Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 21592

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Research and Technology (IITAA), Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
Interests: antimicrobials; bacterial; probiotics; lactic acid bacteria; microbiology; foodborne diseases; food microbiology; food science and technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Research and Technology (IITA-A), Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroismo, Portugal
Interests: bromatology; protein; dairy science; milk quality; feed evaluation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cheese is a fascinating food which has provided a means of nourishment, a way to preserve milk protein, and hedonic experiences to humankind from time immemorial. From a unique raw material—milk—a wide variety of cheese flavours, textures, and shapes has evolved through the ages as a result of human craftsmanship. Nowadays, science is needed to bring new light—and new opportunities—into the world of cheeses.

Over the last few decades, much has been learnt about the (bio)chemical and physical phenomena that give rise to most varieties of cheese, the impacts of its microbiota in said phenomena, and the impact of cheese microbes on consumer health. However, much remains to be discovered and many of the exciting recent publications in this area left several questions unanswered.

Contrary to other dairy products, the cheese market has expanded and this growth is expected to continue. Research-based innovation is needed to support this increasing trend. Furthermore, cheese is inextricably linked to the culture of the society that manufactures and consumes it, with numerous artisan varieties throughout the world acting as a valuable cultural element and source of revenue for local communities. Ensuring the sustainability of cheese production is, therefore, also important to help these traditions cope with the challenges of the current competitive markets. Research is crucial if this goal is to be achieved.

This Special Issue aims to collect research that can contribute to addressing the abovementioned aims. Your valuable contributions are welcome!

Prof. Dr. Maria de Lurdes Dapkevicius
Prof. Dr. Alfredo E.S. de Borba
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cheese chemistry
  • cheese microbiota
  • cheese physics
  • cheese technology
  • cheese safety
  • cheese innovation
  • artisanal cheese

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
Sensory Attributes and Instrumental Chemical Parameters of Commercial Spanish Cured Ewes’ Milk Cheeses: Insights into Cheese Quality Figures
by Ana Beltrán Sanahuja, Rafaela Pesci de Almeida, Kilian-Anja Igler Marí, Marina Cano Lamadrid, Arantzazu Valdés García and Esther Sendra Nadal
Foods 2024, 13(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13010127 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1202
Abstract
The external appearance of some of the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cured cheeses is similar to other cheese samples made in Spain: 1 kg and 2.5–3 kg formats, cylindrical, and with or without a pleita mark on the surface. In this work, [...] Read more.
The external appearance of some of the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cured cheeses is similar to other cheese samples made in Spain: 1 kg and 2.5–3 kg formats, cylindrical, and with or without a pleita mark on the surface. In this work, commercial cured ewe’s milk cheese samples with a similar external appearance were analyzed, including five PDO and five non-PDO samples. The parameters analyzed were color, texture, pH, humidity, water activity, and the volatile profile. Additionally, a descriptive and consumer-sensory analysis of the cheese samples was carried out. Statistical analysis of the results showed that luminosity, color coordinates a* and b*, percentage of deformation, humidity, water activity, and acid contents were significantly higher in non-PDO cheese samples. The breaking force, maximum force, and the content of esters were significantly higher in those cheese samples with PDO. In addition, PDO cheese samples showed higher scores for all attributes evaluated by consumers, except for color. These results suggest that PDO cheeses are placed on the market with a higher degree of ripening than non-PDO ones and that consequently they are more positively valued by consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 3092 KiB  
Article
Influence of Salting and Ripening Conditions on the Characteristics of a Reduced-Fat, Semi-Hard, Sheep Milk Cheese
by Lambros Sakkas, Ekaterini Moschopoulou and Golfo Moatsou
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4501; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244501 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 751
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the effect of salting and ripening conditions on the features of sheep milk, reduced-fat, semi-hard cheese. Eight groups of cheese, with an average fat content of ≅10.5%, moisture on non-fat substances (MNFS) ≅ 56%, a protein-to-fat ratio of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the effect of salting and ripening conditions on the features of sheep milk, reduced-fat, semi-hard cheese. Eight groups of cheese, with an average fat content of ≅10.5%, moisture on non-fat substances (MNFS) ≅ 56%, a protein-to-fat ratio of 2.9 and pH 5.1, were manufactured and analyzed throughout ripening. The experimental factors were the salting method (brine- or dry-salting), the salt content (control- and reduced-salt) and the ripening temperature sequence (11 or 18 °C at the 3rd and 4th week). Brine-salted cheese exhibited significantly more adequate (p < 0.05) textural and organoleptic characteristics compared to its dry-salted counterpart, i.e., lower hardness, gumminess and adhesiveness, with higher lightness and flavor scores. The mean salt reduction from 2.1 to 1.6% exhibited significant effects (p < 0.05), i.e., increased moisture and MNFS, decreased hardness, gumminess, chewiness and adhesiveness, and increased lightness and meltability of cheese without affecting the microbiological stability or impairing the organoleptic parameters. Ripening at 18 °C at weeks 3–4 significantly increased (p < 0.05) proteolysis and concentrations of lactic and citric acid without affecting meltability, textural or organoleptic features. In conclusion, brine-salting, salt reduction by 20% and the elevation of temperature at a particular ripening period improved the characteristics of this type of reduced-fat sheep milk cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Use of Cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) in Buffalo Feeding: Effect on Mozzarella Cheese Quality
by Claudia Lambiase, Ada Braghieri, Carmela Maria Assunta Barone, Antonio Di Francia, Corrado Pacelli, Francesco Serrapica, Jose Manuel Lorenzo and Giuseppe De Rosa
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4095; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224095 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
The high demand for PDO buffalo mozzarella cheese is leading to the use of new strategies for feeding supplementation. Spirulina is acknowledged as a valuable source of protein with antioxidant and immune-modulatory effects in humans and animals. This investigation aimed to examine the [...] Read more.
The high demand for PDO buffalo mozzarella cheese is leading to the use of new strategies for feeding supplementation. Spirulina is acknowledged as a valuable source of protein with antioxidant and immune-modulatory effects in humans and animals. This investigation aimed to examine the effect of Spirulina integration in buffalo diets on mozzarella cheese quality, sensory profile, consumer acceptability, and willingness to pay (WTP). The trial was carried out on two groups of 12 buffaloes that differed in Spirulina integration: 50 g/head/d before calving (1 month) and 100 g/head/d after calving (2 months). Both the bulk milk and mozzarella cheese samples from the two groups did not differ in chemical composition. However, Spirulina inclusion influenced the sensory quality of mozzarella cheese, which resulted it being externally brighter, with a higher butter odour and whey flavour and greater sweetness, bitterness, juiciness, tenderness, oiliness, and buttermilk release than the control. The consumer test showed that information about Spirulina affected consumer liking, causing them to be in favour of the Spirulina group, leading to a higher price for it. In conclusion, Spirulina inclusion in buffalo diets affected the sensory quality of mozzarella cheese. The provision of product information to consumers can be a crucial factor in determining their liking and WTP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 2014 KiB  
Article
Characterisation of Cooked Cheese Flavour: Non-Volatile Components
by Rosa C. Sullivan, Samantha Nottage, Fiyinfolu Makinwa, Maria Jose Oruna-Concha, Colette C. Fagan and Jane K. Parker
Foods 2023, 12(20), 3749; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12203749 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
This work examined the role of selected non-volatile compounds in cooked cheese flavour, both as tastants and as precursors of aroma generation in the Maillard reaction. The effect of cooking on the concentration of selected non-volatile compounds (organic acids, sugars, amino acids, γ-glutamyl [...] Read more.
This work examined the role of selected non-volatile compounds in cooked cheese flavour, both as tastants and as precursors of aroma generation in the Maillard reaction. The effect of cooking on the concentration of selected non-volatile compounds (organic acids, sugars, amino acids, γ-glutamyl dipeptides, and diketopiperazines) in six cheeses (mature Cheddar, mozzarella, Parmesan, and mild Cheddar (low, medium, and high fat)) was determined. Sugars, amino acids, and γ-glutamyl dipeptides were extracted and analysed by LC, whereas diketopiperazines were extracted by solid-phase extraction and analysed by GC-MS. Sugars, amino acids, and γ-glutamyl dipeptides decreased in concentration during cooking, whereas diketopiperazines and some organic acids increased in concentration. Diketopiperazines were above the taste threshold in some cooked cheeses and below the threshold in uncooked cheeses. The role of fat content in cooked cheese flavour is discussed. Furthermore, γ-glutamyl dipeptide concentration increased during 24 months of ageing in low, medium, and high-fat Cheddars, with similar levels of γ-glutamyl dipeptide detected in aged low and high-fat Cheddars. This work will give valuable insight for the dairy industry to inform the development of cheeses, especially low-fat variants, for use in cooked foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 1628 KiB  
Article
Compositional Differences of Greek Cheeses of Limited Production
by Eleni C. Pappa, Efthymia Kondyli, Athanasios C. Pappas, Elisavet Giamouri, Aikaterini Sarri, Alexandros Mavrommatis, Evangelos Zoidis, Lida Papalamprou, Panagiotis Simitzis, Michael Goliomytis, Eleni Tsiplakou and Constantinos A. Georgiou
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122426 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Greece has a long tradition in cheesemaking, with 22 cheeses registered as protected designation of origin (PDO), 1 as protected geographical indication (PGI), and 1 applied for PGI. Several other cheeses are produced locally without any registration, which significantly contribute to the local [...] Read more.
Greece has a long tradition in cheesemaking, with 22 cheeses registered as protected designation of origin (PDO), 1 as protected geographical indication (PGI), and 1 applied for PGI. Several other cheeses are produced locally without any registration, which significantly contribute to the local economy. The present study investigated the composition (moisture, fat, salt, ash, and protein content), color parameters, and oxidative stability of cheeses that do not have a PDO/PGI certification, purchased from a Greek market. Milk and cheese types were correctly assigned for 62.8 and 82.1 % of samples, respectively, through discriminant analysis. The most important factors for milk type discrimination were L, a and b color attributes, salt, ash, fat-in-dry-matter, moisture-in-non-fat-substance, salt-in-moisture, and malondialdehyde contents, whereas a and b, and moisture, ash, fat, moisture-in-non-fat substance contents, and pH were the most influential characteristics for sample discrimination according to cheese type. A plausible explanation may be the differences in milk chemical composition between three animal species, namely cows, sheep, and goats and for the manufacture procedure and ripening. This is the very first report on the proximate analysis of these, largely ignored, chesses aiming to simulate interest for further study and production valorization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1587 KiB  
Article
Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals the Functional Traits and Safety Status of Lactic Acid Bacteria Retrieved from Artisanal Cheeses and Raw Sheep Milk
by Ilias Apostolakos, Spiros Paramithiotis and Marios Mataragas
Foods 2023, 12(3), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030599 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are valuable for the production of fermented dairy products. We investigated the functional traits of LAB isolated from artisanal cheeses and raw sheep milk, assessed their safety status, and explored the genetic processes underlying the fermentation of carbohydrates. Lactiplantibacillus [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are valuable for the production of fermented dairy products. We investigated the functional traits of LAB isolated from artisanal cheeses and raw sheep milk, assessed their safety status, and explored the genetic processes underlying the fermentation of carbohydrates. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum had the largest and more functional genome compared to all other LAB, while most of its protein-encoding genes had unknown functions. A key finding of our analysis was the overall absence of acquired resistance genes (RGs), virulence genes (VGs), and prophages, denoting that all LAB isolates fulfill safety criteria and can be used as starter or adjunct cultures. In this regard, the identified mobile genetic elements found in LAB, rather than enabling the integration of RGs or VGs, they likely facilitate the uptake of genes involved in beneficial functions and in the adaptation of LAB in dairy matrices. Another important finding of our study was that bacteriocins and CAZymes were abundant in LAB though each species was associated with specific genes, which in turn had different activity spectrums and identified applications. Additionally, all isolates were able to metabolize glucose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose, but Lactiplantibacillus plantarum was strongly associated with the fermentation of rhamnose, mannose, cellobiose, and trehalose whereas Levilactobacillus brevis with the utilization of arabinose and xylose. Altogether these results suggest that to fully exploit the beneficial properties of LAB, a combination of strains as food additives may be necessary. Interestingly, biological processes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates that are not of direct interest for the dairy industry may yield valuable metabolites or activate pathways associated with beneficial health effects. Our results provide useful information for the development of new probiotic artisanal cheeses and probiotic starter cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2430 KiB  
Article
Changes in Key Aroma Compounds and Esterase Activity of Monascus-Fermented Cheese across a 30-Day Ripening Period
by Hong Zeng, Yadong Wang, Haoying Han, Yanping Cao and Bei Wang
Foods 2022, 11(24), 4026; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11244026 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Monascus-fermented cheese (MC) is a new type of mold-ripened cheese that combines a traditional Chinese fermentation fungus, Monascus purpureus M1, with Western cheese fermentation techniques. In this study, the compositions of the volatile aroma compounds in MC were analyzed during a 30-day [...] Read more.
Monascus-fermented cheese (MC) is a new type of mold-ripened cheese that combines a traditional Chinese fermentation fungus, Monascus purpureus M1, with Western cheese fermentation techniques. In this study, the compositions of the volatile aroma compounds in MC were analyzed during a 30-day ripening period using SPME-Arrow and GC-O-MS. The activity of esterase in MC, which is a key enzyme catalyzing esterification reaction, was determined and compared with the control group (CC). Next, sensory analysis was conducted via quantitative descriptive analysis followed by Pearson correlation analysis between esterase activity and the key flavor compounds. A total of 76 compounds were detected. Thirty-three of these compounds could be smelled at the sniffing port and were identified as the key aroma compounds. The esterase activity in MC was found to be 1.24~1.33 times that of the CC. Moreover, the key odor features of ripened MC were alcohol and fruity flavors, considerably deviating from the sour and cheesy features found for the ripened CC. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that esterase activity was strongly correlated (|r|> 0.75, p < 0.05) with various acids such as pentanoic and nonanoic acids and several aromatic esters, namely, octanoic acid ethyl ester and decanoic acid ethyl ester, revealing the key role that esterases play in developing the typical aroma of ripened MC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 697 KiB  
Article
Altering the Chain Length Specificity of a Lipase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus for the Application in Cheese Making
by Niklas Broel, Miriam A. Sowa, Julia Manhard, Alexander Siegl, Edgar Weichhard, Holger Zorn, Binglin Li and Martin Gand
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2608; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172608 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
In traditional cheese making, pregastric lipolytic enzymes of animal origin are used for the acceleration of ripening and the formation of spicy flavor compounds. Especially for cheese specialities, such as Pecorino, Provolone, or Feta, pregastric esterases (PGE) play an important role. A lipase [...] Read more.
In traditional cheese making, pregastric lipolytic enzymes of animal origin are used for the acceleration of ripening and the formation of spicy flavor compounds. Especially for cheese specialities, such as Pecorino, Provolone, or Feta, pregastric esterases (PGE) play an important role. A lipase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus could serve as a substitute for these animal-derived enzymes, thus offering vegetarian, kosher, and halal alternatives. However, the hydrolytic activity of this enzyme towards long-chain fatty acids is slightly too high, which may lead to off-flavors during long-term ripening. Therefore, an optimization via protein engineering (PE) was performed by changing the specificity towards medium-chain fatty acids. With a semi-rational design, possible mutants at eight different positions were created and analyzed in silico. Heterologous expression was performed for 24 predicted mutants, of which 18 caused a change in the hydrolysis profile. Three mutants (F91L, L302G, and L305A) were used in application tests to produce Feta-type brine cheese. The sensory analyses showed promising results for cheeses prepared with the L305A mutant, and SPME-GC-MS analysis of volatile free fatty acids supported these findings. Therefore, altering the chain length specificity via PE becomes a powerful tool for the replacement of PGEs in cheese making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 5237 KiB  
Article
Differences between Kazak Cheeses Fermented by Single and Mixed Strains Using Untargeted Metabolomics
by Yandie Li, Jianghan Wang, Tong Wang, Zhuoxia Lv, Linting Liu, Yuping Wang, Xu Li, Zhexin Fan and Baokun Li
Foods 2022, 11(7), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11070966 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2507
Abstract
Mixed fermentation improves the flavor quality of food. Untargeted metabolomics were used to evaluate the impact of mixed fermentation and single-strain fermentation on the volatile and non-volatile compound profiles of Kazak cheese. Lacticaseibacillus paracasei SMN-LBK and Kluyveromyces marxianus SMN-S7-LBK were used to make [...] Read more.
Mixed fermentation improves the flavor quality of food. Untargeted metabolomics were used to evaluate the impact of mixed fermentation and single-strain fermentation on the volatile and non-volatile compound profiles of Kazak cheese. Lacticaseibacillus paracasei SMN-LBK and Kluyveromyces marxianus SMN-S7-LBK were used to make mixed-fermentation cheese (M), while L. paracasei SMN-LBK was applied in single-strain-fermentation cheese (S). A higher abundances of acids, alcohols, and esters were produced via mixed fermentation. Furthermore, 397 differentially expressed non-volatile metabolites were identified between S and M during ripening. The flavor compounds in mixed-fermentation cheese mainly resulted from ester production (ethyl butanoate, ethyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl hexanoate) and amino acid biosynthesis (Asp, Glu, Gln, and Phe). The metabolites were differentially expressed in nitrogen metabolism, D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, D-alanine metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. The amount of flavor compounds was increased in M, indicating that L. paracasei SMN- LBK and K. marxianus SMN-S7-LBK had synergistic effects in the formation of flavor compounds. This study comprehensively demonstrated the difference in metabolites between mixed-fermentation and single-strain-fermentation cheese and provided a basis for the production of Kazak cheese with diverse flavor characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

18 pages, 1030 KiB  
Review
Involvement of Versatile Bacteria Belonging to the Genus Arthrobacter in Milk and Dairy Products
by Nuthathai Sutthiwong, Supaporn Lekavat and Laurent Dufossé
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061270 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Milk is naturally a rich source of many essential nutrients; therefore, it is quite a suitable medium for bacterial growth and serves as a reservoir for bacterial contamination. The genus Arthrobacter is a food-related bacterial group commonly present as a contaminant in milk [...] Read more.
Milk is naturally a rich source of many essential nutrients; therefore, it is quite a suitable medium for bacterial growth and serves as a reservoir for bacterial contamination. The genus Arthrobacter is a food-related bacterial group commonly present as a contaminant in milk and dairy products as primary and secondary microflora. Arthrobacter bacteria frequently demonstrate the nutritional versatility to degrade different compounds even in extreme environments. As a result of their metabolic diversity, Arthrobacter species have long been of interest to scientists for application in various industry and biotechnology sectors. In the dairy industry, strains from the Arthrobacter genus are part of the microflora of raw milk known as an indicator of hygiene quality. Although they cause spoilage, they are also regarded as important strains responsible for producing fermented milk products, especially cheeses. Several Arthrobacter spp. have reported their significance in the development of cheese color and flavor. Furthermore, based on the data obtained from previous studies about its thermostability, and thermoacidophilic and thermoresistant properties, the genus Arthrobacter promisingly provides advantages for use as a potential producer of β-galactosidases to fulfill commercial requirements as its enzymes allow dairy products to be treated under mild conditions. In light of these beneficial aspects derived from Arthrobacter spp. including pigmentation, flavor formation, and enzyme production, this bacterial genus is potentially important for the dairy industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2558 KiB  
Review
Rennet-Induced Casein Micelle Aggregation Models: A Review
by Daniel Salvador, Yoseli Acosta, Anna Zamora and Manuel Castillo
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091243 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4987
Abstract
Two phases are generally recognized in the enzymatic coagulation of milk: hydrolysis and aggregation, although nowadays more and more researchers consider the non-enzymatic phase to actually be a stage of gel formation made up of two sub-stages: micellar aggregation and hardening of the [...] Read more.
Two phases are generally recognized in the enzymatic coagulation of milk: hydrolysis and aggregation, although nowadays more and more researchers consider the non-enzymatic phase to actually be a stage of gel formation made up of two sub-stages: micellar aggregation and hardening of the three-dimensional network of para-κ-casein. To evaluate this controversy, the main descriptive models have been reviewed. Most of them can only model micellar aggregation, without modeling the hardening stage. Some are not generalizable enough. However, more recent models have been proposed, applicable to a wide range of conditions, which could differentiate both substages. Manufacturing quality enzymatic cheeses in a cost-effective and consistent manner requires effective control of coagulation, which implies studying the non-enzymatic sub-stages of coagulation separately, as numerous studies require specific measurement methods for each of them. Some authors have recently reviewed the micellar aggregation models, but without differentiating it from hardening. Therefore, a review of the proposed models is necessary, as coagulation cannot be controlled without knowing its mechanisms and the stages that constitute it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop