Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2024 | Viewed by 4990

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China
Interests: interaction between starch and other components during processing; starch structure and functionality; starch digestion/fermentation; resistant starch; healthy starchy foods development

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Guest Editor
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
Interests: carbohydrate polymers; dietary fiber; functional food

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Starch is present as a macro-constituent in foods, and its properties are of interest to the food industry and for human nutrition. In recent years, the health-conscious consumer market has shifted to sustainable and natural foods due to prioritizing health, wellness, and social and environmental awareness, and hence a greater understanding of how processing alters the functionality of starch is required. Variations in the processing techniques and settings generally induce significant differences in the multi-scale structure of starch and the interactions among starch and other major food constituents, subsequently leading to a distinct rate and extent of digestion/fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and health effects. Hence, being able to predict starch’s functionality using knowledge of its structure and explain how starch interacts with other major food constituents during food processing is a significant subject in food science, nutrition, and the food industry. The research outcomes will contribute to optimizing and developing innovative processing techniques to facilitate the design and production of starch-based food products with enhanced nutritional values.

We are pleased to invite you to submit articles addressing recent advances and trends in food processing and their impact on the control of starch functionality, its digestion and fermentation in the GIT, and the quality of starchy foods. We will especially welcome articles with a particular focus on the mechanisms underlying the structural changes in starch during processing, and the design rules, modifications, methodologies, and technologies that are employed to enhance the quality and nutrition of starch, thus supporting the design and production of high-quality and nutritious starchy foods.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Evaluation of nutritional properties of starch/starchy foods in terms of digestion and fermentation using in vitro, in vivo, and in silico models;
  • Mechanisms underlying the structural changes in starch and its interaction with other major food components (lipids, proteins, bioactive compounds, etc.) during processing;
  • Processing-induced structural changes and their impact on starch functionality, digestion, fermentation, and starchy food quality;
  • Biochemical mechanisms associated with the digestion and fermentation of starch in the human GIT.

I/We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Chen Chao
Prof. Dr. Haiteng Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • starch processing control
  • structure/function relationship and design
  • digestion fermentation
  • gastrointestinal models
  • starchy foods
  • quality and nutrition

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 10199 KiB  
Article
Structural, Thermal, Pasting and Digestion Properties of Starches from Developing Root Tubers of Sweet Potato
by Hao Wang, Yuanhao Feng, Ke Guo, Laiquan Shi, Xin Xu and Cunxu Wei
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071103 - 03 Apr 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Three sweet potato varieties with white-, yellow- and purple-fleshed root tubers were harvested at 100, 120, 140 and 160 days after planting (DAP). Their starch structural, thermal, pasting and digestion properties were measured to reveal the influences of harvesting dates on the physicochemical [...] Read more.
Three sweet potato varieties with white-, yellow- and purple-fleshed root tubers were harvested at 100, 120, 140 and 160 days after planting (DAP). Their starch structural, thermal, pasting and digestion properties were measured to reveal the influences of harvesting dates on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato root tuber starch. Though starches from different varieties displayed some differences in physicochemical properties due to their different genetic backgrounds, they were influenced by harvesting date in similar ways. Starches isolated from root tubers at 100 and 160 DAP exhibited lower granule sizes than those at 120 and 140 DAP. The amylose content was higher in root tubers at 100 and 120 DAP than at 140 and 160 DAP. Starches from root tubers at 100 DAP exhibited CA-type X-ray diffraction patterns, and then the B-type crystallinity gradually increased at later harvesting dates. The different harvesting dates had no significant effects on the short-ranged ordered structure and lamellar thickness of starch, but the lamellar peak intensity decreased significantly at later harvesting dates. Starch had a lower gelatinization temperature and a wider gelatinization temperature range in root tubers at 140 and 160 DAP than at 100 and 120 DAP. The higher peak viscosity and lower pasting temperature were associated with the late harvesting date. The digestion of starch had slight differences among root tubers at different harvesting dates. The harvesting dates of root tubers played more important roles in starch properties than the variety. This study would be helpful for breeders, farmers and sweet potato starch users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition)
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16 pages, 5760 KiB  
Article
Effect of Fucoidan on Structure and Bioactivity of Chinese Steamed Bread
by Qingyu Yang, Man Li, Chenqi Gu, Anni Lu, Lijun Dong, Xiling Zhang, Xiufa Hu, Yao Liu and Jun Lu
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071057 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Fucoidan refers to a group of sulphated polysaccharides obtained from brown seaweed, with numerous biological activities. In this study, fucoidan was fortified into Chinese steamed bread (CSB) at different concentrations (0, 1%, 3% and 5%) and the effect of fucoidan on the dough [...] Read more.
Fucoidan refers to a group of sulphated polysaccharides obtained from brown seaweed, with numerous biological activities. In this study, fucoidan was fortified into Chinese steamed bread (CSB) at different concentrations (0, 1%, 3% and 5%) and the effect of fucoidan on the dough properties, structure properties and bioactivity were investigated. The results showed that fucoidan could change the viscosity of unfermented dough, and a high concentration of fucoidan could remove the free radicals produced by the SH–SS exchange reaction (GS-) in the dough, which significantly reduced the content of disulfide bond and reduced the expanded volume of fermented dough (p < 0.05). In addition, fucoidan forms a physical barrier on the surface of starch particles and hinders the reaction between protein-to-protein; therefore, fucoidan increased the hardness, gumminess and chewiness in CSB, and reduced the specific volume in CSB. Furthermore, the fucoidan-fortified CSB samples were found to have both the ability to significantly reduce the predicted glycemic index (pGI) (p < 0.05) and improve antioxidant activity (p < 0.05). Collectively, these findings could provide a theoretical basis for the applications of fucoidan as a functional component in fermented foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition)
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14 pages, 2366 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ethanol Extract of Tea on the Microstructural Features and Retrogradation Characteristics of Glutinous Rice Starch
by Shanzi Cong, Jie Ji, Xinxin Zhang, Jingyi Sun, Hongji Zhao, Xiaolan Liu and Nan Hu
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071029 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 525
Abstract
The glutinous rice starch (GRS) regeneration process could lead to decreased product quality and shorter shelf life. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of an ethanol extract of tea (EET) on the regeneration properties of GRS. The microstructure of [...] Read more.
The glutinous rice starch (GRS) regeneration process could lead to decreased product quality and shorter shelf life. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of an ethanol extract of tea (EET) on the regeneration properties of GRS. The microstructure of starch was determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to determine the microstructure of starch-polyphenol molecular groups, an X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument was used to determine the starch crystal structure, a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the thermodynamic properties of starch, and the inhibitory effect of EET on GRS regeneration was comprehensively evaluated. The effect of EET on the in vitro digestion properties of GRS was also determined. The results showed that the addition of EET in GRS resulted in an increase in solubility and swelling power and a decrease in crystallinity and ΔHr. Compared to the control group, when retrograded for 10 days, the ΔHr of GRS with 1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% addition of EET decreased by 34.61%, 44.53%, 52.93%, and 66.79%, respectively. Furthermore, the addition of EET resulted in a decrease in the content of RDS and an increase in the content of SDS and RS in GRS. It was shown that the addition of EET could significantly inhibit the retrogradation of GRS, improve the processability, and prolong the shelf life of GRS products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition)
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16 pages, 2034 KiB  
Article
Influence of Long-Chain Amylopectin on Physicochemical and External Digestion Properties of Glutinous Rice in Zongzi
by Guangquan Li, Ling Chen, Feifei Xu, Fei Liu, Maoshen Chen and Fang Zhong
Foods 2024, 13(6), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13060820 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Zongzi, made from glutinous rice, is usually thought to stay in the stomach for a long time, causing many people to shy away. In our research, Zongzi was prepared from three indica glutinous rice samples, and three japonica glutinous rice samples were digested [...] Read more.
Zongzi, made from glutinous rice, is usually thought to stay in the stomach for a long time, causing many people to shy away. In our research, Zongzi was prepared from three indica glutinous rice samples, and three japonica glutinous rice samples were digested in vitro in a human gastric simulator (HGS). It was found that digestion performance in HGS (gastric emptying) was mainly related to the hardness and stickiness of texture properties, and surprisingly, the hardness and stickiness of Zongzi were positively correlated, which contradicts past perception. Through the extraction and analysis of the coated layer on the surface of glutinous rice grains in Zongzi, the main source of its stickiness was the entanglement between the long chains of leached amylopectin molecules. The hardness was also mainly due to the high proportion of long chains in its glutinous rice starch, which made it difficult to gelatinize. Studies suggested that stickiness gradually disappeared during digestion, while hardness had a longer impact on digestive performance. The indica glutinous rice Zongzi with a higher long-chain level showed a higher resistant-starch (RS) level and slow hydrolysis in the intestinal digestion stage. Therefore, the texture and digestibility of Zongzi can be adjusted by changing the molecular structure of glutinous rice starch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition)
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15 pages, 844 KiB  
Article
Effect of Damaged Starch and Wheat-Bran Arabinoxylans on Wheat Starch and Wheat Starch–Gluten Systems
by Andrés Gustavo Teobaldi, Gabriela Noel Barrera and Pablo Daniel Ribotta
Foods 2024, 13(5), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050689 - 24 Feb 2024
Viewed by 793
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of damaged starch and arabinoxylans on the thermal and pasting behavior of mixtures containing starch and gluten. The mixtures containing starch, arabinoxylans, and gluten were dispersed in water and a 50% sucrose solution. When arabinoxylans were added to [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of damaged starch and arabinoxylans on the thermal and pasting behavior of mixtures containing starch and gluten. The mixtures containing starch, arabinoxylans, and gluten were dispersed in water and a 50% sucrose solution. When arabinoxylans were added to native starch in water, it did not modify the viscosity profiles. An increase in viscosity parameters was observed due to the addition of arabinoxylans to starch with a higher level of damage. Gluten did not influence the effects caused by arabinoxylans. In the sucrose solution, arabinoxylans caused an increase in the viscosity parameters of native starch and starch with higher damage content dispersions. Gluten caused greater viscosity increases when arabinoxylans were added. In water, the addition of arabinoxylans to native starch caused a decrease in the enthalpy of gelatinization and an increase in the onset temperature. Adding arabinoxylans to starch with a higher level of damage caused the opposite effects. In the presence of sucrose, arabinoxylans caused a decrease in the enthalpy of gelatinization. These results lay the foundations for studying the influence of damaged starch and arabinoxylans in water-rich systems characterized by the presence of substantial proportions of sucrose, such as batter formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition)
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15 pages, 2221 KiB  
Article
New Insight into the Effects of Endogenous Protein and Lipids on the Enzymatic Digestion of Starch in Sorghum Flour
by Chen Chao, Song Liang, Zheyuan Zhang, Michael J. Gidley, Ye Liu and Shujun Wang
Foods 2024, 13(5), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050663 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The effects of endogenous lipids and protein in sorghum flour on starch digestion were studied following the depletion of lipids and/or protein and after the reconstitution of separated fractions. The removal of protein or lipids moderately increases the digestibility of starch in raw [...] Read more.
The effects of endogenous lipids and protein in sorghum flour on starch digestion were studied following the depletion of lipids and/or protein and after the reconstitution of separated fractions. The removal of protein or lipids moderately increases the digestibility of starch in raw (uncooked) sorghum flour to values close to those for purified starch. Rapid Visco Analyzer data (as a model for the cooking process) show that cooked sorghum flours with lipids have a lower starch digestibility than those without lipids after RVA processing, due to the formation of starch–lipid complexes as evidenced by their higher final viscosity and larger enthalpy changes. Additionally, the formation of a starch–lipid–protein ternary complex was identified in cooked sorghum flour, rather than in a reconstituted ternary mixture, according to the unique cooling stage viscosity peak and a greater enthalpy of lipid complexes. After heating, the sorghum flour showed a lower digestibility than the depleted flours and the reconstituted flours. The results indicate that the natural organization of components in sorghum flour is an important factor in facilitating the interactions between starch, lipids, and protein during RVA processing and, in turn, reducing the starch digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition)
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20 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
Morphological, Structural, Thermal, Pasting, and Digestive Properties of Starches Isolated from Different Varieties of Rice: A Systematic Comparative Study
by Xiaojun Lin, Xuanyi Zhang, Bin Du and Baojun Xu
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4492; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244492 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the properties of isolated starches from ten commonly consumed rice varieties in China and to investigate their possible association. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were performed to demonstrate the weight or [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the properties of isolated starches from ten commonly consumed rice varieties in China and to investigate their possible association. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were performed to demonstrate the weight or relevance of different properties. The starch granules had an irregular polyhedral structure. The crystalline structure had an orthogonal arrangement, which is characteristic of A-type starch with nanocrystals with an orthorhombic crystal structure. In addition, higher levels of rapidly digestible starch (72.43 to 74.32%) and resistant starch (2.27 to 2.3%) were found in glutinous rice starch. The highest content of slowly digestible starch (59.48%) was found in starch isolated from black rice, which may be an ideal rice variety for controlling blood glucose and weight. Starch isolated from red Hani terrace rice showed the highest thermal stability during cooking and the highest resistance to a high shear force treatment. In addition, the PCA suggests that the amylose content of starch largely determines the functional properties of starch and positively correlates with the peak viscosity and setback viscosity of the starch pasting. The results of this study will enrich the scientific knowledge of various rice starches and promote their application in the food industry and other industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Food Processing: Structure, Functionality and Nutrition)
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