Topic Editors

Faculty of Food Engineering, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Str. Universității 13, 720229 Suceava, Romania
Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences Department, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
Faculty of Food Engineering, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, 720229 Suceava, Romania

Advances in Analysis of Flavors and Fragrances: Chemistry, Properties and Applications in Food Quality Improvement

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 March 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
31 May 2024
Viewed by
22846

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, consumers are more attracted to the quality and effectiveness of products that contain natural ingredients. Both flavors and fragrances play an essential role in choosing a food, cosmetic, health, or homecare product. Meanwhile, the flavor and fragrance market was valued at USD 29 billion in 2021 and it is expected to grow to USD 37.3 billion by 2026. Natural flavours are derived from plants (herbs, spices, seeds, fruits, and vegetables), animals (meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, and dairy products), and fermented products, and they are then isolated and concentrated via different methods (distillation, extraction, or cold pressing). Therefore, there is a growing interest in terms of examining how consumers perceive the sensory attributes of food products. The current topic aims to provide an opportunity for researchers to publish their results concerning the analysis of flavors and fragrances in the most suitable journal, thus offering great visibility for their research. The topic welcomes manuscripts regarding any aspects of flavors and fragrances in relation to their chemistry, synthesis mechanisms, identification, stability, encapsulation, and their application in the food industry and other environments.

Dr. Ana Leahu
Prof. Dr. Marìa Soledad Prats Moya
Dr. Cristina Ghinea
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • natural flavors
  • natural fragrances
  • analytical techniques
  • food products
  • chemical compounds
  • volatile organic compounds
  • bioaccessibility/bioavailability
  • processing method
  • sensory analysis
  • consumption preferences

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Beverages
beverages
3.5 5.8 2015 18.5 Days CHF 1600 Submit
Fermentation
fermentation
3.7 3.7 2015 14.3 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Molecules
molecules
4.6 6.7 1996 14.6 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Separations
separations
2.6 2.5 2014 13.6 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (19 papers)

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14 pages, 2535 KiB  
Article
Effects of Reducing Sugars on Colour, Amino Acids, and Volatile Flavour Compounds in Thermally Treated Minced Chicken Carcass Hydrolysate
by Xing Zhang and Shao-Quan Liu
Foods 2024, 13(7), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13070991 - 24 Mar 2024
Viewed by 589
Abstract
This study investigated the changes in colour, amino acids, and volatile flavour compounds in the enzymatic hydrolysates of chicken carcasses containing different types and amounts of reducing sugars (xylose, arabinose, glucose, and fructose), so as to develop a chicken-based flavouring agent. Before heat [...] Read more.
This study investigated the changes in colour, amino acids, and volatile flavour compounds in the enzymatic hydrolysates of chicken carcasses containing different types and amounts of reducing sugars (xylose, arabinose, glucose, and fructose), so as to develop a chicken-based flavouring agent. Before heat treatment at 100 °C for 60 min, the chosen reducing sugars were separately added to the chicken carcass hydrolysate at its natural pH. Pentoses decreased pH more significantly than hexoses in the chicken carcass hydrolysate. The browning degree followed the pattern of pH decline, as pentoses caused more intense browning than hexoses, with xylose dosage having the greatest effect on the colour changes (ΔE). Fructose addition notably reduced free amino acids (FAAs) and cystine contents. Furthermore, phenylalanine decreased with increasing dosages of arabinose, xylose, and fructose. Glutamic acid content decreased significantly with fructose addition but showed insignificant changes with xylose. At the same dosage, the addition of pentoses resulted in the production of more sulphur-containing volatile compounds like methional, 2-[(methylthio) methyl] furan, and dimethyl disulphide than hexoses. Methional and furfural, which provide a roasted, savoury flavour, were produced by adding more xylose. Heat treatment with xylose also removed hexanal, the main off-odourant. Full article
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20 pages, 6244 KiB  
Article
Study on the Fermented Grain Characteristics and Volatile Flavor Substances during the Tuqu Fermentation of Hunan Light-Flavor Baijiu
by Jie Xu, Ting Zhang, Huitai Chen, Yijie Dai, Zongjun Li, Jia He, Rongfang Ju and Aixiang Hou
Foods 2024, 13(6), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13060899 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 638
Abstract
The present study employed Hunan local Tuqu for fermentation and investigated the physicochemical properties, microbial community composition, and volatile flavor compounds of the fermented grains, as well as the correlation between the physicochemical indicators and the microbial community. The findings reveal that the [...] Read more.
The present study employed Hunan local Tuqu for fermentation and investigated the physicochemical properties, microbial community composition, and volatile flavor compounds of the fermented grains, as well as the correlation between the physicochemical indicators and the microbial community. The findings reveal that the activities of α-amylase and glucoamylase were highest during the initial stages of the fermentation process. The acid protease activity increased to 30.6 U/g on the second day and then decreased. Cellulose and lipase activities both showed an increasing trend. The moisture content increased sharply to 73.41% and then remained relatively stable. The acidity was highest on the eighth day. Fifty genera of bacteria and twenty-two genera of fungi were detected. Lactobacillus was dominant among bacteria, and Saccharomyces was dominant among fungi. A correlation analysis showed that there were positive correlations between moisture, acidity, cellulose, lipase activities and Lactobacillus, and there were positive correlations between moisture content, acidity, cellulase activity, acidic protease activity and Saccharomyces. A total of 46 volatile flavor compounds were detected, of which 6 alcohols and 14 esters constituted the major portion, and 9 key flavor compounds with an ROAV > 1 were identified throughout the fermentation process. Isoamyl acetate had the highest ROAV and made the greatest contribution to the flavor. Full article
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14 pages, 492 KiB  
Article
The Biochemical Composition and Quality of Adult Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis Reared in Carbonate-Alkalinity Water
by Shihui Wang, Liang Luo, Rui Zhang, Kun Guo and Zhigang Zhao
Foods 2024, 13(3), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030362 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Saline–alkaline aquaculture has become an important breakthrough in expanding the space available for aquaculture in China. However, the biochemical composition and quality of Eriocheir sinensis reared in carbonate alkalinity water are still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the edible yield, coloration, and nutritional [...] Read more.
Saline–alkaline aquaculture has become an important breakthrough in expanding the space available for aquaculture in China. However, the biochemical composition and quality of Eriocheir sinensis reared in carbonate alkalinity water are still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the edible yield, coloration, and nutritional and flavor quality of Eriocheir sinensis. A significantly lower gonadosomatic index (GSI), meat yield (MY), and total edible yield (TEY) were detected in intensive pond (IP) samples than those in semi-intensive reed wetland (SIWR) (p < 0.05). Six color parameters in the hepatopancreas (p < 0.05) differed between IP and SIRW. The contents of crude protein and fat in the female hepatopancreas of IP were significantly higher than those in SIRW (p < 0.05). The concentrations of total monounsaturated fatty acids (∑MUFA), total essential fatty acids (∑EFA), and hypocholesterolaemic/hypercholesterolaemic ratio (h/H) in the female edible tissues checked were higher in IP than those in SIRW, with significant differences including ∑MUFA in the hepatopancreas and ovary, ∑EFA in the muscle, and h/H in the ovary (p < 0.05). Higher total free amino acid (∑FAA) contents of muscle were detected in SIRW than that in IP samples. Significantly higher K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn contents in the ovary were detected in SIRW samples compared to IP (p < 0.05). Overall, Eriocheir sinensis reared in carbonate-alkalinity water is an important source of nutrients. Full article
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13 pages, 1167 KiB  
Article
Electronic Nose and Gas Chromatograph Devices for the Evaluation of the Sensory Quality of Green Coffee Beans
by Gema Cascos, Jesús Lozano, Ismael Montero-Fernández, Jhunior Abrahan Marcía-Fuentes, Ricardo S. Aleman, Antonio Ruiz-Canales and Daniel Martín-Vertedor
Foods 2024, 13(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13010087 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
The aim of this work is to discriminate between the volatile org9anic compound (VOC) characteristics of different qualities of green coffee beans (Coffea arabica) using two analysis approaches to classify the fresh product. High-quality coffee presented the highest values for positive [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to discriminate between the volatile org9anic compound (VOC) characteristics of different qualities of green coffee beans (Coffea arabica) using two analysis approaches to classify the fresh product. High-quality coffee presented the highest values for positive attributes, the highest of which being fruity, herbal, and sweet. Low-quality samples showed negative attributes related to roasted, smoky, and abnormal fermentation. Alcohols and aromatic compounds were most abundant in the high-quality samples, while carboxylic acids, pyrazines, and pyridines were most abundant in the samples of low quality. The VOCs with positive attributes were phenylethyl alcohol, nonanal and 2-methyl-propanoic acid, and octyl ester, while those with negative attributes were pyridine, octanoic acid, and dimethyl sulfide. The aroma quality of fresh coffee beans was also discriminated using E-nose instruments. The PLS-DA model obtained from the E-nose data was able to classify the different qualities of green coffee beans and explained 96.9% of the total variance. A PLS chemometric approach was evaluated for quantifying the fruity aroma of the green coffee beans, obtaining an RP2 of 0.88. Thus, it can be concluded that the E-nose represents an accurate, inexpensive, and non-destructive device for discriminating between different coffee qualities during processing. Full article
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19 pages, 3382 KiB  
Article
The Characteristic Aroma Compounds of GABA Sun-Dried Green Tea and Raw Pu-Erh Tea Determined by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Relative Odor Activity Value
by Chenyang Ma, Chang Gao, Yuanda Li, Xiaohui Zhou, Guofu Fan, Di Tian, Yuan Huang, Yali Li and Hongjie Zhou
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4512; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244512 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
We aim to improve the product quality of GABA raw Pu-erh tea during development and processing. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry technology combined with relative odor activity evaluations was used to compare the volatile compounds of GABA sun-dried green [...] Read more.
We aim to improve the product quality of GABA raw Pu-erh tea during development and processing. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry technology combined with relative odor activity evaluations was used to compare the volatile compounds of GABA sun-dried green tea and GABA raw Pu-erh tea. Sensory evaluation showed a higher aroma score of GABA raw Pu-erh tea than that of GABA sun-dried green tea, with significant differences in aroma type and purity. A total of 147 volatile compounds of 13 categories were detected, which differed in composition and quantity between the two teas. 2-Buten-1-one,1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-,(E)- and beta.-myrcene largely contributed to the aroma formation of both teas. Five volatile compounds were screened as potential markers for tea aroma. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that monoterpenoid biosynthesis may be beneficial to the formation of flowery and fruity aromas in the teas. We suggest that the findings of this study may provide important guidance for the processing and optimization of GABA tea. Full article
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13 pages, 650 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Evaluation of Muscle Quality in Different Parts of the Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis)
by Jiaqi Peng, Xiaorong Lu, Ruiqi Fan, Yuanyuan Ren, Huiwu Sun, Yali Yu and Bo Cheng
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4430; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244430 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
In this study, the bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) was the object of research to compare and analyze the contents of conventional nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, inosinic acid, and earthy-smelling compounds (geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol) in muscles of its dorsal, belly, tail, [...] Read more.
In this study, the bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) was the object of research to compare and analyze the contents of conventional nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, inosinic acid, and earthy-smelling compounds (geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol) in muscles of its dorsal, belly, tail, opercula, eye socket, and mandible in order to evaluate their quality. The findings could inform recommendations for the consumption and processing of different muscle parts of the bighead carp. The results showed that the water content in the abdominal muscle was significantly lower than that in other parts, and the crude fat content was significantly higher than that in other parts (p < 0.05, the same below). Seventeen kinds of amino acids were detected in the muscles of the six parts of the fish, and the dorsal muscles had the highest umami amino acids, essential amino acids and total amino acids, which were 6.45 g/100 g, 6.82 g/100 g and 17.26 g/100 g, respectively. The total amount of essential amino acids in the muscle was higher than that in the FAO/WHO standard model. According to the AAS standard, the first limiting amino acid in the muscle of the six parts was valine (Val). There were 26 kinds of fatty acids in the abdomen, under the gill cover and in the eye socket muscles, and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the mandibular muscles was the highest (45.41%). The content of inosine in the dorsal muscle was significantly higher than that in other parts. Geosmin was the main substance in the muscle. There was no correlation between the distribution of earthy-smelling compounds and fat content, but the content of earthy-smelling compounds in the muscle of the belly and eye socket was the highest. Therefore, the muscle quality of different parts of the bighead carp has its own characteristics, and targeted development and utilization can make more efficient use of bighead carp resources. Full article
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12 pages, 2966 KiB  
Article
Flavor Characteristics of Ten Peanut Varieties from China
by Bin Ding, Fei Wang, Bei Zhang, Mengshi Feng, Lei Chang, Yuyang Shao, Yan Sun, Ying Jiang, Rui Wang, Libin Wang, Jixian Xie and Chunlu Qian
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4380; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244380 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 838
Abstract
To investigate the flavor characteristics of peanuts grown in Jiangsu, China, ten local varieties were selected. The amino acids, 5′-nucleotides and volatile substances were detected, and the flavor and odor characteristics of these varieties were estimated using an electronic tongue and nose. The [...] Read more.
To investigate the flavor characteristics of peanuts grown in Jiangsu, China, ten local varieties were selected. The amino acids, 5′-nucleotides and volatile substances were detected, and the flavor and odor characteristics of these varieties were estimated using an electronic tongue and nose. The results showed that the fat and protein contents of ten peanut varieties changed significantly (p < 0.05), and may have been negatively correlated with those of the Taihua 6 variety—in particular, having the highest protein content and the lowest fat content. The amino acid contents of the peanuts were 20.08 g/100 g (Taihua 4)–27.18 g/100 g (Taihua 6). Taihua 6 also contained the highest bitter (10.41 g/100 g) and sweet (6.06 g/100 g) amino acids, and Taihua 10 had the highest monosodium glutamate-like amino acids (7.61 g/100 g). The content of 5′-nucleotides ranged from 0.08 mg/g (Taihua 9725) to 0.14 mg/g (Taihua 0122–601). Additionally, 5′-cytidylate monophosphate (5′-CMP) and 5′-adenosine monophosphate (5′-AMP) were the major 5′-nucleotides detected in the peanuts. A total of 42 kinds of volatile flavor compounds were detected, with both Taihua 4 and 6 showing the most (18 kinds) and the highest content being in Taihua 4 (7.46%). Both Taihua 9725 and 9922 exhibited the fewest kinds (nine kinds) of volatile components, and the lowest content was in Taihua 9725 (3.15%). Formic acid hexyl ester was the most abundant volatile substance in peanuts, and the highest level (3.63%) was detected in Taihua 7506. The electronic tongue and nose indicated that the greatest taste difference among the ten varieties of peanuts was mainly related to sourness, and Taihua 4 and Taihua 9922 had special taste characteristics. On the other hand, the greatest smell difference among the ten varieties of peanuts was mostly for methane and sulfur organic substances, and Taihua 0605-2 had a special and strong smell characteristic. In conclusion, the content and composition differences of the flavor substances of ten peanut varieties were responsible for their divergences in taste and smell. These results will provide guidelines for the further use (freshly consumed or processed) of these ten peanut varieties. Full article
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15 pages, 2711 KiB  
Article
Discriminant Analysis of Aroma Differences between Cow Milk Powder and Special Milk Powder (Donkey, Camel, and Horse Milk Powder) in Xinjiang Based on GC-IMS and Multivariate Statistical Methods
by Yongzhen Gou, Yaping Han, Jie Li, Xiyue Niu, Guocai Ma and Qian Xu
Foods 2023, 12(21), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12214036 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
In order to explore the aromatic differences between Xinjiang cow milk powder and specialty milk powder (donkey, camel, and horse milk powder), Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) analysis was employed to investigate the volatile compounds in these four types of milk powders. A [...] Read more.
In order to explore the aromatic differences between Xinjiang cow milk powder and specialty milk powder (donkey, camel, and horse milk powder), Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) analysis was employed to investigate the volatile compounds in these four types of milk powders. A total of 61 volatile substances were detected, with ketones, aldehydes, and alcohols being the primary flavor components in the milk powders. While the aromatic components of the different milk powders showed similarities in terms of types, there were significant differences in their concentrations, exhibiting distinct characteristics for each type. The Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) showed that there were 15, 14, and 23 volatile compounds that could be used for discrimination of cow milk powder against specialty milk powders, respectively. And it was validated by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, and finally, 8, 6, and 19 volatile compounds were identified as valid differential marker substances. To facilitate visual discrimination between the different milk powders, we established GC-IMS fingerprint spectra based on the final discriminant markers. These studies provide theoretical guidance for the application of volatile compounds to discriminate adulteration of milk powder marketed in Xinjiang. Full article
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13 pages, 2785 KiB  
Article
Difference Analysis of the Composition of Iron (Hydr)Oxides and Dissolved Organic Matter in Pit Mud of Different Pit Ages in Luzhou Laojiao and Its Implications for the Ripening Process of Pit Mud
by Kairui Jiao, Bo Deng, Ping Song, Hailong Ding, Hailong Liu and Bin Lian
Foods 2023, 12(21), 3962; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12213962 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Long-term production practice proves that good liquor comes out of the old cellar, and the aged pit mud is very important to the quality of Luzhou-flavor liquor. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate [...] Read more.
Long-term production practice proves that good liquor comes out of the old cellar, and the aged pit mud is very important to the quality of Luzhou-flavor liquor. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the composition characteristics of iron-bearing minerals and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in 2-year, 40-year, and 100-year pit mud and yellow soil (raw materials for making pit mud) of Luzhou Laojiao distillery. The results showed that the contents of total iron and crystalline iron minerals decreased significantly, while the ratio of Fe(II)/Fe(III) and the content of amorphous iron (hydr)oxides increased significantly with increasing cellar age. DOM richness, unsaturation, and aromaticity, as well as lignin/phenolics, polyphenols, and polycyclic aromatics ratios, were enhanced in pit mud. The results of the principal component analysis indicate that changes in the morphology and content of iron-bearing minerals in pit mud were significantly correlated with the changes in DOM molecular components, which is mainly attributed to the different affinities of amorphous iron (hydr)oxides and crystalline iron minerals for the DOM components. The study is important for understanding the evolution pattern of iron-bearing minerals and DOM and their interactions during the aging of pit mud and provides a new way to further understand the influence of aged pit mud on Luzhou-flavor liquor production. Full article
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14 pages, 2729 KiB  
Article
Sensory-Guided Isolation, Identification, and Active Site Calculation of Novel Umami Peptides from Ethanol Precipitation Fractions of Fermented Grain Wine (Huangjiu)
by Rui Chang, Zhilei Zhou, Yong Dong, Yuezheng Xu, Zhongwei Ji, Shuangping Liu and Jian Mao
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3398; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183398 - 11 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Huangjiu is rich in low-molecular-weight peptides and has an umami taste. In order for its umami peptides to be discovered, huangjiu was subjected to ultrafiltration, ethanol precipitation, and macroporous resin purification processes. The target fractions were gathered according to sensory evaluation. Subsequently, we [...] Read more.
Huangjiu is rich in low-molecular-weight peptides and has an umami taste. In order for its umami peptides to be discovered, huangjiu was subjected to ultrafiltration, ethanol precipitation, and macroporous resin purification processes. The target fractions were gathered according to sensory evaluation. Subsequently, we used peptidomics to identify the sum of 4158 peptides in most umami fractions. Finally, six novel umami peptides (DTYNPR, TYNPR, SYNPR, RFRQGD, NFHHGD, and FHHGD) and five umami-enhancing peptides (TYNPR, SYNPR, NFHHGD, FHHGD, and TVDGPSH) were filtered via virtual screening, molecular docking, and sensory verification. Moreover, the structure–activity relationship was discussed using computational approaches. Docking analysis showed that all umami peptides tend to bind with T1R1 through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces, which involve key residues HIS71, ASP147, ARG151, TYR220, SER276, and ALA302. The active site calculation revealed that the positions of the key umami residues D and R in the terminal may cause taste differences in identified peptides. Full article
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15 pages, 3174 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Physicochemical Properties, Flavor, and Microbial Communities of Salt-Free Bamboo Shoots during Natural Fermentation: Correlation between Microorganisms and Metabolites
by Xiaofeng Xu, Zhijian Long, Wanning Du, Qiyang Chen, Yu Zhang and Shanglian Hu
Fermentation 2023, 9(8), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9080733 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Sour bamboo shoot is a Chinese fermented vegetable with unique flavors and is favored by local consumers. In this study, at different fermentation times, the texture of bamboo shoots and the changing rules of pH, titratable acid (TA), reduced sugar, and nitrite in [...] Read more.
Sour bamboo shoot is a Chinese fermented vegetable with unique flavors and is favored by local consumers. In this study, at different fermentation times, the texture of bamboo shoots and the changing rules of pH, titratable acid (TA), reduced sugar, and nitrite in bamboo shoot fermentation broth were explored. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to investigate the dominant aroma compounds. 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology (HTS) was employed to investigate the core microbial communities. The results show that the chewiness, fracturability, hardness, and pH decreased, while TA increased during the 60-day fermentation. The contents of reducing sugar and nitrite peaked on the 14th day of fermentation and then decreased. A total of 80 volatile compounds were detected during sour bamboo shoot fermentation, with 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol having the highest concentration. Among them, 12 volatile compounds (VIP ≥ 1) were identified as characteristic aroma substances of sour bamboo shoots. The dominant bacterial phyla in sour bamboo shoots were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, while Bacillus and Acinetobacter were the dominant genus. Correlation analysis showed that Firmicutes exhibited a positive correlation with 3,6-Nonadien-1-ol, (E,Z)-, Oxalic acid, isobutyl hexyl ester, and (-)-O-Acetylmalic anhydride, whereas Bacillus exhibited a negative correlation with Silanediol, dimethyl-, and Oxime-, methoxy-phenyl-. A detailed picture of the microbial community of fermented bamboo shoots has been provided by this study, and it may provide insight into the Chinese traditional fermented vegetable microbial structure. Full article
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14 pages, 2847 KiB  
Article
Time-Series Sensory Analysis Provided Important TI Parameters for Masking the Beany Flavor of Soymilk
by Miyu Masuda, Yuko Terada, Ryoki Tsuji, Shogo Nakano and Keisuke Ito
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2752; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142752 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
The aim of this study is to provide a new perspective on the development of masking agents by examining the application of their time-series sensory profiles. The analysis of the relationship between 14 time-intensity (TI) parameters and the beany flavor masking ability of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to provide a new perspective on the development of masking agents by examining the application of their time-series sensory profiles. The analysis of the relationship between 14 time-intensity (TI) parameters and the beany flavor masking ability of 100 flavoring materials indicate that the values of AreaInc, DurDec, and AreaDec, TI parameters related to the flavor release in the increasing and decreasing phases, were significantly higher in the top 10 masking score materials than in the bottom 10 materials. In addition to individual analysis, machine learning analysis, which can derive complex rules from large amounts of data, was performed. Machine learning-based principal component analysis and cluster analysis of the flavoring materials presented AreaInc and AreaDec as TI parameters contributing to the classification of flavor materials and their masking ability. AreaDec was suggested to be particularly important for the beany flavor masking in the two different analyses: an effective masking can be achieved by focusing on the TI profiles of flavor materials. This study proposed that time-series profiles, which are mainly used for the understanding of the sensory characteristics of foods, can be applied to the development of masking agents. Full article
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20 pages, 11518 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Flavor Differentiation between Two Wild Edible Boletus Species through Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Analyses
by Kaixiang Chao, Tuo Qi, Qionglian Wan and Tao Li
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2728; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142728 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Despite the popularity of wild edible mushrooms due to their delectable flavor and nutritional value, the mechanisms involved in regulating and altering their taste remain underexplored. In this study, we analyzed the metabolome and transcriptome of Boletus brunneissimus (B. brunneissimus) and Leccinum extremiorientale [...] Read more.
Despite the popularity of wild edible mushrooms due to their delectable flavor and nutritional value, the mechanisms involved in regulating and altering their taste remain underexplored. In this study, we analyzed the metabolome and transcriptome of Boletus brunneissimus (B. brunneissimus) and Leccinum extremiorientale (L. extremiorientale), two Boletus species collected from different environments. Using UHPLC-MS, we annotated 644 peaks and identified 47 differential metabolites via OPLS-DA analysis. Eight of these were related to flavor, including L-Aspartic acid, Glycine, D-Serine, L-Serine, L-Histidine, Tryptophan, L-Isoleucine, Isoleucine, and alpha-D-Glucose. These differential metabolites were mainly concentrated in amino acid metabolism pathways. Transcriptome analysis revealed differential genes between B. brunneissimus and L. extremiorientale, which were enriched in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as differential genes of the same Boletus species in different environments that were enriched in the ribosome pathway. The combination of metabolome and transcriptome analyses highlighted Glycine, L-Serine, and L-Aspartic acid as the key compounds responsible for the differences between the two Boletus species. Using the O2PLS model and Pearson’s coefficient, we identified key genes that modulate the differences in metabolites between the two species. These results have significant implications for the molecular breeding of flavor in edible mushrooms. Full article
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11 pages, 1367 KiB  
Article
A Study of Key Aroma Compounds in Hurood Cheese and Their Potential Correlations with Lactic Acid Bacteria
by Yadong Wang, Hong Zeng, Yanping Cao, Shaojia Wang and Bei Wang
Fermentation 2023, 9(7), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9070670 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Hurood cheese (namely Hurood) is a traditional acid-coagulated cheese in China. This work investigated key aroma compounds and their potential correlations with dominant species of Hurood sampled from three distinct geographical origins. Key aroma compounds were determined according to Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), [...] Read more.
Hurood cheese (namely Hurood) is a traditional acid-coagulated cheese in China. This work investigated key aroma compounds and their potential correlations with dominant species of Hurood sampled from three distinct geographical origins. Key aroma compounds were determined according to Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O), and relative odor active values (ROAVs) analyses. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing was used to identify the dominant species. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the potential relationships between key aroma compounds and dominant species. A total of 31 key aroma compounds were identified in the Hurood samples from three regions. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus crispatus, and Leuconostoc citreum were found to be significantly correlated with the key aroma compounds (p < 0.05) and were identified as the core species. This study shows the link between the presence of presumptive functional core microbes and the unique aroma profiles of this traditional dairy product. Full article
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24 pages, 5123 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Strongly Flavored Baijiu under Two Different Pit Cap Sealing Processes
by Lingshan Li, Mei Fan, Yan Xu, Liang Zhang, Yu Qian, Yongqing Tang, Jinsong Li, Jinsong Zhao, Siqi Yuan and Jun Liu
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132579 - 01 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
The solid-state fermentation process of strongly flavored Baijiu is complicated by the co-fermentation of many different microorganisms in the fermentation pools. The traditional fermentation pools of strong flavor Baijiu are sealed with mud, and this sealed-pit mud is not easy to maintain; therefore, [...] Read more.
The solid-state fermentation process of strongly flavored Baijiu is complicated by the co-fermentation of many different microorganisms in the fermentation pools. The traditional fermentation pools of strong flavor Baijiu are sealed with mud, and this sealed-pit mud is not easy to maintain; therefore, the pit cap is prone to cracks and to caving in. The destruction of the sealed-pit mud may lead to instability in the composition and an abundance of microorganisms in the fermentation process that results in fluctuations of product quality. Thus, the production method of replacing the mud cap with a new steel cap is gradually attracting the attention of scientific and technical workers in the industry. However, so far, there have been relatively few reports on the use of steel lids for sealing pits for fermentation and brewing. In this study, the volatile flavor components of 270 Baijiu samples from mud-sealing and steel-sealing pits of a Chinese Baijiu distillery were studied qualitatively and quantitatively using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (Abbreviated as GC-MS). Our statistical methods included Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (Abbreviated as HCA), Principal Component Analysis (Abbreviated as PCA), and Discriminant Analysis (Abbreviated as DA). A statistical analysis was carried out on the yield of strongly flavored Baijiu, and we made a comprehensive evaluation of the Baijiu produced under the two pit-sealing modes with regard to flavor and economic efficiency. The yield of strong flavored Baijiu was 6.7% higher with steel-sealing pits compared with mud-sealing pits. Cluster analysis categorized the strongly flavored Baijiu samples into two categories initially: (1) samples produced using mud-sealing pits and (2) samples using steel-sealing pits. Our analysis also indicated that the 28 compounds used for quantification were selected correctly. Surprising to the experimental staff, the overall score for the steel-sealing pits was greater than that of the mud-sealing pits based on PCA. Using DA, the prediction results were 100% accurate. In summary, through a comparative analysis of the flavor and yield, which are the two main factors that affect the quality of Baijiu in a distillery, and systematic combination at both experimental and theoretical levels, the differences between the Baijiu production by steel-sealing and the traditional mud-sealing were clear. Regardless of the impact of age, the detectable flavor components of Baijiu from the mud-steeling pits were very consistent with those of the steel-sealing pits in terms of richness or concentration. However, steel-sealing pits were significantly superior to mud-sealing pits with respect to output, consistency in quality, and cost (human and economic) savings. Full article
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16 pages, 3474 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Aroma Fingerprint of Various Chinese Pear Cultivars through Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Volatile Compounds Using HS-SPME and GC×GC-TOFMS
by Wenjun Zhang, Mengmeng Yan, Xinxin Zheng, Zilei Chen, Huidong Li, Jiangsheng Mao, Hongwei Qin, Chao Zhu, Hongxia Du and A. M. Abd El-Aty
Molecules 2023, 28(12), 4794; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28124794 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
To comprehensively understand the volatile compounds and assess the aroma profiles of different types of Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. Anli, Dongmili, Huagai, Jianbali, Jingbaili, Jinxiangshui, and Nanguoli were detected via headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). The [...] Read more.
To comprehensively understand the volatile compounds and assess the aroma profiles of different types of Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. Anli, Dongmili, Huagai, Jianbali, Jingbaili, Jinxiangshui, and Nanguoli were detected via headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). The aroma composition, total aroma content, proportion and number of different aroma types, and the relative quantities of each compound were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that 174 volatile aroma compounds were detected in various cultivars, mainly including esters, alcohols, aldehydes, and alkenes: Jinxiangshui had the highest total aroma content at 2825.59 ng/g; and Nanguoli had the highest number of aroma species detected at 108. The aroma composition and content varied among pear varieties, and the pears could be divided into three groups based on principal component analysis. Twenty-four kinds of aroma scents were detected; among them, fruit and aliphatic were the main fragrance types. The proportions of aroma types also varied among different varieties, visually and quantitatively displaying changes of the whole aroma of the different varieties of pears brought by the changes in aroma composition. This study contributes to further research on volatile compound analysis, and provides useful data for the improvement of fruit sensory quality and breeding work. Full article
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16 pages, 4043 KiB  
Article
New Insight into the Substrate Selectivity of Bovine Milk γ-glutamyl Transferase via Structural and Molecular Dynamics Predictions
by Lichuang Cao, Cameron J. Hunt, Anne S. Meyer and René Lametsch
Molecules 2023, 28(12), 4657; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28124657 - 09 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Bovine milk γ-glutamyltransferase (BoGGT) can produce γ-glutamyl peptides using L-glutamine as a donor substrate, and the transpeptidase activity is highly dependent on both γ-glutamyl donors and acceptors. To explore the molecular mechanism behind the donor and acceptor substrate preferences for BoGGT, molecular docking [...] Read more.
Bovine milk γ-glutamyltransferase (BoGGT) can produce γ-glutamyl peptides using L-glutamine as a donor substrate, and the transpeptidase activity is highly dependent on both γ-glutamyl donors and acceptors. To explore the molecular mechanism behind the donor and acceptor substrate preferences for BoGGT, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations were performed with L-glutamine and L-γ-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (γ-GpNA) as donors. Ser450 is a crucial residue for the interactions between BoGGT and donors. BoGGT forms more hydrogen bonds with L-glutamine than γ-GpNA, promoting the binding affinity between BoGGT and L-glutamine. Gly379, Ile399, and Asn400 are crucial residues for the interactions between the BoGGT intermediate and acceptors. The BoGGT intermediate forms more hydrogen bonds with Val-Gly than L-methionine and L-leucine, which can promote the transfer of the γ-glutamyl group from the intermediate to Val-Gly. This study reveals the critical residues responsible for the interactions of donors and acceptors with the BoGGT and provides a new understanding of the substrate selectivity and catalytic mechanism of GGT. Full article
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16 pages, 3710 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Characteristic Aroma Components of Traditional Fermented Koumiss of Kazakh Ethnicity in Different Regions of Xinjiang by Combining Modern Instrumental Detection Technology with Multivariate Statistical Analysis Methods for Odor Activity Value and Sensory Analysis
by Yongzhen Gou, Xinmiao Ma, Xiyue Niu, Xiaopu Ren, Geminguli Muhatai and Qian Xu
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112223 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
To investigate the characteristic aromatic compounds, present in the traditional fermented koumiss of the Kazakh ethnic group in different regions of Xinjiang, GC-IMS, and GC-MS were used to analyze the volatile compounds in koumiss from four regions. A total of 87 volatile substances [...] Read more.
To investigate the characteristic aromatic compounds, present in the traditional fermented koumiss of the Kazakh ethnic group in different regions of Xinjiang, GC-IMS, and GC-MS were used to analyze the volatile compounds in koumiss from four regions. A total of 87 volatile substances were detected, and esters, acids, and alcohols were found to be the main aroma compounds in koumiss. While the types of aroma compounds in koumiss were similar across different regions, the differences in their concentrations were significant and displayed clear regional characteristics. The fingerprint spectrum of GC-IMS, combined with PLS-DA analysis, indicates that eight distinctive volatile compounds, including ethyl butyrate, can be utilized to distinguish between different origins. Additionally, we analyzed the OVA value and sensory quantification of koumiss in different regions. We found that aroma components such as ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate, which exhibit buttery and milky characteristics, were prominent in the YL and TC regions. In contrast, aroma components such as phenylethanol, which feature a floral fragrance, were more prominent in the ALTe region. The aroma profiles of koumiss from the four regions were defined. These studies provide theoretical guidance for the industrial production of Kazakh koumiss products. Full article
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25 pages, 5133 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Fermentation Temperature and Cap Management on Selected Volatile Compounds and Temporal Sensory Characteristics of Grenache Wines from the Central Coast of California
by Emily S. Stoffel, Taylor M. Robertson, Anibal A. Catania and L. Federico Casassa
Molecules 2023, 28(10), 4230; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28104230 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Grenache wines from the Central Coast of California were subjected to different alcoholic fermentation temperature regimes (Cold, Cold/Hot, Hot) and cap management protocols, namely, punch down (PD), or no punch down (No PD), to determine the effect of these practices on the color, [...] Read more.
Grenache wines from the Central Coast of California were subjected to different alcoholic fermentation temperature regimes (Cold, Cold/Hot, Hot) and cap management protocols, namely, punch down (PD), or no punch down (No PD), to determine the effect of these practices on the color, aroma, and the retronasal and mouthfeel sensory characteristics of the resulting wines. Descriptive analysis (n = 8, line scale rating 0–15) results indicated that the combination of a hot fermentation temperature and no punch downs led to a significantly higher intensity in perceived color saturation (7.89) and purple hue (8.62). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that cap management was significantly more impactful on the perception of orthonasal aromas than fermentation temperature. The reduction aroma was significantly higher in No PD wines (5.02) compared to PD wines (3.50), while rose and hot aromas had significantly higher intensity perception for PD wines (5.18, 6.80) than for No PD wines (6.80, 6.14). Conversely, analysis of selected volatile compounds indicated that fermentation temperature was more impactful than cap management regime. Cold/Hot wines had higher concentrations of important esters such as ethyl hexanoate (650 µg/L) and isoamyl acetate (992 µg/L). Cold wines had a higher concentration of β-damascenone (0.719 µg/L). TCATA evaluation (n = 8) indicated that Cold/Hot PD wines had a significantly higher citation proportion of fruit flavor (1.0) and velvet astringency perception (0.80) without significant reduction flavors. Finally, the present study represents a contribution with the main volatile compounds (e.g., β-damascenone and esters in the Cold and Cold/Hot fermented wines, respectively; hexanol in PD wines, which may be potentially responsible for a hot mouthfeel), and sensory characteristics (red fruit, tropical fruit, white pepper, and rose) of Grenache wines grown in the Mediterranean climate of the Central Coast of California. Full article
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