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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 24 (December-2 2023) – 146 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We developed a long-arm octopus Jangjorim prototype (LOJP) by optimizing the ratio of ingredients for seasoning and establishing heat sterilization parameters. The optimal amounts of purified water (51.2%), starch syrup (29.3%), and soy sauce (19.5%) for the production of seasoning soy sauce were obtained using response surface methodology. The hardness of the LOJP was 36.7 × 1000 N/m2. This value was lower than the hardness of raw octopus (2153.6 × 1000 N/m2) by 2116.9 × 1000 N/m2. The LOJP was classified as level 2, allowing consumption through the gums of elderly consumers, in accordance with Korean standards for the elderly. The LOJP was highly preferred by elderly consumers with chewing disorders due to its ease of intake and nutritional content. View this paper
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17 pages, 4589 KiB  
Article
Preparation of a Dual-Functional Active Film Based on Bilayer Hydrogel and Red Cabbage Anthocyanin for Maintaining and Monitoring Pork Freshness
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4520; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244520 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 837
Abstract
In this study, a composite film was created with the dual goal of prolonging pork shelf life and showing freshness. Hydrogel materials as solid base films were selected from gelatin (G), sodium alginate (SA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) based on their antioxidant activity, [...] Read more.
In this study, a composite film was created with the dual goal of prolonging pork shelf life and showing freshness. Hydrogel materials as solid base films were selected from gelatin (G), sodium alginate (SA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) based on their antioxidant activity, water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, as well as their stability, antimicrobial activity, and freshness, which indicates effectiveness when combined with anthocyanins. Furthermore, the effects of several concentrations of red cabbage anthocyanin (R) (3%, 6%, 12%, and 24%) on freshness indicators and bacteriostasis were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the composite films was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Likewise, the freshness indicates effectiveness was evaluated for NH3. Considering the mechanical properties, antibacterial ability, freshness indicator effect, and stability of the composite film, CS film combined with 12% R was selected to prepare a dual-functional intelligent film for pork freshness indicator and preservation. By thoroughly investigating the effect of composite film on pork conservation and combining with it KNN, the discriminative model of pork freshness grade was established and the recognition rate of the prediction set was up to 93.3%. These results indicated that CSR film can be used for the creation of active food packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Preservation and Intelligent Packaging)
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16 pages, 5754 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonication of Micellar Casein Concentrate to Reduce Viscosity—Role of Undissolved Material
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4519; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244519 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 678
Abstract
This research reveals the underlying mechanisms that make high-intensity ultrasound an effective tool to reduce the viscosity of micellar casein concentrates and to enhance the solubility of the respective powders. Micellar casein concentrates (MCC) gained great importance in the production of valuable food [...] Read more.
This research reveals the underlying mechanisms that make high-intensity ultrasound an effective tool to reduce the viscosity of micellar casein concentrates and to enhance the solubility of the respective powders. Micellar casein concentrates (MCC) gained great importance in the production of valuable food products with high protein content, but the processing properties of the reconstituted solutions are deficient. Even though several presumptions were established, the reasons why ultrasound is able to reduce the product viscosity and what limitations occur when using sonication technology are still not clear yet. Our study aims to investigate those reasons by combining analyses of viscosity measurements, particle size distributions, solubility, and hydration. The data presented demonstrate that undissolved, highly hydrated particles play an important role in micellar casein concentrates showing a high viscosity. We conclude on the high voluminosity of those particles, since improved solubility and decreased viscosity are accompanying effects. The determined voluminosities of those particles are 35–40% higher than for colloidal dissolved micelles. Hence, the viscosity reduction of up to 50% can be only obtained by sonicating micellar casein concentrates derived from powder reconstitution, whereas ultrasonication of freshly prepared membrane-filtrated MCC does not reduce viscosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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18 pages, 7256 KiB  
Article
Line Laser Scanning Combined with Machine Learning for Fish Head Cutting Position Identification
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4518; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244518 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Fish head cutting is one of the most important processes during fish pre-processing. At present, the identification of cutting positions mainly depends on manual experience, which cannot meet the requirements of large-scale production lines. In this paper, a fast and contactless identification method [...] Read more.
Fish head cutting is one of the most important processes during fish pre-processing. At present, the identification of cutting positions mainly depends on manual experience, which cannot meet the requirements of large-scale production lines. In this paper, a fast and contactless identification method of cutting position was carried out by using a constructed line laser data acquisition system. The fish surface data were collected by a linear laser scanning sensor, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensions of the dorsal and abdominal boundary data. Based on the dimension data, Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVMs), Particle Swarm Optimization-Back Propagation (PSO-BP) networks, and Long and Short Term Memory (LSTM) neural networks were applied for fish head cutting position identification model establishment. According to the results, the LSTM model was considered to be the best prediction model with a determination coefficient (R2) value, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 0.9480, 0.2957, 0.1933, and 3.1426, respectively. This study demonstrated the reliability of combining line laser scanning techniques with machine learning using LSTM to identify the fish head cutting position accurately and quickly. It can provide a theoretical reference for the development of intelligent processing and intelligent cutting equipment for fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Aquatic Food Products Processing)
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14 pages, 1856 KiB  
Article
Identification of Milk Adulteration in Camel Milk Using FT-Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning Models
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4517; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244517 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Camel milk, esteemed for its high nutritional value, has long been a subject of interest. However, the adulteration of camel milk with cow milk poses a significant threat to food quality and safety. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) has emerged as a rapid method [...] Read more.
Camel milk, esteemed for its high nutritional value, has long been a subject of interest. However, the adulteration of camel milk with cow milk poses a significant threat to food quality and safety. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) has emerged as a rapid method for the detection and quantification of cow milk adulteration. Nevertheless, its effectiveness in conveniently detecting adulteration in camel milk remains to be determined. Camel milk samples were collected from Alxa League, Inner Mongolia, China, and were supplemented with varying concentrations of cow milk samples. Spectra were acquired using the FOSS FT6000 spectrometer, and a diverse set of machine learning models was employed to detect cow milk adulteration in camel milk. Our results demonstrate that the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model effectively distinguishes pure camel milk from adulterated samples, maintaining a 100% detection rate even at cow milk addition levels of 10 g/100 g. The neural network quantitative model for cow milk adulteration in camel milk exhibited a detection limit of 3.27 g/100 g and a quantification limit of 10.90 g/100 g. The quantitative model demonstrated excellent precision and accuracy within the range of 10–90 g/100 g of adulteration. This study highlights the potential of FT-MIR spectroscopy in conjunction with machine learning techniques for ensuring the authenticity and quality of camel milk, thus addressing concerns related to food integrity and consumer safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
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20 pages, 2880 KiB  
Article
Modeling Textural Properties of Cooked Germinated Brown Rice Using the near-Infrared Spectra of Whole Grain
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4516; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244516 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
If a non-destructive and rapid technique to determine the textural properties of cooked germinated brown rice (GBR) was developed, it would hold immense potential for the enhancement of the quality control process in large-scale commercial rice production. We combined the Fourier transform near-infrared [...] Read more.
If a non-destructive and rapid technique to determine the textural properties of cooked germinated brown rice (GBR) was developed, it would hold immense potential for the enhancement of the quality control process in large-scale commercial rice production. We combined the Fourier transform near-infrared (NIR) spectral data of uncooked whole grain GBR with partial least squares (PLS) regression and an artificial neural network (ANN) for an evaluation of the textural properties of cooked germinated brown rice (GBR); in addition, data separation and spectral pretreatment methods were investigated. The ANN was outperformed in the evaluation of hardness by a back extrusion test of cooked GBR using the smoothing combined with the standard normal variate pretreated NIR spectra of 188 whole grain samples in the range of 4000–12,500 cm−1. The calibration sample set was separated from the prediction set by the Kennard–Stone method. The best ANN model for hardness, toughness, and adhesiveness provided R2, r2, RMSEC, RMSEP, Bias, and RPD values of 1.00, 0.94, 0.10 N, 0.77 N, 0.02 N, and 4.3; 1.00, 0.92, 1.40 Nmm, 9.98 Nmm, 1.6 Nmm, and 3.5; and 0.97, 0.91, 1.35 Nmm, 2.63 Nmm, −0.08 Nmm, and 3.4, respectively. The PLS regression of the 64-sample KDML GBR group and the 64-sample GBR group of various varieties provided the optimized models for the hardness of the former and the toughness of the latter. The hardness model was developed by using 5446.3–7506 and 4242.9–4605.4 cm−1, which included the amylose vibration band at 6834.0 cm−1, while the toughness model was from 6094.3 to 9403.8 cm−1 and included the 6834.0 and 8316.0 cm−1 vibration bands of amylose, which influenced the texture of the cooked rice. The PLS regression models for hardness and toughness had the r2 values of 0.85 and 0.82 and the RPDs of 2.9 and 2.4, respectively. The ANN model for the hardness, toughness, and adhesiveness of cooked GBR could be implemented for practical use in GBR production factories for product formulation and quality assurance and for further updating using more samples and several brands to obtain the robust models. Full article
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13 pages, 5455 KiB  
Article
Effect of Molecular Weight on the Structural and Emulsifying Characteristics of Bovine Bone Protein Hydrolysate
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4515; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244515 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 649
Abstract
The emulsifying capacity of bovine bone protein extracted using high-pressure hot water (HBBP) has been determined to be good. Nevertheless, given that HBBP is a blend of peptides with a broad range of molecular weights, the distinction in emulsifying capacity between polypeptide components [...] Read more.
The emulsifying capacity of bovine bone protein extracted using high-pressure hot water (HBBP) has been determined to be good. Nevertheless, given that HBBP is a blend of peptides with a broad range of molecular weights, the distinction in emulsifying capacity between polypeptide components with high and low molecular weights is unclear. Therefore, in this study, HBBP was separated into three molecular weight components of 10–30 kDa (HBBP 1), 5–10 kDa (HBBP 2), and <5 kDa (HBBP 3) via ultrafiltration, and the differences in their structures and emulsifying properties were investigated. The polypeptide with the highest molecular weight displayed the lowest endogenous fluorescence intensity, the least solubility in an aqueous solution, and the highest surface hydrophobicity index. Analysis using laser confocal Raman spectroscopy showed that with an increase in polypeptide molecular weight, the α-helix and β-sheet contents in the secondary structure of the polypeptide molecule increased significantly. Particle size, rheological characteristics, and laser confocal microscopy were used to characterize the emulsion made from peptides of various molecular weights. High-molecular-weight peptides were able to provide a more robust spatial repulsion and thicker interfacial coating in the emulsion, which would make the emulsion more stable. The above results showed that the high-molecular-weight polypeptide in HBBP effectively improved the emulsion stability when forming an emulsion. This study increased the rate at which bovine bone was utilized and provided a theoretical foundation for the use of bovine bone protein as an emulsifier in the food sector. Full article
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12 pages, 4275 KiB  
Article
Microbial, Physicochemical Profile and Sensory Perception of Dry-Aged Beef Quality: A Preliminary Portuguese Contribution to the Validation of the Dry Aging Process
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4514; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244514 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Beef dry-aging consists of a selection of unpackaged prime cuts placed in a controlled environment cold room for several weeks. The goals are to concentrate flavors like nutty and beefy and to improve tenderness. The aim of this study was to verify the [...] Read more.
Beef dry-aging consists of a selection of unpackaged prime cuts placed in a controlled environment cold room for several weeks. The goals are to concentrate flavors like nutty and beefy and to improve tenderness. The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological and physicochemical behavior and sensory perception of meat during a sample process example of meat dry-aging. Twelve beef loins were selected for 90 days of dry aging and placed in a cold room with average temperature, relative humidity and forced air 3.2 ± 0.7 °C, 60.7 ± 4.2% and 0.5–2 m/s, respectively. Samples of crust and lean meat were collected on days 1, 14, 21, 35, 60 and 90 of the dry aging process for microbiological, physicochemical (pH, aw, color L*a*b*) and sensory analysis. During drying, no pathogenic bacteria were detected, and the average counts were higher for the crust. The average values for water activity (aw) and pH were 0.98 ± 0.02 and 5.77 ± 0.015, respectively. A slight decrease in aw and an increase in pH were observed over the aging period (p < 0.05). The lower microbial counts on the lean meat and the overall assessment of freshness confirm the importance of good manufacturing and storage practices during dry aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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21 pages, 6368 KiB  
Article
Effects of Fermentation with Tetragenococcus halophilus and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the Volatile Profiles of Soybean Protein Hydrolysates
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4513; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244513 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 660
Abstract
The effects of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast on the aroma of samples were analyzed in this work. The volatile features of different soybean hydrolysates were investigated using both GC-MS and GC-IMS. Only 47 volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) were detected [...] Read more.
The effects of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast on the aroma of samples were analyzed in this work. The volatile features of different soybean hydrolysates were investigated using both GC-MS and GC-IMS. Only 47 volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) were detected when using GC-IMS, while a combination of GC-MS and GC-IMS resulted in the identification of 150 compounds. LAB-yeast fermentation could significantly increase the diversity and concentrations of VFCs (p < 0.05), including alcohols, acids, esters, and sulfurs, while reduce the contents of aldehydes and ketones. Hierarchical clustering and orthogonal partial least squares analyses confirmed the impact of fermentation on the VFCs of the hydrolysates. Seven compounds were identified as significant compounds distinguishing the aromas of different groups. The partial least squares regression analysis of the 25 key VFCs (ROAV > 1) and sensory results revealed that the treatment groups positively correlated with aromatic, caramel, sour, overall aroma, and most of the key VFCs. In summary, fermentation effectively reduced the fatty and bean-like flavors of soybean hydrolysates, enhancing the overall flavor quality, with sequential inoculation proving to be more effective than simultaneous inoculation. These findings provided a theoretical basis for improving and assessing the flavor of soybean protein hydrolysates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Enzymes in Fermented Products)
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19 pages, 3382 KiB  
Article
The Characteristic Aroma Compounds of GABA Sun-Dried Green Tea and Raw Pu-Erh Tea Determined by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Relative Odor Activity Value
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4512; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244512 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 796
Abstract
We aim to improve the product quality of GABA raw Pu-erh tea during development and processing. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry technology combined with relative odor activity evaluations was used to compare the volatile compounds of GABA sun-dried green [...] Read more.
We aim to improve the product quality of GABA raw Pu-erh tea during development and processing. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry technology combined with relative odor activity evaluations was used to compare the volatile compounds of GABA sun-dried green tea and GABA raw Pu-erh tea. Sensory evaluation showed a higher aroma score of GABA raw Pu-erh tea than that of GABA sun-dried green tea, with significant differences in aroma type and purity. A total of 147 volatile compounds of 13 categories were detected, which differed in composition and quantity between the two teas. 2-Buten-1-one,1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-,(E)- and beta.-myrcene largely contributed to the aroma formation of both teas. Five volatile compounds were screened as potential markers for tea aroma. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that monoterpenoid biosynthesis may be beneficial to the formation of flowery and fruity aromas in the teas. We suggest that the findings of this study may provide important guidance for the processing and optimization of GABA tea. Full article
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29 pages, 4609 KiB  
Review
The Application of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data in the Food Industry
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4511; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244511 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2478
Abstract
Over the past few decades, the food industry has undergone revolutionary changes due to the impacts of globalization, technological advancements, and ever-evolving consumer demands. Artificial intelligence (AI) and big data have become pivotal in strengthening food safety, production, and marketing. With the continuous [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, the food industry has undergone revolutionary changes due to the impacts of globalization, technological advancements, and ever-evolving consumer demands. Artificial intelligence (AI) and big data have become pivotal in strengthening food safety, production, and marketing. With the continuous evolution of AI technology and big data analytics, the food industry is poised to embrace further changes and developmental opportunities. An increasing number of food enterprises will leverage AI and big data to enhance product quality, meet consumer needs, and propel the industry toward a more intelligent and sustainable future. This review delves into the applications of AI and big data in the food sector, examining their impacts on production, quality, safety, risk management, and consumer insights. Furthermore, the advent of Industry 4.0 applied to the food industry has brought to the fore technologies such as smart agriculture, robotic farming, drones, 3D printing, and digital twins; the food industry also faces challenges in smart production and sustainable development going forward. This review articulates the current state of AI and big data applications in the food industry, analyses the challenges encountered, and discusses viable solutions. Lastly, it outlines the future development trends in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Food Industry)
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15 pages, 473 KiB  
Article
Research on the Impact of Consumer Experience Satisfaction on Green Food Repurchase Intention
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4510; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244510 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 787
Abstract
With the continuous improvement in people’s living standards and the change in consumption concept, green food is favored by more and more consumers. Consumer repurchase behavior is a necessary condition to activate the market, expand the consumption scale and stabilize the continuous growth [...] Read more.
With the continuous improvement in people’s living standards and the change in consumption concept, green food is favored by more and more consumers. Consumer repurchase behavior is a necessary condition to activate the market, expand the consumption scale and stabilize the continuous growth of the market. Repurchase intention is the most direct factor affecting consumers’ green food repurchase intention. Therefore, it is necessary to study consumers green food repurchase intentions. This study collects data from 303 consumer surveys on green food consumption to explore the impact of consumer satisfaction with consumption experience on green food repurchase intention and further explore the mechanisms and influence boundaries. The results show that (1) consumer experience satisfaction positively affects green food repurchase intention; (2) consumer experience satisfaction can improve consumers’ green food repurchase intention through consumer perceptions of social value, green self-efficacy and warm glow; (3) the higher the degree of consumer inertia, the stronger the influence of green self-efficacy and warm glow on consumers’ green food repurchase intention; and (4) the higher the degree of consumer subjective norms, the stronger the influence of consumer perceived social value, green self-efficacy and warm glow on the consumer’s green food repurchase intention. This study provides a new perspective and theoretical framework for promoting consumers’ green food repurchase intention, and it may have certain theoretical significance and practical impact on green food market growth, sustainable carrying of the ecological environment and high-quality development of agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Security and Structural Transformation of the Food Industry)
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15 pages, 2182 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rice Bran and Retrograded Time on the Qualities of Brown Rice Noodles: Edible Quality, Microstructure, and Moisture Migration
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4509; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244509 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Brown rice, as a kind of whole-grain food, has attracted significant attention due to its health benefits. This paper aimed to investigate the effect of rice bran content and retrograded time on the physicochemical properties and culinary qualities of brown rice noodles (BRNs). [...] Read more.
Brown rice, as a kind of whole-grain food, has attracted significant attention due to its health benefits. This paper aimed to investigate the effect of rice bran content and retrograded time on the physicochemical properties and culinary qualities of brown rice noodles (BRNs). The results indicated that the addition of rice bran altered the pasting properties, gel properties, and texture of the brown rice flours (BRFs). The optimal cooking time and water absorption of BRNs were reduced after the incorporation of rice bran to 14.9% and 41.9%, respectively, while the breaking rate increased from 2.2% to 23.3%. The color of BRNs became darker and yellower, and the overall acceptability by the consumer decreased. The addition of rice bran also led to a decrease in hardness, chewiness and crystallinity. The binding water inside the BRNs decreased, while the free water increased, resulting in a looser structure. This study revealed that the retrograded time of the BRNs also affected its quality. When the retrograded time was 7 h, the cooked BRNs had a lower breaking rate, good hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and better overall acceptability by consumers. The structure was compact, the internal binding water content of BRN was higher, and the free water content was lower. This study provides insights into developing nutritionally healthy, high-quality novel rice flour products, and offers a theoretical basis for the industrial production of BRNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods - 3rd Edition)
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14 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Effects of Halogen Lamp and Traditional Sun Drying on the Volatile Compounds, Color Parameters, and Gel Texture of Gongliao Gelidium Seaweed
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4508; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244508 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Traditionally, the processing of Gelidium seaweed into Gelidium jelly was very complicated, and involved repeated washing with water and sun drying for seven rounds. The seaweed, which is originally reddish-purple in color, turns yellow in color after the repeated washing and sun drying [...] Read more.
Traditionally, the processing of Gelidium seaweed into Gelidium jelly was very complicated, and involved repeated washing with water and sun drying for seven rounds. The seaweed, which is originally reddish-purple in color, turns yellow in color after the repeated washing and sun drying cycles. However, the sun drying process can only be used on sunny days. Therefore, this study evaluated an alternative method, halogen lamp drying, and compared the qualities of the product, Gelidium jelly, made using the halogen lamp drying and traditional sun drying methods. The properties investigated included the agar yield, gelling temperature, hardness, springiness, rheological parameters, sensory attributes, color, and volatile compounds. The results demonstrated that the halogen lamp drying method required 12 washing and drying cycles to achieve similar jelly properties to seven rounds of sun drying in the experimental conditions. Volatiles including heptanal, β-ionone, and (E)-2-decenal could be used as indicators to monitor the washing and drying processes. Halogen lamp drying could be an alternative processing method for seaweed drying, especially on rainy days. Full article
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16 pages, 1829 KiB  
Article
Exploring for HPLC-MS/MS Profiles and Biological Activities of Different Extracts from Allium lycaonicum Siehe ex Hayek from Turkey Flora
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4507; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244507 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 597
Abstract
The present study was designed to determine the phenolic constituents, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibition activities of aerial parts and bulbs of Allium lycaonicum (family Amaryllidaceae). Extracts were prepared by maceration and Soxhlet/infusion using hexane, methanol, and water as extraction solvents. Generally, extracts from [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to determine the phenolic constituents, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibition activities of aerial parts and bulbs of Allium lycaonicum (family Amaryllidaceae). Extracts were prepared by maceration and Soxhlet/infusion using hexane, methanol, and water as extraction solvents. Generally, extracts from the aerial parts showed higher total phenolic and individual components and antioxidant activity than their respective bulb extracts. Maceration with water was the best to extract total phenolic content from the aerial parts (29.00 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g), while the Soxhlet extraction with hexane (22.29 mg GAE/g) was the best for the bulb. Maceration with methanol recovered the highest total flavonoid content from both the aerial parts (41.95 mg (rutin equivalents (RE)/g) and bulb (1.83 mg RE/g). Polar extracts of aerial parts were characterized by higher abundance of kaempferol-3-glucoside (≤20,624.27 µg/mg), hyperoside (≤19,722.76 µg/g), isoquercitrin (≤17,270.70 µg/g), delphindin-3,5-diglucoside (≤14,625.21 µg/g), and rutin (≤10,901.61 µg/g) than the bulb. Aerial parts’ aqueous extract, prepared by maceration, exerted the highest anti-ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical activity (64.09 mg trolox equivalents (TE)/g), Cu++ (83.03 mg TE/g) and Fe+++ (63.03 mg TE/g) reducing capacity while that prepared by infusion recorded the highest anti-DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical (31.70 mg TE/g) and metal chelating (27.66 mg EDTAE/g) activities. The highest total antioxidant activity (1.46 mmol TE/g) was obtained by maceration of the bulb with water. Extracts obtained by organic solvents showed remarkable enzyme inhibition properties against the tested enzymes. Soxhlet extraction of the bulb with hexane and methanol recorded the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibition (4.75 mg galanthamine equivalents (GALAE)/g) and tyrosinase inhibition (139.95 mg kojic acid equivalents/g) activities, respectively. Extracts obtained by maceration of the bulb with methanol and the aerial parts with hexane exerted the highest glucosidase inhibition (3.25 mmol acarbose equivalents/g) and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition (20.99 mg GALAE/g) activities, respectively. These data indicated that A. lycaonicum is a source of bioactive molecules with potential antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties. Nonetheless, the extracts obtained through various solvents and extraction techniques showed variations in their phytoconstituent composition and biological properties. Full article
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4 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advances of Enzymes in the Food Industry
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4506; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244506 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Enzymes used in the food industry are obtained from plants, animals, or microorganisms [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Enzymes in Food Industry)
13 pages, 3963 KiB  
Article
Enzymatic Acylation of Black Rice Anthocyanins and Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity and Stability of Their Derivatives
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4505; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244505 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 579
Abstract
In this study, the structure of the anthocyanin fractions isolated from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) was modified by the enzyme catalysis method using caffeic acid as an acyl donor. At the same time, the effects of the acylation on the lipophilicity, [...] Read more.
In this study, the structure of the anthocyanin fractions isolated from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) was modified by the enzyme catalysis method using caffeic acid as an acyl donor. At the same time, the effects of the acylation on the lipophilicity, antioxidant activity, and stability of black rice anthocyanins were comprehensively evaluated. The structural analyses of acylated derivatives based on ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that caffeic acid was efficiently grafted onto the anthocyanins of black rice through an acylated reaction, while the acylation binding site was on glucoside. When the mass ratios of anthocyanins to caffeic acid were 1:1, the A319/AVis-max value of acylated anthocyanins reached 6.37. Meanwhile, the lipophilicity of acylated derivatives was enhanced. The antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP) and stability (thermal, pH, and light stability) were significantly increased. Overall, the study results provide deeper insights into controlling anthocyanin homeostasis in food processing, broadening the application of colored grain products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain Quality Characterization before and after Processing)
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11 pages, 1692 KiB  
Article
Effects of Near-Freezing Temperature Combined with Jujube Polysaccharides Treatment on Proteomic Analysis of ‘Diaogan’ Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244504 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 822
Abstract
This study involved the extraction of polysaccharides from jujube for application in apricot storage. Although near-freezing temperature (NFT) storage is commonly employed for preserving fresh fruit, its effectiveness is somewhat limited. Incorporating jujube polysaccharides was proposed to augment the preservative effect on apricots. [...] Read more.
This study involved the extraction of polysaccharides from jujube for application in apricot storage. Although near-freezing temperature (NFT) storage is commonly employed for preserving fresh fruit, its effectiveness is somewhat limited. Incorporating jujube polysaccharides was proposed to augment the preservative effect on apricots. Our findings demonstrated that the combined use of NFT and jujube polysaccharides can maintain fruit color, and effectively inhibit decay. Additionally, Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) quantitative proteomic technology was utilized to analyze protein variations in ‘Diaogan’ apricots during storage. This dual approach not only markedly lowered the activity of polyphenol cell wall-degrading enzymes (p < 0.05) but also revealed 1054 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), which are related to sugar and energy metabolism, stress response and defense, lipid metabolism, and cell wall degradation. The changes in DEPs indicated that the combined use of NFT and jujube polysaccharides could accelerate the conversion of malic acid to oxaloacetic acid and regulate antioxidant ability, potentially extending the storage lifespan of apricot fruit. Full article
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21 pages, 5317 KiB  
Review
Green Onion (Allium fistulosum): An Aromatic Vegetable Crop Esteemed for Food, Nutritional and Therapeutic Significance
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244503 - 16 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a shift towards a greater demand for more nutritious and healthier foods, emphasizing the role of diets in human well-being. Edible Alliums, including common onions, garlic, chives and green onions, are staples in diverse cuisines worldwide [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a shift towards a greater demand for more nutritious and healthier foods, emphasizing the role of diets in human well-being. Edible Alliums, including common onions, garlic, chives and green onions, are staples in diverse cuisines worldwide and are valued specifically for their culinary versatility, distinct flavors and nutritional and medicinal properties. Green onions are widely cultivated and traded as a spicy vegetable. The mild, onion-like flavor makes the crop a pleasant addition to various dishes, serving as a staple ingredient in many world cuisines, particularly in Eastern Asian countries such as China, Japan and the Republic of Korea. The green pseudostems, leaves and non-developed bulbs of green onions are utilized in salads, stir-fries, garnishes and a myriad of culinary preparations. Additionally, green onions have a rich historical background in traditional medicine and diets, capturing the attention of chefs and the general public. The status of the crop as an important food, its culinary diversity and its nutraceutical and therapeutic value make it a subject of great interest in research. Therefore, the present review has examined the distribution, culinary, nutritional and therapeutic significance of green onions, highlighting the health benefits derived from the consumption of diets with this aromatic vegetable crop as a constituent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Food:From Nutritional Value to Health Benefits)
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18 pages, 1347 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes, and Population Levels of Food Safety Indicator Microorganisms in Retail Raw Chicken Meat and Ready-To-Eat Fresh Leafy Greens Salads Sold in Greece
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244502 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 5129
Abstract
The presence of microbial pathogens in foods compromises their safety resulting in foodborne illnesses, public health disorders, product recalls, and economic losses. In this work, 60 samples of chilled raw chicken meat and 40 samples of packaged ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh leafy greens salads, [...] Read more.
The presence of microbial pathogens in foods compromises their safety resulting in foodborne illnesses, public health disorders, product recalls, and economic losses. In this work, 60 samples of chilled raw chicken meat and 40 samples of packaged ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh leafy greens salads, sold in Greek retail stores (butchers and supermarkets), were analyzed for the presence of three important foodborne pathogenic bacteria, i.e., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes, following the detection protocols of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). In parallel, the total aerobic plate count (APC), Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and staphylococci were also enumerated as hygiene (safety) indicator organisms. When present, representative typical colonies for each pathogen were biochemically verified, following the ISO guidelines. At the same time, all the Campylobacter isolates from chicken (n = 120) were identified to the species level and further phylogenetically discriminated through multiplex and repetitive sequence-based (rep) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, respectively. Concerning raw chicken, Campylobacter spp. were recovered from 54 samples (90.0%) and Salmonella spp. were recovered from 9 samples (15.0%), while L. monocytogenes was present in 35 samples (58.3%). No Campylobacter was recovered from salads, and Salmonella was present in only one sample (2.5%), while three salads were found to be contaminated with L. monocytogenes (7.5%). The 65% of the Campylobacter chicken isolates belonged to C. jejuni, whereas the rest, 35%, belonged to C. coli. Alarmingly, APC was equal to or above 106 CFU/g in 53.3% and 95.0% of chicken and salad samples, respectively, while the populations of some of the other safety indicators were in some cases also high. In sum, this study unravels high occurrence percentages for some pathogenic and food safety indicator microorganisms in raw chicken meat and RTE fresh leafy greens salads sold in Greek retail, highlighting the need for more extensive microbiological control throughout the food production chain (from the farm/field to the market). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria: Prevalence and Control—Volume II)
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15 pages, 3092 KiB  
Article
Influence of Salting and Ripening Conditions on the Characteristics of a Reduced-Fat, Semi-Hard, Sheep Milk Cheese
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4501; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244501 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 621
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the effect of salting and ripening conditions on the features of sheep milk, reduced-fat, semi-hard cheese. Eight groups of cheese, with an average fat content of ≅10.5%, moisture on non-fat substances (MNFS) ≅ 56%, a protein-to-fat ratio of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the effect of salting and ripening conditions on the features of sheep milk, reduced-fat, semi-hard cheese. Eight groups of cheese, with an average fat content of ≅10.5%, moisture on non-fat substances (MNFS) ≅ 56%, a protein-to-fat ratio of 2.9 and pH 5.1, were manufactured and analyzed throughout ripening. The experimental factors were the salting method (brine- or dry-salting), the salt content (control- and reduced-salt) and the ripening temperature sequence (11 or 18 °C at the 3rd and 4th week). Brine-salted cheese exhibited significantly more adequate (p < 0.05) textural and organoleptic characteristics compared to its dry-salted counterpart, i.e., lower hardness, gumminess and adhesiveness, with higher lightness and flavor scores. The mean salt reduction from 2.1 to 1.6% exhibited significant effects (p < 0.05), i.e., increased moisture and MNFS, decreased hardness, gumminess, chewiness and adhesiveness, and increased lightness and meltability of cheese without affecting the microbiological stability or impairing the organoleptic parameters. Ripening at 18 °C at weeks 3–4 significantly increased (p < 0.05) proteolysis and concentrations of lactic and citric acid without affecting meltability, textural or organoleptic features. In conclusion, brine-salting, salt reduction by 20% and the elevation of temperature at a particular ripening period improved the characteristics of this type of reduced-fat sheep milk cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
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13 pages, 3324 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Hyperspectral Imaging with Chemometrics to Assess Beef Maturity
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4500; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244500 - 16 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
There is a growing demand from consumers for more assurance in premium food products such as beef and especially steak. The quality of beef steak is primarily dictated by the maturation which ultimately influences its taste and flavor. These enhanced qualities have resulted [...] Read more.
There is a growing demand from consumers for more assurance in premium food products such as beef and especially steak. The quality of beef steak is primarily dictated by the maturation which ultimately influences its taste and flavor. These enhanced qualities have resulted in steak becoming a premium product that consumers are willing to pay a premium price for. A challenge, however, is analyzing the maturity of beef by traditional analytical techniques. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a methodology that is gaining traction mainly due to miniaturization, improved optics, and software. In this study, HSI was applied to wet aged beef supplied at various stages of maturity, with spectral data generated using a portable hyperspectral camera. Two trials were conducted over a five-month period: (i) proof of principle and (ii) a bespoke sampling trial for the industry. With the support of industry participation, all samples were sourced from a highly reputable UK/Ireland supplier. To enhance data interpretation, the spectral data collected were combined with multivariate analysis. A range of chemometric models were generated using unsupervised and supervised methods to determine the maturity of the beef, and external validation was performed. The external validation showed good accuracy for “unknown samples” tested against the model set and ranged from 74 to 100% for the different stages of maturity (20, 30, and 40 days old). This study demonstrated that HSI can detect different maturity timepoints for beef samples, which could play an important role in solving some of the challenges that the industry faces with ensuring the authenticity of their products. This is the first time that portable HSI has been coupled with chemometric modeling for assessing the maturity of beef, and it can serve as a model for other food authenticity and quality applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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21 pages, 5068 KiB  
Article
Influence of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on the Activity and Conformational Changes of α-Amylase, Lipase, and Peroxidase in the Solid State Using White Wheat Flour as an Example
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244499 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Green technologies using renewable and alternative sources, including supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2), are becoming a priority for researchers in a variety of fields, including the control of enzyme activity which, among other applications, is extremely important in the food industry. Namely, [...] Read more.
Green technologies using renewable and alternative sources, including supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2), are becoming a priority for researchers in a variety of fields, including the control of enzyme activity which, among other applications, is extremely important in the food industry. Namely, extending shelf life of e.g., flour could be reached by tuning the present enzymes activity. In this study, the effect of different sc-CO2 conditions such as temperature (35–50 °C), pressure (200 bar and 300 bar), and exposure time (1–6 h) on the inactivation and structural changes of α-amylase, lipase, and horseradish peroxidase (POD) from white wheat flour and native enzymes was investigated. The total protein (TPC) content and residual activities of the enzymes were determined by standard spectrophotometric methods, while the changes in the secondary structures of the enzymes were determined by circular dichroism spectrometry (CD). The present work is therefore concerned for the first time with the study of the stability and structural changes of the enzyme molecules dominant in white wheat flour under sc-CO2 conditions at different pressures and temperatures. In addition, the changes in aggregation or dissociation of the enzyme molecules were investigated based on the changes in particle size distribution and ζ-potential. The results of the activity assays showed a decrease in the activity of native POD and lipase under optimal exposure conditions (6 h and 50 °C; and 1 h and 50 °C) by 22% and 16%, respectively. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in α-amylase activity. Consequently, analysis of the CD spectra of POD and lipase confirmed a significant effect on secondary structure damage (changes in α-helix, β-sheet, and β-turn content), whereas the secondary structure of α-amylase retained its original configuration. Moreover, the changes in particle size distribution and ζ-potential showed a significant effect of sc-CO2 treatment on the aggregation and dissociation of the selected enzymes. The results of this study confirm that sc-CO2 technology can be effectively used as an environmentally friendly technology to control the activity of major flour enzymes by altering their structures. Full article
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19 pages, 2267 KiB  
Article
Potential for Saccharina latissima Flour as a Functional Ingredient in the Baking Sector
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4498; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244498 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1320
Abstract
The healthy “superfood” sector is currently quickly developing in Europe, and grocery stores are increasingly stocking macroalgae food supplements. Due to its high amount of protein, fiber, and minerals, numerous studies have demonstrated that seaweed has a significant potential for usage as a [...] Read more.
The healthy “superfood” sector is currently quickly developing in Europe, and grocery stores are increasingly stocking macroalgae food supplements. Due to its high amount of protein, fiber, and minerals, numerous studies have demonstrated that seaweed has a significant potential for usage as a functional ingredient in the food sector. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the rheological (ICC 173 standard method) and chemical potentials of using Saccharina latissima flour in the bread sector. The calcium level of S. latissima flour was found to be 8236 mg/kg, the magnesium level was 6041 mg/kg, the K concentration was 62,088 mg/kg, the iron content was 35.23 mg/kg, the P content was 2263 mg/kg, and the I content was 12,530 mg/kg, significantly higher values than those of wheat flour. The antioxidant properties of the algae powder used were highlighted by the analysis of the total polyphenol content and its antioxidant activity (DPPH method). Four bread samples, which were compared with the control sample entirely made of wheat flour in order to evaluate their potential, were made, using a replacement degree from 1.5% to 6% of S. latissima. Rheological analyses were completed using the ICC 173 standard method, as well as sensorial analysis, where a panel of assessors’ evaluations compared the sensory properties of samples with 1.5–6% of S. latissima flour to a control sample manufactured with flour type 650. It was concluded that sample A1 (1.5% algae flour) has sensorial properties similar to those of the control sample, and, for the other samples, the properties began to degrade with the increase in the amount of algae flour. Textural analyses performed during 96 h of storage show that the firmness and gumminess increase with the addition of algae flour and over time. The conclusions indicated that samples comprising 4.5% and 6% of S. latissima are unsatisfactory from a rheological and sensory perspective, while samples having 1.5% and 3% of S. latissima can be viewed as sources of fiber and minerals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization and Use of Seaweed in the Food Sector, Volume II)
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13 pages, 1729 KiB  
Article
Development of a Gene-Based Soybean-Origin Discrimination Method Using Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4497; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244497 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 604
Abstract
A low soybean self-sufficiency rate in South Korea has caused a high import dependence and considerable price variation between domestic and foreign soybeans, causing the false labeling of foreign soybeans as domestic. Conventional soybean origin discrimination methods prevent a single-grain analysis and rely [...] Read more.
A low soybean self-sufficiency rate in South Korea has caused a high import dependence and considerable price variation between domestic and foreign soybeans, causing the false labeling of foreign soybeans as domestic. Conventional soybean origin discrimination methods prevent a single-grain analysis and rely on the presence or absence of several compounds or concentration differences. This limits the origin discrimination of mixed samples, demonstrating the need for a method that analyzes individual grains. Therefore, we developed a method for origin discrimination using genetic analysis. The whole-genome sequencing data of the Williams 82 reference cultivar and 15 soybean varieties cultivated in South Korea were analyzed to identify the dense variation blocks (dVBs) with a high single-nucleotide polymorphism density. The PCR primers were prepared and validated for the insertion–deletion (InDel) sequences of the dVBs to discriminate each soybean variety. Our method effectively discriminated domestic and foreign soybean varieties, eliminating their false labeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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14 pages, 5889 KiB  
Article
Antarctic Soil Yeasts with Fermentative Capacity and Potential for the Wine Industry
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4496; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244496 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Low fermentation temperatures are usually employed to obtain high-quality wines. This is especially interesting for white wine production since it prevents the loss of volatile compounds and a browning appearance; however, available fermentative yeasts do not usually tolerate low temperatures. Therefore, an interesting [...] Read more.
Low fermentation temperatures are usually employed to obtain high-quality wines. This is especially interesting for white wine production since it prevents the loss of volatile compounds and a browning appearance; however, available fermentative yeasts do not usually tolerate low temperatures. Therefore, an interesting place to find new yeasts with cryotolerance is the Antarctic continent. From soil samples collected in Antarctica, 125 yeasts were isolated, of which 25 exhibited fermentative activity at 10 °C. After a fingerprinting assay, we classified the candidates into nine isotypes and sequenced internal transcribed spacer regions for their identification. These yeasts were identified as part of the Mrakia genus. Sugar and alcohol tolerance tests showed that some of these Antarctic soil yeasts were able to grow up to 9% alcohol, and 25% sugar was reached; however, they exhibited longer latency periods compared to the control Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal growing temperature for the isolated Antarctic yeasts was between 10 °C and 15 °C. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained showed that the isolates 10M3-1, 4M3-6, and 4B1-35 could be good candidates for fermentation purposes due to their alcohol, sugar tolerance, and growth features. Our results prove that it is possible to isolate fermentative yeasts from Antarctic soil with promising characteristics for their potential use in the wine production industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Microbial Diversity of Fermented Foods)
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20 pages, 1997 KiB  
Review
Multispecies Bacterial Biofilms and Their Evaluation Using Bioreactors
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4495; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244495 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Pathogenic biofilm formation within food processing industries raises a serious public health and safety concern, and places burdens on the economy. Biofilm formation on equipment surfaces is a rather complex phenomenon, wherein multiple steps are involved in bacterial biofilm formation. In this review [...] Read more.
Pathogenic biofilm formation within food processing industries raises a serious public health and safety concern, and places burdens on the economy. Biofilm formation on equipment surfaces is a rather complex phenomenon, wherein multiple steps are involved in bacterial biofilm formation. In this review we discuss the stages of biofilm formation, the existing literature on the impact of surface properties and shear stress on biofilms, types of bioreactors, and antimicrobial coatings. The review underscores the significance of prioritizing biofilm prevention strategies as a first line of defense, followed by control measures. Utilizing specific biofilm eradication strategies as opposed to a uniform approach is crucial because biofilms exhibit different behavioral outcomes even amongst the same species when the environmental conditions change. This review is geared towards biofilm researchers and food safety experts, and seeks to derive insights into the scope of biofilm formation, prevention, and control. The use of suitable bioreactors is paramount to understanding the mechanisms of biofilm formation. The findings provide useful information to researchers involved in bioreactor selection for biofilm investigation, and food processors in surfaces with novel antimicrobial coatings, which provide minimal bacterial attachment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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18 pages, 954 KiB  
Article
Effect of Apple Cultivar and Selected Technological Treatments on the Quality of Apple Distillate
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4494; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244494 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Apple producers are looking for new markets to dispose of their harvest surpluses. One of the solutions may be the production of apple spirits by small distilleries. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of apple cultivars and technological treatments, i.e., pasteurization, depectinization, [...] Read more.
Apple producers are looking for new markets to dispose of their harvest surpluses. One of the solutions may be the production of apple spirits by small distilleries. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of apple cultivars and technological treatments, i.e., pasteurization, depectinization, and deacidification, on the fermentation efficiency and quality of the distillates. Samples for fermentation were prepared from Polish apple cultivars (Antonówka, Delikates, Kosztela, Kronselska). The control samples were raw pulp-based samples. After fermentation, the samples were analyzed for ethanol, residual sugars, and by-product content by the HPLC technique. The distillates were tested for volatile compounds by the GC-MS method and their sensory evaluation was performed. Raw pulp-based samples, independent of the apple cultivar, showed fermentation efficiencies between (75.77 ± 4.69)% and (81.36 ± 4.69)% of the theoretical yield. Depectinization of apple pulp prior to fermentation resulted in the highest ethanol concentration and yield up to approximately 89%. All tested apple distillates were rich in volatile aroma compounds and met the requirements of the EU regulation for hydrogen cyanide content. The obtained results indicate that the tested apple cultivars can be used for the efficient production of apple spirits, providing producers with an opportunity for brand development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in the Latest Research on Fermented Beverages)
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19 pages, 3274 KiB  
Article
In Search of Authenticity Biomarkers in Food Supplements Containing Sea Buckthorn: A Metabolomics Approach
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4493; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244493 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) (SB) is increasingly consumed worldwide as a food and food supplement. The remarkable richness in biologically active phytochemicals (polyphenols, carotenoids, sterols, vitamins) is responsible for its purported nutritional and health-promoting effects. Despite the considerable interest and high [...] Read more.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) (SB) is increasingly consumed worldwide as a food and food supplement. The remarkable richness in biologically active phytochemicals (polyphenols, carotenoids, sterols, vitamins) is responsible for its purported nutritional and health-promoting effects. Despite the considerable interest and high market demand for SB-based supplements, a limited number of studies report on the authentication of such commercially available products. Herein, untargeted metabolomics based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-ESI+MS) were able to compare the phytochemical fingerprint of leaves, berries, and various categories of SB-berry herbal supplements (teas, capsules, tablets, liquids). By untargeted metabolomics, a multivariate discrimination analysis and a univariate approach (t-test and ANOVA) showed some putative authentication biomarkers for berries, e.g., xylitol, violaxanthin, tryptophan, quinic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside. Significant dominant molecules were found for leaves: luteolin-5-glucoside, arginine, isorhamnetin 3-rutinoside, serotonin, and tocopherol. The univariate analysis showed discriminations between the different classes of food supplements using similar algorithms. Finally, eight molecules were selected and considered significant putative authentication biomarkers. Further studies will be focused on quantitative evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Detecting Food Fraud and Authenticity)
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20 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
Morphological, Structural, Thermal, Pasting, and Digestive Properties of Starches Isolated from Different Varieties of Rice: A Systematic Comparative Study
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4492; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244492 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 707
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the properties of isolated starches from ten commonly consumed rice varieties in China and to investigate their possible association. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were performed to demonstrate the weight or [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the properties of isolated starches from ten commonly consumed rice varieties in China and to investigate their possible association. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were performed to demonstrate the weight or relevance of different properties. The starch granules had an irregular polyhedral structure. The crystalline structure had an orthogonal arrangement, which is characteristic of A-type starch with nanocrystals with an orthorhombic crystal structure. In addition, higher levels of rapidly digestible starch (72.43 to 74.32%) and resistant starch (2.27 to 2.3%) were found in glutinous rice starch. The highest content of slowly digestible starch (59.48%) was found in starch isolated from black rice, which may be an ideal rice variety for controlling blood glucose and weight. Starch isolated from red Hani terrace rice showed the highest thermal stability during cooking and the highest resistance to a high shear force treatment. In addition, the PCA suggests that the amylose content of starch largely determines the functional properties of starch and positively correlates with the peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the starch pasting. The results of this study will enrich the scientific knowledge of various rice starches and promote their application in the food industry and other industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition)
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13 pages, 2361 KiB  
Review
Active and Intelligent Biodegradable Packaging Based on Anthocyanins for Preserving and Monitoring Protein-Rich Foods
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4491; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244491 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
Currently, active and intelligent packaging has been developed to solve the spoilage problem for protein-rich foods during storage, especially by adding anthocyanin extracts. In such a film system, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties were dramatically increased by adding anthocyanins. The physicochemical properties were [...] Read more.
Currently, active and intelligent packaging has been developed to solve the spoilage problem for protein-rich foods during storage, especially by adding anthocyanin extracts. In such a film system, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties were dramatically increased by adding anthocyanins. The physicochemical properties were enhanced through interactions between the active groups in the anthocyanins and reactive groups in the polymer chains. Additionally, the active and intelligent film could monitor the spoilage of protein-rich foods in response to pH changes. Therefore, this film could monitor the sensory acceptance and extend the shelf life of protein-rich foods simultaneously. In this paper, the structural and functional properties of anthocyanins, composite actions of anthocyanin extracts and biomass materials, and reinforced properties of the active and intelligent film were discussed. Additionally, the applications of this film in quality maintenance, shelf-life extension, and quality monitoring for fresh meat, aquatic products, and milk were summarized. This film, which achieves high stability and the continuous release of anthocyanins on demand, may become an underlying trend in packaging applications for protein-rich foods. Full article
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