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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 23 (December-1 2023) – 188 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In review of the voluntary “Antibiotic free” claim on meat labels, new tools are needed to ensure meat chain integrity, given that the definition of novel attributes may facilitate food fraud. This study aims to investigate the changes in the metabolite levels in pigs’ livers after an antibiotic treatment using an untargeted NMR-based metabolomics approach. The results highlight the feasibility of NMR-based metabolomics coupled with chemometric techniques to detect metabolomic fingerprints useful for the discrimination of pigs’ livers after an antibiotic treatment. Also, the differential accumulation of polar metabolites—mainly Carbohydrate and Amino Acids—as well as lipid molecules were discussed for their potential discriminating role in pigs. View this paper
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22 pages, 3376 KiB  
Article
Leaf Mustard (Brassica juncea) Germplasm Resources Showed Diverse Characteristics in Agro-Morphological Traits and Glucosinolate Levels
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4374; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234374 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Leaf mustard, characterized by its purple/red/green leaves with a green/white midrib, is known for its thick, tender, and spicy leaves with a unique taste and flavor. There were only a few studies reported on leaf mustard for its morphological and biochemical traits from [...] Read more.
Leaf mustard, characterized by its purple/red/green leaves with a green/white midrib, is known for its thick, tender, and spicy leaves with a unique taste and flavor. There were only a few studies reported on leaf mustard for its morphological and biochemical traits from Korea. A total of 355 leaf mustard accessions stored at the GenBank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center were evaluated for 25 agro-morphological traits and seven intact glucosinolates (GSLs). The accessions showed a wide variation in terms of most of the traits. The quantitative agro-morphological traits varied from 16.0 (leaf length) to 48.7% (petiole width) of the coefficient of variation (CV). The highest variation was observed in glucoiberin (299.5%, CV), while the total GSL showed a CV of 66.1%. Sinigrin, followed by gluconapin and gluconasturtiin, was the most abundant GSL, accounting for as high as 75% of the total GSLs, while glucobrassicanapin and glucoiberin were the least abundant, contributing 0.7% and 0.1% on average, respectively. Sinigrin had a positive significant correlation with all GSLs but gluconasturtiin, while glucobarbarin and gluconasturtiin were highly positively correlated to each other, but least correlated with other GSLs. The leaf length was negatively correlated with sinigrin and glucoiberin. The width of the petiole showed a positive correlation with gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, and glucobrassicin, while the length of the petiole had a negative correlation with sinigrin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicin, and the total GSLs. A higher width of the midrib was associated with higher contents of gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, and glucobrassicin. A PCA analysis based on the agro-morphological traits showed that the first and second principal components accounted for 65.2% of the overall variability. Accessions that form a head tend to exhibit a longer leaf length, a larger plant weight, a thicker midrib, and higher widths of the midrib, petiole, and leaf. The GSLs showed inconsistent inter-and intra-leaf variation. Accessions that identified for various traits in their performance, such as, for example, Yeosu66 and IT259487 (highest total glucosinolates) and IT228984 (highest plant weight), would be promising lines for developing new varieties. Full article
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11 pages, 492 KiB  
Article
Effect of Yogurt Ice Cream on the Viability and Antidiabetic Potential of the Probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis after In Vitro Digestion
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4373; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234373 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 930
Abstract
Probiotics can ameliorate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via several mechanisms such as by decreasing inflammatory cytokines and increasing pancreatic β-cell functions. Another targeted mechanism for managing T2DM involves inhibiting α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which exhibit antioxidant activity and affect carbohydrate metabolism by delaying [...] Read more.
Probiotics can ameliorate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via several mechanisms such as by decreasing inflammatory cytokines and increasing pancreatic β-cell functions. Another targeted mechanism for managing T2DM involves inhibiting α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which exhibit antioxidant activity and affect carbohydrate metabolism by delaying carbohydrate digestion, thus mitigating glucose in the circulation. Dairy products are effective matrices for delivering probiotics through the gastrointestinal tract. We compared the viability and antioxidant activity of the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis in yogurt ice cream after in vitro digestion and compared α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG had the highest viability after in vitro digestion (oral, gastric, and intestinal). Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG exhibited the highest percentages of α-glucosidase (16.37% ± 0.32%) and α-amylase (41.37% ± 0.61%) inhibition. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 showed the highest antioxidant activities via the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging method and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, respectively. These findings suggest that yogurt ice cream can provide a suitable matrix for the delivery of probiotics from dairy culture to promote intestinal homeostasis with probiotic benefits in the host as well as a potential functional food to help reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods with Modulating Action on Metabolic Risk Factors)
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21 pages, 1824 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Storage Temperature and Packaging Technology on the Durability of Ready-to-Eat Preservative-Free Meat Bars with Dried Plasma
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4372; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234372 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Food business operators must include the results of shelf life testing in their HACCP plan. Ready-to-eat preservative-free meat products enriched with blood plasma are an unfathomable area of research in food safety. We tested modified atmosphere (80% N2 and 20% CO2 [...] Read more.
Food business operators must include the results of shelf life testing in their HACCP plan. Ready-to-eat preservative-free meat products enriched with blood plasma are an unfathomable area of research in food safety. We tested modified atmosphere (80% N2 and 20% CO2) and vacuum packaged RTE preservative-free baked and smoked pork bars with dried blood plasma for Aerobic Plate Count, yeast and mould, lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter spp., and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. during storage (temperatures from 4 to 34 °C) up to 35 days after production. The obtained data on the count of individual groups of microorganisms were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistically tested (Student’s t-test with the Bonferroni correction); for temperatures at which there were statistically significant differences and high numerical variability, the trend of changes in bacterial counts were visualised using mathematical modelling. The results show that the optimal storage conditions are refrigerated temperatures (up to 8 °C) for two weeks. At higher temperatures, food spoilage occurred due to the growth of aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and mould. The MAP packaging method was more conducive to spoilage of the bars, especially in temperatures over 8 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety of Food)
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19 pages, 5543 KiB  
Article
Discrimination of Maturity Stages of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine Grapes Using Visible–Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4371; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234371 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 909
Abstract
Grape quality and ripeness play a crucial role in producing exceptional wines with high-value characteristics, which requires an effective assessment of grape ripeness. The primary purpose of this research is to explore the possible application of visible–near-infrared spectral (Vis-NIR) technology for classifying the [...] Read more.
Grape quality and ripeness play a crucial role in producing exceptional wines with high-value characteristics, which requires an effective assessment of grape ripeness. The primary purpose of this research is to explore the possible application of visible–near-infrared spectral (Vis-NIR) technology for classifying the maturity stages of wine grapes based on quality indicators. The reflection spectra of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were recorded using a spectrometer in the spectral range of 400 nm to 1029 nm. After measuring the soluble solids content (SSC), total acids (TA), total phenols (TP), and tannins (TN), the grape samples were categorized into five maturity stages using a spectral clustering method. A traditional supervised classification method, a support vector machine (SVM), and two deep learning techniques, namely stacked autoencoders (SAE) and one-dimensional convolutional neural networks (1D-CNN), were employed to construct a discriminant model and investigate the association linking grape maturity stages and the spectral responses. The spectral data went through three commonly used preprocessing methods, and feature wavelengths were extracted using a competitive adaptive reweighting algorithm (CARS). The spectral data model preprocessed via multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) outperformed the other two preprocessing methods. After preprocessing, a comparison was made between the discriminant models established with full and effective spectral data. It was observed that the SAE model, utilizing the feature spectrum, demonstrated superior overall performance. The classification accuracies of the calibration and prediction sets were 100% and 94%, respectively. This study showcased the dependability of combining Vis-NIR spectroscopy with deep learning methods for rapidly and accurately distinguishing the ripeness stage of grapes. It has significant implications for future applications in wine production and the development of optoelectronic instruments tailored to the specific needs of the winemaking industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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15 pages, 7378 KiB  
Article
Comparative Metabolomics Analysis of Different Perilla Varieties Provides Insights into Variation in Seed Metabolite Profiles and Antioxidant Activities
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4370; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234370 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 672
Abstract
Perilla seeds are essential functional foods and key ingredients in traditional medicine. Herein, we investigated the variation in phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of twelve different perilla seeds. The seeds showed significant variations in total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranging from 16.92 to [...] Read more.
Perilla seeds are essential functional foods and key ingredients in traditional medicine. Herein, we investigated the variation in phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of twelve different perilla seeds. The seeds showed significant variations in total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranging from 16.92 to 37.23 mg GAE/g (GAE, gallic acid equivalent) and 11.6 to 19.52 mg CAE/g (CAE, catechin equivalent), respectively. LC-QqQ-MS (liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry)-based widely targeted metabolic profiling identified a total of 975 metabolites, including 68–269 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs). Multivariate analyses categorized the seeds into four groups based on the seed coat and leaf colors. Most key bioactive DAMs, including flavonoids (quercetin-3’-O-glucoside, prunin, naringenin, naringenin chalcone, butin, genistin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, etc.), amino acids (valine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, threonine, etc.), and vitamins (B1, B3, B6, U, etc.) exhibited the highest relative content in PL3 (brown seed, purple leaf), PL1 (white seed, green-purple leaf), and PL4 (white seed, green leaf) groups, respectively. Meanwhile, key differentially accumulated phenolic acids showed a higher relative content in PL1 and PL4 than in other groups. Both seeds exhibited high antioxidant activities, although those of PL2 (brown seed, green leaf) group seeds were the lowest. Our results may facilitate the comprehensive use of perilla seeds in food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
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11 pages, 2919 KiB  
Article
Effects of Frozen Storage Time, Thawing Treatments, and Their Interaction on the Rheological Properties of Non-Fermented Wheat Dough
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4369; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234369 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 580
Abstract
In this study, the effects of frozen storage time, thawing treatments, and their interaction on the rheological properties of non-fermented dough were evaluated. Texture profile analysis (TPA), rheological measurements, including strain/frequency sweep, and creep-recovery measurement were applied to the dough. Compared with unfrozen [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of frozen storage time, thawing treatments, and their interaction on the rheological properties of non-fermented dough were evaluated. Texture profile analysis (TPA), rheological measurements, including strain/frequency sweep, and creep-recovery measurement were applied to the dough. Compared with unfrozen fresh dough, the frozen storage time (S) and thawing treatment (T) influenced almost all indicators significantly, and their mutual effects (S × T) mainly affected the hardness and springiness. Frozen time was the main factor resulting in the destruction of non-fermented dough during the thawing treatments. Moreover, refrigerator thawing (4 °C) produced a dough with minimal changes in the rheological properties, regardless of the frozen storage time. Meanwhile, microwave thawing resulted in lower G′ and lower zero shear viscosity (η0) values, as well as higher maximum creep compliance (Jmax) and hardness values. Moreover, the difference between the three thawing treatments was exacerbated after 30 days of frozen storage. SEM images also showed that long-term frozen storage combined with microwave thawing seriously destroyed the rheological properties, structural stability, and inner microstructure of the dough. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal: Storage, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes)
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13 pages, 1767 KiB  
Article
Difference in Aroma Components of Black Teas Processed on Different Dates in the Spring Season
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4368; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234368 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Tea aroma greatly varies with the production date. This study investigated the aroma differences among black teas processed on different dates (March 23rd, April 8th, April 15th, April 27th, and May 7th) in the spring. A sensory evaluation showed that the black tea [...] Read more.
Tea aroma greatly varies with the production date. This study investigated the aroma differences among black teas processed on different dates (March 23rd, April 8th, April 15th, April 27th, and May 7th) in the spring. A sensory evaluation showed that the black tea produced on April 15th had a strong and lasting sweet aroma and the highest score of 93.5. In total, 71 volatile compounds were identified, and alcohols were the predominant category, accounting for 60.98%. From March 23rd to May 7th, the total content of volatile compounds showed a parabolic change trend and reached its maximum on April 15th (715.27 μg/L); the flavor index first peaked on April 8th (23.25) and then gradually decreased. A multivariate statistical analysis showed that 39 volatile compounds were important, differential aroma components. An odor activity value (OAV) analysis showed that the predominant odorants were β-ionone, β-damascenone, linalool, (E)-β-ocimene, and geraniol, all with values larger than 100. The total OAVs of undesirable odorants decreased and reached their minimum (70.4) on April 27th, while the total OAVs of pleasant odorants and the ratio of pleasant/undesirable odorants showed inverse changes and reached their maximum (2182.1 and 31.0, respectively) on April 27th. Based on the significance of differences and OAVs, linalool, (E)-β-ocimene, geraniol, and (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal were considered as the key differential odorants. Combined with the sensory evaluation and the differences in aroma components, it was proposed that black teas produced around April 15th in the Hunan district are more likely to have a strong and lasting sweet aroma. This study will provide scientific guidance for the production of black tea in the Hunan district, China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Aroma Components and Bioactive Compounds of Tea)
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18 pages, 1672 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast from Grains as Starter Cultures for Gluten-Free Sourdough
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4367; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234367 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 843
Abstract
With the increasing number of people affected by gluten consumption-related diseases, adhering to a gluten-free (GF) diet is the most effective preventive measure. Herein, we aimed to isolate and characterize the functional properties of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast from various [...] Read more.
With the increasing number of people affected by gluten consumption-related diseases, adhering to a gluten-free (GF) diet is the most effective preventive measure. Herein, we aimed to isolate and characterize the functional properties of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast from various GF sourdoughs to determine their suitability in starter cultures for sourdough preparation. Three LAB, Weissella confusa BAQ2, Lactobacillus brevis AQ2, Leuconostoc citreum YC2, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae BW1, were identified. The isolated LAB exhibited greater TTA, faster acidification rates, and higher acid tolerance than commercial LAB. W. confusa BAQ2 exhibited the highest EPS production, W. confusa BAQ2 and L. brevis AQ2 showed high maltose utilization, and S. cerevisiae BW1 exhibited the highest CO2 production rate. Accordingly, all four microbial strains were mixed for the starter culture. The sourdough prepared with starter cultures exhibited differences in gas production depending on fermentation time, which influenced the volume of GF bread dough. GF bread prepared with fermented sourdough exhibited a 16% higher specific volume and enhanced crumb firmness and elasticity than that prepared using non-fermented sourdough. Thus, autochthonous LAB strains isolated from various GF sourdoughs can be used together to improve the quality of sourdough bread, demonstrating their potential for use in starter cultures for GF sourdough production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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20 pages, 9764 KiB  
Article
Effect of Medium Chain Triglycerides on the Digestion and Quality Characteristics of Tea Polyphenols-Fortified Cooked Rice
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4366; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234366 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Nowadays, medium chain triglycerides (MCT) with special health benefits have been increasingly applied for fortifying food products. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate the effects of MCT on traditional tea polyphenols-fortified cooked rice (TP-FCR). It was visualized by DSC, CLSM, XRD, FT-IR, [...] Read more.
Nowadays, medium chain triglycerides (MCT) with special health benefits have been increasingly applied for fortifying food products. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate the effects of MCT on traditional tea polyphenols-fortified cooked rice (TP-FCR). It was visualized by DSC, CLSM, XRD, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. The higher content of starch-MCT complexes with an increase in the relative crystallinity and the generation of short-range ordered structures contributed to a more ordered and compact molecular arrangement, which can hinder the action of digestive enzymes on starch. SEM demonstrated that MCT transformed the microstructure of TP-FCR into a denser and firmer character, making it an essential component hindering the accessibility of digestive enzymes to starch granules and slowing the release of tea polyphenols in TP-FCR to attenuate starch digestion. Consequently, the addition of MCT reduced the polyphenol-regulated starch digestibility from 74.28% in cooked white rice to 64.43% in TP-FCR, and further down to 50.82%. Besides, MCT also reduced the adhesiveness and improved the whiteness of TP-FCR. The findings suggested that MCT incorporation could be a potential strategy in cooked rice production to achieve high sensory quality and low glycemic cooked rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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18 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
A Clean-Label Formulation of Fortified Yogurt Based on Rhododendron Flower Powder as a Functional Ingredient
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4365; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234365 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 838
Abstract
The world-wide-dispersed Rhododendron is a tiny, evergreen plant with vivid red or pale pink blossoms that is a member of the Ericaceae family and is well-known for its stunning flowers. To improve yogurt’s nutritional profile and sensory qualities, this study investigates an innovative [...] Read more.
The world-wide-dispersed Rhododendron is a tiny, evergreen plant with vivid red or pale pink blossoms that is a member of the Ericaceae family and is well-known for its stunning flowers. To improve yogurt’s nutritional profile and sensory qualities, this study investigates an innovative application of Rhododendron flower powder (RFP). The potential health benefits of Rhododendron flowers, which are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and antioxidants, have attracted attention. Consequently, the physicochemical, phytochemical, and sensory qualities of fortifying yogurt with RFP at various concentrations were studied. The results showed that the texture and color of the yogurt were highly influenced by the addition of RFP. The addition of this functional ingredient also resulted in a significant increase in the yogurt’s polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. These findings demonstrate the suitability of RFP in yogurt formulations as a functional food ingredient, being a good source of phenolics. Full article
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17 pages, 3150 KiB  
Article
Thermal Stability Enhancement of L-Asparaginase from Corynebacterium glutamicum Based on a Semi-Rational Design and Its Effect on Acrylamide Mitigation Capacity in Biscuits
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4364; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234364 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Acrylamide is present in thermally processed foods, and it possesses toxic and carcinogenic properties. L-asparaginases could effectively regulate the formation of acrylamide at the source. However, current L-asparaginases have drawbacks such as poor thermal stability, low catalytic activity, and poor substrate specificity, thereby [...] Read more.
Acrylamide is present in thermally processed foods, and it possesses toxic and carcinogenic properties. L-asparaginases could effectively regulate the formation of acrylamide at the source. However, current L-asparaginases have drawbacks such as poor thermal stability, low catalytic activity, and poor substrate specificity, thereby restricting their utility in the food industry. To address this issue, this study employed consensus design to predict the crucial residues influencing the thermal stability of Corynebacterium glutamicum L-asparaginase (CgASNase). Subsequently, a combination of site-point saturating mutation and combinatorial mutation techniques was applied to generate the double-mutant enzyme L42T/S213N. Remarkably, L42T/S213N displayed significantly enhanced thermal stability without a substantial impact on its enzymatic activity. Notably, its half-life at 40 °C reached an impressive 13.29 ± 0.91 min, surpassing that of CgASNase (3.24 ± 0.23 min). Moreover, the enhanced thermal stability of L42T/S213N can be attributed to an increased positive surface charge and a more symmetrical positive potential, as revealed by three-dimensional structural simulations and structure comparison analyses. To assess the impact of L42T/S213N on acrylamide removal in biscuits, the optimal treatment conditions for acrylamide removal were determined through a combination of one-way and orthogonal tests, with an enzyme dosage of 300 IU/kg flour, an enzyme reaction temperature of 40 °C, and an enzyme reaction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, compared to the control (464.74 ± 6.68 µg/kg), the acrylamide reduction in double-mutant-enzyme-treated biscuits was 85.31%, while the reduction in wild-type-treated biscuits was 68.78%. These results suggest that L42T/S213N is a promising candidate for industrial applications of L-asparaginase. Full article
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15 pages, 5134 KiB  
Article
Electrochemiluminescence Sensor Based on CTS-MoS2 and AB@CTS with Functionalized Luminol for Detection of Malathion Pesticide Residues
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4363; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234363 - 03 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
The accumulation of pesticide residues poses a significant threat to the health of people and the surrounding ecological systems. However, traditional methods are not only costly but require expertise in analysis. An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor was developed using chitosan and molybdenum disulfide (CTS-MoS [...] Read more.
The accumulation of pesticide residues poses a significant threat to the health of people and the surrounding ecological systems. However, traditional methods are not only costly but require expertise in analysis. An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor was developed using chitosan and molybdenum disulfide (CTS-MoS2), along with acetylene black (AB@CTS) for the rapid detection of malathion residues. Due to the weak interaction force, simple composite may lead to uneven dispersion; MoS2 and AB were dissolved in CTS solution, respectively, and utilized the biocompatibility of CTS to interact with each other on the electrode. The MoS2 nanosheets provided a large specific surface area, enhancing the utilization rate of catalytic materials, while AB exhibited excellent conductivity. Additionally, the dendritic polylysine (PLL) contained numerous amino groups to load abundant luminol to catalyze hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The proposed ECL aptasensor obtained a low detection limit of 2.75 × 10−3 ng/mL (S/N = 3) with a good detection range from 1.0 × 10−2 ng/mL to 1.0 × 103 ng/mL, demonstrating excellent specificity, repeatability, and stability. Moreover, the ECL aptasensor was successfully applied for detecting malathion pesticide residues in authentic samples with recovery rates ranging from 94.21% to 99.63% (RSD < 2.52%). This work offers valuable insights for advancing ECL sensor technology in future applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Food Safety)
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17 pages, 2521 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pretreatment Methods on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products in Fried Shrimp
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234362 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Fried shrimp are popular for their attractive organoleptic and nutritional qualities. However, consumers are more concerned about the safety of fried foods. To investigate the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in fried shrimp and provide pretreatment guidance for producing low-AGEs fried [...] Read more.
Fried shrimp are popular for their attractive organoleptic and nutritional qualities. However, consumers are more concerned about the safety of fried foods. To investigate the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in fried shrimp and provide pretreatment guidance for producing low-AGEs fried pacific white shrimp were treated with seven pretreatment methods before frying. The AGEs contents, physicochemical indicators, and their correlations in the fried shrimps’ interior, surface, and batter layer were analyzed. Results indicated that pretreatment methods influenced both Maillard and oxidation reactions by altering the basic compositions, which controlled the formation of AGEs. The highest and lowest AGEs contents were obtained in shelled shrimp with exscinded back and whole shrimp, respectively. The batter-coated treatment reduced the AGEs contents in samples but increased the oil content. Correlation analysis showed that lipid oxidation was the decisive chemical reaction to the formation of AGEs by promoting the generation of dicarbonyl compounds and their combination with free amino acids. Conclusively, the whole shrimp was suitable for producing fried shrimp with low AGEs, oil content, and desirable color. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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16 pages, 9103 KiB  
Article
Co-Delivery System of Vitamin B12 and Vitamin E Using a Binary W/O/W Emulsion Based on Soybean Isolate Protein–Xanthan Gum/Carrageenan: Emulsification Properties, Rheological Properties, Structure, Stability, and Digestive Characteristics
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4361; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234361 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
In this study, the soybean protein isolate (SPI)–xanthan gum (XG) or carrageenan (CA) W/O/W emulsions for the co-delivery of vitamin B12 and vitamin E were prepared. The effects of XG and CA concentrations on the physicochemical properties and digestive characteristics of the [...] Read more.
In this study, the soybean protein isolate (SPI)–xanthan gum (XG) or carrageenan (CA) W/O/W emulsions for the co-delivery of vitamin B12 and vitamin E were prepared. The effects of XG and CA concentrations on the physicochemical properties and digestive characteristics of the emulsions were also investigated. The addition of XG and CA improved the SPI aggregation and increased its electrostatic repulsion so that more SPI was adsorbed at the phase interface. The emulsifying activity index and emulsifying stability index increased to 24.09 (XG 0.4%) and 14.00 (CA 0.5%) and 151.08 (XG 0.4%) and 135.34 (CA 0.5%), respectively. The adsorbed protein content increased to 88.90% (XG 0.4%) and 88.23% (CA 0.5%), respectively. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin E were increased to 86.72% (XG 0.4%) and 86.47 (CA 0.5%) and 86.31% (XG 0.4%) and 85.78% (CA 0.5%), respectively. The bioaccessibility of vitamin B12 and vitamin E increased to 73.53% (XG 0.4%) and 71.32% (CA 0.5%) and 68.86% (XG 0.4%) and 68.74% (CA 0.5%). The best properties of the emulsions were obtained at a 0.4% concentration of XG and 0.5% of CA. This study offers a novel system for delivering bioactive substances, which is favorable for the advancement of food with delivery capability in food processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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11 pages, 1260 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Capacity of Free and Peptide Tryptophan Residues Determined by the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) Assay Is Modulated by Radical-Radical Reactions and Oxidation Products
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4360; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234360 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
The ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay is commonly employed for determining the antioxidant capacity of bioactive peptides. To gain insights into the meaning of this index for peptides containing a single Trp, we studied the consumption of this residue and fluorescein (FLH, [...] Read more.
The ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay is commonly employed for determining the antioxidant capacity of bioactive peptides. To gain insights into the meaning of this index for peptides containing a single Trp, we studied the consumption of this residue and fluorescein (FLH, the probe of ORAC method), induced by radicals generated by AAPH (2,2′-Azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride) thermolysis. ORAC values were rationalized from kinetics and computational calculations of bond dissociation energies (BDE) of the N-H bond (indole ring of Trp). Free Trp, di- and tri- peptides, and three larger peptides were studied. Solutions containing 70 nM FLH, 1–5 μM free Trp or peptides, and 10 mM AAPH were incubated at 37 °C in phosphate buffer. Kinetic studies showed that FLH minimally affected Trp consumption. However, a clear protection of FLH, characterized by pseudo-lag times, was evidenced, reflecting radical-radical reactions and FLH repairing. Peptides showed similar ORAC values (~1.9–2.8 Trolox equivalents), while BDE varied between 91.9 and 103.5 kcal. These results, added to the protection of FLH observed after total consumption of Trp, indicate a lack of discrimination of the assay for the chemical structure of peptides and the contribution of oxidation products to the index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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11 pages, 992 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Investigation of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) Fruits from Different Sicilian Accessions
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4359; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234359 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Sumac, Rhus coriaria L., is employed as a natural preservative in the food sector, due to its rich content of antioxidant compounds, including hydrolysable tannins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. In this work, the phytochemical characterization of sumac fruits from five Sicilian accessions [...] Read more.
Sumac, Rhus coriaria L., is employed as a natural preservative in the food sector, due to its rich content of antioxidant compounds, including hydrolysable tannins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. In this work, the phytochemical characterization of sumac fruits from five Sicilian accessions was performed to evaluate their potential as a food preservative for nutraceutical exploitation. Spectrophotometric tests and HPLC-MS/MS analyses were conducted to assess and compare the antioxidant power of the water extracts produced with the five sumac accessions. Principal component analysis was also carried out to better visualize the obtained results. Flavonoids and phenolic acids, namely isoquercitrin (20,342.82 mg/kg dry extract) and gallic acid (197,489.19 mg/kg dry extract), were more abundant in fruits from the population of San Biagio Platani, while the one from Giarratana was characterized by a higher content of anthocyanins such as cyanidin-3-glucoside (20,889.81 mg/kg dry extract). These two populations can be recognized as the most suitable settings for the implementation of sumac cultivation and the development of sumac-based products, especially for food and nutraceutical purposes. Full article
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15 pages, 3622 KiB  
Article
A Study of a New Certified Reference Material for Accurate Determination of the Main Fusarium Mycotoxins in Whole-Wheat Flour
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4358; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234358 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Matrix certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in analytical method validation and the assurance of reliable measurement results. A certified reference material (GBW(E)100813) for whole-wheat flour was developed to ensure an accurate and reliable measurement of the main Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol [...] Read more.
Matrix certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in analytical method validation and the assurance of reliable measurement results. A certified reference material (GBW(E)100813) for whole-wheat flour was developed to ensure an accurate and reliable measurement of the main Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G), and zearalenone (ZEN)). CRM candidates were prepared using sun-drying, grinding, sieving, homogenising, packaging, and gamma irradiation. The final produced CRM was packaged at 50 g per unit and stored at 20 °C. Certification was performed using isotope dilution-liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. CRM characterization was performed in eight laboratories in accordance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. The certified values and expanded uncertainties (at a confidence of 95%, k = 2) for DON, NIV, DON-3G, and ZEN were determined to be 0.98 ± 0.12 mg/kg, 1.37 ± 0.20 mg/kg, 242 ± 35 μg/g, and 382 ± 50 μg/g. The CRM was sufficiently homogeneous between and within bottles, and remained stable for up to 12 months at 20 °C and 9 days below 40 °C for transportation. Thus, CRM can be used for quality control and method validation to ensure the accurate and reliable quantification of the main Fusarium mycotoxins in whole-wheat flour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Toxicology)
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17 pages, 4594 KiB  
Article
Structural Characteristics and Multiple Bioactivities of Volvariella volvacea Polysaccharide Extracts: The Role of Extractive Solvents
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4357; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234357 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 774
Abstract
The chemical structures and functional properties of plant-based polysaccharides are critically influenced by extractive solvents, but their roles are not clear. In this study, the structural characteristics and multiple bioactivities of Volvariella volvacea polysaccharides (VVPs) subjected to water (VVP-W), alkalis (sodium hydroxide, VVP-A), [...] Read more.
The chemical structures and functional properties of plant-based polysaccharides are critically influenced by extractive solvents, but their roles are not clear. In this study, the structural characteristics and multiple bioactivities of Volvariella volvacea polysaccharides (VVPs) subjected to water (VVP-W), alkalis (sodium hydroxide, VVP-A), and acids (citric acid, VVP-C) as extractive solvents are investigated systematically. Of the above three polysaccharides, VVP-W exhibited the highest molecular weights, apparent viscosity, and viscoelastic properties. Functional analyses revealed that VVP-C had an excellent water-holding capacity, foaming properties, and emulsifying capacity, while VVP-A exhibited a promising oil-holding capacity. Moreover, VVP-C displayed strong inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which could be attributed to its content of total phenolics, proteins, and molecular weights. These findings have important implications for selecting the appropriate extraction techniques to obtain functional polysaccharides with targeted bioactive properties as food additives. Full article
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12 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Consumer Expectation and Perception of Farmed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed with Insect Meal (Tenebrio molitor)
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4356; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234356 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 803
Abstract
In recent years, insect meal has attracted increasing interest as an innovative protein source to replace fish meal in feed formulations due to its valuable nutritional profile. This research aimed to compare the effects of different levels of dietary inclusion of the yellow [...] Read more.
In recent years, insect meal has attracted increasing interest as an innovative protein source to replace fish meal in feed formulations due to its valuable nutritional profile. This research aimed to compare the effects of different levels of dietary inclusion of the yellow mealworm beetle (T. molitor) larvae meal on the sensory quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets and retrospectively on the acceptability of this protein source to consumers. The results showed that the inclusion of T. molitor larvae meal did not induce sensory changes in the trout fillets, while regarding consumer acceptability and willingness to buy and pay, it was shown that a certain level of rejection towards this alternative protein still exists. The work described in this scientific manuscript adds more knowledge on the study of consumer acceptability of this protein source. Full article
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11 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents for Solubility and Selective Fractionation of Bioactive Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrates
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4355; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234355 - 02 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) have been shown to be selective and environmentally friendly solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds. However, studies on the solubility of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates (LMWCs) in NADESs are scarce. In this work, new solubility data of LMWCs in [...] Read more.
Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) have been shown to be selective and environmentally friendly solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds. However, studies on the solubility of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates (LMWCs) in NADESs are scarce. In this work, new solubility data of LMWCs in NADESs are provided and a new approach based on the use of these solvents for the efficient fractionation of bioactive carbohydrates was explored for the first time. Several mono- and disaccharides and three NADESs based on choline chloride (ChCl) and different donors (2-ethylene glycol (EtG), glycerol (Gly) and ethanedioic acid dihydrate (Eth)) were considered. While the degradation of carbohydrates, mainly ketoses, was detected with ChCl:Eth due to its acidic nature, ChCl:EtG and ChCl:Gly were found to be useful alternatives for selectively separating bioactive ketoses and their corresponding aldoses (e.g., lactulose/lactose and tagatose/galactose) present in equimolar binary mixtures. In addition, the usefulness of ChCl:EtG for the selective enrichment of lactulose to be used as food ingredient or nutraceutical was proven (from a 25% in the reaction mixture to a 56% in the purified sample). NADESs could be used for the selective fractionation of value-added carbohydrates from interfering sugars for several applications, including food science, engineering or pharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Extraction, Separation, and Purification of Food Ingredients)
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17 pages, 3345 KiB  
Article
Characteristic Profile of the Hazardous, Nutritional, and Taste-Contributing Compounds during the Growth of Argopecten irradians with Different Shell Colors
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4354; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234354 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Bay scallops (Argopecten irradians; A. irradians) are shellfish with high nutritional and economic value. However, nutritional studies on A. irradians with different shell colors are limited. This study examines the hazardous, nutritional, and taste-contributing compounds during the growth of A. irradians [...] Read more.
Bay scallops (Argopecten irradians; A. irradians) are shellfish with high nutritional and economic value. However, nutritional studies on A. irradians with different shell colors are limited. This study examines the hazardous, nutritional, and taste-contributing compounds during the growth of A. irradians with different shell colors. During the growth of A. irradians, the hazardous contents were below the standard limit. Changes in the nutritional and taste-contributing compounds between months were more significant than shell color. Bay scallops had more fats, total fatty acids, and taste-contributing compounds in August and more proteins, essential fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin B12, Cu, and Zn in September and October. In October, the golden shell color strain had more proteins, essential fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin B12, Cu, and Zn, while the purple shell color strain had more taste-contributing compounds. A. irradians had better taste in August and higher nutritional value in September and October. In October, the golden shell color strain has higher nutritional value, and the purple shell color strain has better commercial value and taste. The correlation analysis indicates that the nutritional quality of bay scallops is affected by age (months), shell color, and seawater environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foods of Marine Origin)
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24 pages, 4999 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Hop Freshness on Kettle-Hopped Beers
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4353; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234353 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 951
Abstract
Hops are an indispensable ingredient in beer, and the differences in their chemical composition impart the various tastes and aromas associated with different beers. However, during storage, hops undergo changes in their chemical composition. Here, the changes in aroma and bitterness of kettle-hopped [...] Read more.
Hops are an indispensable ingredient in beer, and the differences in their chemical composition impart the various tastes and aromas associated with different beers. However, during storage, hops undergo changes in their chemical composition. Here, the changes in aroma and bitterness of kettle-hopped beers were evaluated in an experiment conducted on three different hop varieties (Aurora, Celeia and Styrian Wolf) with five different hop storage index (HSI) values (0.3–0.7). Hops were added to boiling wort for 5, 45 and 90 min. Alpha-acids, iso-alpha-acids, humulinones, bitterness units and hop aroma compounds in the samples were chemically analysed. All samples also underwent sensorial analysis. The old hops were not problematic in terms of bitterness or early hopping time. However, later additions of old hops reduced the quality and intensity of the hop aroma. The limit value for use without negative consequences for kettle hopping was set at HSI 0.5 for Aurora and Celeia and HSI 0.6 for Styrian Wolf. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Microbiology of Beer)
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16 pages, 2488 KiB  
Article
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Quality and Soft Rot Resistance of Sweet Potato during Long-Term Storage
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4352; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234352 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Heat treatment is a widely applied technique in the preservation of fruits and vegetables, effectively addressing issues such as disease management, rot prevention, and browning. In this study, we investigated the impact of heat treatment at 35 °C for 24 h on the [...] Read more.
Heat treatment is a widely applied technique in the preservation of fruits and vegetables, effectively addressing issues such as disease management, rot prevention, and browning. In this study, we investigated the impact of heat treatment at 35 °C for 24 h on the quality characteristics and disease resistance of two sweet potato varieties, P32/P (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv ‘Pushu13’) and Xinxiang (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. cv ‘Xinxiang’). The growth in vitro and reproduction of Rhizopus stolonifer were significantly inhibited at 35 °C. However, it resumed when returned to suitable growth conditions. The heat treatment (at 35 °C for 24 h) was found to mitigate nutrient loss during storage while enhancing the structural characteristics and free radical scavenging capacity of sweet potato. Additionally, it led to increased enzyme activities for APX, PPO, and POD, alongside decreased activities for Cx and PG, thereby enhancing the disease resistance of sweet potato against soft rot. As a result, the heat treatment provided a theoretical basis for the prevention of sweet potato soft rot and had guiding significance for improving the resistance against sweet potato soft rot. Full article
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17 pages, 3639 KiB  
Article
Grapevine Shoot Extract Rich in Trans-Resveratrol and Trans-ε-Viniferin: Evaluation of Their Potential Use for Cardiac Health
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4351; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234351 - 02 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1525
Abstract
A grapevine shoot extract (GSE) was obtained using ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterized. The main phenolic constituents were identified as stilbenoids. Among them, trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin stood out. The GSE was administered to an isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury animal model. The extract alleviated [...] Read more.
A grapevine shoot extract (GSE) was obtained using ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterized. The main phenolic constituents were identified as stilbenoids. Among them, trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin stood out. The GSE was administered to an isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury animal model. The extract alleviated the associated symptoms of the administration of the drug, i.e., the plasma lipid profile was improved, while the disturbed plasma ion concentration, the cardiac dysfunction markers, the DNA laddering, and the necrosis of myocardial tissue were diminished. This effect could be related to the anti-oxidative potential of GSE associated with its antioxidant properties, the increased levels of endogenous antioxidants (glutathione and enzymatic antioxidants), and the diminished lipid peroxidative markers in the heart. The results also revealed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity, which indicated the potential of GSE to deal with cardiovascular disease events. This work suggests that not only trans-resveratrol has a protective role in heart function but also GSE containing this biomolecule and derivatives. Therefore, GSE has the potential to be utilized in the creation of innovative functional ingredients. Full article
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12 pages, 2085 KiB  
Article
Development of an Innovative Optoelectronic Nose for Detecting Adulteration in Quince Seed Oil
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4350; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234350 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1259
Abstract
In this study, an innovative odor imaging system capable of detecting adulteration in quince seed edible oils mixed with sunflower oil and sesame oil based on their volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles was developed. The system comprises a colorimetric sensor array (CSA), a [...] Read more.
In this study, an innovative odor imaging system capable of detecting adulteration in quince seed edible oils mixed with sunflower oil and sesame oil based on their volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles was developed. The system comprises a colorimetric sensor array (CSA), a data acquisition unit, and a machine learning algorithm for identifying adulterants. The CSA was created using a method that involves applying a mixture of six different pH indicators (methyl violet, chlorophenol red, Nile blue, methyl orange, alizarin, cresol red) onto a Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) silica gel plate. Subsequently, difference maps were generated by subtracting the “initial” image from the “final” image, with the resulting color changes being converted into digital data, which were then further analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Following this, a Support Vector Machine was employed to scrutinize quince seed oil that had been adulterated with varying proportions of sunflower oil and sesame oil. The classifier was progressively supplied with an increasing number of principal components (PCs), starting from one and incrementally increasing up to five. Each time, the classifier was optimized to determine the hyperparameters utilizing a random search algorithm. With one to five PCs, the classification error accounted for a range of 37.18% to 1.29%. According to the results, this novel system is simple, cost-effective, and has potential applications in food quality control and consumer protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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16 pages, 1273 KiB  
Article
Validation of a Bacteriophage Hide Application to Reduce STEC in the Lairage Area of Commercial Beef Cattle Operations
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4349; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234349 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Finalyse, a T4 bacteriophage, is a pre-harvest intervention that utilizes a combination of bacteriophages to reduce incoming Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence by destroying the bacteria on the hides of harvest-ready cattle entering commercial abattoirs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Finalyse, a T4 bacteriophage, is a pre-harvest intervention that utilizes a combination of bacteriophages to reduce incoming Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence by destroying the bacteria on the hides of harvest-ready cattle entering commercial abattoirs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Finalyse, as a pre-harvest intervention, on the reduction in pathogens, specifically E. coli O157:H7, on the cattle hides and lairage environment to overall reduce incoming pathogen loads. Over 5 sampling events, a total of 300 composite hide samples were taken using 25 mL pre-hydrated Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) swabs, collected before and after the hide wash intervention, throughout the beginning, middle, and end of the production day (n = 10 swabs/sampling point/timepoint). A total of 171 boot swab samples were also simultaneously taken at the end of the production day by walking from the front to the back of the pen in a pre-determined ‘Z’ pattern to monitor the pen floor environment from 3 different locations in the lairage area. The prevalence of pathogens was analyzed using the BAX® System Real-Time PCR Assay. There were no significant reductions observed for Salmonella and/or any Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) on the hides after the bacteriophage application (p > 0.05). Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O111 hide prevalence was very low throughout the study; therefore, no further analysis was conducted. However, boot swab monitoring showed a significant reduction in E. coli O157:H7, O26, and O45 in the pen floor environment (p < 0.05). While using Finalyse as a pre-harvest intervention in the lairage areas of commercial beef processing facilities, this bacteriophage failed to reduce E. coli O157:H7 on the hides of beef cattle, as prevalence was low; however, some STECs were reduced in the lairage environment, where the bacteriophage was applied. Overall, an absolute conclusion was not formed on the effectiveness of Finalyse and its ability to reduce E. coli O157:H7 on the hides of beef cattle, as prevalence on the hides was low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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18 pages, 5398 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Protein Differentiation Mechanism between Jinhua Fatty Ham and Lean Ham through Label-Free Proteomics
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4348; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234348 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Jinhua lean ham (LH), a dry-cured ham made from the defatted hind legs of pigs, has become increasingly popular among consumers with health concerns. However, the influence of fat removal on the quality of Jinhua ham is still not fully understood. Therefore, a [...] Read more.
Jinhua lean ham (LH), a dry-cured ham made from the defatted hind legs of pigs, has become increasingly popular among consumers with health concerns. However, the influence of fat removal on the quality of Jinhua ham is still not fully understood. Therefore, a label-free proteomics strategy was used to explore the protein differential profile between Jinhua fatty ham (FH) and lean ham (LH). Results showed that 179 differential proteins (DPs) were detected, including 82 up-regulated and 97 down-regulated DPs in LH vs. FH, among which actin, myosin, tropomyosin, aspartate aminotransferase, pyruvate carboxylase, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase were considered the key DPs. GO analysis suggested that DPs were mainly involved in binding, catalytic activity, cellular process, and metabolic process, among which catalytic activity was significantly up-regulated in LH. Moreover, the main KEGG-enriched pathways of FH focused on glycogen metabolism, mainly including the TCA cycle, pyruvate metabolism, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. However, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation were the main metabolic pathways in LH. From the protein differentiation perspective, fat removal significantly promoted protein degradation, amino acid metabolism, and the oxidative phosphorylation process. These findings could help us to understand the effects of fat removal on the nutritional metabolism of Jinhua hams and provide theoretical supports for developing healthier low-fat meat products. Full article
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20 pages, 3131 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Plasma Activated Water Extraction of Pleurotus ostreatus Polysaccharides on Its Physiochemical and Biological Activity Using Response Surface Methodology
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234347 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 973
Abstract
This study focused on optimizing the extraction of P. ostreatus polysaccharides (POPs) using plasma-activated water (PAW). A single factor and response surface methodology were employed to optimize and evaluate the polysaccharide yield, physiochemical characteristics, and biological activities of POPs. The observed findings were [...] Read more.
This study focused on optimizing the extraction of P. ostreatus polysaccharides (POPs) using plasma-activated water (PAW). A single factor and response surface methodology were employed to optimize and evaluate the polysaccharide yield, physiochemical characteristics, and biological activities of POPs. The observed findings were compared to those obtained by the conventional hot water extraction method (100 °C, 3 h), as the control treatment. The optimal extraction conditions were obtained at 700 W PAW power, 58 s treatment time, 1:19 sample-to-water ratio, and 15 L/min gas flow rate. In these conditions, the PAW-treated samples experienced changes in surface morphology due to plasma etching, leading to a 288% increase in the polysaccharide yield (11.67%) compared to the control sample (3.01%). Furthermore, the PAW-treated sample exhibited superior performance in terms of biological activities, namely phenolic compounds (53.79 mg GAE/100 g), DPPH scavenging activity (72.77%), and OH scavenging activity (65.03%), which were 29%, 18%, and 38% higher than those of control sample, respectively. The results highlighted the importance of process optimization and provided new evidence for PAW as an alternative approach to enhance the extraction efficiency of POPs, a novel source of natural antioxidants which enables diverse applications in the food industry. Full article
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17 pages, 6523 KiB  
Article
Effects of Reducing Sugars on the Structural and Flavor Properties of the Maillard Reaction Products of Lycium barbarum Seed Meal
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4346; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234346 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Lycium barbarum seed meal contains a variety of bioactive compounds, but the use of L. barbarum seed meal in the food industry is rare. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of reducing sugars on the structural and flavor properties of the Maillard [...] Read more.
Lycium barbarum seed meal contains a variety of bioactive compounds, but the use of L. barbarum seed meal in the food industry is rare. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of reducing sugars on the structural and flavor properties of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of the Lycium barbarum seed meal hydrolysate (LSH). The results showed that the flavors and tastes of the MRPs were affected by reducing sugars. In comparison to oligosaccharides, monosaccharides were more suitable for the development of MRPs with good sensory qualities. The structural characteristics of L. barbarum seed meal precursor MRPs were also affected by reducing sugars. The MRPs produced with the participation of monosaccharides had higher ultraviolet absorption and browning than the MRPs produced with oligosaccharides. The molecular weights of the MRPs were found to be 128–500 Da and 500–1000 Da. Compared to the MRPs made from other sugars, xylose-meridian products (X-MRPs) had a stronger meaty flavor. The mellowness and continuity of the MRPs made from monosaccharides were superior to those made from oligosaccharides. The MRPs formed by L. barbarum seed meal exhibited the characteristics of umami and meat flavor. MRPs with better flavors may be used to develop new types of seasoning salts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Flavor Analysis of Foods and Their Volatile Profile)
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25 pages, 3195 KiB  
Article
Microencapsulation of Juniper and Black Pepper Essential Oil Using the Coacervation Method and Its Properties after Freeze-Drying
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4345; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234345 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Essential oils are mixtures of chemical compounds that are very susceptible to the effects of the external environment. Hence, more attention has been drawn to their preservation methods. The aim of the study was to test the possibility of using the classical model [...] Read more.
Essential oils are mixtures of chemical compounds that are very susceptible to the effects of the external environment. Hence, more attention has been drawn to their preservation methods. The aim of the study was to test the possibility of using the classical model of complex coacervation for the microencapsulation of essential oils. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and juniper (Juniperus communis) essential oils were dissolved in grape seed (GSO) and soybean (SBO) oil to minimize their loss during the process, and formed the core material. Various mixing ratios of polymers (gelatin (G), gum Arabic (GA)) were tested: 1:1; 1:2, and 2:1. The oil content was 10%, and the essential oil content was 1%. The prepared coacervates were lyophilized and then screened to obtain a powder. The following analyses were determined: encapsulation efficiency (EE), Carr index (CI), Hausner ratio (HR), solubility, hygroscopicity, moisture content, and particle size. The highest encapsulation efficiency achieved was within the range of 64.09–59.89%. The mixing ratio G/GA = 2:1 allowed us to obtain powders that were characterized by the lowest solubility (6.55–11.20%). The smallest particle sizes, which did not exceed 6 μm, characterized the powders obtained by mixing G/GA = 1:1. All powder samples were characterized by high cohesiveness and thus poor or very poor flow (CI = 30.58–50.27, HR = 1.45–2.01). Full article
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