Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767). This special issue belongs to the section "Preventive Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 March 2024) | Viewed by 57678

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Surgical, Oncological and Oral Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
Interests: oral diseases; preventive dentistry; dental public health; periodontology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Odontostomatological and Maxillofacial Sciences, School of Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
Interests: dental health; dental hygiene

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oral diseases pose a major health burden for many countries and affect nearly 3.5 billion people throughout their lifetime, causing pain, discomfort, loss of function, and even death. In a relevant number of countries, the prevalence of oral diseases continues to increase, while it is now universally acknowledged that most oral health conditions are largely preventable and can be easily treated in their early stages. Moreover, inequalities and social gradients in oral health have been reported all over the world, and socio-economic factors are considered to be responsible for most of the widening inequalities in oral health.

Dental public health covers a wide range and includes such topics as oral epidemiology, oral health promotion, oral health education, behavioural sciences related to dentistry, oral-health-service research, and prevention of oral diseases with particular emphasis on the care of people with disabilities and vulnerable groups. Preventive dentistry covers the scientific basis and clinical practice of the prevention of oral diseases (e.g., caries, periodontal disease, and oral cancer) and other relevant conditions (e.g., erosion, dentin hypersensitivity, and traumatic dental injuries). New developments in diagnosis and risk assessment of oral diseases, as well as in oral care products, are also covered.

Papers addressing the topics listed above are welcome for this Special Issue, including pre-clinical studies, epidemiological surveys, clinical trials, narrative reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Reports dealing with people of all age groups are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Pizzo
Prof. Dr. Guglielmo Campus
Prof. Dr. Livia Ottolenghi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • preventive dentistry
  • dental public health
  • community dentistry
  • oral health
  • oral epidemiology
  • oral health promotion
  • oral health education
  • fluoride
  • sealants
  • varnishes
  • mouth rinses
  • toothbrushes
  • toothpastes
  • mechanical plaque control
  • chemical plaque control
  • professional mechanical plaque removal
  • prevention of periodontal disease
  • sugars and caries prevention
  • oral cancer prevention
  • prevention of traumatic dental injuries
  • management of dentin hypersensitivity
  • management of initial caries
  • management of dental wear
  • prevention for people with disabilities and vulnerable group
  • dental health services in Europe and around the world

Published Papers (21 papers)

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9 pages, 1887 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Oral Health Conditions in Sex Workers—A Comparative Retrospective Clinical and Radiographic Study
by Tahel Oguen-Alon, Leon Bilder, Hadar Zigdon Giladi, Zvi Gutmacher and Yaniv Mayer
Dent. J. 2024, 12(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12040110 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 407
Abstract
This study highlights the oral health condition of female sex workers (SWs), who face increased risks associated with habits such as excessive alcohol and tobacco use. These behaviors heighten the likelihood of issues like oral cancer and dental diseases, underscoring the need for [...] Read more.
This study highlights the oral health condition of female sex workers (SWs), who face increased risks associated with habits such as excessive alcohol and tobacco use. These behaviors heighten the likelihood of issues like oral cancer and dental diseases, underscoring the need for targeted health interventions. The study examines the oral health disparities between SWs and the general population (GP). A retrospective study analyzed the health records of 40 SWs and 40 controls matched by age and gender who were examined between 1 January 2020 and 30 May 2023. Intra-oral and panoramic radiographs, alongside clinical examination, were used to evaluate missing teeth, periodontal bone support, and caries. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to compare dental health indicators. A comparative analysis of these 80 patients revealed significant disparities: SWs had a higher incidence of missing teeth (5.8 ± 7.3 vs. 0.7 ± 1.4, p < 0.01) and caries (6.1 ± 6.2 vs. 0.8 ± 1.2, p < 0.05) compared to the GP. The DMFT (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth) index was notably higher in SWs (16.1 ± 8.09) than in the GP (7.95 ± 5.48, p < 0.001). Additionally, 12% of SWs used removable dentures, unlike the GP. This study underscores significant oral health challenges in SWs, emphasizing the need for targeted healthcare strategies to improve their health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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10 pages, 1431 KiB  
Article
Dental Health Benefits of Swimming in Chlorinated Water
by Barbara Sophie Gaugeler, Jan Gerrit van der Stouwe, Christian Templin, Christian M. Schmied, Martin Lanzer and David Niederseer
Dent. J. 2024, 12(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12040087 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Poor oral health is an important concern for athletes, as it can affect both general health and athletic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of activity in chlorinated water on oral health in elite swimmers compared to non-swimming [...] Read more.
Poor oral health is an important concern for athletes, as it can affect both general health and athletic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of activity in chlorinated water on oral health in elite swimmers compared to non-swimming athletes. This cross-sectional study included 101 swimmers and 100 other athletes aged 13–26 years with a minimum training intensity of five hours per week (for at least the preceding two years). Oral health was assessed using the approximal plaque index (API) and the decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) index. A DIAGNOcam was used to detect caries. Results show that swimmers were younger (15 years vs. 18 years), were more likely to be female (54% vs. 17%), and had a lower body mass index (20.1 kg/m2 vs. 21.9 kg/m2) and a lower juice consumption (9% vs. 24%). Non-swimmers had significantly more decayed, missing, or filled teeth due to caries and plaque. In conclusion, by comparing elite swimmers and athletes competing in different sports, we have shown that competitive swimmers have a lower incidence of dental caries and plaque. Further research is needed to test our findings and to understand this relationship in greater detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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13 pages, 599 KiB  
Article
Patient Satisfaction with the Quality of Oral Rehabilitation Dental Services: A Comparison between the Public and Private Health System
by Cosmin Ionuț Lixandru, Ionela Maniu, Maria Mihaela Cernușcă-Mițariu, Mihai Iulian Făgețan, Ioan Sebastian Cernușcă-Mițariu, Horațiu Paul Domnariu, Magdalena Lixandru and Carmen Daniela Domnariu
Dent. J. 2024, 12(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12030045 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Measuring satisfaction can help us understand patients’ expectations and adopt individualized treatment according to their expectations. In the current study, we applied the DPQ (Dental Practice Questionnaire) to analyze the degree of patient satisfaction regarding medical services in the public and private sector [...] Read more.
Measuring satisfaction can help us understand patients’ expectations and adopt individualized treatment according to their expectations. In the current study, we applied the DPQ (Dental Practice Questionnaire) to analyze the degree of patient satisfaction regarding medical services in the public and private sector in a Romanian city from the central region. A group of 200 patients, 100 patients from the public sector and 100 patients from the private sector, participated in the survey. The results showed significant differences in response when patients were stratified by age, gender, visit frequency and length of time attending the same practice. Significant differences between public and private practices were encountered. Moreover, the degree of patient satisfaction was found to be related to appointment promptness/length of time and the confidentiality/ability to listen/knowledge/respect shown by the dentist, while patients’ recommendations to others were influenced by dentists’ explanations and warmth, followed by the appointment system and confidentiality. Patient satisfaction with oral rehabilitation dental services plays an essential role in maintaining patients’ addressability, but there is a multitude of factors that can influence patients’ opinions. Further analysis of the evolution of the influencing factors (causing satisfaction or dissatisfaction), in time, could provide deeper insights into the links between patient satisfaction and these factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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10 pages, 674 KiB  
Article
Is Dental Anxiety Associated with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life? Assessment of Statistical Significance and Clinical Meaningfulness in a Sample of Russian Medical and Dental Students
by Christine Nordbø Heyeraas, Silje Nyborg Jensen, Vilde Bjørkli Stabell, Jan-Are K. Johnsen and Sergei N. Drachev
Dent. J. 2023, 11(11), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11110260 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Information about oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and dental anxiety (DA) in Russian young adults is scarce. We investigated how DA is associated with OHRQoL in a group of medical and dental students in North-West Russia. The study had a cross-sectional design [...] Read more.
Information about oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and dental anxiety (DA) in Russian young adults is scarce. We investigated how DA is associated with OHRQoL in a group of medical and dental students in North-West Russia. The study had a cross-sectional design and included 807 students aged 18–25 years who attended the Northern State Medical University in Arkhangelsk. OHRQoL and DA were measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), respectively. A questionnaire collected information on socio-demographics and self-reported oral health (OH) characteristics. A dental examination was executed to assess dental caries and oral hygiene. We observed differences in the OHIP-14 scores between dentally anxious and non-anxious students: unadjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–2.12; after adjustment for socio-demographics and clinically assessed OH: IRR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.23–2.02; after adjustment for socio-demographics, clinically assessed OH, and self-reported OH characteristics: IRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.99–1.63. The differences between estimated marginal means for the DAS categories in the models were 2.92, 2.51, and 1.24, respectively. Minimal clinically important differences of OHIP-14 fell between 1.68 and 2.51. We found a negative statistical association between DA and OHRQoL in our study sample, but after adjustment for potential confounders, the association lost its clinical importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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16 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Loyalty as Perceived by Dentists and Their Patients
by Réka Magdolna Szabó, Norbert Buzás, Gábor Braunitzer, Michele Goldzieher Shedlin and Mark Ádám Antal
Dent. J. 2023, 11(9), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11090203 - 28 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to identify the key aspects of patients’ dental care experience that influenced their self-perceived satisfaction and loyalty. Also examined was the agreement between patients and dentists regarding these factors. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to 1121 patients and 77 dentists, [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to identify the key aspects of patients’ dental care experience that influenced their self-perceived satisfaction and loyalty. Also examined was the agreement between patients and dentists regarding these factors. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to 1121 patients and 77 dentists, focusing on demographic information and 15 selected items related to the patients’ last dental visit. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were conducted. Results: The study included participants from 41 practices. Factors significantly influencing satisfaction and loyalty included location convenience, treatment quality, trust in dentists’ decisions, visit frequency satisfaction, clear treatment explanations, dentist’s interest in symptoms, patient-dental personnel attachment, and dentist’s knowledge of the patient and their medical records. While overall agreement between patients and dentists was high, some areas exhibited notable disagreement. Conclusions: The findings mostly align with existing literature, underscoring the importance of communication, trust, and a personal patient-dentist relationship in promoting satisfaction and loyalty. However, they also show that local, generally not reported factors might be at play, which necessitates dentists’ awareness and consideration of the local context for optimal outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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9 pages, 2011 KiB  
Article
Regenerative and Protective Effects on Dental Tissues of a Fluoride–Silicon-Rich Toothpaste Associated with a Calcium Booster: An In Vitro Study
by Fabiano Vieira Vilhena, Simone dos Santos Grecco, Alejandra Hortencia Miranda González and Paulo Henrique Perlatti D’Alpino
Dent. J. 2023, 11(6), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11060153 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Calcium boosters have been used as a supplement for fluoride toothpastes to repair the dental tissues and reduce dentin permeability. This in vitro study aimed to characterize the regenerative and protective effects of the treatment of dental tissues with a fluoride–silicon-rich toothpaste associated [...] Read more.
Calcium boosters have been used as a supplement for fluoride toothpastes to repair the dental tissues and reduce dentin permeability. This in vitro study aimed to characterize the regenerative and protective effects of the treatment of dental tissues with a fluoride–silicon-rich toothpaste associated with a calcium booster. Bovine enamel and dentin blocks (n = 5) were obtained (4 × 4 × 6 mm). A fluoride–silicon-rich toothpaste and a calcium booster were used to brush the enamel and dentin both immediately and five days afterwards. The outcomes were then compared to those of the untreated control group. After that, the specimens were cross-sectioned. SEM was used to evaluate the micromorphology of the surface and cross-section. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental analyses (weight%). After treatment for 5 days with a booster/silicon-rich toothpaste, EDS analysis demonstrated that it induced a significant mineral change. It was also able to form a protective silicon-enriched mineral layer on both enamel and dentin surfaces. It was demonstrated in vitro that a fluoride–silicon-rich toothpaste associated with a calcium booster regenerates the dental tissues, remineralizing the enamel structure and occluding the dentin tubules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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11 pages, 835 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of a Bioactive Restorative Material Versus a Glass-Ionomer Cement on Streptococcus Mutans: In-Vitro Study
by Giulio Conti, Federica Veneri, Francesca Amadori, Alba Garzoni, Alessandra Majorana and Elena Bardellini
Dent. J. 2023, 11(6), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11060149 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Background: Dental caries management consists of both preventive and restorative approaches. Pediatric dentists can rely on many techniques and materials to restore decayed teeth, but a high failure rate is still observed, mainly due to secondary caries. New restorative bioactive materials combine the [...] Read more.
Background: Dental caries management consists of both preventive and restorative approaches. Pediatric dentists can rely on many techniques and materials to restore decayed teeth, but a high failure rate is still observed, mainly due to secondary caries. New restorative bioactive materials combine the mechanical and aesthetic characteristics of resinous materials with the capability to remineralize and the antimicrobial properties of glass ionomers, thus counteracting the occurrence of secondary caries. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans of a bioactive restorative material (ACTIVA™ BioActive-Restorative™-Pulpdent©) and a glass ionomer cement with silver particles added (Ketac™ Silver—3M©), using agar diffusion assay. Methods: Each material was formed into disks of 4 mm in diameter, and four discs of each material were placed on nine agar plates. The analysis was repeated seven times. Results: Both materials showed statistically significant growth inhibition properties against S. mutans (p < 0.05). The difference in the effectiveness of the two materials was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Both ACTIVA™ and Ketac™ Silver can be recommended since both are similarly effective against S. mutans. However ACTIVA™, given its bioactivity and better aesthetics and mechanical properties compared to GICs, may provide better clinical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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14 pages, 714 KiB  
Article
Antigingivitis, Desensitizing, and Antiplaque Effects of Alkaline Toothpastes: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Nina Novozhilova, Elena Andreeva, Maria Polyakova, Irina Makeeva, Inna Sokhova, Vladlena Doroshina, Alexandr Zaytsev and Ksenia Babina
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040096 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2652
Abstract
Gingivitis is a widespread disease commonly associated with dentin hypersensitivity, that, in turn, may complicate routine dental care, leading to plaque accumulation. We aimed to assess the antigingivitis, desensitizing, and antiplaque effects of a fluoride-containing (TWF) alkaline toothpaste and a fluoride-free (TW) alkaline [...] Read more.
Gingivitis is a widespread disease commonly associated with dentin hypersensitivity, that, in turn, may complicate routine dental care, leading to plaque accumulation. We aimed to assess the antigingivitis, desensitizing, and antiplaque effects of a fluoride-containing (TWF) alkaline toothpaste and a fluoride-free (TW) alkaline toothpaste. Eighty-four consenting patients aged 20–25 years with diagnosed gingivitis and dentin hypersensitivity (DH) were recruited in this double-blind, parallel-group study and randomly divided into two groups (each n = 42). Eighty-two patients completed the entire study protocol. The outcomes were assessed after 4 weeks of intervention. A significant improvement in gingival condition was found according to the modified gingival index, with effect sizes of 0.99 [CI95%: 0.52–1.46] and 1.71 [CI95%: 1.18–2.24], and the gingival bleeding index, with effect sizes of 3.17 [CI95%: 2.39–3.94] and 2.64 [CI95%: 1.96–3.32] in the TW and TWF groups, respectively. DH also decreased in both groups, with a significantly greater reduction in the TWF group (effect sizes of 3.28 [CI95%: 2.51–4.04] and 3.10 [CI95%: 2.40–3.80] according to the visual analog scale and Schiff scale, respectively). No side effects were registered. In conclusion, the use of alkaline toothpaste provided a significant reduction in gingival inflammation and bleeding, DH, and oral hygiene after 4 weeks of daily use in young adults. Trial Registration: NCT0562376. Funding: none. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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16 pages, 1899 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Tooth-Whitening Potential of Peroxide-Free OTC Dental Bleaching Agents
by Marlene Grillon, Enrico Di Bella, Ivo Krejci and Stefano Ardu
Dent. J. 2023, 11(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11040089 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate and compare the tooth-whitening potential of five over-the-counter (OTC), peroxide-free dental bleaching methods as well as an experimental tooth-whitening solution containing 0.1% hydrogen peroxide complexed with doping agents with a gold standard (positive control) containing 16% carbamide peroxide. Material [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate and compare the tooth-whitening potential of five over-the-counter (OTC), peroxide-free dental bleaching methods as well as an experimental tooth-whitening solution containing 0.1% hydrogen peroxide complexed with doping agents with a gold standard (positive control) containing 16% carbamide peroxide. Material and Methods: Eighty permanent bovine incisor teeth were randomly allocated to eight different groups. Two teeth from each group were immerged into five staining solutions represented by coffee, tea, red wine, and curry mixed in warm oil or distilled water (control group) and stored at 37 °C for 28 days in an incubator. The teeth were then reallocated to the eight groups, resulting in ten samples per group, and each group was matched with a bleaching product. The bleaching procedures were executed following the manufacturer’s recommendations. The color of each sample was assessed over a white and black background using a quantitative numerical measurement approach with a calibrated spectrophotometer. Spectrophotometric measurements were performed after exposing the teeth to the bleaching agent for 60 min (T2), 100 min (T3), and 200 min (T4), and ΔE00 was calculated. Results: When analyzed over a white background, the mean ΔE00 values ranged from 2.14 (placebo) to 6.32 (Opalescence PF). When analyzed over a black background, the mean ΔE00 values ranged from 2.31 (placebo) to 5.78 (Opalescence PF). Statistically significant ΔE00 color changes over time for the eight groups and five staining solutions at T1 and T4 were assessed for both backgrounds using repeated ANOVA followed by Fisher’s LSD post hoc test (p-value < 0.01). Conclusions: All tested over-the-counter whitening kits except one exhibited positive color variation. However, the individual performance differed vastly from one brand to the other, and the overall performance was less effective compared to the conventional carbamide-peroxide-based positive control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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12 pages, 788 KiB  
Article
Vaccine Acceptance, Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Study among Dentists in Trinidad and Tobago
by Reisha Rafeek, Bidyadhar Sa and William Smith
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030086 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Background: This study’s aim was to assess Trinidad and Tobago dentists’ vaccine acceptance, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: All dentists registered with the Trinidad and Tobago Dental Association were invited to complete an online anonymous questionnaire between June and [...] Read more.
Background: This study’s aim was to assess Trinidad and Tobago dentists’ vaccine acceptance, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: All dentists registered with the Trinidad and Tobago Dental Association were invited to complete an online anonymous questionnaire between June and October 2021. Results: A total of 46.2% of dentists responded. The majority of respondents had excellent knowledge of COVID-19 (94.8%), use of personal protective equipment (98.7%) and N95 masks (93.5%), but had poor knowledge about the reuse of N95 masks (27.5%). A total of 34.9% were comfortable providing emergency care to positive or suspected cases of COVID-19, and 64.5% were afraid of becoming infected from a patient. PPE usage was reported at 97.4% and 67.3% for N95 masks. All surfaces of waiting areas were disinfected every 2 h by 59.2%. A total of 90.8% agreed to be vaccinated straight away if a vaccine were made available. Conclusion: Dentists in Trinidad and Tobago have good levels of knowledge, attitude, practices regarding COVID-19. Dentists also have high levels of vaccine acceptance and can play a role in advocating for the COVID-19 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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11 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Efficacy of Low-Particle-Size Toothpastes against Extrinsic Pigmentations: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
by Andrea Butera, Maurizio Pascadopoli, Simone Gallo, Alessia Pardo, Giulia Stablum, Marco Lelli, Anna Pandolfi and Andrea Scribante
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030082 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Stain-removing domiciliary protocols are focused on the elimination of dental extrinsic pigmentations by the application of abrasive toothpastes, extensively available in commerce. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of two different stain removal molecule-formulated toothpastes by the reduction [...] Read more.
Stain-removing domiciliary protocols are focused on the elimination of dental extrinsic pigmentations by the application of abrasive toothpastes, extensively available in commerce. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of two different stain removal molecule-formulated toothpastes by the reduction of clinical parameters: the micro-cleaning crystals and activated charcoal. A total of 40 participants with extrinsic dental pigmentations were enrolled and divided into two groups: a Control group, assigned to a toothpaste with micro-cleaning crystals (Colgate Sensation White); and a Trial group, with microparticle-activated charcoal toothpaste (Coswell Blanx Black). At T0 (baseline), T1 (10 days), T2 (1 month), and T3 (3 months), clinical parameters, including Lobene stain index calculated for intensity and extension, plaque control record, and bleeding on probing, were measured. Statistically significant differences were found in both groups (p < 0.05): a reduction of extrinsic pigmentation, both in intensity and extension, was obtained in the Control group, but their total elimination could be achieved only in the Trial group with the activated charcoal molecule, though without significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). No intergroup differences were found for each timeframe for PCR, BoP, LSI-I, and LSI-E. Both tested toothpastes can be recommended for domiciliary oral hygiene of patients with extrinsic pigmentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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11 pages, 730 KiB  
Article
Distribution of Dental Fluorosis in the Southern Zone of Ecuador: An Epidemiological Study
by Eleonor María Vélez-León, Alberto Albaladejo-Martínez, Paulina Ortíz-Ortega, Katherine Cuenca-León, Ana Armas-Vega and María Melo
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030071 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2088
Abstract
In recent decades, the increase in fluoride exposure has raised the numbers of dental fluorosis in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities In Ecuador, but the last national epidemiological study on DF was conducted more than a decade ago. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the increase in fluoride exposure has raised the numbers of dental fluorosis in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities In Ecuador, but the last national epidemiological study on DF was conducted more than a decade ago. The objective of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, distribution and severity of dental fluorosis (DF) using the Dean index in 1606 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years from urban and rural environments in provinces that make up the Southern Region of Ecuador. Participants met the inclusion criteria which were age, locality, informed consent document and no legal impediment. The results are presented using percentage frequency measures and chi-square associations. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 50.1% in the areas of Azuay, Cañar and Morona Santiago, with no significant differences (x2 = 5.83, p = 0.054). The types of DF found most frequently were very mild and mild in all provinces; a moderate degree was more prevalent in Cañar (17%). There was no significant association (p > 0.05) between sex and the presence of dental fluorosis and, with respect to severity, the most frequent degree was moderate at the age of 12 years. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the area evaluated is high, especially in the light and very light degrees, with a tendency toward moderate levels. It is necessary to carry out studies on the factors that are predisposing to the development of this pathology in the population studied. This research is an update regarding this pathology in Ecuador, so it is concluded that it is necessary to continue developing studies based on the findings obtained, thus contributing to the public health of the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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11 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Delay of Dental Care: An Exploratory Study of Procrastination, Dental Attendance, and Self-Reported Oral Health
by Lene M. Steinvik, Frode Svartdal and Jan-Are K. Johnsen
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020056 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2929
Abstract
Delay of dental care is a problem for dental public health. The present study explored the relationship between procrastination and dental attendance, focusing on delay in seeking dental care. This hypothetical relation was compared to other avoidance-related factors affecting dental attendance. In addition, [...] Read more.
Delay of dental care is a problem for dental public health. The present study explored the relationship between procrastination and dental attendance, focusing on delay in seeking dental care. This hypothetical relation was compared to other avoidance-related factors affecting dental attendance. In addition, an inquiry into the reasons for delaying dental care was conducted. Students (n = 164) answered an internet-based questionnaire on socio-demographic factors, dental health, dental attendance, delay of dental care, reasons for the delay, procrastination (IPS), dental anxiety (MDAS), perceived stress (PSS) and oral health self-efficacy (OHSES). The study found no significant relation between procrastination and delay in dental care. However, procrastination was related differently to past, present, and future dental attendance and seemed to relate to oral health behavior. Delay of dental care was associated with higher dental anxiety and lower oral health self-efficacy. The cost of dental care was the most frequently given reason for the delay of dental care. Further research on the delay of dental care and dental attendance is warranted in understanding the behavior, implementing interventions, and improving the utilization of public dental care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
19 pages, 1055 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Dental Care Programs on Individuals and Their Families: A Scoping Review
by Abdulrahman Ghoneim, Violet D’Souza, Arezoo Ebnahmady, Kamini Kaura Parbhakar, Helen He, Madeline Gerbig, Audrey Laporte, Rebecca Hancock Howard, Noha Gomaa, Carlos Quiñonez and Sonica Singhal
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020033 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2897
Abstract
Background: Despite significant global improvements in oral health, inequities persist. Targeted dental care programs are perceived as a viable approach to both improving oral health and to address inequities. However, the impacts of dental care programs on individual and family oral health outcomes [...] Read more.
Background: Despite significant global improvements in oral health, inequities persist. Targeted dental care programs are perceived as a viable approach to both improving oral health and to address inequities. However, the impacts of dental care programs on individual and family oral health outcomes remain unclear. Objectives: The purpose of this scoping review is to map the evidence on impacts of existing dental programs, specifically on individual and family level outcomes. Methods: We systematically searched four scientific databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts for studies published in the English language between December 1999 and November 2021. Search terms were kept broad to capture a range of programs. Four reviewers (AG, VD, AE, and KKP) independently screened the abstracts and reviewed full-text articles and extracted the data. Cohen’s kappa inter-rater reliability score was 0.875, indicating excellent agreement between the reviewers. Data were summarized according to the PRISMA statement. Results: The search yielded 65,887 studies, of which 76 were included in the data synthesis. All but one study assessed various individual-level outcomes (n = 75) and only five investigated family outcomes. The most common program interventions are diagnostic and preventive (n = 35, 46%) care, targeted children (n = 42, 55%), and delivered in school-based settings (n = 28, 37%). The majority of studies (n = 43, 57%) reported a significant improvement in one or more of their reported outcomes; the most assessed outcome was change in dental decay (n = 35). Conclusions: Dental care programs demonstrated effectiveness in addressing individual oral health outcomes. However, evidence to show the impact on family-related outcomes remains limited and requires attention in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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10 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Role of Patient’s Ethnicity in Seeking Preventive Dental Services at the Community Health Centers of South-Central Texas: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Girish Suresh Shelke, Rochisha Singh Marwaha, Pankil Shah and Suman Challa
Dent. J. 2023, 11(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11020032 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Background: This study was conducted to determine the impact of a patient’s ethnicity on seeking preventive dental services at the Community Health Centers (CHCs) in South-Central Texas. Methods: Primary electronic health records (EHR) data were collected regarding each patient’s medical and dental history, [...] Read more.
Background: This study was conducted to determine the impact of a patient’s ethnicity on seeking preventive dental services at the Community Health Centers (CHCs) in South-Central Texas. Methods: Primary electronic health records (EHR) data were collected regarding each patient’s medical and dental history, and comprehensive treatment planning. The researchers retrieved EHR from January 2016 to 2022. Bivariate analysis was completed to test the outcome with the predictor variable and covariates using the appropriate statistical tests. A multiple linear regression model was used to understand the association between the predictor and outcome variable while controlling for confounders. Results: The study findings revealed significantly higher dental visits (2.26 ± 2.88) for Hispanic patients. The results from the multiple regression model indicated that non-Hispanic patients had a smaller chance of visiting CHC for preventive dental services, by eight percent, compared to the Hispanic population (p-value < 0.001) when all other variables were held constant. However, the study results were not significant, as the effect size was too small to conclude the effect of ethnicity on the patients visiting the dental clinic at the CHC for preventive services. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is no difference in the preventive dental services completed by Hispanics and non-Hispanics when all other variables are controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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10 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
Time-to-Treatment of Oral Cancer and Potentially Malignant Oral Disorders: Findings in Malaysian Public Healthcare
by Sivaraj Raman, Asrul Akmal Shafie, Mannil Thomas Abraham, Shim Chen Kiong, Thaddius Herman Maling, Senthilmani Rajendran and Sok Ching Cheong
Dent. J. 2022, 10(11), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10110199 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 13649
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the time-to-treatment of oral cancer and potentially malignant oral disorders (PMOD) in a Malaysian public healthcare setting while exploring its contributing factors. It consists of (1) a cross-sectional patient survey to quantify time to seek care and barriers [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the time-to-treatment of oral cancer and potentially malignant oral disorders (PMOD) in a Malaysian public healthcare setting while exploring its contributing factors. It consists of (1) a cross-sectional patient survey to quantify time to seek care and barriers faced, and (2) a retrospective medical record abstraction to determine treatment and management intervals. Time intervals were aggregated and analyzed by their primary contributor—patient, professional, or healthcare system. The average total time-to-treatment of the 104 patients investigated was 167 days (SD = 158). This was predominantly contributed by the patient interval of 120 days (SD = 152). In total, 67.0% of patients delayed their visit to primary healthcare centers because they assumed the lesions were not dangerous or of concern. Additionally, there was a significant difference between patients ‘facing’ and ‘not facing’ difficulties to seek care, at 157 vs. 103 days (p = 0.028). System and professional delays were comparably shorter, at 33 days (SD = 20) and 10 days (SD = 15) respectively. Both demonstrated a significant difference between oral cancer and PMOD, at 43 vs. 29 days (p < 0.001) and 5 vs. 17 days (p < 0.001). The findings reiterate the need to reform current initiatives to better promote early lesion recognition by patients and implement strategies for the elimination of their access barriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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10 pages, 577 KiB  
Article
Caries Experience and Treatment Needs in Urban and Rural Environments in School-Age Children from Three Provinces of Ecuador: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Eleonor María Vélez-León, Alberto Albaladejo-Martínez, Katherine Cuenca-León, Liliana Encalada-Verdugo, Ana Armas-Vega and María Melo
Dent. J. 2022, 10(10), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10100185 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3098
Abstract
In Ecuador, national epidemiological surveys have not been updated; however, some regional studies in the northern areas of the country still report a high prevalence of dental caries. The aim of this study was to determine the experience, severity, and need for treatment [...] Read more.
In Ecuador, national epidemiological surveys have not been updated; however, some regional studies in the northern areas of the country still report a high prevalence of dental caries. The aim of this study was to determine the experience, severity, and need for treatment of dental caries in school children aged 6 to 12 years in urban and rural settings in three provinces of southern Ecuador. This cross-sectional, relational study examined 1938 schoolchildren in the provinces of Azuay, Cañar, and Morona Santiago. The survey instruments were based mainly on the WHO manual Methods of Oral Health Surveys (dmft) for primary and permanent dentition (DMFT), as well as the prevalence, severity, and Significant Caries Index (SCI). The parametric Student’s t-test was used to compare two groups, and the Spearman’s Rho and Tau-c Kendall correlation coefficients were used to associate the categorical variables. Results: The prevalence of caries in the primary dentition was 78% and 89.2% in the permanent dentition. The dmft (M = 4.12, SD = 2.86) and DMFT (M = 3.62: SD = 3.07) placed the general group in a moderate caries index. The need for treatment was 90.68% in the primary dentition, while it was 87.99% in the permanent dentition. Caries severity in both dentitions was high (M = 7.74; SD = 3.42). Conclusions. Alarming indicators of caries experience and the need for treatment were observed in the population studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

16 pages, 946 KiB  
Review
Management of Oral Hygiene in Head-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Oncological Surgery and Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review
by Jacopo Lanzetti, Federica Finotti, Maria Savarino, Gianfranco Gassino, Alessandro Dell’Acqua and Francesco M. Erovigni
Dent. J. 2023, 11(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11030083 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3458
Abstract
Background: In the literature, among oral health prevention programs dedicated to cancer patients, a wide heterogeneity is evident. The purpose of this work is to analyze the available scientific evidence for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing resective surgery [...] Read more.
Background: In the literature, among oral health prevention programs dedicated to cancer patients, a wide heterogeneity is evident. The purpose of this work is to analyze the available scientific evidence for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing resective surgery and radiotherapy and to draw up a diversified oral hygiene protocol during oncological therapy. Methods: PubMed was used as database. Studies published from 2017 to September 2022 were analyzed. Studies investigating the effectiveness of the preventive procedures carried out by the dental professionals in HNC patients undergoing postoperative adjuvant therapy have been taken into account. Results: The application of the search string on PubMed allowed the selection of 7184 articles. The systematic selection of articles led to the inclusion of 26 articles in this review, including 22 RCTs, 3 observational studies, and 1 controlled clinical study. Articles were divided according to the debated topic: the management of radiation-induced mucositis, xerostomia, the efficacy of an oral infection prevention protocol, and the prevention of radiation-induced caries. Conclusions: Dental hygienists are fundamental figures in the management of patients undergoing oncological surgery of the maxillofacial district. They help the patient prevent and manage the sequelae of oncological therapy, obtaining a clear improvement in the quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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14 pages, 3672 KiB  
Review
Application of the Extracts of Punica granatum in Oral Cancer: Scoping Review
by Mario Dioguardi, Andrea Ballini, Diego Sovereto, Francesca Spirito, Angela Pia Cazzolla, Riccardo Aiuto, Vito Crincoli, Giorgia Apollonia Caloro and Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Dent. J. 2022, 10(12), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10120234 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
The Punica granatum L. is an ancient fruit plant native to south-western Asia. It belongs to the Litraceae family and of its genus we have only one other Punica protopunic species. The fruit is rich in polyphenols, whose extract is consumed as a [...] Read more.
The Punica granatum L. is an ancient fruit plant native to south-western Asia. It belongs to the Litraceae family and of its genus we have only one other Punica protopunic species. The fruit is rich in polyphenols, whose extract is consumed as a food and is considered safe. In medicine, it is used for its antioxidant properties; it has a rich component of tannic polyphenols among which the most bioactive are: punicalagin (flavonoids) and anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, pelargonidin), which are found mainly in the skins and in the pericarp; however, all the parts of the Punica granatum are used for therapeutic purposes as anti-inflammatories and analgesics and in diabetes and cardio-vascular disease. Punica granatum extracts also show interesting anticancer activities in influencing tumorgenesis and angiogenesis and cell transformation and proliferation. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize all the scientific evidence on the possible applications of Punica granatum extracts in the treatment and prevention of oral cavity tumors to investigate the anticancer properties of the active ingredients extracted from Punica granatum. Methods: The scoping review was carried out following the PRISMA-ScR checklist; the search was performed on three databases (Scopus, Science direct and PubMed) and one registry (Cochrane library). Results: The search produced a number of bibliographic sources equal to 11,403; with the removal of duplicates, 670 potentially admissible articles were obtained, from 24 of which only 7 in vitro studies on OSCC cell lines were included. Conclusions: From the preliminary data on the cellular lines of OSCC, it emerges that for oral cancer there are conditions for which the extracts of Punic granatum are effective at least from a prevention perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

12 pages, 7837 KiB  
Case Report
Influence of Calcified Canals Localization on the Accuracy of Guided Endodontic Therapy: A Case Series Study
by Emanuele Ambu, Benedetta Gori, Crystal Marruganti, Giulia Malvicini, Antonietta Bordone, Lorenzo Giberti, Simone Grandini and Carlo Gaeta
Dent. J. 2023, 11(8), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11080183 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1883
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the precision of the guided endodontic technique applied to calcified canals in anterior teeth in relation to demographic and dental variables. The present observational study was conducted during the period 2020–2021. The patients were consecutive referrals at the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the precision of the guided endodontic technique applied to calcified canals in anterior teeth in relation to demographic and dental variables. The present observational study was conducted during the period 2020–2021. The patients were consecutive referrals at the Department of Endodontics and Conservative Dentistry of the University Hospital of Siena. The guided endodontics protocol was applied using 0.75 mm diameter burs for the lower teeth and 0.90 mm for the upper teeth. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (i) teeth with pulp canal obliteration (PCO) associated with a periapical lesion (periapical index (PAI) ≥ 2); (ii) teeth with PCO that require the placement of a root canal post for the execution of a prosthetic treatment; (iii) teeth in which surgical treatment was not justified. Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were recorded and related to the drill path accuracy through the guide in the calcified endodontic canal, evaluated through a radiographic analysis, and classified as optimal (in the center of the root canal) and acceptable (deviated peripherally/tangentially). A logistic regression model was built to predict the factors that influence the poor precision of the technique. Seventeen patients (mean age 48 years) with eighteen calcified single-rooted teeth were enrolled. All teeth were associated with periapical lesions with PAI scores from 2 to 5 (mean PAI: 3.055). From the model, it is evident that the presence of a calcification affecting the apical area of the root increases the probability of being off-center with the bur by about 15 times. In addition, a previous attempt at endodontic treatment and the position in the lower arch increases the probability of non-centrality of the drill, although in a non-statistically significant way. In any of the analyzed cases, the guided endodontic technique applied to PCO did not determine the presence of iatrogenic errors, such as perforations. However, the apical localization of the obliteration increases the probability of being off-center with the drill during the instrumentation phase by about 15 times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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16 pages, 1713 KiB  
Systematic Review
Etiological Factors of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by María Lilia A. Juárez-López, Leslie Vanessa Salazar-Treto, Beatriz Hernández-Monjaraz and Nelly Molina-Frechero
Dent. J. 2023, 11(5), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11050111 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3523
Abstract
Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a defect of the dental enamel that predominantly affects first molars and permanent incisors. Identifying the significant risk factors associated with MIH occurrence is essential for the implementation of prevention strategies. The purpose of this systematic review was [...] Read more.
Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a defect of the dental enamel that predominantly affects first molars and permanent incisors. Identifying the significant risk factors associated with MIH occurrence is essential for the implementation of prevention strategies. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the etiological factors associated with MIH. A literature search was carried out from six databases until 2022; it covered pre-, peri-, and postnatal etiological factors. The PECOS strategy, PRISMA criteria, and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale were used, and 40 publications were selected for qualitative analysis as well as 25 for meta-analysis. Our results revealed an association between a history of illness during pregnancy (OR 4.03 (95% CI, 1.33–12.16), p = 0.01) and low weight at birth (OR 1.23 (95% CI, 1.10–1.38), p = 0.0005). Furthermore, general illness in childhood (OR 4.06 (95% CI, 2.03–8.11), p = 0.0001), antibiotic use (OR 1.76 (95% CI, 1.31–2.37), p = 0.0002), and high fever during early childhood (OR 1.48 (95% CI, 1.18–1.84), p = 0.0005) were associated with MIH. In conclusion, the etiology of MIH was found to be multifactorial. Children with health disorders in the first years of life and those whose mothers underwent illnesses during pregnancy might be more susceptible to MIH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Dentistry and Dental Public Health)
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