Topic Editors

College of Veterinary Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar 25130, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Department of Zoology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Edible Insects as Feed and Food: Opportunities and Challenges

Abstract submission deadline
31 May 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 July 2024
Viewed by
21751

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scientific understanding of insects as food and feed has grown tremendously over the last five years. The industrial sector is also becoming increasingly involved in the raising, processing, and selling of edible insects. Additionally, utilising residual substrates that contain chitin as fertiliser might improve plant health. There is a growing concern among consumers that eating insects is an alternative option. Insects must be processed into ingredients before being used in food products and goods. In addition, insects provide great feed conversion rates, represent good sources of food and feed, and minimally contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Some insect species may be raised on organic side streams, lowering environmental pollution and producing high-protein feed out of waste that can take the place of increasingly expensive feed components. Further research is necessary to determine the nutritional and health advantages for both animals and human. The insect industry is developing quickly, but there are still numerous obstacles to overcome, which can only be achieved by close collaboration amongst all stakeholders.

Dr. Rifat Ullah Khan
Dr. Shabana Naz
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • insect
  • feed
  • food
  • protein
  • alternative sources

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.6 3.6 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Animals
animals
3.0 4.2 2011 18.1 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Dietetics
dietetics
- - 2022 24.3 Days CHF 1000 Submit
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Insects
insects
3.0 4.2 2010 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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11 pages, 731 KiB  
Communication
Fatty Acid Profile and Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. Load of Wild-Caught Seaweed Fly Fucellia maritima (Haliday, 1838) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)
by Felipe Lourenço, Ricardo Calado, Marisa Pinho, Maria Rosário Domingues, Isabel Medina and Olga M. C. C. Ameixa
Insects 2024, 15(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15030163 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1265
Abstract
World aquaculture is expected to continue to grow over the next few decades, which amplifies the need for a higher production of sustainable feed ingredients for aquatic animals. Insects are considered good candidates for aquafeed ingredients because of their ability to convert food [...] Read more.
World aquaculture is expected to continue to grow over the next few decades, which amplifies the need for a higher production of sustainable feed ingredients for aquatic animals. Insects are considered good candidates for aquafeed ingredients because of their ability to convert food waste into highly nutritional biomass. However, commercially available terrestrial insect species lack n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), which are essential biomolecules for marine cultured species. Nevertheless, several coastal insect species feature LC-PUFAs in their natural fatty acid (FA) profile. Here, we analysed the lipidic profile of wild-caught seaweed fly Fucellia maritima, with a focus on their FA profile, to evaluate its potential to be used as an aquafeed ingredient, as well as to screen for the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Results showed that the flies had a total lipid content of 13.2% of their total dry weight. The main classes of phospholipids (PLs) recorded were phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) (60.8%), followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC) (17.1%). The most abundant FA was palmitoleic acid (C16:0) with 34.9% ± 4.3 of total FAs, followed by oleic acid (C18:1) with 30.4% ± 2.3. The FA composition of the flies included essential fatty acids (EFAs) for both freshwater fish, namely linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) with 3.4% ± 1.3 and alpha-linoleic acid (C18:3 n-3) with 3.4% ± 1.9, and marine fish, namely arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) with 1.1% ± 0.3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) with 6.1% ± 1.2. The microbiological analysis found 9.1 colony-forming units per gram (CFU/g) of Enterobacteriaceae and no presence of Salmonella sp. was detected in a sample of 25 g of fresh weight. These findings indicate that Fucellia maritima biomass holds the potential to be used as an additional aquafeed ingredient due to its FA profile and the low count of pathogenic bacteria, which can contribute to the optimal growth of fish and shrimp with a low risk of pathogen transfer during the feed production chain. Full article
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17 pages, 1787 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Different Sustainable Substrates on the Nutritional Value of Tenebrio molitor Larvae
by Agnė Jankauskienė, Dominykas Aleknavičius, Sandra Kiseliovienė, Šarūnas Antanaitis, Rimvydas Falkauskas, Marijona Šumskienė, Ignė Juknienė and Aistė Kabašinskienė
Foods 2024, 13(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030365 - 23 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Every year, over 30% of food production is wasted. However, promoting a sustainable food supply not only fosters economic stability in agriculture and the food industry, but also safeguards precious natural resources and ensures universal food access and safety. Therefore, the aim of [...] Read more.
Every year, over 30% of food production is wasted. However, promoting a sustainable food supply not only fosters economic stability in agriculture and the food industry, but also safeguards precious natural resources and ensures universal food access and safety. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine how specific growth conditions (utilizing by-products: sprouted potatoes (1), wheat bran (2), brewers’ spent grain (3), and a control sample with agar-agar gels (4)) affect the larvae of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor). This includes their nutritional and energy value, consumer sensory profiling, and technological parameters of processing. The results have indicated that larvae reared on the substrate with wheat bran had the highest energy value, at 708.26 kcal. In larvae, the difference in protein content was not significant when changing the rearing conditions, and ranged between 48.54 and 59.18%. The larvae contained a significant content of fibers, with the highest amount detected in samples with brewers’ spent grain. The data indicate that glucose and arabinose were distinctive to larvae. Our study has also revealed a statistical difference in ash content between larvae and the substrate, with higher levels of nitrogen, copper, and zinc detected in the larvae compared to the substrate. We have found that the salt was naturally occurring in the substrates, with the brewers’ spent grain sample having the highest amount, at 1.83%. However, the control sample yielded the highest ratings, achieving a score of 7.30 for general smell acceptability. These findings emphasize the potential of utilizing various industrial and farm by-products as substrates for mealworms, transforming them into a sustainable and nutrient-rich food source. This contribution adds to the broader discourse on nutritional value and resource efficiency. Full article
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17 pages, 6010 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Probiotic Beverage Enriched with Cricket Proteins on the Gut Microbiota: Composition of Gut and Correlation with Nutritional Parameters
by Chaima Dridi, Mathieu Millette, Stephane Salmieri, Blanca R. Aguilar Uscanga, Sebastien Lacroix, Tommaso Venneri, Elham Sarmast, Zahra Allahdad, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Cristoforo Silvestri and Monique Lacroix
Foods 2024, 13(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020204 - 09 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
The health and balance of the gut microbiota are known to be linked to diet composition and source, with fermented products and dietary proteins potentially providing an exceptional advantage for the gut. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
The health and balance of the gut microbiota are known to be linked to diet composition and source, with fermented products and dietary proteins potentially providing an exceptional advantage for the gut. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein hydrolysis, using a probiotic beverage enriched with either cricket protein (CP) or cricket protein hydrolysates (CP.Hs), on the composition of the gut microbiota of rats. Taxonomic characterization of the gut microbiota in fecal samples was carried out after a 14-day nutritional study to identify modifications induced by a CP- and CP.H-enriched fermented probiotic product. The results showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the diversity and richness of the gut microbiota among the groups fed with casein (positive control), CP-enriched, and fermented CP.H-enriched probiotic beverages; however, the overall composition of the microbiota was altered, with significant modifications in the relative abundance of several bacterial families and genera. In addition, fermented CP.H-enriched probiotic beverages could be related to the decrease in the number of potential pathogens such as Enterococcaceae. The association of gut microbiota with the nutritional parameters was determined and the results showed that digestibility and the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were highly associated with the abundance of several taxa. Full article
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12 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Consumer Expectation and Perception of Farmed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed with Insect Meal (Tenebrio molitor)
by Martina Magnani, Anna Claret, Enric Gisbert and Luis Guerrero
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4356; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234356 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 965
Abstract
In recent years, insect meal has attracted increasing interest as an innovative protein source to replace fish meal in feed formulations due to its valuable nutritional profile. This research aimed to compare the effects of different levels of dietary inclusion of the yellow [...] Read more.
In recent years, insect meal has attracted increasing interest as an innovative protein source to replace fish meal in feed formulations due to its valuable nutritional profile. This research aimed to compare the effects of different levels of dietary inclusion of the yellow mealworm beetle (T. molitor) larvae meal on the sensory quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets and retrospectively on the acceptability of this protein source to consumers. The results showed that the inclusion of T. molitor larvae meal did not induce sensory changes in the trout fillets, while regarding consumer acceptability and willingness to buy and pay, it was shown that a certain level of rejection towards this alternative protein still exists. The work described in this scientific manuscript adds more knowledge on the study of consumer acceptability of this protein source. Full article
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15 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
Packaging Communication as a Tool to Reduce Disgust with Insect-Based Foods: Effect of Informative and Visual Elements
by Natalia Naranjo-Guevara, Bastian Stroh and Sonja Floto-Stammen
Foods 2023, 12(19), 3606; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12193606 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Disgust associated with insect consumption is a significant challenge faced by the insect-based food industry. One cost-effective approach that managers can employ to increase consumer acceptance is by enhancing packaging design. The packaging represents a cheap and effective means of communication. It is [...] Read more.
Disgust associated with insect consumption is a significant challenge faced by the insect-based food industry. One cost-effective approach that managers can employ to increase consumer acceptance is by enhancing packaging design. The packaging represents a cheap and effective means of communication. It is also referred to as a silent seller. This study investigates the potential of packaging communication in reducing disgust towards insect-based products in Germany. In a survey, 422 participants were confronted with packaging designs representing different visual and informative elements. The results showed that images of familiar ingredients and transparent windows on the packaging are particularly effective in reducing disgust. The presence of the organic and specific Ento seals significantly increased the assumed food safety. Claims about protein content and sustainability were less effective. Cricket images had a significant impact on increasing disgust. Practical implications for managers who are seeking to address consumer resistance towards insect-based food products are discussed. Full article
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13 pages, 3898 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Production Methods for Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) in Burkina Faso
by Florence Sankara, Fernand Sankara, Salimata Pousga, Kalifa Coulibaly, Jacques Philippe Nacoulma, Zakaria Ilboudo, Issoufou Ouédraogo, Irénée Somda and Marc Kenis
Insects 2023, 14(9), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14090776 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
Larvae of Hermetia illucens are a valuable source of protein for animal feed that can be produced by exposing animal and agro-industrial wastes to naturally occurring flies. The objective of this study was to improve techniques for obtaining H. illucens larvae to feed [...] Read more.
Larvae of Hermetia illucens are a valuable source of protein for animal feed that can be produced by exposing animal and agro-industrial wastes to naturally occurring flies. The objective of this study was to improve techniques for obtaining H. illucens larvae to feed livestock in Burkina Faso. An experiment was conducted to determine the most favourable substrates and seasons for larval production. The substrates used were poultry manure, local beer waste, local beer waste mixed with poultry manure, cottonseed cake, and industrial brewery waste mixed with poultry manure. The production of larvae was carried out in four different seasons. The effect of the container’s oviposition area (0.07 m2, 0.09 m2, and 0.11 m2) and the type of container (terracotta, plastic, and iron) on larval production was also assessed. The produced larval biomass was high during, or just after, the rainy season but very low during the cool dry and hot dry seasons. Yields were higher with local beer waste mixed with poultry manure followed by local beer waste and cottonseed cake. The average mass of H. illucens larvae increased slightly with the oviposition area for the same amount of substrate. Iron and terracotta containers provided better results than plastic containers. The suitability of this production method for H. illucens larvae production is discussed. Full article
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21 pages, 2290 KiB  
Article
Balancing the Growth Performance and Nutritional Value of Edible Farm-Raised Sago Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferregineus) Larvae by Feeding Various Plant Supplemented-Sago Palm Trunk Diets
by Athakorn Promwee, Khanittha Chinarak, Worawan Panpipat, Atikorn Panya, Natthaporn Phonsatta, Matija Harcet and Manat Chaijan
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183474 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Herein, the effect of supplementing ground sago palm trunk (GSPT) with varying concentrations of plant-based ingredients (PIs), including rice bran (RB), soybean meal (SM), and perilla seed (PS), on the nutritional profile of sago palm weevil larvae (SPWL) was investigated. Increased PS intake [...] Read more.
Herein, the effect of supplementing ground sago palm trunk (GSPT) with varying concentrations of plant-based ingredients (PIs), including rice bran (RB), soybean meal (SM), and perilla seed (PS), on the nutritional profile of sago palm weevil larvae (SPWL) was investigated. Increased PS intake induced an increase in α-linolenic acid level and a reduction in the n-6/n-3 ratio in SPWL (p < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids in SPWL was determined predominantly by the fatty acid profile in the feed. The activities of Δ5 + Δ6 desaturases and thioesterase were not different among SPWL fed different diets (p < 0.05); however, PI intake resulted in low suppression of fads2 gene expression. RB, SM, and PS at the appropriate concentrations of 17.5%, 8.8%, and 7.0% in GSPT (F3 diet), respectively, boosted both protein quantity and quality of SPWL, as indicated by higher levels of essential amino acids, particularly lysine, than the FAO protein reference. Therefore, incorporating PIs into a regular diet is a viable method for enhancing the nutritional value and sustainability of farm-raised SPWL as a potential alternative source of high-quality lipid and protein. Full article
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19 pages, 3116 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) Protein Fractions
by Olumide Oluwatoyosi Fashakin, Pipat Tangjaidee, Kridsada Unban, Wannaporn Klangpetch, Tabkrich Khumsap, Korawan Sringarm, Saroat Rawdkuen and Suphat Phongthai
Insects 2023, 14(8), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14080674 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Crickets contain high protein content that can be used to improve nutrition but are less exploited. This study was conducted to isolate different Cricket Protein Fractions including albumin, globulin, glutelin, and prolamin. All fractions were characterized and hydrolyzed by commercial enzymes. The results [...] Read more.
Crickets contain high protein content that can be used to improve nutrition but are less exploited. This study was conducted to isolate different Cricket Protein Fractions including albumin, globulin, glutelin, and prolamin. All fractions were characterized and hydrolyzed by commercial enzymes. The results showed that the glutelin fractions had the highest extraction yields with 53.9 ± 2.12% (p < 0.05). Moreover, glutelin hydrolysate fraction prepared by Alcalase with a 16.35 ±0.29% hydrolysis degree was selected for further purification because of their high antioxidant activities, including ABTS radical-scavenging activity (0.44–0.55 µmol Trolox eq./g) and metal chelating activity (1721.99–1751.71 µmol EDTA eq./g). Two active fractions, GA-1 (<3 kDa) and GA-2 (<3 kDa), were collected from the consecutive purification of glutelin hydrolysates, which included processes such as membrane ultrafiltration and gel filtration. The fractions were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to obtain 10 peptides with 3–13 amino acids identified as TEAPLNPK, EVGA, KLL, TGNLPGAAHPLLL, AHLLT, LSPLYE, AGVL, VAAV, VAGL, and QLL with a molecular weight range of 359.23–721.37 Da in the two fractions. The amino acid sequence shows a prevalence of hydrophobic amino acids (50–100%) such as valine and leucine in the peptide chains, accounting for its high antioxidant activity. In conclusion, cricket glutelin hydrolysate prepared by Alcalase can serve as an alternative source of potent edible bioactive peptides in functional food products. Full article
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12 pages, 1368 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Profile Changes in an Insect–Fungus Complex of Antheraea pernyi Pupa Infected by Samsoniella hepiali
by Shengchao Wang, Yun Meng and Dun Wang
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142796 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Historically, some edible insects have been processed into a complex of insect and fungus, such as Antherea pernyi and Samsoniella hepiali. Until now, the dynamics of the nutritional changes due to this infection were unclear. This study reveals the dynamic changes in [...] Read more.
Historically, some edible insects have been processed into a complex of insect and fungus, such as Antherea pernyi and Samsoniella hepiali. Until now, the dynamics of the nutritional changes due to this infection were unclear. This study reveals the dynamic changes in nutritional components of Antherea pernyi pupa after infection with Samsoniella hepiali at post-infection time points of 0 d, 10 d, 20 d, and 30 d. The dynamic analysis of the components at different post-infection times showed that the content of polysaccharides and cordycepin increased with time while the content of fats and chitin decreased. The content of proteins showed a trend of decreasing at the beginning and then increasing. The essential amino acids (EAAs) decreased at the beginning and then increased, and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) changed similarly. The essential amino acid index showed a slight continuous decrease. Although the crude fat decreased dramatically due to the infection, from a value of 30.75% to 7.2%, the infection of S. hepiali produced five new fatty acids (14-methyl-pentadecanoic acid, docosanoic acid, succinic acid, arachidonic acid, and myristic acid) while the content of the seven fatty acids was greatly reduced after infection. Therefore, after being infected by S. hepiali and combined with it, the nutritional profile of A pernyi pupa was changed significantly and there were different characteristics at different infection stages. The above findings provide scientifically fundamental data to understand the nutritional value of the insect–fungus complex as human food and animal feed. Full article
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17 pages, 1301 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Addition of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens on the Physicochemical and Sensory Quality of Cooked Meat Products
by Barbara Lemke, Lisa Siekmann, Nils Th. Grabowski, Madeleine Plötz and Carsten Krischek
Insects 2023, 14(5), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14050487 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
The use of proteins from insects, plants, microalgae, fungi or bacteria as an alternative to proteins of animal origin such as meat, fish, eggs or milk can meet the worldwide protein demand in the future. As the consumption of whole insects might be [...] Read more.
The use of proteins from insects, plants, microalgae, fungi or bacteria as an alternative to proteins of animal origin such as meat, fish, eggs or milk can meet the worldwide protein demand in the future. As the consumption of whole insects might be problematic or unacceptable for many consumers, especially in European countries, the use of homogenized insects or protein extracts from insects for the production of products might be a possibility to overcome general acceptability problems. However, the quality criteria of these products have to be comparable with consumers’ expectations with regard to known products. Therefore, in the present study, we produced a meat product, replaced 10% and 20% of the pork with homogenized larvae of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens, and determined different physicochemical and sensory parameters at production and during modified atmosphere storage for 21 days. Additionally, the alteration of different bacteria species during this storage was analyzed in challenge tests. After production, the addition of insects resulted in higher cooking losses and pH values in the products with 20% insects, higher pH and yellowness, lower lightness, protein and hardness results in the Hermetia products, as well as higher yellowness and lower protein and hardness values in the cooked meat products with Tenebrio molitor. During modified atmosphere storage, the color differences principally remained, whereas the concentrations of inoculated Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were not influenced by the addition of insects to the cooked meat products. The sensory results of the insect products, especially at higher concentrations and with Hermetia illucens, worsened during modified atmosphere storage. The addition of homogenized insect larvae, especially at higher concentrations and particularly of Hermetia illucens, influences different physicochemical and sensory parameters of the cooked meat products. Full article
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15 pages, 30795 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Rearing Factors Affecting Clanis bilineata tsingtauica Mell Larvae Fed by Susceptible Soybean Variety NN89-29 in Spring and Autumn Sowing
by Xiaofeng Liu, Yulu Yan, Nan Liu, Yufei Xu, Huiyan Jiang, Zhihao Ye, Hao Wang, Junyi Gai and Guangnan Xing
Insects 2023, 14(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14010032 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Clanis bilineata tsingtauica Mell is a nutritious edible insect. In the present study, soybean variety NN89-29 susceptible to leaf-feeding insects was used as the experiment material to evaluate the rearing factors affecting the production of C. bilineata tsingtauica in spring and autumn sowing. [...] Read more.
Clanis bilineata tsingtauica Mell is a nutritious edible insect. In the present study, soybean variety NN89-29 susceptible to leaf-feeding insects was used as the experiment material to evaluate the rearing factors affecting the production of C. bilineata tsingtauica in spring and autumn sowing. We artificially inoculated C. bilineata tsingtauica eggs to soybean plants, and the relevant indexes of larvae and soybean plants were recorded. The main results from spring sowing were as follows: (1) Larval number, single larval weight and plot-larval weight were all higher in the V6 stage (sixth trifoliolate) than those in the R3 stage (beginning pod) of inoculated eggs. (2) Larval number, single larval weight and plot-larval weight significantly decreased under higher planting density. Meanwhile, the soybean plant height and internode length increased, while the main stem node number of soybean decreased under higher planting density. (3) Single larval weight and plot-larval weight were not significantly affected by different numbers of eggs inoculated, but the larval number was significantly affected. Under autumn sowing conditions: (1) The larvae production and soybean plant growth were not significantly affected by covering the top of the net house with plastic film to isolate rainwater. (2) More eggs inoculated were associated with higher plot-larval weight. Conversely, fewer eggs inoculated resulted in a higher proportion of single larvae weight more than or equal to 6 g (≥6 g). Compared to spring sowing, the low biomass of autumn-sown soybean plants did not provide sufficient food for C. bilineata tsingtauica growth, and competition for food resulted in lower larval number, single larval weight and plot-larval weight. Full article
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17 pages, 349 KiB  
Article
Consumer Attitudes and Acceptability of Wheat Pancakes with the Addition of Edible Insects: Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), Buffalo Worm (Alphitobius diaperinus), and Cricket (Acheta domesticus)
by Aleksandra Mazurek, Agnieszka Palka, Magdalena Skotnicka and Stanisław Kowalski
Foods 2023, 12(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the degree of acceptability of wheat pancakes with the addition of 10%, 20%, and 30% meal from three edible insect species (Alphitobius diaperinus, Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, respectively). Both consumer attitudes and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the degree of acceptability of wheat pancakes with the addition of 10%, 20%, and 30% meal from three edible insect species (Alphitobius diaperinus, Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, respectively). Both consumer attitudes and the acceptability of the test samples were analysed. The study results show that the amount of additive had a statistically significant effect on all of the organoleptic evaluation’s distinguishing features, while the type of additive did not have such a significant effect on the level of consumer acceptability. Both the type and amount of the additive only had a statistically significant effect on the structure of the pancakes. Of all the variants, the sample with the addition of 30% crickets (Pref-2.51) was given the lowest score. An increase in the insect meal content of the products resulted in decreased scores for all the parameters under assessment. The key element that influenced the overall preference was the flavour. Even though the respondents declared positive attitudes towards the idea of consuming pancakes with the addition of insects and entomophagy in general, they were still reluctant to include insects in their diets. Full article
13 pages, 2052 KiB  
Article
Tenebrio molitor Proteins-Derived DPP-4 Inhibitory Peptides: Preparation, Identification, and Molecular Binding Mechanism
by Jiao Tan, Jing Yang, Xinyi Zhou, Ahmed Mahmoud Hamdy, Xilu Zhang, Huayi Suo, Yu Zhang, Ning Li and Jiajia Song
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3626; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223626 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is an effective way to control blood glucose in diabetic patients. Tenebrio (T.) molitor is an edible insect containing abundant protein. T. molitor protein-derived peptides can suppress the DPP-4 activity. However, the amino acid sequence and binding mechanism [...] Read more.
Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is an effective way to control blood glucose in diabetic patients. Tenebrio (T.) molitor is an edible insect containing abundant protein. T. molitor protein-derived peptides can suppress the DPP-4 activity. However, the amino acid sequence and binding mechanism of these DPP-4 inhibitory peptides remain unclear. This study used the flavourzyme for T. molitor protein hydrolysis, identified the released peptides with DPP-4 inhibitory effect, and investigated the binding interactions of these peptides with DPP-4. The results showed that flavourzyme efficiently hydrolyzed the T. molitor protein, as demonstrated by the high degree of hydrolysis, disappearance of protein bands in SDS-PAGE, and changes to protein structure. The 4-h flavourzyme hydrolysates showed a good inhibitory effect on DPP-4 (IC50 value of 1.64 mg/mL). The fragment of 1000–3000 Da accounted for 10.39% of the total peptides, but showed the strongest inhibitory effect on DPP-4. The peptides LPDQWDWR and APPDGGFWEWGD were identified from this fraction, and their IC50 values against DPP-4 were 0.15 and 1.03 mg/mL, respectively. Molecular docking showed that these two peptides interacted with the DPP-4 active site via hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, salt bridge formation, π-cation interactions, and π-π stacking. Our findings indicated that T. molitor protein-derived peptides could be used as natural DPP-4 inhibitors. Full article
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