Recent Advances in Biological and Technological Research of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Packaging and Preservation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2024) | Viewed by 18219

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Postharvest Technology of Agricultural Products, College of Food Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
Interests: postharvest biology; preservation of fruit and vegetable
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fresh fruit and vegetables are a dietary source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, but, due to their short postharvest life, a large portion of the produce is lost. It is, therefore, necessary to investigate the biological changes underlying ripening and senescence and to find ways to control the perishability of fresh fruit and vegetables and thereby increasing their shelf life. The basic science of the ripening and senescence of fruit and vegetables has progressed strikingly in recent years largely due to a series of breakthrough discoveries that have uncovered some of the key factors and signalling pathways by which ripening-related and senescence-associated genes are set into motion. On the other hand, the advanced postharvest technologies, including chemical treatment, physical methods, and biotechnology have been widely applied to minimize postharvest loss and maintain commercial quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. The aim of this Special Issue is to gather the frontier research on biological mechanisms and preservation technology of fresh fruit and vegetables. All aspects of postharvest research of fruit and vegetables throughout the supply chain will be considered, such as technologies, underpinning mechanisms and quality evaluation.

Dr. Zhongqi Fan
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • fruit and vegetable
  • quality deterioration
  • biological mechanism
  • physiology disorder
  • preservation technology

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 6066 KiB  
Article
Rapid Cooling Delays the Occurring of Core Browning in Postharvest ‘Yali’ Pear at Advanced Maturity by Inhibiting Ethylene Metabolism
by Hongyan Zhang, Yunyun Han, Liya Liang and Bing Deng
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071072 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 638
Abstract
During the storage and transportation processes, the occurrence of core browning in ‘Yali’ pear fruit due to adversity injury can be easily mitigated by implementing different cooling methods, especially in advanced maturity fruits. In this study, ‘Yali’ pears at an advanced maturity stage [...] Read more.
During the storage and transportation processes, the occurrence of core browning in ‘Yali’ pear fruit due to adversity injury can be easily mitigated by implementing different cooling methods, especially in advanced maturity fruits. In this study, ‘Yali’ pears at an advanced maturity stage were subjected to slow cooling and rapid cooling treatment. The quality-related physiological percentage and severity, and the rate of good fruits were determined, and RNA-seq was used to explore the effects of different cooling methods on pathways related to core browning in advanced-maturity pears at the transcriptional level. The results indicated that, compared with slow cooling treatment, rapid cooling significantly inhibited core browning in advanced-maturity ‘Yali’ pears. Measurements of quality-related physiological indexes suggested that rapid cooling treatment led to higher SSC content, firmness, L* value, and b* value, indicating better brightness, coloration, and higher soluble solid content, which are desirable for commercial sale. Rapid cooling effectively suppressed the physiological metabolism of ‘Yali’ pears, delaying fruit senescence compared with slow-cooling treatment. Furthermore, the RNA-Seq sequencing results revealed that pathways related to browning are involved in hormone signal transduction pathways, which are associated with resistance and aging processes of pear fruit. In summary, rapid cooling treatment delayed the core browning of advanced maturity of ‘Yali’ pears, indicating that the core browning of ‘Yali’ pears is related to the cooling method, and the mechanism of rapid cooling in reducing the core browning of advanced maturity of ‘Yali’ pears was by delaying the aging process of the fruit. This provides a new perspective for alleviating the core browning of advanced-maturity ‘Yali’ pears during storage and transportation, and provides a theoretical reference for studying the mechanism of core browning of ‘Yali’ pears. Full article
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14 pages, 3876 KiB  
Article
The Role of MaWRKY70 in Regulating Lipoxygenase Gene Transcription during Chilling Injury Development in Banana Fruit
by Han Lin, Lijuan Bai, Wei Wei, Wenbing Su, Yanting Wu, Rong Wu, Hui Wang, Jianye Chen, Hetong Lin and Zhongqi Fan
Foods 2024, 13(6), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13060854 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Banana is a typical cold-sensitive fruit; it is prone to chilling injury (CI), resulting in a quality deterioration and commodity reduction. However, the molecular mechanism underlying CI development is unclear. In this study, cold storage (7 °C for 5 days) was used to [...] Read more.
Banana is a typical cold-sensitive fruit; it is prone to chilling injury (CI), resulting in a quality deterioration and commodity reduction. However, the molecular mechanism underlying CI development is unclear. In this study, cold storage (7 °C for 5 days) was used to induce CI symptoms in bananas. As compared with the control storage (22 °C for 5 days), cold storage increased the CI index and cell membrane permeability. Moreover, we found that the expression levels of the WRKY transcription factor MaWRKY70 were increased consistently with the progression of CI development. A subcellular localization assay revealed that MaWRKY70 was localized in the nucleus. Transcriptional activation analyses showed that MaWRKY70 processed a transactivation ability. Further, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assays showed that MaWRKY70 was directly bound to the W-box motifs in the promoters of four lipoxygenase (LOX) genes associated with membrane lipid degradation and activated their transcription. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that MaWRKY70 activates the transcription of MaLOXs, thereby acting as a possible positive modulator of postharvest CI development in banana fruit. Full article
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13 pages, 1917 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Respiratory and Energy Metabolism Mechanisms behind ε-Poly-L-lysine Chitosan Coating’s Improved Preservation Effectiveness on Tremella fuciformis
by Junzheng Sun, Yingying Wei, Longxiang Li, Baosha Tang, Yanrong Yang, Zheng Xiao, Junchen Chen and Pufu Lai
Foods 2024, 13(5), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050707 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Freshly harvested Tremella fuciformis contains high water content with an unprotected outer surface and exhibits high respiration rates, which renders it prone to moisture and nutrient loss, leading to decay during storage. Our research utilized ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) and chitosan as a composite coating [...] Read more.
Freshly harvested Tremella fuciformis contains high water content with an unprotected outer surface and exhibits high respiration rates, which renders it prone to moisture and nutrient loss, leading to decay during storage. Our research utilized ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) and chitosan as a composite coating preservative on fresh T. fuciformis. The findings revealed that the ε-PL + chitosan composite coating preservative effectively delayed the development of diseases and reduced weight loss during storage compared to the control group. Furthermore, this treatment significantly decreased the respiration rate of T. fuciformis and the activity of respiratory metabolism-related enzymes, such as alternative oxidase (AOX), cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH and G-6-PDH). Additionally, the composite coating preservative also delayed the depletion of ATP and ADP and maintained higher levels of the energy charge while preserving low levels of AMP. It also sustained heightened activities of Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and H+-ATPase enzymes. These results demonstrate that utilizing the ε-PL + chitosan composite coating preservative can serve as a sufficiently safe and efficient method for prolonging the shelf life of post-harvest fresh T. fuciformis. Full article
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25 pages, 4710 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Melatonin Incorporated CMC-Gelatin Based Edible Coating on the Alleviation of Chilling Injury Induced Pericarp Browning in Longkong
by Karthikeyan Venkatachalam, Narin Charoenphun, Somwang Lekjing and Paramee Noonim
Foods 2024, 13(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13010072 - 24 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.) fruit is prone to rapid pericarp browning and shortened shelf life (<7 days) under prolonged low-temperature storage. This study investigates the effect of an edible coating, comprising carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and gelatin in a fixed 3:1 ratio, integrated [...] Read more.
Longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.) fruit is prone to rapid pericarp browning and shortened shelf life (<7 days) under prolonged low-temperature storage. This study investigates the effect of an edible coating, comprising carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and gelatin in a fixed 3:1 ratio, integrated with various concentrations of melatonin (MT) (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 mM/L) to mitigate chilling injury in longkong fruit. Coated longkong fruits were stored at 13 °C with 90% relative humidity for 18 days and underwent physicochemical evaluations every three days. Samples coated with CMC-Gel without MT and uncoated fruits were served as controls. The findings indicated that the CMC-Gel-MT coating significantly mitigated pericarp browning, chilling injury, weight loss, and respiration rate increase under extended cold storage conditions. High concentrations of MT (≥0.8 mM/L) in the coating notably inhibited the activities of cellular degrading enzymes such as lipoxygenase and phospholipase D. This inhibition contributed to reduced membrane permeability, lower reactive oxygen species accumulation (H2O2, OH, O2), and decreased malondialdehyde levels in the longkong pericarp. Furthermore, the CMC-Gel-MT coating increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, leading to an enhancement in phenolic content. Consequently, it improved the fruit’s ability to scavenge DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,20-azino-di-3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) radicals. Control samples exhibited high levels of pericarp browning-related enzymes (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase), whereas CMC-Gel-MT-coated fruits, particularly at higher MT concentrations, showed significant reductions in those enzyme activities. In conclusion, incorporating high concentrations of MT in a CMC-Gel-based edible coating is a promising alternative for mitigating chilling injury in longkong fruit. Full article
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11 pages, 1692 KiB  
Article
Effects of Near-Freezing Temperature Combined with Jujube Polysaccharides Treatment on Proteomic Analysis of ‘Diaogan’ Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)
by Zhipeng Wang, Wei Wang, Wei Li, Rui Yang, Yanbo Li, Lusi Zhang, Mengying Zhang and Xuewen Li
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244504 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 955
Abstract
This study involved the extraction of polysaccharides from jujube for application in apricot storage. Although near-freezing temperature (NFT) storage is commonly employed for preserving fresh fruit, its effectiveness is somewhat limited. Incorporating jujube polysaccharides was proposed to augment the preservative effect on apricots. [...] Read more.
This study involved the extraction of polysaccharides from jujube for application in apricot storage. Although near-freezing temperature (NFT) storage is commonly employed for preserving fresh fruit, its effectiveness is somewhat limited. Incorporating jujube polysaccharides was proposed to augment the preservative effect on apricots. Our findings demonstrated that the combined use of NFT and jujube polysaccharides can maintain fruit color, and effectively inhibit decay. Additionally, Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) quantitative proteomic technology was utilized to analyze protein variations in ‘Diaogan’ apricots during storage. This dual approach not only markedly lowered the activity of polyphenol cell wall-degrading enzymes (p < 0.05) but also revealed 1054 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), which are related to sugar and energy metabolism, stress response and defense, lipid metabolism, and cell wall degradation. The changes in DEPs indicated that the combined use of NFT and jujube polysaccharides could accelerate the conversion of malic acid to oxaloacetic acid and regulate antioxidant ability, potentially extending the storage lifespan of apricot fruit. Full article
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16 pages, 20573 KiB  
Article
Iron Competition as an Important Mechanism of Pulcherrimin-Producing Metschnikowia sp. Strains for Controlling Postharvest Fungal Decays on Citrus Fruit
by Shupei Wang, Zhimei Tan, Chenshu Wang, Wenqing Liu, Fangxue Hang, Xuemei He, Dongqing Ye, Li Li and Jian Sun
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4249; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234249 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 785
Abstract
This study identified and tested fruit-isolated Metschnikowia yeasts against three major postharvest citrus pathogens, namely, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, and further evaluated the impact of FeCl3 on the biocontrol efficiency of pulcherrimin-producing M. pulcherrima strains. Based [...] Read more.
This study identified and tested fruit-isolated Metschnikowia yeasts against three major postharvest citrus pathogens, namely, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, and further evaluated the impact of FeCl3 on the biocontrol efficiency of pulcherrimin-producing M. pulcherrima strains. Based on the characterization of the pigmented halo surrounding the colonies and the analysis of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA, a total of 46 Metschnikowia sp. were screened and identified. All 46 Metschnikowia strains significantly inhibited the hyphal growth of Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, and effectively controlled the development of green mold, blue mold and sour rot of citrus fruit. The introduction of exogenous FeCl3 at certain concentrations did not significantly impact the pulcherriminic acid (PA) production of pigmented M. pulcherrima strains, but notably diminished the size of pigmented zones and the biocontrol efficacy against the three pathogens. Iron deficiency sensitivity experiments revealed that P. digitatum and P. italicum exhibited higher sensitivity compared to G. citri-aurantii, indicating that iron dependence varied among the three pathogens. These results suggested that M. pulcherrima strains, capable of producing high yields of PA, possessed great potential for use as biocontrol agents against postharvest citrus diseases. The biocontrol efficacy of these yeasts is mainly attributed to their ability to competitively deplete iron ions in a shared environment, with the magnitude of their pigmented halo directly correlating to their antagonistic capability. It is worth noting that the level of sensitivity of pathogens to iron deficiency might also affect the biocontrol effect of pulcherrimin-producing M. pulcherrima. Full article
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12 pages, 2294 KiB  
Article
Volatile Organic Compounds of Scheffersomyces spartinae W9 Have Antifungal Effect against Botrytis cinerea on Strawberry Fruit
by Xiurong Zou, Yingying Wei, Jianhua Zhu, Jincai Sun and Xingfeng Shao
Foods 2023, 12(19), 3619; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12193619 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the antifungal effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a marine biocontrol yeast, Scheffersomyces spartinae W9. The results showed that the VOCs from the yeast inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea mycelium and spore germination by 77.8% [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the antifungal effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a marine biocontrol yeast, Scheffersomyces spartinae W9. The results showed that the VOCs from the yeast inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea mycelium and spore germination by 77.8% and 58.3%, respectively. Additionally, it reduced the disease incidence and lesion diameter of gray mold on the strawberry fruit surface by 20.7% and 67.4%, respectively. Electronic micrographs showed that VOCs caused damage to the morphology and ultrastructure of the hyphae. Based on headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS), S. spartinae W9 emitted 18 main VOCs, and the pure substance of VOCs, such as 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, and isoamyl acetate, showed antifungal effects against B. cinerea mycelium growth. Among them, 2-phenylethanol exhibited the strongest antifungal activity. It has been concluded that VOCs are the key antifungal mechanism of S. spartinae W9, and a promising strategy for controlling gray mold on strawberry fruit. Full article
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18 pages, 4424 KiB  
Article
Pullulan-Based Active Coating Incorporating Potassium Metabisulfite Maintains Postharvest Quality and Induces Disease Resistance to Soft Rot in Kiwifruit
by Yiming Tian, Lamei Li, Rui Wang, Ning Ji, Chao Ma, Jiqing Lei, Wenqiang Guan and Xu Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3197; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173197 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
Soft rot is a severe postharvest disease of kiwifruit that causes enormous economic losses annually. In this study, we aimed to explore an effective pullulan-based active coating, incorporating food additives to reduce soft rot and extend the shelf life of cold-stored kiwifruit. The [...] Read more.
Soft rot is a severe postharvest disease of kiwifruit that causes enormous economic losses annually. In this study, we aimed to explore an effective pullulan-based active coating, incorporating food additives to reduce soft rot and extend the shelf life of cold-stored kiwifruit. The results showed that 1 g/L potassium metabisulfite could completely inhibit the mycelial growth of Diaporthe sp., Botryosphaeria dothidea, Phomopsis sp. and Alternaria sp., which were the primary pathogens of kiwifruit soft rot. Furthermore, the pullulan coating, combined with a 10 g/L potassium metabisulfite group, had a decay rate 46% lower than the control (CK) group and maintained fruit quality at the end of shelf life. The retention of physicochemical properties such as soluble solid content (SSC), firmness, weight loss and respiration rate also confirmed the efficacy of the treatment. In addition, at the end of shelf life, pullulan coating, combined with potassium metabisulfite, increased the accumulation of total phenolic content (37.59%) and flavonoid content (9.28%), maintained a high energy charge (51.36%), and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) (6.27%), peroxidase (POD) (62.50%), catalase (CAT) (84.62%) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) (24.61%) enzyme activities as well as initiating the upregulation of their gene expression levels. As a result, the disease resistance of fruit was improved, and the occurrence of soft rot was delayed. Overall, this study demonstrated that using the pullulan-based active coating incorporating potassium metabisulfite treatment effectively controlled soft rot and retarded the senescence of postharvest kiwifruit. Full article
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16 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
Use of HPLC-MS to Determine the Loss of Metabolites in Apple Juices under Different Storage Conditions
by Jan Juhart, Aljaz Medic, Jerneja Jakopic, Robert Veberic, Metka Hudina and Franci Stampar
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152822 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
The focus of this experiment was to compare the color and metabolic profile of apple juice from the red-fleshed cultivar ‘Baya Marisa’ with the white-fleshed cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’. The changes in the phenolic compounds, organic acids, and sugar content during high-temperature short-time pasteurization [...] Read more.
The focus of this experiment was to compare the color and metabolic profile of apple juice from the red-fleshed cultivar ‘Baya Marisa’ with the white-fleshed cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’. The changes in the phenolic compounds, organic acids, and sugar content during high-temperature short-time pasteurization and after one year of storage under different storage conditions were analyzed. A total of 26 individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. The total analyzed phenolics content (TAPC) decreased after pasteurization of the juices of both cultivars. The TAPC of fresh ‘Baya Marisa’ juice after pasteurization increased or remained the same compared to one-year stored ‘Baya Marisa’ juice, depending on the storage method. The sucrose content of the apple juice of both cultivars remained the same after pasteurization; interestingly, it decreased significantly after one year of storage, while the fructose and glucose content remained the same after pasteurization and increased significantly after one year of storage for both cultivars. Full article
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10 pages, 6251 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Walnut and Hazelnut Leaf Compost Treatments on Yield and Phenolic Composition of Lactuca sativa L.
by Aljaz Medic, Anita Solar, Metka Hudina, Robert Veberic and Tilen Zamljen
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2738; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142738 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The use of compost made from the leaves of Juglans regia has long been controversial because of its inhibitory effect due to the presence of juglone. Therefore, the aim of our study was to replicate the typical habits of farmers and gardeners, where [...] Read more.
The use of compost made from the leaves of Juglans regia has long been controversial because of its inhibitory effect due to the presence of juglone. Therefore, the aim of our study was to replicate the typical habits of farmers and gardeners, where the dried leaves are collected at the end of the season and placed in a composter. Then, the effects of the different treatments on the yield of the plant (lettuce), secondary metabolism, and possible toxicity of the compost of the grown plant were evaluated. The lowest yield of lettuce was obtained in soil with composted walnut and hazelnut leaves, while the highest yield was recorded in in soil with compost control, soil with composted walnut leaves and grass with the addition of composting agent and soil with composted walnut leaves with addition of composting agent. Some allelochemicals were still present in the compost but at such low levels that they did not affect yield. We suggest that dry walnut leaves and cut grass can be used for composting, while dry hazelnut leaves still contain some allelochemicals after two years that significantly inhibit plant growth and thus yield, so we would not recommend their use for composting. Full article
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11 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Cuticular Wax Triterpenes Maintain Storage Quality of Blueberries by Reducing Water Loss
by Qi Kong, Ruiling Liu, Weijie Wu, Xiangjun Fang, Hangjun Chen, Yanchao Han and Jianye Chen
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2643; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142643 - 08 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Cuticular wax contributes to maintaining postharvest storage quality against fruit water loss and softening. Triterpenoids, such as oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA), are the main components in blueberry cuticular wax, but their role in water migration during the storage of blueberries [...] Read more.
Cuticular wax contributes to maintaining postharvest storage quality against fruit water loss and softening. Triterpenoids, such as oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA), are the main components in blueberry cuticular wax, but their role in water migration during the storage of blueberries remains to be determined. Here, we examined the relationship between the content of OA and UA and the storage quality of blueberry fruit (25 °C). The results revealed that the UA content during eight-day postharvest storage ranged from 58 to 77 μg cm2, which was negatively related to weight loss. Additionally, we investigated the effect of exogenous OA and UA on water migration in the blueberry fruit during storage at room temperature; the weight loss was significantly lower (by 22%) with UA treatment than in the control fruit. Our findings indicate that OA and UA effectively affect water migration in blueberry fruit during postharvest storage, which could contribute to improving postharvest preservation techniques. Full article
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11 pages, 3426 KiB  
Article
Postharvest Calcium Chloride Treatment Strengthens Cell Wall Structure to Maintain Litchi Fruit Quality
by Xiaomeng Guo, Qiao Li, Tao Luo, Dongmei Han, Difa Zhu and Zhenxian Wu
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132478 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit deterioration occurs rapidly after harvest and is characterized by pericarp browning, pulp softening, and decay. In this study, we found that calcium chloride (CaCl2) treatment (5 g L−1 CaCl2 solution vacuum infiltration for [...] Read more.
Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit deterioration occurs rapidly after harvest and is characterized by pericarp browning, pulp softening, and decay. In this study, we found that calcium chloride (CaCl2) treatment (5 g L−1 CaCl2 solution vacuum infiltration for 5 min) affected the cell wall component contents and cell wall-degrading enzyme activities of litchi fruit during storage at room temperature. CaCl2 treatment significantly increased the contents of Ca2+ and cellulose, while it decreased the water-soluble pectin content, and the activities of polygalacturonase, β-galactosidase, and cellulase in the litchi pericarp. Meanwhile, the treatment resulted in significantly increased contents of Ca2+, water-soluble pectin, ionic-soluble pectin, covalent-soluble pectin and hemicellulose, and upregulated activities of pectinesterase and β-galactosidase, while significantly decreasing the activities of polygalacturonase and cellulase in litchi pulp. The above results indicate that CaCl2 treatment strengthened the cell wall structure of litchi fruit. More importantly, the enzymatic browning of the pericarp, softening of the pulp, and disease incidence were delayed. The treatment had a more pronounced effect on the pericarp than on the pulp. We consider CaCl2 treatment to be a safe and effective treatment for maintaining the postharvest quality of litchi fruit. Full article
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15 pages, 3426 KiB  
Article
Effect of Controlled Atmosphere Packaging on the Physiology and Quality of Fresh-Cut Dictyophora rubrovolvata
by Ziqian Xia, Rui Wang, Chao Ma, Jiangkuo Li, Jiqing Lei, Ning Ji, Xianxing Pan and Tongjie Chen
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081665 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Dictyophora rubrovolvata is a typical edible fungus of Guizhou Province and is very popular due to its unique taste and texture. In this study, the effect of a controlled atmosphere (CA) on fresh-cut D. rubrovolvata shelf life was investigated. Firstly, this study addresses [...] Read more.
Dictyophora rubrovolvata is a typical edible fungus of Guizhou Province and is very popular due to its unique taste and texture. In this study, the effect of a controlled atmosphere (CA) on fresh-cut D. rubrovolvata shelf life was investigated. Firstly, this study addresses the influence of different O2 concentrations (5%, 20%, 35%, 50%, 65%, 80%, or 95%) with N2 balance on fresh-cut D. rubrovolvata quality while stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 7 d. Then, on the basis of the determined O2 concentration (5%), CO2 (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, or 20%) was involved and stored for 8 d at 4 ± 1 °C. Evaluations of physiology parameters, texture, browning degree, nutritional, umami, volatile components, and total colony numbers were determined in fresh-cut D. rubrovolvata. From the results of water migration, the sample of 5% O2/5% CO2/90% N2 was closer to 0 d than other groups at 8 days. Meanwhile, the polyphenol oxidase (2.26 ± 0.07 U/(g·min)), and catalase activity (4.66 ± 0.08 U/(g·min·FW)) were superior to the samples of other treatment groups on the eighth day (3.04 ± 0.06 to 3.84 ± 0.10 U/(g·min), 4.02 ± 0.07 to 4.07 ± 0.07 U/(g·min·FW)). Therefore, we found that a gas environment with 5% O2/5% CO2/90% N2 could ensure the membrane integrity, oxidation, and prevent the browning of fresh-cut D. rubrovolvata, thus better maintaining the physiological parameters. Meanwhile, it also maintained the samples’ texture, color, nutritional value, and umami taste. Furthermore, it inhibited the increase in total colony numbers. The volatile components were closer to the initial level compared with other groups. The results indicate that fresh-cut D. rubrovolvata could maintain its shelf life and quality when stored in 5% O2/5% CO2/90% N2 at 4 ± 1 °C. Full article
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14 pages, 4166 KiB  
Article
Melatonin Treatment of Strawberry Fruit during Storage Extends Its Post-Harvest Quality and Reduces Infection Caused by Botrytis cinerea
by Surassawadee Promyou, Yenjit Raruang and Zhi-Yuan Chen
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071445 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
Gray mold is a main disease of strawberry fruit (Fragaria × xananassa cv. Camino Real) caused by Botrytis cinerea, which leads to marketable value losses in the supply chain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous [...] Read more.
Gray mold is a main disease of strawberry fruit (Fragaria × xananassa cv. Camino Real) caused by Botrytis cinerea, which leads to marketable value losses in the supply chain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin (MT) on the physicochemical quality, antioxidant defense system, and disease resistance of strawberry fruit to B. cinerea infection. The results revealed that strawberry fruit immersed in 100 µM MT for 15 min effectively maintained its brightness and delayed the change in fruit color. MT also maintained the level of titratable acidity and slowed down the increase of total soluble solids in strawberry fruit. Moreover, strawberries immersed in MT maintained a fresh weight and fruit firmness, as well as reduced B. cinerea infection when compared to the untreated control fruit and fruit treated with 5% NaOCl. In addition, MT increased the accumulation of DPPH scavenging capacity and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and APX) with the exception of CAT. The same effect was also observed in strawberry fruit after immersion in MT and followed by B. cinerea inoculation. These findings demonstrated that exogenous MT could effectively maintain the postharvest quality of strawberries, even when the fruit was inoculated with B. cinerea. Full article
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17 pages, 18438 KiB  
Article
Integrating Metabolomics and Proteomics Technologies Provides Insights into the Flavor Precursor Changes at Different Maturity Stages of Arabica Coffee Cherries
by Zelin Li, Bin Zhou, Tingting Zheng, Chunyan Zhao, Xiaojing Shen, Xuefeng Wang, Minghua Qiu and Jiangping Fan
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071432 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
The metabolic modulation of major flavor precursors during coffee cherry ripening is critical for the characteristic coffee flavor formation. However, the formation mechanism of flavor precursors during coffee cherry ripening remains unknown. In the present study, a colorimeter was employed to distinguish different [...] Read more.
The metabolic modulation of major flavor precursors during coffee cherry ripening is critical for the characteristic coffee flavor formation. However, the formation mechanism of flavor precursors during coffee cherry ripening remains unknown. In the present study, a colorimeter was employed to distinguish different maturity stages of coffee cherry based on the coffee cherry skin colors, and proteomics and metabolomics profiles were integrated to comprehensively investigate the flavor precursor dynamics involved in Arabica coffee cherry ripening. The data obtained in the present study provide an integral view of the critical pathways involved in flavor precursor changes during coffee cherry ripening. Moreover, the contributions of critical events in regulating the development of flavor precursors during the four ripening stages of coffee cherries, including the biosynthesis and metabolism pathways of organic acids, amino acids, flavonoids, and sugars, are discussed. Overall, a total of 456 difference express metabolites were selected, and they were identified as being concentrated in the four maturity stages of coffee cherries; furthermore, 76 crucial enzymes from the biosynthesis and metabolism of sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and flavonoids contributed to flavor precursor formation. Among these enzymes, 45 difference express proteins that could regulate 40 primary amino acids and organic acids flavor precursors were confirmed. This confirmation indicates that the metabolic pathways of amino acids and organic acids played a significant role in the flavor formation of Arabica coffee cherries during ripening. These results provide new insights into the protease modulation of flavor precursor changes in Arabica coffee cherry ripening. Full article
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