Using Tooth Agenesis Code: A Meta-Analysis
by Brian J. Howe, Chandler Pendleton, Miyuraj Harishchandra Hikkaduwa Withanage, Christopher A. Childs, Erliang Zeng, Arjen van Wijk, Ruurd Hermus, Carmencita Padilla, Jacqueline T. Hecht, Fernando A. Poletta, Iêda M. Orioli, Carmen J. Buxó-Martínez, Frederic Deleyiannis, Alexandre R. Vieira, Azeez Butali, Consuelo Valencia-Ramirez, Claudia Restrepo Muñeton, George L. Wehby, Seth M. Weinberg, Mary L. Marazita, Lina M. Moreno Uribe and Xian-Jin Xieadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Dent. J. 2022, 10(7), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10070128 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 3052
Abstract
Individuals with orofacial clefting (OFC) have a higher prevalence of tooth agenesis (TA) overall. Neither the precise etiology of TA, nor whether TA occurs in patterns that differ by gender or cleft type is yet known. This meta-analysis aims to identify the spectrum [...] Read more.
Individuals with orofacial clefting (OFC) have a higher prevalence of tooth agenesis (TA) overall. Neither the precise etiology of TA, nor whether TA occurs in patterns that differ by gender or cleft type is yet known. This meta-analysis aims to identify the spectrum of tooth agenesis patterns in subjects with non-syndromic OFC and controls using the Tooth Agenesis Code (TAC) program. An indexed search of databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL) along with cross-referencing and hand searches were completed from May to June 2019 and re-run in February 2022. Additionally, unpublished TAC data from 914 individuals with OFC and 932 controls were included. TAC pattern frequencies per study were analyzed using a random effects meta-analysis model. A thorough review of 45 records retrieved resulted in 4 articles meeting eligibility criteria, comprising 2182 subjects with OFC and 3171 controls. No TA (0.0.0.0) was seen in 51% of OFC cases and 97% of controls. TAC patterns 0.2.0.0, 2.0.0.0, and 2.2.0.0 indicating uni- or bi-lateral missing upper laterals, and 16.0.0.0 indicating missing upper right second premolar, were more common in subjects with OFC. Subjects with OFC have unique TA patterns and defining these patterns will help increase our understanding of the complex etiology underlying TA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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12 pages, 5780 KiB  
Review
Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation as Non-Surgical Treatment for Periodontal Disease with a Focus on Female Patients: Literature Review
by Zana Sllamniku Dalipi and Fatmir Dragidella
Dent. J. 2022, 10(7), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10070120 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4633
Abstract
Periodontal disease is a complex disease that involves an imbalance between the oral microbiota and an individual’s inflammatory response. Moreover, the inflammatory response contributes to further imbalance; if left untreated, periodontal disease may result in tooth loss. Vitamin D is intricately involved in [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease is a complex disease that involves an imbalance between the oral microbiota and an individual’s inflammatory response. Moreover, the inflammatory response contributes to further imbalance; if left untreated, periodontal disease may result in tooth loss. Vitamin D is intricately involved in the regulation of calcium–phosphate homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism; considering that periodontal surgery usually includes regenerative therapy, adequate vitamin D and calcium levels are essential. The benefits of vitamin D and calcium supplementation have been demonstrated in situations where deficiency is associated with adverse outcomes, such as periodontal disease and maternal health. However, knowledge and attitudes about supplementation, as well as the actual levels of supplementation, vary greatly in the general population; they also differ between men and women. The aim of this review is to discuss how vitamin D and calcium supplementation affect oral and periodontal health, especially in women. Additionally, this review provides suggestions for public health strategies regarding vitamin D and calcium supplementation, as well as the effects of both types of supplementation on maternal oral health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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19 pages, 583 KiB  
Systematic Review
Potential Clinical Application of Organs-on-a-Chip in Periodontal Diseases: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies
by Carlos M. Ardila, Gustavo A. Jiménez-Arbeláez and Annie Marcela Vivares-Builes
Dent. J. 2023, 11(7), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11070158 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
The periodontium is a unique organ from the standpoint of building an organ-on-a-chip (OoC) since it is a system that is continually threatened by microorganisms, their noxious compounds, and antigenic components. At the same time, periodontal health depends on a balanced connection between [...] Read more.
The periodontium is a unique organ from the standpoint of building an organ-on-a-chip (OoC) since it is a system that is continually threatened by microorganisms, their noxious compounds, and antigenic components. At the same time, periodontal health depends on a balanced connection between the host and the bacteria in the oral cavity, which is a complex micro-ecological environment. The objective of this systematic review of in vitro studies is to revise the potential clinical application of OoC in periodontal diseases. PRISMA was used to guide this analysis. The review framework made use of several databases, including SCOPUS, PubMed/MEDLINE, SCIELO, and LILACS as well as the gray literature. This systematic review comprised seven studies. The clinical efficacy of OoC in periodontal diseases was observed in models of the gingival crevice for the research of periodontitis, periodontal medication analysis, the interaction of multiple microbial species, pH measurements in in situ-grown biofilm, testing antimicrobial reagents, evaluation of mucosal interactions with microorganisms, and a device for quantitative exploration of microorganisms. OoC has the potential to advance our understanding of periodontal diseases by providing a more accurate representation of the oral microenvironment and enabling the development of new treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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9 pages, 1365 KiB  
Case Report
Multiple-Drugs-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in a Patient Affected by Multiple Myeloma: A Case Report
by Mario Caggiano, Federica Di Spirito, Alfonso Acerra, Marzio Galdi and Laura Sisalli
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040104 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2847
Abstract
A 60-year-old woman suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) was treated with zoledronic acid (bisphosphonate), dexamethasone (corticosteroid), bortezomib (a chemotherapeutic agent), and lenalidomide (thalidomide analog) for about a year and with lenalidomide alone as maintenance therapy for almost two years and developed stage three [...] Read more.
A 60-year-old woman suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) was treated with zoledronic acid (bisphosphonate), dexamethasone (corticosteroid), bortezomib (a chemotherapeutic agent), and lenalidomide (thalidomide analog) for about a year and with lenalidomide alone as maintenance therapy for almost two years and developed stage three medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) in the upper left dental arch approximately two weeks after tooth extraction, which was treated with a medical nonoperative conservative approach until reversion to stage one. The present case report describing the development of multi-drug-related osteonecrosis of the jaws during the pharmacologic MM maintenance phase draws attention to the complex multidisciplinary and multistage management of MM subjects and also that during disease remission, crucially involving oral healthcare providers for MRONJ prevention and pharmacovigilance. To prevent similar cases, cancer patient management should ensure proper dental care not only before starting but also throughout therapy duration and ensure continuous interdisciplinary consensus between oncologists and dentists. Moreover, also considering the independent negative and potentially synergistic effect on bone metabolism and mucosal healing processes of employed medicaments, additionally combined with the cumulative one of previous intravenous bisphosphonates, further studies should highlight the polypharmacy effect and hopefully aid in patient-specific MRONJ risk assessment in cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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14 pages, 2945 KiB  
Case Report
Root Maturation of an Immature Dens Invaginatus Despite Unsuccessful Revitalization Procedure: A Case Report and Recommendations for Educational Purposes
by Julia Ludwig, Marcel Reymus, Alexander Winkler, Sebastian Soliman, Ralf Krug and Gabriel Krastl
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020047 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Background: The clinical management of teeth with complex dens invaginatus (DI) malformations and apical periodontitis may be challenging due to the lack of routine. The aim of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an immature tooth with DI and [...] Read more.
Background: The clinical management of teeth with complex dens invaginatus (DI) malformations and apical periodontitis may be challenging due to the lack of routine. The aim of this case report is to describe the endodontic treatment of an immature tooth with DI and to discuss strategies for preclinical training for teeth with such malformations. Case report: A 9-year-old male presented with an immature maxillary incisor with DI (Oehlers Type II) and apical periodontitis which was diagnosed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Revitalization was initially attempted but then abandoned after failure to generate a stable blood clot. Nevertheless, considerable increase in both root length and thickness could be detected after medication with calcium hydroxide followed by root canal filling with MTA as an apical plug. Conclusions: The endodontic management of teeth with DI requires thorough treatment planning. In immature teeth, under certain conditions, root maturation may occur even with conventional apexification procedures. From an educational perspective, different strategies including CBCT and 3D-printed transparent tooth models for visualization of the complex internal morphology and redesigned 3D-printed replica with various degrees of difficulty for endodontic training, can be used to overcome the challenges associated with endodontic treatment of such teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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18 pages, 1466 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Scoping Review of Marginal and Internal Fit Accuracy of Lithium Disilicate Restorations
by Tanya Patel, Neil Nathwani, Peter Fine and Albert Leung
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120236 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Objective: To assess and compare the accuracy of the marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate crowns and onlays fabricated by conventional and digital methods. Sources: An electronic search was carried out on MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library between 2010 [...] Read more.
Objective: To assess and compare the accuracy of the marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate crowns and onlays fabricated by conventional and digital methods. Sources: An electronic search was carried out on MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library between 2010 and 2021. Study selection: Seventeen studies published between 2014 & 2021 were included, of which thirteen were in vitro laboratory-based studies; three were in vivo clinical studies and one randomised controlled trial. Data: Twelve studies focused on the marginal fit, five focused on the marginal and internal fit. Five studies found that the marginal and internal fit of crowns were more accurate using digital techniques. Five studies noted that there was no difference using either technique and two noted that conventional methods had a more accurate marginal fit. Conclusion: Digital techniques were comparable to conventional methods in terms of accuracy although there was insufficient evidence to indicate that one technique was more accurate than the other with respect to Lithium Disilicate restorations. Clinical significance: Digital impressions are reliable and viable alternatives for clinicians compared to conventional impression techniques when restoring teeth with lithium disilicate restorations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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10 pages, 1110 KiB  
Case Report
Copper Accumulation in the Lips of Brass Players: Case Report of a Rare Phenomenon
by Zoltán Baráth, Nóra Heltai, Éva Kereszty, Ildikó Kiss, Márió Gajdács, Nándor Tamás Práger, Krisztina Kárpáti and Danica Matusovits
Dent. J. 2022, 10(11), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10110203 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Work-related exposures affecting oral health are important factors of morbidity and decreased quality of life, which may emerge from numerous physical, chemical, or mental occupational exposures. Copper (Cu) is an important trace element, however, it may also cause allergies, depose and accumulate in [...] Read more.
Work-related exposures affecting oral health are important factors of morbidity and decreased quality of life, which may emerge from numerous physical, chemical, or mental occupational exposures. Copper (Cu) is an important trace element, however, it may also cause allergies, depose and accumulate in the body, leading to acute and chronic toxicity. In the present report, we describe a rare phenomenon found during the examination of two professional brass players, after incidentally noting an artefact during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which were performed to monitor bone healing after bone augmentation procedures in an unrelated clinical study. During a detailed workup of patient characteristics, data on medical history, lifestyle, professional habits related to playing the instrument, and oral health status were collected. Overall, both patients presented with similar histories, and the differences from the context of this study were not relevant; however, both brass players were using an uncoated Cu mouthpiece for over 15 years. Based on the imaging findings (a shadow in the area of the lips on the MRI images) and the organoleptic evaluation of the lips and mucosa of the individuals (temporary faint green discoloration), it is most likely that the brass players were affected by oxidized Cu accumulation in the lip. In contrast to several professions, musicians are usually not required by law to attend obligatory occupational health check-ups, which may facilitate the occurrence of such exposures in musicians. Clinicians should be on the lookout for brass players involved in the profession for a long time, who may have used the mouthpieces for an extended period of time, in addition to musicians affected by Wilson’s disease. In patients affected by this phenomenon, diagnostics of oral cancer and prosthodontic procedures may be cumbersome, due to the detrimental impact on the utility of MRI imaging from artefact-formation and scattering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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10 pages, 5294 KiB  
Case Report
Peripheral Osteoma of the Mandibular Condyle—Case Series
by Ioannis Tilaveridis, Theodora Katopodi, Panagiotis Karakostas, Gregory Venetis, Ioannis Dimitrakopoulos, Stavros Tilaveridis, Sofia Tilaveridou and Katerina Zarampouka
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100182 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3112
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to present four new cases of peripheral osteoma of the mandibular condyle and the literature review. A retrospective study of files from our Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery over the last 6 years revealed four cases [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to present four new cases of peripheral osteoma of the mandibular condyle and the literature review. A retrospective study of files from our Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery over the last 6 years revealed four cases of peripheral osteomas located in the area of the mandibular condyle. Diagnostic procedure included clinical, radiographic, and histologic criteria. Gardner’s syndrome was excluded from patient history and clinical evaluation. One patient had only an aesthetic disturbance, with facial swelling, and the other three patients presented disturbances of the mandibular function, including deviation during mouth opening along with malocclusion. Three of the patients were male and one was female; all were of middle age (45–65 years old). The proposed surgical treatment was accepted by half of the patients, while the remaining half declined the operation after a confirmation of the diagnosis. Peripheral osteomas of the maxillofacial region are uncommon, and some cases with multiple osteomas are related to Gardner’s syndrome. An osteoma of the mandibular condyle is very rare and surgical treatment is challenging for the surgeon with regards to the approach selection and the related complications. In the two cases that accepted the proposed surgical treatment, no recurrence and no complication was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dentistry Journal: 10th Anniversary)
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