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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 22 (November-2 2023) – 140 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Oat milk is a desirable plant-based milk alternative containing many nutritive and functional components. In this study, we developed oat milk fortified with β-glucan and oat protein, and explored how consumer perception and key sensory attributes of the product influence consumer acceptability. This involved understanding how consumers associate oat milk with product characteristics and food choice motivations, assessing how fortification levels influence sensory attributes, identifying the positive and negative drivers of liking, and determining the relative importance of product features such as source and levels of fortification through Conjoint Analysis. These sensory techniques can be applied to establish sensory profiles for other plant-based milk and derived products. View this paper
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19 pages, 1591 KiB  
Article
A Quality Assurance Discrimination Tool for the Evaluation of Satellite Laboratory Practice Excellence in the Context of the European Official Meat Inspection for Trichinella spp.
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4186; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224186 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Trichinellosis is a parasitic foodborne zoonotic disease transmitted by ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing the first larval stage (L1) of the nematode. To ensure the quality and safety of food intended for human consumption, meat inspection for detection of Trichinella spp. [...] Read more.
Trichinellosis is a parasitic foodborne zoonotic disease transmitted by ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing the first larval stage (L1) of the nematode. To ensure the quality and safety of food intended for human consumption, meat inspection for detection of Trichinella spp. larvae is a mandatory procedure according to EU regulations. The implementation of quality assurance practices in laboratories that are responsible for Trichinella spp. detection is essential given that the detection of this parasite is still a pivotal threat to public health, and it is included in list A of Annex I, Directive 2003/99/EC, which determines the agents to be monitored on a mandatory basis. A Quality Management System (QMS) was applied to slaughterhouses and game handling establishments conducting Trichinella spp. testing without official accreditation but under the supervision of the relevant authority. This study aims to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of implementing the QMS in slaughterhouses and game handling establishments involved in Trichinella testing in southern Spain. Canonical discriminant analyses (CDAs) were performed to design a tool enabling the classification of SLs while determining whether linear combinations of measures of quality-assurance-related traits describe within- and between-SL clustering patterns. The participation of two or more auditors improves the homogeneity of the results deriving from audits. However, when training expertise ensures that such levels of inter-/intralaboratory homogeneity are reached, auditors can perform single audits and act as potential trainers for other auditors. Additionally, technical procedure issues were the primary risk factors identified during audits, which suggests that they should be considered a critical control point within the QMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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13 pages, 2304 KiB  
Article
High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant, Biofilm-Forming Virulent Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chicken Retail Points in Northeast India
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4185; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224185 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 675
Abstract
In light of the significant public health and food safety implications associated with Clostridium perfringens, this study aimed to isolate and characterize C. perfringens in samples obtained from broiler chicken retail points in Meghalaya, northeastern India. A total of 280 samples comprising [...] Read more.
In light of the significant public health and food safety implications associated with Clostridium perfringens, this study aimed to isolate and characterize C. perfringens in samples obtained from broiler chicken retail points in Meghalaya, northeastern India. A total of 280 samples comprising meat, intestinal contents, water, and hand swabs were processed to detect contamination by C. perfringens. The isolates were subjected to toxinotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and biofilm-forming ability test. The overall occurrence of C. perfringens was 22.5% (17.74–27.85, 95% CI) with the highest recovery from intestine samples (31%; 22.13–41.03, 95% CI), followed by meat (23%, 15.17–32.49, 95% CI) and water samples (18%, 8.58–31.44, 95% CI). Type A was the predominant toxinotype (71.43%, 58.65–82.11, 95% CI), followed by Type A with beta2 toxin (17.46%, 9.05–29.10, 95% CI), Type C (7.94%, 2.63–17.56, 95% CI), and Type C with beta2 toxin (3.17%, 0.39–11.0, 95% CI). Nearly all (95.24%) isolates were multidrug resistant and 68.25% were biofilm formers. The predominance of multidrug-resistant and virulent Type A and Type C C. perfringens in retail broiler meat and intestines in the tribal-dominated northeastern region of India is of great concern from food safety and public health perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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20 pages, 4136 KiB  
Article
In Silico-Assisted Isolation of trans-Resveratrol and trans-ε-Viniferin from Grapevine Canes and Their Sustainable Extraction Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES)
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4184; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224184 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Grapevine canes are an important source of bioactive compounds, such as stilbenoids. This study aimed to evaluate an in silico method, based on the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) to isolate stilbenoids from a grapevine cane extract by offline heart-cut high-performance [...] Read more.
Grapevine canes are an important source of bioactive compounds, such as stilbenoids. This study aimed to evaluate an in silico method, based on the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) to isolate stilbenoids from a grapevine cane extract by offline heart-cut high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). For the following extraction of resveratrol and ε-viniferin from grapevine canes, natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) were used as an environmentally friendly alternative to the traditionally used organic solvents. In order to evaluate a variety of combinations of hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs) and hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) for the targeted extraction of stilbenoids, COSMO-RS was applied. In particular, ultrasonic-assisted extraction using a solvent mixture of choline chloride/1,2-propanediol leads to higher extraction yields of resveratrol and ε-viniferin. COSMO-RS calculations for NADES extraction combined with HPCCC biphasic solvent system calculations are a powerful combination for the sustainable extraction, recovery, and isolation of natural products. This in silico-supported workflow enables the reduction of preliminary experimental tests required for the extraction and isolation of natural compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction Technology and Characters of Bioactive Substances in Foods)
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17 pages, 4255 KiB  
Article
Effects of Roasting Temperatures on Peanut Oil and Protein Yield Extracted via Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction and Stability of the Oil Body Emulsion
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4183; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224183 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Oil body emulsions (OBEs) affect the final oil yield as an intermediate in the concurrent peanut oil and protein extraction process using an aqueous enzyme extraction (AEE) method. Roasting temperature promotes peanut cell structure breakdown, affecting OBE composition and stability and improving peanut [...] Read more.
Oil body emulsions (OBEs) affect the final oil yield as an intermediate in the concurrent peanut oil and protein extraction process using an aqueous enzyme extraction (AEE) method. Roasting temperature promotes peanut cell structure breakdown, affecting OBE composition and stability and improving peanut oil and protein extraction rates. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of pretreatment at different roasting temperatures on peanut oil and protein yield extracted through AEE. The results showed that peanut oil and protein extraction rates peaked at 90 °C, 92.21%, and 77.02%, respectively. The roasting temperature did not change OBE composition but affected its stability. The OBE average particle size increased significantly with increasing temperature, while at 90 °C, the zeta potential peaked, and the interfacial protein concentration hit its lowest, indicating OBE stability was the lowest. Optical microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the average particle size findings. The oil quality obtained after roasting treatment at 90 °C did not differ significantly from that at 50 °C. The protein composition remained unaffected by the roasting temperature. Conclusively, the 90 °C roasting treatment effectively improved the yield of peanut oil extracted using AEE, providing a theoretical basis for choosing a suitable pretreatment roasting temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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14 pages, 1226 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Frying Oils Composed of Various Fatty Acids on the Formation of Multiple Hazards in Fried Pork Balls
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4182; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224182 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Oil oxidation products can react with food substrates to produce harmful substances, and oil saturation is closely related to oil oxidation in the process of frying. Therefore, the influence of the composition of fatty acids in oil on the formation of harmful substances [...] Read more.
Oil oxidation products can react with food substrates to produce harmful substances, and oil saturation is closely related to oil oxidation in the process of frying. Therefore, the influence of the composition of fatty acids in oil on the formation of harmful substances in fried pork balls was explored. The five frying oils with the lowest unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content, ranked in ascending order, were palm oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, corn oil, and colza oil (64.94%, 79.94%, 82.65%, 83.07%, and 92.26%, respectively). The overall levels of four harmful substances (acrylamide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines, and trans fatty acids) found in the oil used to fry pork balls followed a descending order: canola oil, corn oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and palm oil (33.66 μg/kg, 27.17 μg/kg, 23.45 μg/kg, 18.67 μg/kg, and 13.19 μg/kg, respectively). This order was generally consistent with the trend in the content of UFAs. Therefore, the formation of harmful substances is closely related to the saturation of oil. Compared with other frying oils, soybean oil as a household oil produces relatively low amounts of harmful substances and has less negative impact on the quality (oil content, moisture content, and higher protein digestibility) of fried products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Toxicology)
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14 pages, 1003 KiB  
Article
Control of Salmonella in Chicken Meat by a Phage Cocktail in Combination with Propionic Acid and Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4181; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224181 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Salmonella contamination in poultry meat is an important food safety issue as this pathogen can lead to serious illness and economic losses worldwide. In poultry meat processing, a variety of strong bacteriostatic agents has been introduced for controlling Salmonella including bacteriophages (phages), organic [...] Read more.
Salmonella contamination in poultry meat is an important food safety issue as this pathogen can lead to serious illness and economic losses worldwide. In poultry meat processing, a variety of strong bacteriostatic agents has been introduced for controlling Salmonella including bacteriophages (phages), organic acids, and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). In our study, two selected phages including vB_SenM_P7 and vB_SenP_P32 were used in combination with propionic acid (PA) and MAP for controlling Salmonella of multiple serovars on chicken meat under storage at 4 °C. The two phages showed strong lytic activity against over 72 serovars of Salmonella tested (25.0 to 80.6%). Phages, vB_SenM_P7 and vB_SenP_P32 showed 40% and 60% survival rates, respectively, after the exposure to temperatures up to 70 °C. Both phages remained active, with nearly 100% survival at a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and 15% NaCl (w/v). The available chlorine up to 0.3% (v/v) led to a phage survival rate of 80–100%. A combination of Salmonella phage cocktail and 0.5% PA could reduce Salmonella counts in vitro by 4 log CFU/mL on day 3 whereas a phage cocktail and 0.25% PA showed a 4-log reduction on day 5 during storage at 4 °C. For the phage treatment alone, a 0.3-log reduction of Salmonella was observed on day 1 of storage at 4 °C. In the chicken meat model, treatment by a phage cocktail and PA at both concentrations in MAP conditions resulted in a complete reduction of Salmonella cells (4–5 log unit/g) on day 2 of storage whereas each single treatment under MAP conditions showed a complete cell reduction on day 4. For the meat sensory evaluation, chicken meat treated with a phage cocktail-PA (0.5%) in MAP condition showed the highest preference scores, suggesting highly acceptability and satisfactory. These findings suggest that a combined treatment using a phage cocktail and PA in MAP conditions effectively control Salmonella in poultry meat during storage at low temperature to improve the quality and safety of food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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15 pages, 1962 KiB  
Review
Plant-Based Meat Proteins: Processing, Nutrition Composition, and Future Prospects
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4180; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224180 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
The growing need for plant-based meat alternatives promotes the rapid progress of the food industry. Processing methods employed in plant-based meat production are critical to preserving and enhancing their nutritional content and health benefits, directly impacting consumer acceptance. Unlike animal-based food processing, the [...] Read more.
The growing need for plant-based meat alternatives promotes the rapid progress of the food industry. Processing methods employed in plant-based meat production are critical to preserving and enhancing their nutritional content and health benefits, directly impacting consumer acceptance. Unlike animal-based food processing, the efficiency of protein extraction and processing methods plays a crucial role in preserving and enriching the nutritional content and properties. To better understand the factors and mechanisms affecting nutrient composition during plant-based meat processing and identify key processing steps and control points, this work describes methods for extracting proteins from plants and processing techniques for plant-based products. We investigate the role of nutrients and changes in the nutrients during plant protein product processing. This article discusses current challenges and prospects. Full article
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25 pages, 3408 KiB  
Review
The Role of Gluten in Food Products and Dietary Restriction: Exploring the Potential for Restoring Immune Tolerance
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4179; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224179 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Wheat is extensively utilized in various processed foods due to unique proteins forming from the gluten network. The gluten network in food undergoes morphological and molecular structural changes during food processing, affecting the final quality and digestibility of the food. The present review [...] Read more.
Wheat is extensively utilized in various processed foods due to unique proteins forming from the gluten network. The gluten network in food undergoes morphological and molecular structural changes during food processing, affecting the final quality and digestibility of the food. The present review introduces the formation of the gluten network and the role of gluten in the key steps of the production of several typical food products such as bread, pasta, and beer. Also, it summarizes the factors that affect the digestibility of gluten, considering that different processing conditions probably affect its structure and properties, contributing to an in-depth understanding of the digestion of gluten by the human body under various circumstances. Nevertheless, consumption of gluten protein may lead to the development of celiac disease (CD). The best way is theoretically proposed to prevent and treat CD by the inducement of oral tolerance, an immune non-response system formed by the interaction of oral food antigens with the intestinal immune system. This review proposes the restoration of oral tolerance in CD patients through adjunctive dietary therapy via gluten-encapsulated/modified dietary polyphenols. It will reduce the dietary restriction of gluten and help patients achieve a comprehensive dietary intake by better understanding the interactions between gluten and food-derived active products like polyphenols. Full article
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13 pages, 2301 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Different Roasting Methods on the Phenolic Contents, Antioxidant Potential, and In Vitro Inhibitory Activities of Sacha Inchi Seeds
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4178; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224178 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 995
Abstract
Roasted sacha inchi seeds are now commercialized as a health food product, but the influence of roasting methods on their proclaimed health effects has yet to be explored. This study investigated the total phenolic contents (TPCs), antioxidant potential, and inhibitory activities of raw [...] Read more.
Roasted sacha inchi seeds are now commercialized as a health food product, but the influence of roasting methods on their proclaimed health effects has yet to be explored. This study investigated the total phenolic contents (TPCs), antioxidant potential, and inhibitory activities of raw and roasted sacha inchi seeds in vitro. Individual phenolics in raw seeds were also identified in an attempt to explain the bioactivities of the seeds. The results suggested that roasting in a cooking pan, vacuum oven, and tray dryer had distinct impact on TPC in sacha inchi seeds, and thus differentially altered their antioxidant and inhibitory properties. Seeds that underwent roasting exhibited 1.5–2.7-fold higher antioxidant potentials than raw seeds. Certain roasting methods provided the products with anti-α-amylase and anti-cholinesterase activities, while inhibitions of these enzymes were not detected in raw seeds. Roasted seeds also possessed superior anti-lipase and anti-glycation activities when compared with raw seeds (up to 1.7- and 4.8-fold, respectively). The inhibitory properties observed in the seed samples might be attributed to their p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and quercetin, as these potential enzyme inhibitors were predominant in raw seeds. The overall results showed that pan-roasting could be used to obtain relatively high health benefits from the antioxidant and inhibitory activities of sacha inchi seeds. The information obtained from this study may serve as the basis for the proper processing of sacha inchi seeds to optimize their functional food and nutraceutical applications. Full article
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15 pages, 6824 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Screening and Quantification of 479 Pesticides in Green Tea by LC-QTOF-MS
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4177; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224177 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 957
Abstract
A high-throughput screening and quantification method for 479 pesticides in green tea was established based on solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Pesticides were extracted from samples using an optimized SPE (TPT cartridges) procedure. LC-QTOF-MS in [...] Read more.
A high-throughput screening and quantification method for 479 pesticides in green tea was established based on solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Pesticides were extracted from samples using an optimized SPE (TPT cartridges) procedure. LC-QTOF-MS in All Ions MS/MS scan mode acquired full MS data for quantification and product ion spectra for identification. LC-QTOF-MS quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves to achieve the optimal method accuracy. The method performance characteristics included the linearity, overall recovery, precision, and measurement uncertainty being evaluated. The validation results exhibited a good sensitivity with the LOQs of 5–55 µg/kg, which was satisfactory for their MRLs in China or the EU. The recoveries of more than 92.7% of the 479 pesticides in green tea were 70–120% at the three spiked levels with a precision of ≤20%. Finally, this method was employed to analyze 479 pesticides in 95 tea samples from markets in China. The test results of the tea samples showed that tolfenpyrad, buprofezin, and pyridaben were found with lower concentrations. The method has effectively improved the determination efficiency of pesticide residue screening by high-resolution mass spectrometry in green tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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14 pages, 4496 KiB  
Article
Lactobacillus paracasei Relieves Constipation by Acting on the Acetic Acid-5-HT-Intestinal Motility Pathway
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224176 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Constipation is a major health concern worldwide and requires effective and safe treatment options. In this study, we selected ten strains of two species of lactobacilli to identify whether they were effective against constipation induced by loperamide administration in BALB/c mice. Monitoring of [...] Read more.
Constipation is a major health concern worldwide and requires effective and safe treatment options. In this study, we selected ten strains of two species of lactobacilli to identify whether they were effective against constipation induced by loperamide administration in BALB/c mice. Monitoring of constipation-related indicators indicated that Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei) mainly acted on the whole intestinal peristalsis to relieve constipation. Furthermore, through the detection of biological, chemical, mechanical, and immune barriers in mice, it was discovered that L. paracasei changed the relative abundance of bacteria related to the levels of acetic acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (such as by increasing the relative abundance of Odoribacter and Clostridium, and reducing the relative abundance of Mucispirillum, Ruminococcus, Coprobacillus, and Dorea), increased the concentration of acetic acid in the intestine, which stimulated enterochromaffin cells, promoted 5-HT synthesis in the colon, enhanced intestinal motility, and relieved constipation. In conclusion, this study provides a theoretical foundation for the development of personalized products for the treatment of constipation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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14 pages, 5005 KiB  
Article
Anthocyanin Profiles in Colored Potato Tubers at Different Altitudes by HPLC–MS Analysis with Optimized Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4175; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224175 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 938
Abstract
The elevated anthocyanin content of colored potatoes produces numerous health benefits in humans. However, there is a paucity of studies exploring the influence of environmental factors on anthocyanin components in colored potatoes. In our work, the Box–Behnken design was adopted to optimize anthocyanin [...] Read more.
The elevated anthocyanin content of colored potatoes produces numerous health benefits in humans. However, there is a paucity of studies exploring the influence of environmental factors on anthocyanin components in colored potatoes. In our work, the Box–Behnken design was adopted to optimize anthocyanin extraction from colored potato tubers with ultrasound assistance. The response surface model was stable and reliable (R2 = 0.9775), and under optimal extraction conditions, namely an ultrasonic power of 299 W, an extraction time of 10 min, and a solid-liquid ratio of 1:30 (g/mL), the yield reached 4.33 mg/g. Furthermore, the anthocyanins of colored potato tubers grown at different altitudes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction, the results showed that anthocyanin levels were the highest at high altitudes, whereas anthocyanins were almost undetectable at mid-altitude. Moreover, the types of anthocyanin compounds present in colored potatoes varied at different altitudes. The red clones exhibited substantial accumulation of pelargonidin across all three altitudes. In contrast, the main anthocyanins found in purple clones were malvidin, petunidin, and cyanidin. We identified the anthocyanin components with a strong correlation to the environment, thereby establishing a fundamental basis for the breeding of potato clones with high anthocyanin content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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16 pages, 344 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Value of Banded Cricket and Mealworm Larvae
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4174; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224174 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Insect farming is more ecological than traditional animal farming, as it requires less water and contributes to lower greenhouse gas emissions. In our study, banded cricket (BC) and mealworm larvae (ML) were analyzed. The proximate composition was determined according to Association of Official [...] Read more.
Insect farming is more ecological than traditional animal farming, as it requires less water and contributes to lower greenhouse gas emissions. In our study, banded cricket (BC) and mealworm larvae (ML) were analyzed. The proximate composition was determined according to Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The mineral content was determined by colorimetry and mass spectrometry. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from the samples and separated using a gas chromatography apparatus, coupled with a mass spectrometer. Our research confirmed that insects are a rich source of protein, with ML containing significantly more protein than BC (74.41 and 65.66 g/100 g dry matter (DM), respectively). In terms of the content of macrominerals, ML was significantly richer than BC, especially in terms of magnesium content (8.75 g/100 g DM). In terms of the content of saturated fatty acids, BC contained almost twice as much as ML (40.05 and 24.74% of the sum of fatty acids, respectively). EPA and DHA were only detected in the fat of BC. The presented results prove that both ML and BC can be good sources of protein both in human and companion animal diets. The component that is predominantly high in insects is fat, with a favorable fatty acid profile, especially in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study contributes new knowledge on the nutritional value of edible insects. In this research, we included three different nitrogen conversion factors for crude protein content. Our results partially confirm previous studies by other authors, although they provide new information on the content of fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Trends of Alternative Nutrients in Food)
14 pages, 3689 KiB  
Article
Anthocyanin-Rich Butterfly Pea Petal Extract Loaded Double Pickering Emulsion Containing Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Physicochemical Properties, Stability, and Rheology
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224173 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Butterfly pea petal extract (BPE)-loaded water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions were fabricated using nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as a hydrophilic stabilizer and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as a hydrophobic emulsifier. The impact of different concentrations of NCC and PGPR in different phase proportions on the emulsion formation, [...] Read more.
Butterfly pea petal extract (BPE)-loaded water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions were fabricated using nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as a hydrophilic stabilizer and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as a hydrophobic emulsifier. The impact of different concentrations of NCC and PGPR in different phase proportions on the emulsion formation, rheology, and stability of an anthocyanin-loaded (pH ≈ 7.0) emulsion was investigated. The mean droplet size of the emulsions increased as the NCC concentration increased, while color intensity (greenness) decreased as the PGPR and NCC concentrations increased. A microscopic examination confirmed that the NCC nanoparticles stabilized the inner W1/O phase, whereas the excess concentration of non-adsorbing NCC nanoparticles was suspended in the continuous aqueous phase. The rheological results showed that robust emulsion networks were formed when the NCC concentration increased. A network structure between the droplets and the development of the NCC network during the continuous phase were attributed to a gel-like behavior. Over the course of seven days, the emulsions with a higher proportion of NCC remained stable, as in samples 3%P-%N, 5%P-2%N, and 5%P@1%N, the total anthocyanin content decreased from 89.83% to 76.49%, 89.40% to 79.65, and 86.63% to 71.40%, respectively. These findings have significant implications for the accurate formulation of particle-stabilized double emulsions for anthocyanin delivery with higher stability. Full article
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12 pages, 2161 KiB  
Article
Sage Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial Agent against Salmonella enterica during Beef Sous Vide Storage
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4172; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224172 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Sous-vide is a process comprising vacuum-sealing food, heating it to the desired temperature, and circulating it in a water bath in a sous vide machine. This cooking technique is increasingly common in homes and catering establishments due to its simplicity and affordability. However, [...] Read more.
Sous-vide is a process comprising vacuum-sealing food, heating it to the desired temperature, and circulating it in a water bath in a sous vide machine. This cooking technique is increasingly common in homes and catering establishments due to its simplicity and affordability. However, manufacturers and chef’s recommendations for low-temperature and long-term sous-vide cooking in media raise food safety concerns, particularly when preparing beef tenderloin. In this study, Salmonella enterica was found to be inactivated by heat and sage essential oil (EO) in beef samples from musculus psoas major that had been sous vide processed. To determine whether heat treatment was likely to increase the sous vide efficiency, S. enterica and sage EO were mixed. After being vacuum-packed and injected with S. enterica, the samples were cooked at 50–65 °C through the sous vide technique for the prescribed time. On days 1, 3, and 6, the amounts of S. enterica, total bacteria, and coliform bacteria were measured in the control and treated groups of beef processed sous vide. Mass spectrometry was used to identify bacterial isolates on different days. On each day that was measured, a higher number of all the microbiota was found in the samples exposed to 50 °C for 5 min. The most frequently isolated microorganisms from both groups of samples were Pseudomonas fragi (17%), Pseudomonas cedrina (8%), and Proteus vulgaris (8%); in the treated group, also S. enterica (21%), Pseudomonas fragi (13%), and Pseudomonas veronii (6%). After the heat treatment of samples at 65 °C for 20 min, the total count of bacteria and coliform bacteria was zero. It has been shown that adding sage essential oil (EO) in combination with sous vide processing technique leads to the stabilization and safety of beef tenderloin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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18 pages, 7937 KiB  
Article
Nurturing Sustainability and Health: Exploring the Role of Short Supply Chains in the Evolution of Food Systems—The Case of Poland
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4171; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224171 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 930
Abstract
Over the last few decades, short food supply chains and local food markets, where farmers either sell their products directly to consumers or use a limited number of intermediaries, have developed worldwide in rural and urban areas. They complement conventional, often globalized, long [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, short food supply chains and local food markets, where farmers either sell their products directly to consumers or use a limited number of intermediaries, have developed worldwide in rural and urban areas. They complement conventional, often globalized, long food chains where small farmers have little bargaining power, and consumers cannot link the food they buy to a known agricultural producer or geographical area where the food is produced. The advantage of direct sales is that producers can obtain a higher price while consumers have easier access to fresh and seasonal food products. The main aim of the paper is to identify and characterize the spatial concentration of local food systems in Poland and their importance in sustainable development and food policy for healthy eating. As part of this study, an analysis of the statistical data of the Central Statistical Office for 2021 was carried out. Data obtained from the Chief Veterinary Inspectorate as of mid-2021 were analyzed to discuss the topic in detail. Descriptive methods and comparative analyses were used to understand regional differences. Absolute and proportional values were used for the research to enable better comparisons between regions, using the traditional method used in spatial structure studies, i.e., the distribution index (number of entities per 1000 inhabitants). The analysis identified spatial differences and possible implications for food policy and regional development. In addition, data on the number of marketplaces in Polish regions in 2022 were used. The study results indicated that short supply chains in the Polish food system contribute to increasing the availability of healthy local products, which may improve consumer health. However, despite these benefits, the results revealed challenges such as the limited production scale of local suppliers and the need to adapt to changing market conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Systems and Food Policy for Healthy Diets)
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23 pages, 2286 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Microbial Quality, Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acids Profile, and Shelf Life of Basa (Pangasius bocourti) Fillets during Chilling Storage Using Pepsin, Rosemary Oil, and Citric Acid
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4170; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224170 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Meat discoloration, lipid oxidation, and undesirable texture are inevitable phenomena in basa fish fillets during storage, which in turn limits their exportation as well as decreases consumer acceptability. In addition, increasing consumers’ requirements for high-quality, minimally processed, and ready-to-cook fish fillets with an [...] Read more.
Meat discoloration, lipid oxidation, and undesirable texture are inevitable phenomena in basa fish fillets during storage, which in turn limits their exportation as well as decreases consumer acceptability. In addition, increasing consumers’ requirements for high-quality, minimally processed, and ready-to-cook fish fillets with an extended shelf-life is a great challenge, particularly with lifestyle changes. Accordingly, this study aimed to improve the quality, lipid stability, fatty acid profile, and lipid nutritional quality indices (LNQI) of basa fish fillets during chilling storage at 4 °C for 15 days using pepsin enzyme (E, 0.1%), rosemary oil (R, 0.5%), citric acid (CA, 0.5%), and their combination (0.1% E + 0.5% R; 0.1% E + 0.5% CA; and 0.1% E + 0.5% R + 0.5% CA). Our results revealed that all treated samples exhibited a significant increase in protein content, a significant decrease in fat content, and a marked reduction in pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), free fatty acids, and shear force (SF) values in comparison to control ones. Moreover, significant improvements in sensory scores, color stability, fatty acid profile, LNQI, and microbial quality of all treated samples were observed. Such findings were more pronounced in samples treated with a mixture of pepsin, rosemary, and citric acid (TVBN: 2.04 vs. 6.52 mg%; TBA: 0.40 vs. 2.68 mg malonaldehyde/Kg; and SF: 8.58 vs. 19.51 Kgf). Based on the obtained results, there was an extension for the shelf life of all treated basa fish fillet samples, especially in samples treated with a mixture of pepsin, rosemary, and citric acids when compared with the control samples (˃15 days versus 10 days). Additionally, eucalyptol, camphor, isoborneol, and α-pinene are the main components of rosemary, with great antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, the mixture of pepsin, rosemary, and citric acid can be applied easily in the seafood industry and at the household level to provide ready-to-cook fish fillets of high quality with great health benefits. Full article
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29 pages, 2684 KiB  
Review
The Extraction and Impact of Essential Oils on Bioactive Films and Food Preservation, with Emphasis on Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities—A Review
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4169; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224169 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Essential oils, consisting of volatile compounds, are derived from various plant parts and possess antibacterial and antioxidant properties. Certain essential oils are utilized for medicinal purposes and can serve as natural preservatives in food products, replacing synthetic ones. This review describes how essential [...] Read more.
Essential oils, consisting of volatile compounds, are derived from various plant parts and possess antibacterial and antioxidant properties. Certain essential oils are utilized for medicinal purposes and can serve as natural preservatives in food products, replacing synthetic ones. This review describes how essential oils can promote the performance of bioactive films and preserve food through their antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Further, this article emphasizes the antibacterial efficacy of essential oil composite films for food preservation and analyzes their manufacturing processes. These films could be an attractive delivery strategy for improving phenolic stability in foods and the shelf-life of consumable food items. Moreover, this article presents an overview of current knowledge of the extraction of essential oils, their effects on bioactive films and food preservation, as well as the benefits and drawbacks of using them to preserve food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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20 pages, 6439 KiB  
Article
Food Security and Land Use under Sustainable Development Goals: Insights from Food Supply to Demand Side and Limited Arable Land in China
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4168; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224168 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
The conflict between economic growth and the arable land demand poses a significant challenge to maintaining food security and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Meanwhile, substantial regional disparities in food consumption contribute to variations in land demand, further exacerbating constraints on food security. [...] Read more.
The conflict between economic growth and the arable land demand poses a significant challenge to maintaining food security and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Meanwhile, substantial regional disparities in food consumption contribute to variations in land demand, further exacerbating constraints on food security. However, few studies have delved into regional differences in land demand related to food consumption. To bridge these gaps, this study estimated the arable land demand and associated pressures, considering food consumption patterns and the land footprint across 31 provincial districts in China. The findings reveal that grains remain the primary crop consumed by Chinese residents. Notably, the food consumption pattern exhibits substantial disparities among provincial districts, particularly concerning livestock products. Given China's vast population and escalating consumption of livestock, the country demonstrates heightened land demands. While China does not face a national-level food security threat, regional disparities are evident, with eight provincial districts facing potential food security risks. This study explored the challenges and pathways in maintaining food security and the visions to achieve it, emphasizing the importance of sustaining a balanced food consumption pattern, reducing food waste, improving environmentally friendly agriculture practices, formulating effective and continuous laws and regulations, and exploring potential land resource development to alleviate the pressure on arable land and ensure food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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20 pages, 5172 KiB  
Article
Potential Use of PLA-Based Films Loaded with Antioxidant Agents from Spent Coffee Grounds for Preservation of Refrigerated Foods
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224167 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 967
Abstract
The aim of this work concerned the production of an active food packaging suitable for refrigerated foods. Polylactic-acid-based films were produced by optimizing the solvent casting technique and testing different loadings of extracts obtained from spent coffee grounds. Indeed, an extract obtained by [...] Read more.
The aim of this work concerned the production of an active food packaging suitable for refrigerated foods. Polylactic-acid-based films were produced by optimizing the solvent casting technique and testing different loadings of extracts obtained from spent coffee grounds. Indeed, an extract obtained by high-pressure and -temperature extraction (HPTE) and a further purified extract by liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) were separately used as active agents, and the effects on packaging features and active compounds migration were analyzed. The selected active agents showed antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition effects on food simulants (peroxide values of 9.2 ÷ 12.0 meqO2/kg extra virgin olive oil), demonstrating the possibility of enhancing food shelf life. In addition, significant effects on the packaging structure due to the presence of the extract were observed, since it can enhance gas barrier properties of the polymer (O2 permeability of 1.6 ÷ 1.3 × 10−9 cm2/s) and confer better processability. In general, the HPTE extract exhibited better performances than the further purified extract, which was due to the presence of a complex pool of antioxidants and the browning effect on the film but a limited loading capacity on the polymer (840 μg caffeine/g PLA), while higher loading capabilities were enabled using LLE extract. Full article
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17 pages, 2051 KiB  
Article
An Acid-Free Alternative to Pectin Production from the Cell Walls of Olive Oil Waste and Different Fruits Using Choline Chloride
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4166; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224166 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 734
Abstract
The pectin from the cell walls of olive waste (alperujo) and apple, orange and strawberry fruits was extracted using choline chloride (ChCl) and the yield and chemical and structural compositions were compared to pectin extracted using citric acid (CA) and ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid [...] Read more.
The pectin from the cell walls of olive waste (alperujo) and apple, orange and strawberry fruits was extracted using choline chloride (ChCl) and the yield and chemical and structural compositions were compared to pectin extracted using citric acid (CA) and ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid (AOOA). According to the results, the alperujo pectin extracted using ChCl from alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) showed a higher yield (2.20–2.88% on the basis of dry weight of AIR) than using CA (0.65–1.22%) but lower than using AOOA (3.92–5.42%). For fruit pectin, the highest yield was obtained using CA (8.81–16%), followed by AOOA (5.4–6.63%), although for apple pectin, ChCl gave a similar yield (5.36%) to AOOA. The uronic acid contents in all ChCl pectins (45.9–70.6% dry basis AIR) were higher or similar to that of the other extracting agents (30.6–65.2%), although a lower level of neutral sugar side chains was detected, with a lower degree of branching and degree of methylation. The NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy of the pectin isolated using ChCl confirmed its slightly different structural composition with respect to CA and AOOA pectin. Therefore, depending on the source material and functionality, pectin isolated using ChCl could be an acid-free alternative to pectin production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Green Extraction Technology for Foods)
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23 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Effect of Supplementary Light with Different Wavelengths on Anthocyanin Composition, Sugar Accumulation and Volatile Compound Profiles of Grapes
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4165; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224165 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Protected cultivation is currently one of the main cultivation modes for grape production, but the long-term use of plastic film will have a certain negative impact on the light environment in vineyards, which in turn causes poor colouring, low sugar content and a [...] Read more.
Protected cultivation is currently one of the main cultivation modes for grape production, but the long-term use of plastic film will have a certain negative impact on the light environment in vineyards, which in turn causes poor colouring, low sugar content and a lack of aroma in some red grape varieties. Supplementing light can be an effective way to mitigate these problems. In this study, vines of three red table grape varieties (‘Summer Black’, ‘Xinyu’ and ‘Queen Nina’) cultivated in a plastic greenhouse were supplemented with red, blue, white and red-blue light from veraison to harvest. All four supplemental light treatments increased the content of anthocyanins, sugars and volatile compounds in three grape varieties compared to CK (no supplemental lighting). Red-blue light treatment was the most favourable for the accumulation of anthocyanins and sugars, and the grapes treated with blue light had the highest content of volatile compounds. The grapes treated with red-blue light all obtained the highest composite scores via principal component analysis. For most of the sensory properties, the highest scores were obtained by the red-blue light-treated grapes. The results of this study will be useful in improving the colouring, sugar, and aroma content of grapes under protected cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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16 pages, 3295 KiB  
Article
Red Meat Consumption and Cancer Risk: A Systematic Analysis of Global Data
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4164; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224164 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
The association between red meat consumption and cancer risk remains a controversy. In this study, we systematically collected and analyzed global data (from Our World in Data and Global Cancer Observatory) to investigate this association for the first time. Our results confirmed significant [...] Read more.
The association between red meat consumption and cancer risk remains a controversy. In this study, we systematically collected and analyzed global data (from Our World in Data and Global Cancer Observatory) to investigate this association for the first time. Our results confirmed significant positive associations between red meat consumption (RMC) and overall cancer incidence (0.798, p < 0.001), or colorectal cancer incidence (0.625, p < 0.001). Several previously unreported cancer types linked to RMC were also unveiled. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita were found to have an impact on this association. However, even after controlling it, RMC remained significantly associated with cancer incidence (0.463, p < 0.001; 0.592, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, after controlling GDP per capita, the correlation coefficients between white meat consumption and overall cancer incidence were found to be much lower and insignificant, at 0.089 (p = 0.288) for poultry consumption and at −0.055 (p = 0.514) for seafood and fish consumption. Notably, an interesting comparison was performed between changes of colorectal cancer incidence and RMC in many countries and regions. A lag of 15–20 years was found, implying causality between RMC and cancer risk. Our findings will contribute to the development of more rational meat consumption concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety: Risk Analysis, Safety Regulation and Legislation)
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21 pages, 1895 KiB  
Article
Augmenting Functional and Sensorial Quality Attributes of Kefir through Fortification with Encapsulated Blackberry Juice
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4163; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224163 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Kefir is a fermented dairy product claimed to confer many health-promoting effects, but its acidic taste is not appealing to some consumers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to enhance the functional and sensorial quality attributes of kefir through fortification with encapsulated [...] Read more.
Kefir is a fermented dairy product claimed to confer many health-promoting effects, but its acidic taste is not appealing to some consumers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to enhance the functional and sensorial quality attributes of kefir through fortification with encapsulated blackberry juice (EBJ). The blackberry juice was successfully encapsulated via freeze-drying using lentil protein isolate (LPI) as the carrier. The encapsulated blackberry juice showed good physicochemical, functional, and morphological properties, as well as microbiological safety for use as a food additive. The kefir was fortified with EBJ in concentrations of 1, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% (w/w), stored for up to 28 days under refrigeration, and periodically evaluated. Parameters such as the viscosity, titrable acidity, and pH indicate that the kefir fortification did not affect its stability during storage. EBJ significantly increased the antioxidant properties of the kefir, depending on the fortification level. Additionally, all the fortified samples provided more anthocyanins than the daily recommended intake. Microbiological profiling demonstrated that good laboratory practice and hygiene were implemented during the experiments. Finally, the panelists showed that higher EBJ concentrations in the kefir resulted in greater overall acceptability, indicating that this encapsulate has the potential to be a substitute synthetic color additive in the dairy industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Functional and Fortified Foods)
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23 pages, 3004 KiB  
Article
Solid-State Fermented Pineapple Peel: A Novel Food Ingredient with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4162; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224162 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
It has been reported that pineapple (Ananas comosus) contains healthy nutrients and phytochemicals associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. However, a substantial amount of pineapple residue is produced due to a lack of valorization applications at the industrial scale, resulting in [...] Read more.
It has been reported that pineapple (Ananas comosus) contains healthy nutrients and phytochemicals associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. However, a substantial amount of pineapple residue is produced due to a lack of valorization applications at the industrial scale, resulting in the loss of valuable nutrients. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is proposed as an innovative strategy to enhance the release of bound phenolics from pineapple residues. In this work, the effects of SSF of pineapple peels with Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Aspergillus oryzae on the release of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated, respectively. Pineapple peel extracts after SSF showed an increase in the release of phenolic compounds (248.11% with L. plantarum, 182% with A. oryzae, and 180.10% with L. rhamnosus), which led to an increase in the cellular antioxidant (81.94% with L. rhamnosus) and anti-inflammatory potential (nitric oxide inhibition of 62% with L. rhamnosus) compared to non-fermented extracts. Therefore, SSF of pineapple peels with L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, and A. oryzae thrives as a new approach for the production of secondary metabolites with remarkable biological benefits, which can be the precursors for novel biofortified and nutraceutical-enriched foods that meet the needs of the most demanding and health-conscious consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Ingredient Sources for the Food Industry)
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12 pages, 4394 KiB  
Communication
Sealing Wax and Bottles in Bags—A Paradigm Shift in Refined Olive Oil Packaging: Preliminary Results
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4161; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224161 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Generally, olive oil possesses natural protection against oxidation due to antioxidant compounds such as phenols and tocopherols. However, in the case of refined olive oil, the refining process unavoidably reduces the presence of these compounds. Considering these considerations, the objective of this study [...] Read more.
Generally, olive oil possesses natural protection against oxidation due to antioxidant compounds such as phenols and tocopherols. However, in the case of refined olive oil, the refining process unavoidably reduces the presence of these compounds. Considering these considerations, the objective of this study was to address the issues related to the “tightness” of the cap used for packaging oil in SALOV, aiming to extend the product’s shelf life. The oil under investigation was packaged in 250 mL transparent glass bottles, each filled with either argon or air. Subsequently, the samples were divided into three groups: one group sealed with a conventional screw cap, another covered with a special protective bag, and a third one sealed with a wax cover directly on the cap. The storage period varied, during which the atmospheric conditions were monitored daily through both destructive and non-destructive analyses. The preliminary results indicate that alternative preservation techniques, such as the use of argon, sealing wax, and protective bags, can effectively enhance the shelf life of the oil and maintain its quality (reduce oxidation, preserve phenolic compounds, and reduce the degradation of pigments). Further research and development in this area could lead to the production of high-quality extra virgin olive oils with extended shelf life and improved sensory and nutritional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes and Preservation Technologies for the Agri-Food Chain)
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14 pages, 5020 KiB  
Article
The Study of an Adaptive Bread Maker Using Machine Learning
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4160; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224160 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 983
Abstract
Bread is one of the most consumed foods in the world, and modern food processing technologies using artificial intelligence are crucial in providing quality control and optimization of food products. An integrated solution of sensor data and machine learning technology was determined to [...] Read more.
Bread is one of the most consumed foods in the world, and modern food processing technologies using artificial intelligence are crucial in providing quality control and optimization of food products. An integrated solution of sensor data and machine learning technology was determined to be appropriate for identifying real-time changing environmental variables and various influences in the baking process. In this study, the Baking Process Prediction Model (BPPM) created by data-based machine learning showed excellent performance in monitoring and analyzing real-time sensor and vision data in the baking process to predict the baking stages by itself. It also has the advantage of improving the quality of bread. The volumes of bread made using BPPM were 127.54 ± 2.54, 413.49 ± 2.59, 679.96 ± 1.90, 875.79 ± 2.46, and 1260.70 ± 3.13, respectively, which were relatively larger than those made with fixed baking time (p < 0.05). The developed system is evaluated to have great potential to improve precision and efficiency in the food production and processing industry. This study is expected to lay the foundation for the future development of artificial intelligence and the food industry. Full article
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17 pages, 2149 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Potential of Adzuki Bean Germplasm and Mining Nutri-Dense Accessions through Multivariate Analysis
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4159; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224159 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 947
Abstract
The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), known for its rich nutritional composition, holds significant promise in addressing food and nutritional security, particularly for low socioeconomic classes and the predominantly vegetarian and vegan populations worldwide. In this study, we assessed a total of [...] Read more.
The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), known for its rich nutritional composition, holds significant promise in addressing food and nutritional security, particularly for low socioeconomic classes and the predominantly vegetarian and vegan populations worldwide. In this study, we assessed a total of 100 diverse adzuki bean accessions, analyzing essential nutritional compounds using AOAC’s official analysis procedures and other widely accepted standard techniques. Our analysis of variance revealed significant genotype variations for all the traits studied. The variability range among different traits was as follows: moisture: 7.5–13.3 g/100 g, ash: 1.8–4.2 g/100 g, protein: 18.0–23.9 g/100 g, starch: 31.0–43.9 g/100 g, total soluble sugar: 3.0–8.2 g/100 g, phytic acid: 0.65–1.43 g/100 g, phenol: 0.01–0.59 g/100 g, antioxidant: 11.4–19.7 mg/100 g GAE. Noteworthy accessions included IC341955 and EC15256, exhibiting very high protein content, while IC341957 and IC341955 showed increased antioxidant activity. To understand intertrait relationships, we computed correlation coefficients between the traits. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that the first four principal components contributed to 63.6% of the variation. Further, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified nutri-dense accessions, such as IC360533, characterized by high ash (>4.2 g/100 g) and protein (>23.4 g/100 g) content and low phytic acid (0.652 g/100 g). These promising compositions provide practical support for the development of high-value food and feed varieties using effective breeding strategies, ultimately contributing to improved global food security. Full article
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12 pages, 2960 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Oil Content on the Structural and Textural Properties of Cottonseed Butter/Spread Products
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4158; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224158 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Plant-based butters from nuts and seeds have steadily increased in consumer popularity due to their unique flavors and healthy nutritional properties. Oil content is a critical parameter to measure the proper consistency and stability of plant butter and spread products. Previous work has [...] Read more.
Plant-based butters from nuts and seeds have steadily increased in consumer popularity due to their unique flavors and healthy nutritional properties. Oil content is a critical parameter to measure the proper consistency and stability of plant butter and spread products. Previous work has shown that glandless cottonseed can be used to formulate cottonseed butter products to increase the values of cottonseed. As part of the efforts made in the valorization of cottonseed, this work evaluated the effects of oil content on the microstructural and textural properties of cottonseed butter/spread products. While the oil content in the raw cottonseed kernels was 35% of the kernel biomass, additional cottonseed oil was added to make cottonseed butter products with six oil content levels (i.e., 36, 43, 47, 50, 53, and 57%). The values of three textural parameters, firmness, spreadability, and adhesiveness, decreased rapidly in an exponential mode with the increasing oil content. The particle size population in these butter samples was characterized by similar trimodal distribution, with the majority in the middle mode region with particle sizes around 4.5–10 μm. Higher oil content decreased the butter particle size slightly but increased oil separation during storage. The oxidation stability with a rapid oxygen measurement was gradually reduced from 250 min with 36% oil to 65 min with 57% oil. The results of this work provide information for the further optimization of formulation parameters of cottonseed butter products. Full article
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18 pages, 1727 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Recovery of Anthocyanins and Other Polyphenols from Red Cabbage Byproducts
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4157; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224157 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 895
Abstract
The objective of this work was to develop a sustainable process for the extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage byproducts using, for the first time, apple vinegar in extractant composition. Our results showed that the mixture 50% (v/v) ethanol–water, [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to develop a sustainable process for the extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage byproducts using, for the first time, apple vinegar in extractant composition. Our results showed that the mixture 50% (v/v) ethanol–water, acidified with apple vinegar, used in the proportion of 25 g of red cabbage by-products per 100 mL of solvent, was the best solvent for the preparation of an anthocyanin extract with good stability for food applications. The chemical characterization of this extract was performed by FTIR, UV-VIS, HPLC-DAD, and ICP-OES. The stability was evaluated by determining the dynamics of the total polyphenol content (TPC) and the total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content (TAC) during storage. On the basis of the statistical method for analysis of variance (ANOVA), the standard deviation between subsamples and the repeatability standard deviation were determined. The detection limit of the stability test of TPC was 3.68 mg GAE/100 g DW and that of TAC was 0.79 mg Cyd-3-Glu/100 g DW. The red cabbage extract has high TPC and TAC, good stability, and significant application potential. The extracted residues, depleted of anthocyanins and polyphenols with potential allelopathic risks, fulfill the requirements for a fertilizing product and could be used for soil treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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