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Foods, Volume 13, Issue 9 (May-1 2024) – 142 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this review, significant attention is directed towards summarizing the characteristics of canola seed and canola seed protein. In addition, points of discussion related to pretreatment include an introduction to pulsed electric field treatment (PEF), microwave treatment (MC), and ultrasound treatment (UL). Then, the extraction method is illustrated, including alkaline extraction, isoelectric precipitation, acid precipitation, micellization (salt extraction), and dry fractionation and tribo-electrostatic separation. Finally, the structural complexity, physicochemical properties, and functional capabilities of rapeseed seeds, as well as the profound impact of various applications of rapeseed proteins, are discussed. View this paper
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22 pages, 6956 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharide on the Physicochemical, Multiscale Structure and Digestive Properties of Cyperus esculentus Starch
by Shanshan Zhang, Yingxu Liu, Tong Sun, Hongcheng Liu and Dawei Wang
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091425 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 574
Abstract
In this study, we have investigated the effects of Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TP) on the pasting, rheological, structural and in vitro digestive properties of Cyperus esculentus starch (CS). The results showed that the addition of TP significantly changed the pasting characteristics of CS, [...] Read more.
In this study, we have investigated the effects of Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TP) on the pasting, rheological, structural and in vitro digestive properties of Cyperus esculentus starch (CS). The results showed that the addition of TP significantly changed the pasting characteristics of CS, increased the pasting temperature and pasting viscosity, inhibited pasting, reduced the exudation of straight-chain starch and was positively correlated with the amount of TP added. The addition of the appropriate amount of TP could increase its apparent viscosity and enhance its viscoelasticity. The composite system of CS/TP exhibited higher short-range ordered structure and solid dense structure, which protected the crystal structure of CS, but was related to the amount of TP added. In addition, the introduction of TP not only decreased the in vitro digestion rate of CS and increased the content of slow-digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), but also reduced the degree of digestion. Correlation studies established that TP could improve the viscoelasticity, relative crystallinity and short-range order of the CS/TP composite gel, maintain the integrity of the starch granule and crystalline structure, reduce the degree of starch pasting and strengthen the gel network structure of CS, which could help to lower the digestibility of CS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition)
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21 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Actual Fitness Supplement Consumption among Health and Fitness Enthusiasts
by Paolo Renzo Espeño, Ardvin Kester S. Ong, Josephine D. German, Ma. Janice J. Gumasing and Ethan S. Casas
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091424 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
With the rising popularity of fitness supplements, understanding the factors driving their consumption behaviors is crucial. This study investigated the actual consumption of fitness supplements utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Health Belief Model (HBM), and the Theory of Effort Minimization in [...] Read more.
With the rising popularity of fitness supplements, understanding the factors driving their consumption behaviors is crucial. This study investigated the actual consumption of fitness supplements utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Health Belief Model (HBM), and the Theory of Effort Minimization in Physical Activity (TEMPA) frameworks. The TPB provided insights into how attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control influence individuals’ intentions to consume fitness supplements. Additionally, the HBM sheds light on perceived effectiveness, benefits, barriers, and health motivation related to supplement consumption. Integrating the TEMPA framework further investigated the role of effort minimization in physical activity contexts. Through an online questionnaire, data were collected from a sample of 250 fitness supplement-consuming respondents. SEM analysis revealed significant associations between behavioral intentions and attitudes, perceived behavioral control, health motivation, and controlled precursors. However, it was seen that subjective norms, perceived effectiveness, perceived benefits, and automatic precursors were deemed insignificant. The findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the factors shaping actual consumption behaviors, offering valuable implications for marketers, health professionals, and policymakers seeking to promote informed and responsible supplement use among health and fitness enthusiasts. Full article
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17 pages, 1059 KiB  
Article
A Sustainable Material for Sheep’s Cheese Wedges Stored under Different Atmosphere Conditions
by Ana Isabel Nájera, Maider Murua, Olaia Martínez, Marta Albisu and Luis Javier R. Barron
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091423 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 567
Abstract
This study is based on the need to improve packaging sustainability in the food industry. Its aim was to assess the performance of a recyclable plastic material for semi-hard sheep’s cheese wedges packaging as an alternative to conventional non-sustainable plastic materials. Four different [...] Read more.
This study is based on the need to improve packaging sustainability in the food industry. Its aim was to assess the performance of a recyclable plastic material for semi-hard sheep’s cheese wedges packaging as an alternative to conventional non-sustainable plastic materials. Four different packaging treatments (air, vacuum, and CO2/N2 gas mixtures 50/50 and 80/20% (v/v)) were studied. Changes in gas headspace composition, sensory properties, cheese gross composition, weight loss, pH, colour, and texture profile were investigated at 5 ± 1 °C storage for 56 days. The sensory analysis indicated that vacuum packaging scored the worst in paste appearance and holes, and air atmosphere the worst in flavour; it was concluded that cheeses were unfit from day 14–21 onwards. Air and vacuum packaging were responsible for most of the significant changes identified in the texture profile analysis, and most of these happened in the early stages of storage. The colour parameters a* and b* differentiated the air packaging from the rest of the conditions. As in previous studies using conventional plastic materials, modified atmosphere packaging, either CO2/N2 50/50 or 80/20% (v/v), was the most effective preserving technique to ensure the quality of this type of cheese when comparing air and vacuum packaging treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cheese and Fermented Milk Production)
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17 pages, 1518 KiB  
Article
Effects of Soaking and Germination Treatments on the Nutritional, Anti-Nutritional, and Bioactive Characteristics of Adzuki Beans (Vigna angularis L.) and Lima Beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.)
by Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Naseer Ahmed, Mohd Aaqib Sheikh, Paras Sharma, Imran Sheikh, Ajar Nath Yadav and Krishan Kumar
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091422 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) are some of the most nutritious underutilized pulses that are significant in being used as basic ingredients for the preparation of various food products. The present study aimed to determine [...] Read more.
Lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) are some of the most nutritious underutilized pulses that are significant in being used as basic ingredients for the preparation of various food products. The present study aimed to determine the impact of soaking and germination on nutritional and bioactive components, in vitro protein digestibility, reducing power, metal chelating capacity, antioxidant activity, and anti-nutritional components of lima and adzuki beans. The findings showed that during the germination treatment, the in vitro protein digestibility of lima and adzuki beans increased by 14.75 and 10.98%, respectively. There was an increase in the antioxidant activity of lima beans by 33.48% and adzuki beans by 71.14% after 72 h of germination, respectively. The reducing power assay of lima and adzuki beans indicated an increase of 49.52 and 36.42%, respectively, during germination. Similarly, the flavonoid and metal chelating activity increased in lima and adzuki beans after 72 h of germination. In contrast, the anti-nutrients, such as phytic acid, tannin content, and trypsin inhibitor activity, decreased significantly p < 0.05 after 72 h of germination. These results are encouraging and allow for utilizing the flour obtained from the germinated beans in functional bakery products, which can contribute to eradicating protein deficiency among some population groups. At the same time, promoting soaking and germination of the beans as a way to enhance the nutritional quality and reduce anti-nutrients can contribute to the interest in these underutilized pulses. They could be seen as an additional tool to improve food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenges and Strategies of Food Security under Global Change)
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17 pages, 4051 KiB  
Article
Microalgae Biomass Production from Rice Husk as Alternative Media Cultivation and Extraction of Phycocyanin Using 3D-Printed Ohmic Heating Reactor
by Gabriela Cid-Ibarra, Rosa M. Rodríguez-Jasso, Gilver Rosero-Chasoy, Ruth Belmares, Juan Carlos Contreras-Esquivel, Samanta Machado-Cepeda, Alejandra Cabello-Galindo and Héctor A. Ruiz
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091421 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Phycocyanin is a highly valued pigment present in Spirulina platensis biomass with applications in the food industry in terms of biorefinery concepts; specifically, its antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity are an advantage that could be incorporated into a food matrix. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Phycocyanin is a highly valued pigment present in Spirulina platensis biomass with applications in the food industry in terms of biorefinery concepts; specifically, its antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity are an advantage that could be incorporated into a food matrix. This study aims to use rice husk as an alternative culture medium for S. platensis biomass growth and phycocyanin extraction by ohmic heating processing using a 3D-printed reactor. S. platensis was cultivated in rice husk extract (RHE) from 0–100% (v/v). The highest content of microalgal biomass was 1.75 ± 0.01 g/L, with a specific growth rate of 0.125 ± 0.01 h−1. For the phycocyanin extraction under an ohmic heating process, a 3D-printed reactor was designed and built. To optimize phycocyanin extraction, a central composite rotatable design (CCDR) was evaluated, with three factors: time (min), temperature (°C), and pH. The highest phycocyanin content was 75.80 ± 0.98 mg/g in S. platensis biomass grown with rice husk extract. Ohmic heating is a promising method for rapid phycocyanin extraction, and rice husk as a culture medium is an alternative for the growth of S. platensis biomass in the integration of second- and third-generation biorefineries. Full article
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15 pages, 6472 KiB  
Article
Characterizing Edible Oils by Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Combined with Machine Learning Algorithms
by Xiaorong Sun, Yiran Hu, Cuiling Liu, Shanzhe Zhang, Sining Yan, Xuecong Liu and Kun Zhao
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091420 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Due to the significant price differences among different types of edible oils, expensive oils like olive oil are often blended with cheaper edible oils. This practice of adulteration in edible oils, aimed at increasing profits for producers, poses a major concern for consumers. [...] Read more.
Due to the significant price differences among different types of edible oils, expensive oils like olive oil are often blended with cheaper edible oils. This practice of adulteration in edible oils, aimed at increasing profits for producers, poses a major concern for consumers. Furthermore, adulteration in edible oils can lead to various health issues impacting consumer well-being. In order to meet the requirements of fast, non-destructive, universal, accurate, and reliable quality testing for edible oil, the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) method combined with machine learning algorithms was introduced to detect a variety of edible oils. The prediction accuracy of Gradient Boosting, K-Nearest Neighbor, and Random Forest models all exceeded 95%. Moreover, the contribution rates of the OIRD signal, DC signal, and fundamental frequency signal to the classification results were 45.7%, 34.1%, and 20.2%, respectively. In a quality evaluation experiment on olive oil, the feature importance scores of three signals reached 63.4%, 18.9%, and 17.6%. The results suggested that the feature importance score of the OIRD signal was significantly higher than that of the DC and fundamental frequency signals. The experimental results indicate that the OIRD method can serve as a powerful tool for detecting edible oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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5 pages, 207 KiB  
Editorial
Plant Bioactive Compounds in Foods and Food Packages
by Ginés Benito Martínez-Hernández, Amaury Taboada-Rodríguez and Fulgencio Marin-Iniesta
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091419 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 613
Abstract
There has been growing interest in the use of numerous plant bioactive compounds (PBCs) in food and nutrition technology due to their properties that promote human health by reducing the risk of various serious diseases [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioactive Compounds in Foods and Food Packages)
16 pages, 1465 KiB  
Article
Influence of Casting Variables on Release Kinetics of Orally Disintegrating Film
by Jang-Ho Shin and Jung-Ah Han
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091418 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 605
Abstract
As a new form for supplying vitamin C, orally disintegrating films (ODFs) were developed C based on hyaluronic acid (HA) under varying casting conditions and the properties were analyzed. The films with different thicknesses (2, 3, and 8 mm, for CT2, CT4, and [...] Read more.
As a new form for supplying vitamin C, orally disintegrating films (ODFs) were developed C based on hyaluronic acid (HA) under varying casting conditions and the properties were analyzed. The films with different thicknesses (2, 3, and 8 mm, for CT2, CT4, and CT8, respectively) were produced by adjustments made to casting height. Two types of 8 mm thick ODFs produced by single or double casting (4 + 4 mm for CTD4+4) methods were also compared. As film thickness increased, water vapor permeability and tensile strength also increased. Even at equal thickness, manufacturing with double casting exhibited a stronger texture and reduced disintegration compared to single casting. All ODFs met the World Health Organization’s recommended daily vitamin C intake (45 mg/day) with a single sheet. Films showed over 80% dissolution in various solvents, adhering to the Hixson–Crowell cube root law, indicating vitamin C release occurred via porous penetration of the eluate. For CT2, CT4, and CTD4+4, vitamin C release was primarily governed by diffusion within the gel matrix and HA erosion. However, for CT8, HA erosion-induced release somewhat dominated. Based on the sensory test, it seems desirable to adjust the thickness of the film to 2 or 4 mm, because a thickness greater than that increased the foreign body sensation due to prolonged residence in the oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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15 pages, 5755 KiB  
Article
Anthocyanin of Black Highland Barley Alleviates H2O2-Induced Cardiomyocyte Injury and Myocardial Infarction via Activating the Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B Pathway
by Zhendong Liu, Senbiao Shu, Simin Li, Pai Peng, Ying Zhang, Zhaohua Li and Wenhan Wang
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091417 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a substantial global health challenge, with its impact on mortality and morbidity rates surpassing that of cancer. The present study was designed to explore the cardioprotective properties of anthocyanin (ACN), a compound derived from black barley, against oxidative stress-induced [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a substantial global health challenge, with its impact on mortality and morbidity rates surpassing that of cancer. The present study was designed to explore the cardioprotective properties of anthocyanin (ACN), a compound derived from black barley, against oxidative stress-induced damage in myocardial cells and to uncover the molecular mechanisms at play. Utilizing both in vitro and in vivo experimental models, our findings indicate that ACN notably reduced cell damage caused by oxidative stress and effectively prevented apoptosis. High-throughput RNA sequencing analysis has shed light on the mechanism by which ACN achieves its antioxidative stress effects, implicating the PTEN-Akt signaling pathway. ACN was found to modulate PTEN expression levels, which in turn influences the Akt pathway, leading to a reduction in apoptotic processes. This novel insight lays the groundwork for the potential clinical utilization of ACN in the management of CVD. While this study has shed light on some of the functions of ACN, it is important to recognize that natural compounds often interact with multiple molecular targets and engage in intricate signaling cascades. Future research endeavors will concentrate on further elucidating the regulatory mechanisms by which ACN influences PTEN expression, with the goal of enhancing our comprehension and expanding the therapeutic potential of ACN in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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14 pages, 3372 KiB  
Article
Ultrasensitive Ti3C2Tx@Pt-Based Immunochromatography with Catalytic Amplification and a Dual Signal for the Detection of Chloramphenicol in Animal-Derived Foods
by Mengfang Lin, Zhimin Gao, Zhenjie Qian, Youwen Deng, Yanhong Chen, Yu Wang and Xiangmei Li
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091416 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Herein, a catalytic amplification enhanced dual-signal immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) modified with Ti3C2Tx MXene (Ti3C2Tx@Pt) was first developed for chloramphenicol (CAP) in animal-derived foods. Due to the large specific surface [...] Read more.
Herein, a catalytic amplification enhanced dual-signal immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) modified with Ti3C2Tx MXene (Ti3C2Tx@Pt) was first developed for chloramphenicol (CAP) in animal-derived foods. Due to the large specific surface area and abundant active sites of Ti3C2Tx@Pt, they can be loaded with hundreds of Pt NPs to enhance their catalytic activity, resulting in a significant increase in the detection sensitivity; the sensitivity was up to 50-fold more sensitive than the reported ICA for CAP. The LODs of the developed method for milk/chicken/fish were 0.01 μg/kg, the LOQs were 0.03 μg/kg and the recovery rates were 80.5–117.0%, 87.2–118.1% and 92.7–117.9%, with corresponding variations ranging from 3.1 to 9.6%, 6.0 to 12.7% and 6.0 to 13.6%, respectively. The linear range was 0.0125–1.0 μg/kg. The results of the LC-MS/MS confirmation test on 30 real samples had a good correlation with that of our established method (R2 > 0.98), indicating the practical reliability of the established method. The above results indicated that an ICA based on the Ti3C2Tx@Pt nanozyme has excellent potential as a food safety detection tool. Full article
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19 pages, 2731 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Cutin Extraction Efficiency from Industrially Derived Tomato Processing Residues by High-Pressure Homogenization
by Elham Eslami, Francesco Donsì, Giovanna Ferrari and Gianpiero Pataro
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091415 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
This study primarily aimed to enhance the extraction of cutin from industrial tomato peel residues. Initially, the conventional extraction process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Subsequently, high-pressure homogenization (HPH) was introduced to improve extraction efficiency and sustainability. The optimization process focused [...] Read more.
This study primarily aimed to enhance the extraction of cutin from industrial tomato peel residues. Initially, the conventional extraction process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Subsequently, high-pressure homogenization (HPH) was introduced to improve extraction efficiency and sustainability. The optimization process focused on determining the optimal conditions for conventional extraction via chemical hydrolysis, including temperature (100–130 °C), time (15–120 min), and NaOH concentration (1–3%). The optimized conditions, determined as 130 °C, 120 min, and 3% NaOH solution, yielded a maximum cutin extraction of 32.5%. Furthermore, the results indicated that applying HPH pre-treatment to tomato peels before alkaline hydrolysis significantly increased the cutin extraction yield, reaching 46.1%. This represents an approximately 42% increase compared to the conventional process. Importantly, HPH pre-treatment enabled cutin extraction under milder conditions using a 2% NaOH solution, reducing NaOH usage by 33%, while still achieving a substantial cutin yield of 45.6%. FT-IR analysis confirmed that cutin obtained via both conventional and HPH-assisted extraction exhibited similar chemical structures, indicating that the main chemical groups and structure of cutin remained unaltered by HPH treatment. Furthermore, cutin extracts from both conventional and HPH-assisted extraction demonstrated thermal stability up to approximately 200 °C, with less than 5% weight loss according to TGA analysis. These findings underscore the potential of HPH technology to significantly enhance cutin extraction yield from tomato peel residues while utilizing milder chemical hydrolysis conditions, thereby promoting a more sustainable and efficient cutin extraction process. Full article
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11 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
From Field to Waste Valorization: A Preliminary Study Exploring the Impact of the Wine Supply Chain on the Phenolic Profile of Three Sardinian Pomace Extracts
by Ines Castangia, Matteo Aroffu, Federica Fulgheri, Rita Abi Rached, Francesco Corrias, Giorgia Sarais, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Francesca Argiolas, Maria Barbara Pinna, Mariano Murru, Maria Letizia Manca, Maria Manconi and Amparo Nácher
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091414 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 689
Abstract
The winemaking process generates an annual global production of about 10 million tons of waste consisting of stalks, skin, and seeds. The possible reutilization of wine pomace is strictly linked to its chemical composition. In this preliminary study, three different Sardinian white grapes [...] Read more.
The winemaking process generates an annual global production of about 10 million tons of waste consisting of stalks, skin, and seeds. The possible reutilization of wine pomace is strictly linked to its chemical composition. In this preliminary study, three different Sardinian white grapes (Malvasia, Vermentino and Nasco) grown in the same area were evaluated through a whole wine production chain. To reduce environmental impact, all the grapes were treated following the integrated production practice (IPP) strategies. The adopted agronomic methods and the main physico-chemical parameters of the fresh fruits and musts were evaluated. A fully qualitative and quantitative characterization of the phenolic fraction of the pomace extracts was performed by HPLC-DAD after a post-winemaking process. Water and ethanol were utilized as green solvents in the extraction process. Additionally, the entire pomace post-winemaking process was carried out within the winery facilities to reduce energy loss and road transportation. The findings demonstrated that large amounts of beneficial polyphenols are present in pomace extracts, and that the type of grape used, agronomic practices, and winemaking method all influence the quantity and quality of the extracts. The polyphenol concentrations in the Vermentino (28,391.5 ± 7.0 mg/kg) and Malvasia pomace (11,316.3 ± 6.5 mg/kg) were found to be the highest and lowest, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
19 pages, 1681 KiB  
Article
Study of Physicochemical Quality and Organic Contamination in Algerian Honey
by Sofiane Derrar, Vincenzo Lo Turco, Ambrogina Albergamo, Benedetta Sgrò, Mohamed Amine Ayad, Federica Litrenta, Mohamed Said Saim, Angela Giorgia Potortì, Hebib Aggad, Rossana Rando and Giuseppa Di Bella
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091413 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Honey is a natural product extensively consumed in the world for its nutritional and healthy properties. However, residues of pesticides and environmental contaminants can compromise its quality. For this reason, the physicochemical parameters, and the organic contamination of monofloral and multifloral honey from [...] Read more.
Honey is a natural product extensively consumed in the world for its nutritional and healthy properties. However, residues of pesticides and environmental contaminants can compromise its quality. For this reason, the physicochemical parameters, and the organic contamination of monofloral and multifloral honey from three regions of Algeria (Tiaret, Laghouat, and Tindouf) were monitored to evaluate the quality of the honey and its safety for consumers. In general, the results obtained from the physicochemical analyses were in line with the EU standards. In terms of contamination, pesticides authorised and used in Algerian agriculture (metalaxyl-M and cyromazine), as well as a banned pesticide (carbaryl), were found in almost all the samples. However, only the concentration of cyromazine was higher than the relative EU maximum residue levels. PCB 180, PCB 189, anthracene, fluorene, and phenanthrene were mainly detected. All the honey shows traces of DiBP, DBP, DEHP, and DEHT, but no traces of bisphenols were found. Moreover, according to the dietary exposure assessment, a small amount of Algerian honey can be safely consumed. Overall, the data from this study should motivate the Algerian government to enhance their monitoring activities in beekeeping and to find solutions for implementing more sustainable agricultural practices harmonising with international legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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23 pages, 736 KiB  
Review
Nutritional Quality and Socio-Ecological Benefits of Mare Milk Produced under Grazing Management
by Ana Blanco-Doval, Luis Javier R. Barron and Noelia Aldai
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091412 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 942
Abstract
This review discusses the scientific evidence that supports the nutritional value of mare milk and how its properties are essentially achieved when mares are managed under grazing conditions. Mare milk’s similarity with the chemical composition of human milk makes this food and its [...] Read more.
This review discusses the scientific evidence that supports the nutritional value of mare milk and how its properties are essentially achieved when mares are managed under grazing conditions. Mare milk’s similarity with the chemical composition of human milk makes this food and its derived products not only suitable for human consumption but also an interesting food regarding human health. The contribution of horse breeding under grazing management to other socio-ecological benefits generated by equine farms is also highlighted. Both the high added value of mare milk and the socio-ecological benefits derived from pasture-based systems could be explored to improve the performance of equine farms located in arid and semi-arid areas or in regions with moderately harsh environmental conditions as equids have a strong adaptation capacity. Full article
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15 pages, 2439 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Anti-Prostate Cancer Activity among Four Seaweeds, with Focus on Caulerpa lentillifera J.Agardh
by Guan-James Wu and Pei-Wen Hsiao
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091411 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
In response to a global shift towards health-conscious and environmentally sustainable food choices, seaweed has emerged as a focus for researchers due to its large-scale cultivation potential and the development of bioactive substances. This research explores the potential anticancer properties of seaweed extracts, [...] Read more.
In response to a global shift towards health-conscious and environmentally sustainable food choices, seaweed has emerged as a focus for researchers due to its large-scale cultivation potential and the development of bioactive substances. This research explores the potential anticancer properties of seaweed extracts, focusing on analyzing the impact of four common edible seaweeds in Taiwan on prostate cancer (PCa) cells’ activity. The study used bioassay-guided fractionation to extract Cl80 from various seaweeds with androgen receptor (AR)-inhibitory activity. Cl80 demonstrated effective suppression of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced AR activity in 103E cells and attenuated the growth and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) protein expression in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. Additionally, Cl80 exhibited differential effects on various PCa cell lines. Concentrations above 5 μg/mL significantly inhibited LNCaP cell proliferation, while 22Rv1 cells were more resistant to Cl80. PC-3 cell proliferation was inhibited at 5 μg/mL but not completely at 50 μg/mL. A clonogenic assay showed that at a concentration of 0.5 μg/mL, the colony formation in LNCaP and PC-3 cells was significantly reduced, with a dose-dependent effect. Cl80 induced apoptosis in all PCa cell types, especially in LNCaP cells, with increased apoptotic cells observed at higher concentrations. Cl80 also decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in a dose-dependent manner in all PCa cell lines. Furthermore, Cl80 suppressed the migration ability of PCa cells, with significant reductions observed in LNCaP, 22Rv1, and PC-3 cells at various concentrations. These compelling findings highlight the promising therapeutic potential of C. lentillifera J.Agardh and its isolated compound Cl80 in the treatment of PCa. Full article
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19 pages, 3281 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Shelf Stability and Sensory Acceptability of Osmotically Dehydrated Spinach: A Mathematical Modeling Approach
by George Dimopoulos, Alexandros Katsimichas, Konstantinos Balachtsis, Efimia Dermesonlouoglou and Petros Taoukis
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091410 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 554
Abstract
This study focused on the osmotic dehydration (OD) of ready-to-eat spinach leaves combined with the pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment. Untreated and PEF-treated (0.6 kV/cm, 0–200 pulses) spinach leaves were osmotically dehydrated at room temperature for up to 120 min. The application of [...] Read more.
This study focused on the osmotic dehydration (OD) of ready-to-eat spinach leaves combined with the pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment. Untreated and PEF-treated (0.6 kV/cm, 0–200 pulses) spinach leaves were osmotically dehydrated at room temperature for up to 120 min. The application of PEF (0.6 kV/20 pulses) prior to OD (60% glycerol, 25 °C, 60 min) lowered water activity (aw = 0.891) while achieving satisfactory product acceptability (total sensory hedonic scoring of 8). During the storage of the product (at 4, 8, 12, and 20 °C for up to 30 d), a significant reduction in total microbial count evolution was observed (9.7 logCFU/g for the untreated samples vs. 5.1 logCFU/g for the PEF-OD-treated samples after 13 d of storage at 4 °C). The selection of these PEF and OD treatment conditions enabled the extension of the product shelf life by up to 33 d under chilled storage. Osmotically treated spinach could find application in ready-to-eat salad products with an extended shelf life, which is currently not possible due to the high perishability of the specific plant tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Innovative Processing Technologies on Food Quality)
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18 pages, 1774 KiB  
Article
Coffee Extract as a Natural Antioxidant in Fresh Pork Sausage—A Model Approach
by Vanessa Tanara Fetsch, Daneysa Lahis Kalschne, Cristiane Canan, Éder Lisandro de Moraes Flores, Marcelo Caldeira Viegas, Gabrielle Caroline Peiter, Ricardo Fiori Zara, Joana Soares Amaral and Marinês Paula Corso
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091409 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Consumers are increasingly looking for healthy foods without the addition of synthetic additives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of coffee extracts as a natural antioxidant in fresh pork sausage. Firstly, the conditions for obtaining coffee green extracts were [...] Read more.
Consumers are increasingly looking for healthy foods without the addition of synthetic additives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of coffee extracts as a natural antioxidant in fresh pork sausage. Firstly, the conditions for obtaining coffee green extracts were optimized (Central Composite Rotatable Design 23, variables: extraction time, ethanol–water ratio, and sample–solvent ratio) in an ultrasound bath (70 °C). The response variables were the bioactive compounds levels and antioxidant activity. Valid models were obtained (p ≤ 0.05, R2 > 0.751), with higher bioactive content and antioxidant activity in the central point region. Extracts of Robusta and Arabica coffee green (RG and AG) and medium roast (RR and AR) obtained, and central point (10 min, an ethanol concentration of 30%, and a sample–solvent ratio of 10 g/100 mL) and optimized (14.2 min, 34.2%, and 5.8 g/100 mL) parameters were characterized. The RG presented a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher content of caffeine (3114.8 ± 50.0 and 3148.1 ± 13.5 mg/100 g) and 5-CQA (6417.1 ± 22.0 and 6706.4 ± 23.5 mg/100 g) in both extraction conditions, respectively. The RG and RR coffee presented the highest antioxidant activity. Two concentrations of RG and RR coffee extracts were tested in fresh pork sausage. The Robusta coffee extract presented the highest antioxidant activity in both roasted and green states. However, when applied to a meat product, the extract prepared with RG coffee showed better results, with efficiency in replacing synthetic antioxidants (content of malonaldehyde/kg of sample below 0.696 ± 0.059 in 20 days of storage), without altering the sensory attributes of the product (average scores above 7.16 ± 1.43 for all attributes evaluated). Therefore, the RG coffee extract was a suitable alternative as a natural antioxidant applied to fresh pork sausage. Full article
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15 pages, 2110 KiB  
Article
Study on the Optimization, Extraction Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Ultrasound-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction of Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharides
by Furong Hou, Shasha Song, Shuhui Yang, Yansheng Wang, Fengjuan Jia and Wenliang Wang
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091408 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 462
Abstract
In this study, Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides (TFPs) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAE) at different extraction parameters in order to explore the potential of ultrasound in intensifying the extraction yield. The effects of experimental conditions on the extraction yields were optimized using [...] Read more.
In this study, Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides (TFPs) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAE) at different extraction parameters in order to explore the potential of ultrasound in intensifying the extraction yield. The effects of experimental conditions on the extraction yields were optimized using response surface methodology, with the optimal ultrasonic power of 700 W, temperature of 45 °C and time of 50 min. The kinetic analysis revealed that UAE significantly promoted the dissolution, diffusion and migration with the maximum yield of 26.39%, which was enhanced by 40.45% and 156.96% compared with individual ultrasonic extraction (UE) and enzymatic extraction (EE). According to the modified Fick’s second law of diffusion, the extraction process of TFPs illustrated a good linear correlation (R2 ≥ 0.9), and the rate constant gradually elevated as the temperature increased from 25 to 45 °C, while the presence of ultrasound exerted a vital role in extracting TFPs. Regarding to the thermodynamic results, the positive values of ΔH and ΔG demonstrated that UAE, UE and EE were endothermic and unspontaneous processes. This study provides a theoretical basis for polysaccharide extraction processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Processing and Modification of Food Systems)
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22 pages, 3557 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Encapsulation Efficiency of Chavir Essential Oil via Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ultrasonication of Whey Protein Concentrate–Maltodextrin
by Nasrin Beigmohammadi, Seyed Hadi Peighambardoust, Asad Mohammad Amini and Kazem Alirezalu
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091407 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 910
Abstract
This study focused on the characterization of emulsions and microparticles encapsulating Chavir essential oil (EO) by application of modified whey protein concentrate–maltodextrin (WPC-MD). Different physical, chemical, morphological, thermal, and antioxidant properties and release behavior of spray-dried microparticles were assessed. Antioxidant, solubility, emulsifying, and [...] Read more.
This study focused on the characterization of emulsions and microparticles encapsulating Chavir essential oil (EO) by application of modified whey protein concentrate–maltodextrin (WPC-MD). Different physical, chemical, morphological, thermal, and antioxidant properties and release behavior of spray-dried microparticles were assessed. Antioxidant, solubility, emulsifying, and foaming activities of modified WPC were increased compared to those of primary material. The results indicated that the particle size distribution varied depending on the type of carriers used, with the smallest particles formed by hydrolyzed WPC (HWPC). Binary blends of modified WPC-MD led to improved particle sizes. The spray-drying yield ranged from 64.1% to 85.0%, with higher yields observed for blends of MD with sonicated WPC (UWPC). Microparticles prepared from primary WPC showed irregular and wrinkled surfaces with indentations and pores, indicating a less uniform morphology. The UWPC as a wall material led to microparticles with increased small cracks and holes on their surface. However, HWPC negatively affected the integrity of the microparticles, resulting in broken particles with irregular shapes and surface cracks, indicating poor microcapsule formation. Encapsulating EO using WPC-MD increased the thermal stability of EO significantly, enhancing the degradation temperature of EO by 2 to 2.5-fold. The application of primary WPC (alone or in combination with MD) as wall materials produced particles with the lowest antioxidant properties because the EO cannot migrate to the surface of the particles. Enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC negatively impacted microparticle integrity, potentially increasing EO release. These findings underscore the crucial role of wall materials in shaping the physical, morphological, thermal, antioxidant, and release properties of spray-dried microparticles, offering valuable insights for microencapsulation techniques. Full article
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6 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Current Research on Probiotics and Fermented Products
by Yushi Dong, Mohan Li and Xiqing Yue
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091406 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 778
Abstract
The history of probiotics and fermented products has evolved over millennia [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research on Probiotics and Fermented Products)
12 pages, 1911 KiB  
Article
Production of Margarine Fat Containing Medium- and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols by Enzymatic Interesterification of Peony Seed Oil, Palm Stearin and Coconut Oil Blends
by Man Zhang, Baocheng Xu, Dongkun Zhao, Mengqi Shen, Mengjie Li, Donghao Liu and Lili Liu
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091405 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 709
Abstract
This paper reports the preparation of margarine fat using Lipozyme TL IM as a catalyst and peony seed oil (PSO), palm stearin (PS) and coconut oil (CO) as raw materials. The results indicate that there were no significant changes in fatty acid composition [...] Read more.
This paper reports the preparation of margarine fat using Lipozyme TL IM as a catalyst and peony seed oil (PSO), palm stearin (PS) and coconut oil (CO) as raw materials. The results indicate that there were no significant changes in fatty acid composition before or after interesterification of the oil samples. However, the total amount of medium- and long-chain triglycerides (MLCTs) increased from 2.92% to 11.38% in sample E1 after interesterification, mainly including LaLaO, LaMO, LaPM, LaOO, LaPO and LaPP. Moreover, the slip melting point (SMP) of sample E1 decreased from 45.9 °C (B1) to 33.5 °C. The solid fat content (SFC) of all the samples at 20 °C was greater than 10%, indicating that they could effectively prevent oil exudation. After interesterification, the samples exhibited a β′ crystal form and could be used to prepare functional margarine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Lipids for Food Processing)
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14 pages, 1301 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Almond Hull: Implications for Its Use as a Novel Food Ingredient
by Yuyang Yao, Juer Liu, Qiming Miao, Xinyue Zhu, Wei Hua, Na Zhang, Guangwei Huang, Xiangyang Lin, Shengquan Mi, Yanling Cheng and Roger Ruan
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091404 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Almond hull, a substantial byproduct comprising more than half of almond fresh weight, has recently gained attention due to its functionality and sustainability benefits. Despite heightened interest, information regarding its toxicity remains limited. In order to assess its genotoxic potential, we conducted Good [...] Read more.
Almond hull, a substantial byproduct comprising more than half of almond fresh weight, has recently gained attention due to its functionality and sustainability benefits. Despite heightened interest, information regarding its toxicity remains limited. In order to assess its genotoxic potential, we conducted Good Laboratory Practice-compliant in vitro and in vivo studies following Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. No evidence of toxicity or mutagenicity was observed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay using five tester strains, evaluating almond hull at concentrations up to 5 mg/plate, with or without metabolic activation. Almond hull did not induce chromosome structural damage in a chromosome aberration assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells, nor did it cause any spermatogonial chromosomal aberration in tested male BALB/c mice. To evaluate its ability to induce DNA damage in rodents, a combined micronucleus assay was conducted in KM mice of both sexes. Almond hull was administered at doses of 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day via gavage once daily for 2 days. No adverse effects of almond hull were observed in the micronucleus assay. Our results indicate no evidence of the genotoxic potential of almond hull administered up to the maximum concentrations of 5 g/kg, as recommended by OECD guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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15 pages, 11848 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Gastrointestinal Digestion of Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk Reconstituted from Commercial Whole Milk Powders
by Siqi Li, Aiqian Ye, Jian Cui, Yu Zhang, Lara Ware, Jody C. Miller, Holly Abbotts-Holmes, Nicole C. Roy, Harjinder Singh and Warren McNabb
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091403 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 626
Abstract
The global dairy market has been increasingly diversified with more dairy product offerings of milk products from different animal species. Meanwhile, milk powders remain the main exported dairy product format due to their ease of transportation. In this work, we studied the structural [...] Read more.
The global dairy market has been increasingly diversified with more dairy product offerings of milk products from different animal species. Meanwhile, milk powders remain the main exported dairy product format due to their ease of transportation. In this work, we studied the structural changes, protein hydrolysis and nutrient delivery during dynamic gastric digestion and small intestinal digestion of cow, goat and sheep milk reconstituted from commercial whole milk powders. The results show that the reconstituted milks digest similarly to processed fresh milk. The digestion behaviors of the three reconstituted ruminant milks are broadly similar (gastric coagulation, kinetics of gastric emptying of protein and fat and the high digestibility in the small intestine) with some differences, which are likely contributed by the processing history of the milk powders. The delivery of individual amino acids to the small intestine differed between the early and late stages of gastric digestion, which were primarily affected by the abundance of amino acids in caseins and whey proteins but also by the difference between milk types associated with their gastric coagulation behaviors. This work showed that powdered milk is similar to fresh processed milk in digestion behavior, and the inherent differences between ruminant milks can be modified by processing treatments. Full article
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19 pages, 1074 KiB  
Article
Moringa, Milk Thistle, and Jujube Seed Cold-Pressed Oils: Characteristic Profiles, Thermal Properties, and Oxidative Stability
by Haifa Sebii, Sirine Karra, Abir Mokni Ghribi, Sabine Danthine, Christophe Blecker, Hamadi Attia and Souhail Besbes
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091402 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Cold-pressed moringa, milk thistle, and jujube seed oils were investigated in terms of their characteristic profiles, thermal properties, and oxidative stability. The findings proved that the extracted oils were characterized by high nutritional values, which encourages their use in various fields. Results showed [...] Read more.
Cold-pressed moringa, milk thistle, and jujube seed oils were investigated in terms of their characteristic profiles, thermal properties, and oxidative stability. The findings proved that the extracted oils were characterized by high nutritional values, which encourages their use in various fields. Results showed significant differences between the obtained oils. Overall, jujube seed oil exhibited the best quality parameters, with acidity equal to 0.762 versus 1% for the moringa and milk thistle seed oils. Milk thistle seed oil showed absorbance in the UV-C (100–290 nm), UV-B (290–320 nm), and UV-A (320–400 nm) ranges, while the moringa and jujube seed oils showed absorbance only in the UV-B and UV-A ranges. Concerning bioactive compounds, jujube seed oil presented the highest content of polyphenols, which promoted a good scavenging capacity (90% at 10 µg/mL) compared to the moringa and milk thistle seed oils. Assessing the thermal properties of the obtained oils showed the presence of four groups of triglycerides in the moringa and milk thistle seed oils, and two groups of triglycerides in the jujube seed oil. The thermograms were constant at temperatures above 10 °C for milk thistle seed oil, 15 °C for jujube seed oil, and 30 °C for moringa seed oil, which corresponded to complete liquefaction of the oils. The extinction coefficients K232 and K270, monitored during storage for 60 days at 60 °C, proved that jujube seed oil had the highest polyphenols content and was the most stable against thermal oxidation. Full article
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35 pages, 1949 KiB  
Article
Green Consumer Profiling and Online Shopping of Imperfect Foods: Extending UTAUT with Web-Based Label Quality for Misshapen Organic Produce
by Rara Dwi Oktaviani, Phaninee Naruetharadhol, Siraphat Padthar and Chavis Ketkaew
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091401 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Misshapen organic vegetables in the food supply chain can easily be discarded in the market if they do not meet aesthetic standards. E-commerce technology enables the distribution of imperfect organic produce from farmers to potential customers, mitigating agri-food waste issues. Green consumers are [...] Read more.
Misshapen organic vegetables in the food supply chain can easily be discarded in the market if they do not meet aesthetic standards. E-commerce technology enables the distribution of imperfect organic produce from farmers to potential customers, mitigating agri-food waste issues. Green consumers are prospective customers of imperfect produce because their purchasing decisions are made based on sustainability and environmental considerations. However, each individual’s degree of green consumption differs, impacting their preferences and behaviors toward green buying activity. Considering the gap between the varying levels of green consumers and their intention to purchase imperfect organic produce through e-commerce, this study aimed to profile three distinct green consumers and explore factors affecting their Online Green Purchase Intention (OGPI) for imperfect organic vegetables. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was applied in this study, and Web-Based Label Quality (WLQ) was introduced as an extended construct to describe green consumers’ perceptions of the credibility and reliability of labels or product-related information displayed on e-commerce platforms. This study involved 668 internet users from environmental platforms and online communities of organic food enthusiasts. First, the consumers were classified into dark-green, semi/light green, and non-green using a cluster analysis approach. Then, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Multi-Group Analysis (MGA) were employed to determine the factors affecting OGPI among green consumer groups. This research found that Performance Expectancy (PE), Social Influence (SI), and WLQ positively influenced dark-green consumers’ online green purchase intention. Only Performance Expectancy (PE) positively affected semi/light-green consumers’ OGPI. Meanwhile, the Facilitating Condition (FC) positively affected non-green consumers’ online green purchase intentions. This research revealed dark-green consumers as the target segment, broadening customers’ perspectives on accepting imperfect organic products, including e-commerce technology. Moreover, the research results can be utilized for marketing and business purposes and contribute to food policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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14 pages, 1385 KiB  
Article
Total Iodine Quantification and In Vitro Bioavailability Study in Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
by Hansol Doh and Min Hyeock Lee
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091400 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 742
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the total iodine content in Korean abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) and to investigate the bioavailability of iodine using an in vitro method. This research paper focuses on total iodine quantification in abalone ( [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the total iodine content in Korean abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) and to investigate the bioavailability of iodine using an in vitro method. This research paper focuses on total iodine quantification in abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) and its components (viscera and muscle) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Additionally, an in vitro bioavailability study explored iodine absorption potential. Abalone pretreatment involved both the European standard method (ES) and microwave-assisted extraction method (MAE). The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.11 ng/g for both ES and MAE, with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 5.4 ng/g for MAE. Accuracy, assessed using a reference material (fish muscle, ERM—BB422), showed values of 1.5 ± 0.010 mg/kg for ES and 1.6 ± 0.066 mg/kg for MAE, within an acceptable range of 1.4 ± 0.42 mg/kg. Precision, evaluated using the Horwitz ratio (HorRat) with a reference material, was determined to be 0.45 for ES and 0.27 for MAE. Therefore, total iodine contents were estimated as 74 ± 2.2 µg/g for abalone viscera and 17 ± 0.77 µg/g for abalone muscle with ES, and 76 ± 1.0 µg/g for abalone viscera and 17 ± 0.51 µg/g for abalone muscle with MAE. Recovery tests demonstrated an acceptable range of 90–110%. In the in vitro bioavailability assessment, digestion efficiency yielded ranges of 42–50.2% for viscera and 67–115% for muscle. Absorption efficiency variations were determined as 37–43% for viscera and 48–75% for muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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11 pages, 1398 KiB  
Article
Nutritional and Organoleptic Characteristics of Sausage Based on an Autochthonous Ecuatorian Fish, Old Blue (Andinoacara rivulatus)
by Marlene Medina, Rosa M. García-Gimeno, Juan Alejandro Neira-Mosquera, Alexandra Barrera and Guiomar Denisse Posada-Izquierdo
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091399 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The consumption of fisheries and aquaculture products has been increasing in recent decades, and it is necessary to strike a balance between production and sustainability in aquaculture; this is essential homework to support the demand for human food. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
The consumption of fisheries and aquaculture products has been increasing in recent decades, and it is necessary to strike a balance between production and sustainability in aquaculture; this is essential homework to support the demand for human food. This study aimed to investigate the sensory and nutritional characteristics of a sausage made from the fillet of the native fish Old Blue (Andinoacara rivulatus) to stimulate the local economy. A multifactorial A*B*C design was used, with Factor A being rearing systems (wild and farmed), Factor B being types of protein (quinoa meal and soybean meal), and Factor C being lipids of animal (pork fat) and vegetable (sunflower oil) origin. Highly significant differences were observed in all formulas, according to Tukey (p < 0.05). The highest protein percentage was with soybean flour at 11.24%, while quinoa flour had 10.80% of the product. In sensory characteristics, the best attributes were for texture in the mouth with a hedonic scale from 0 to 5, with 4.2 firmness being mostly acceptable, odor at 4.5, the aromatic attribute with the highest and best value, and color was the clearest at 4.3 acceptability. The flavor was 4.3, mostly more pleasant according to the tasters. The yield of farmed fillets was 23.16% compared to wild 13.89%, and the balance of sausage yield was 393 g with a yield of 76.33% of the total weight. Microbiological analysis of the sausage with the native species showed the absence of pathogenic microorganisms. A commercial shelf life of 30 days was also established for the sausage, demonstrating an added value through this processing, allowing its exploitation in areas further away from the fishing sites and, thus, a greater possibility of social development in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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32 pages, 3152 KiB  
Review
Extraction, Modification, Biofunctionality, and Food Applications of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Protein: An Up-to-Date Review
by Nikhil Dnyaneshwar Patil, Aarti Bains, Kandi Sridhar, Maharshi Bhaswant, Sawinder Kaur, Manikant Tripathi, Déborah Lanterbecq, Prince Chawla and Minaxi Sharma
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091398 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Plant-based proteins have gained popularity in the food industry as a good protein source. Among these, chickpea protein has gained significant attention in recent times due to its high yields, high nutritional content, and health benefits. With an abundance of essential amino acids, [...] Read more.
Plant-based proteins have gained popularity in the food industry as a good protein source. Among these, chickpea protein has gained significant attention in recent times due to its high yields, high nutritional content, and health benefits. With an abundance of essential amino acids, particularly lysine, and a highly digestible indispensable amino acid score of 76 (DIAAS), chickpea protein is considered a substitute for animal proteins. However, the application of chickpea protein in food products is limited due to its poor functional properties, such as solubility, water-holding capacity, and emulsifying and gelling properties. To overcome these limitations, various modification methods, including physical, biological, chemical, and a combination of these, have been applied to enhance the functional properties of chickpea protein and expand its applications in healthy food products. Therefore, this review aims to comprehensively examine recent advances in Cicer arietinum (chickpea) protein extraction techniques, characterizing its properties, exploring post-modification strategies, and assessing its diverse applications in the food industry. Moreover, we reviewed the nutritional benefits and sustainability implications, along with addressing regulatory considerations. This review intends to provide insights into maximizing the potential of Cicer arietinum protein in diverse applications while ensuring sustainability and compliance with regulations. Full article
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19 pages, 6007 KiB  
Communication
Fabrication of Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Selective Extraction of Dibutyl Phthalates in Food Matrices
by Lina Li, Yunzhu Lu, Chengtao Wang and Lei Cheng
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091397 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 699
Abstract
In this study, a novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric material (Fe3O4@MOF@MIP-160) with a metal-organic backbone (Fe3O4@MOF) carrier was prepared using dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as a template. The material can be used for the efficient, rapid, [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymeric material (Fe3O4@MOF@MIP-160) with a metal-organic backbone (Fe3O4@MOF) carrier was prepared using dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as a template. The material can be used for the efficient, rapid, and selective extraction of trace amounts of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in food and can detect them via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The synthesis conditions of the materials were optimized to prepare the Fe3O4@MOF@MIP160 with the highest adsorption performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FT-IR), Vibration Sample Magnetic (VSM), and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method were used to characterize the materials. Compared with Fe3O4@MOF and the magnetic non-imprinted polymeric material (Fe3O4@MOF@NIP), Fe3O4@MOF@MIP-160 possesses the advantages of easy and rapid manipulation of magnetic materials, the advantages of high specific surface area and the stability of metal–organic frameworks, and the advantages of high selectivity of molecularly imprinted polymers. Fe3O4@MOF@MIP-160 has good recognition and adsorption capacity for di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP): the adsorption capacity for DBP and DEHP is 260 mg·g−1 and 240.2 mg·g−1, and the adsorption rate is fast (reaching equilibrium in about 20 min). Additionally, Fe3O4@MOF@MIP160 could be recycled six times, making it cost-effective, easy to operate, and time-saving as compared to traditional solid-phase extraction materials. The phthalate ester content in drinking water, fruit juice, and white wine was analyzed, with recoveries ranging from 70.3% to 100.7%. This proved that Fe3O4@MOF@MIP160 was suitable for detecting and removing PAEs from food matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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25 pages, 3245 KiB  
Review
Application of Strain Selection Technology in Alcoholic Beverages: A Review
by Xiaodie Chen, Chuan Song, Jian Zhao, Zhuang Xiong, Lianxin Peng, Liang Zou, Caihong Shen and Qiang Li
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091396 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 832
Abstract
The diversity of alcohol beverage microorganisms is of great significance for improving the brewing process and the quality of alcohol beverage products. During the process of making alcoholic beverages, a group of microorganisms, represented by yeast and lactic acid bacteria, conducts fermentation. These [...] Read more.
The diversity of alcohol beverage microorganisms is of great significance for improving the brewing process and the quality of alcohol beverage products. During the process of making alcoholic beverages, a group of microorganisms, represented by yeast and lactic acid bacteria, conducts fermentation. These microorganisms have complex synergistic or competitive relationships, and the participation of different microorganisms has a major impact on the fermentation process and the flavor and aroma of the product. Strain selection is one of the key steps. Utilizing scientific breeding technology, the relationship between strains can be managed, the composition of the alcoholic beverage microbial community can be improved, and the quality and flavor of the alcoholic beverage products can be increased. Currently, research on the microbial diversity of alcohol beverages has received extensive attention. However, the selection technology for dominant bacteria in alcohol beverages has not yet been systematically summarized. To breed better-quality alcohol beverage strains and improve the quality and characteristics of wine, this paper introduces the microbial diversity characteristics of the world’s three major brewing alcohols: beer, wine, and yellow wine, as well as the breeding technologies of related strains. The application of culture selection technology in the study of microbial diversity of brewed wine was reviewed and analyzed. The strain selection technology and alcohol beverage process should be combined to explore the potential application of a diverse array of alcohol beverage strains, thereby boosting the quality and flavor of the alcohol beverage and driving the sustainable development of the alcoholic beverage industry. Full article
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