Physicochemical and Nutritional Characterization of Cereal Products and Pseudocereal Products and By-Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 January 2024) | Viewed by 3800

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Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences of the University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: chemical analysis; chromatography; phytochemicals; contaminants; cereals; pasta and baked goods; byproducts; lipids
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cereal grains are currently a major component of human and animal diets worldwide. Cereal and cereal-based food products are significant contributors of protein, fat, energy, and micronutrients, and their composition therefore decisively affects human health. Moreover, several studies have shown that cereal grains are a source of bioactive compounds, including tocopherols, phenolic acids, dietary fiber, and phytosterols, which have been proven to contribute in reducing the risk of many chronic diseases.

Because of the demographic pressure and the changes in consumer demand toward healthier food, there is growing interest in the use of cereal products to supplement and substitute animal-based products. For these reasons, strategies and processing technologies aimed at modifying cereal constituents and improving functional attributes and stability are important in determining the effect of cereal-based foods on humans when consumed in their diet.

Against this background, this Special Issue of Foods will cover a selection of recent research topics and current review articles related to new information or structural modification in the cereal composition due to different processing and techniques, contents, and release of biologically active compounds in cereal products and their effects on human health in addition to the revalorization of high-value cereal byproducts.

Dr. Federica Pasini
Prof. Dr. Ana María Gomez-Caravaca
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • cereals
  • cereal byproducts
  • chemical composition
  • processing
  • valorization
  • nutrition
  • bioactive compounds
  • functional foods
  • contaminants

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 5068 KiB  
Article
Influence of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on the Activity and Conformational Changes of α-Amylase, Lipase, and Peroxidase in the Solid State Using White Wheat Flour as an Example
by Milena Ivanović, Željko Knez and Maja Leitgeb
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244499 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Green technologies using renewable and alternative sources, including supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2), are becoming a priority for researchers in a variety of fields, including the control of enzyme activity which, among other applications, is extremely important in the food industry. Namely, [...] Read more.
Green technologies using renewable and alternative sources, including supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2), are becoming a priority for researchers in a variety of fields, including the control of enzyme activity which, among other applications, is extremely important in the food industry. Namely, extending shelf life of e.g., flour could be reached by tuning the present enzymes activity. In this study, the effect of different sc-CO2 conditions such as temperature (35–50 °C), pressure (200 bar and 300 bar), and exposure time (1–6 h) on the inactivation and structural changes of α-amylase, lipase, and horseradish peroxidase (POD) from white wheat flour and native enzymes was investigated. The total protein (TPC) content and residual activities of the enzymes were determined by standard spectrophotometric methods, while the changes in the secondary structures of the enzymes were determined by circular dichroism spectrometry (CD). The present work is therefore concerned for the first time with the study of the stability and structural changes of the enzyme molecules dominant in white wheat flour under sc-CO2 conditions at different pressures and temperatures. In addition, the changes in aggregation or dissociation of the enzyme molecules were investigated based on the changes in particle size distribution and ζ-potential. The results of the activity assays showed a decrease in the activity of native POD and lipase under optimal exposure conditions (6 h and 50 °C; and 1 h and 50 °C) by 22% and 16%, respectively. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in α-amylase activity. Consequently, analysis of the CD spectra of POD and lipase confirmed a significant effect on secondary structure damage (changes in α-helix, β-sheet, and β-turn content), whereas the secondary structure of α-amylase retained its original configuration. Moreover, the changes in particle size distribution and ζ-potential showed a significant effect of sc-CO2 treatment on the aggregation and dissociation of the selected enzymes. The results of this study confirm that sc-CO2 technology can be effectively used as an environmentally friendly technology to control the activity of major flour enzymes by altering their structures. Full article
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12 pages, 1092 KiB  
Article
Lipid Process Markers of Durum Wheat Debranning Fractions
by Silvia Marzocchi, Maria Cristina Messia, Emanuele Marconi, Maria Fiorenza Caboni and Federica Pasini
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3036; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163036 - 12 Aug 2023
Viewed by 989
Abstract
At present, whole grains are usually obtained by adding bran and middlings to refined flours, and this recombination leads to certain variations in the ratio of endosperm, bran and germ, resulting in flours with very different compositional characteristics and rheological properties. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
At present, whole grains are usually obtained by adding bran and middlings to refined flours, and this recombination leads to certain variations in the ratio of endosperm, bran and germ, resulting in flours with very different compositional characteristics and rheological properties. Therefore, this study focuses on the identification of specific lipid markers in different debranning fractions of Italian and Canadian durum wheat blends. The by-products obtained from five different debranning levels (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%) had a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids and a higher concentration of tocopherols and sterols than the corresponding debranned grains. The Italian and Canadian durum wheat samples did not show significant differences in the content of these bioactive lipid compounds. In particular, palmitic acid, oleic acid, tocopherol isomers and total sterols could be useful biomarkers for evaluating the grain-to-tissue ratio in recombined flours. Full article
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22 pages, 2034 KiB  
Article
Quality Evaluation of Fresh Pasta Fortified with Sourdough Containing Wheat Germ and Wholemeal Semolina
by Pasquale Catzeddu, Simonetta Fois, Valentina Tolu, Manuela Sanna, Angela Braca, Ilaria Vitangeli, Roberto Anedda and Tonina Roggio
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2641; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142641 - 08 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Pasta is a staple food in the Mediterranean diet, primarily manufactured with two essential ingredients, semolina and water; nowadays, it is often supplemented with functional ingredients. In this work, a sourdough obtained with wheat germ and wholemeal semolina was used, in order to [...] Read more.
Pasta is a staple food in the Mediterranean diet, primarily manufactured with two essential ingredients, semolina and water; nowadays, it is often supplemented with functional ingredients. In this work, a sourdough obtained with wheat germ and wholemeal semolina was used, in order to improve sensorial and nutritional properties of fresh pasta, to prevent lipids oxidation, and to improve the shelf life. Three different formulations were prepared, a first one using semolina, a second one with raw wheat germ, wholemeal semolina, and semolina, and the last one with semolina and sourdough. The study highlighted the improved nutritional properties of pasta with sourdough (reduced phytic acid content, higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content). Proteins, ashes, dietary fibers, lipids, and tocols (vitamin E) increased in pasta with wheat germ and wholemeal semolina, and with sourdough. The amount of tocols decreased in pasta samples after cooking, except for the β–tocopherol in sourdough pasta, the amount of which remained high, surprisingly. Lipase and lipoxygenase enzymes likely decreased as an effect of the pasteurization process. The NMR analysis showed that lipid oxidation was higher in semolina pasta than in pasta with wheat germ, most likely due to the protective effect of antioxidants deriving from wheat germ. Full article
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