Microorganisms and Enzymes in Fermented Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 6411

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China
Interests: yeast; fermented food; microbiology; modern brewing technology; synthetic biology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: functional microbe; metabolomics; food fermentation; quality control; volatile flavors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Food and Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing100048, China
Interests: fermented food; brewed food; functional food; enzyme; microbiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microorganisms play essential roles in the process of making fermented products. For example, the contents of sulfur compounds, pyrazines, and acids in Chinese Baijiu are significantly increased when Bacillus is added to the fermentation microbiome. Yeast fermentation of sugars produces not only ethanol/carbon dioxide but also a range of minor but sensorially important volatile metabolites, giving wine its vinous characteristics. Researchers and workers study microorganisms in fermented products through various methods and means, e.g., isolating and screening these microbes and exploring their important role and internal mechanisms. Meanwhile, enzymes with various functions produced by microorganisms play a crucial role in fermented products. Thus, this Special Issue aims to contribute to the understanding of microorganisms and related enzymes in fermented products, serving as the foundation for improving product quality.

This issue will focus on but is not limited to the following subjects:

  1. Functions of microorganisms in fermented products or characteristics of enzymes produced by microorganisms, which were screened from the fermented food production (or brewing) processes.
  2. Use of multi-omics to investigate the successions and rules of microorganism communities or changes in enzymes during the process of making fermented products;
  3. The internal mechanism of microorganisms for improving fermented products’ qualities or the structure–activity relationship of enzyme preparation for the functions.
  4. The combined application of microorganisms or enzymes in fermented products.

Prof. Dr. Xuewu Guo
Dr. Hai Du
Dr. Guangsen Fan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fermented products
  • function of microorganisms in fermented foods
  • application of microorganisms in fermented foods
  • changes in microflora in fermented food
  • enzyme for fermented products

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 3069 KiB  
Article
Impact of Incorporating Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) on Microbial Community and Flavor Volatiles in Traditional Jiuqu
by Jingzhang Geng, Siqiao He, Shanshan Zhang, Honglei Tian and Wengang Jin
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071019 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Jiuqu is one of the important raw materials for brewing Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), often known as the “bone of wine”. In this study, the microbial community and flavor substances of Jiuqu made with different amounts of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) [...] Read more.
Jiuqu is one of the important raw materials for brewing Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), often known as the “bone of wine”. In this study, the microbial community and flavor substances of Jiuqu made with different amounts of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) were investigated through high-throughput sequencing technology and headspace gas chromatography–ion migration spectroscopy (HS-GC-IMS), using traditional wheat yeast as a control. The results showed that 1593 genera and 5507 species were identified among the four types of yeast, with Aspergillus and Paecilomyces being the most dominant microorganisms at the genus level. Carbohydrate, coenzyme, and amino acid metabolism may be the main metabolic processes of the dominant microorganisms in Jiuqu. In terms of flavor, a total of 79 volatile substance monomers and some dimers were detected from four types of Jiuqu raw materials, with the main substances being 12 aldehydes, 19 ketones, 13 alcohols, 19 esters, 4 olefins, 1 acid, 3 ethers, 4 furans, 1 pyrazine, 1 pyridine, 1 triethylamine, and 1 thiazole. The correlation results indicate that Aspergillus, Lactobacillus, and Vibrio correlate significantly with the volatile flavor compounds unique to shiitake mushrooms and also have a positive effect on alcohol, esters, and furans. These results could shed light on the selection of Lentinula edodes as a fermentation starter for Huangjiu in the Qinba Mountain area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Enzymes in Fermented Products)
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20 pages, 2818 KiB  
Article
The Identification of a Strain for the Biological Purification of Soy Molasses to Produce Functional Soy Oligosaccharides and Optimize Purification Conditions
by Ran Yang, Jinghao Ma, Zechen Wang, Yihua Du, Shubin Tian, Guangsen Fan, Xiaoyan Liu and Chao Teng
Foods 2024, 13(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020296 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 919
Abstract
Soy molasses is rich in oligosaccharides like sucrose, stachyose, and raffinose, with stachyose and raffinose being functional oligosaccharides. Harnessing soy molasses for the production of functional soy oligosaccharides (FSO) can significantly elevate its value. Biological purification, a method leveraging the selective utilization of [...] Read more.
Soy molasses is rich in oligosaccharides like sucrose, stachyose, and raffinose, with stachyose and raffinose being functional oligosaccharides. Harnessing soy molasses for the production of functional soy oligosaccharides (FSO) can significantly elevate its value. Biological purification, a method leveraging the selective utilization of different carbon sources by microorganisms, allows for the specific removal of sucrose from soy molasses while preserving stachyose and raffinose, thereby increasing the FSO content. This research identified a yeast named YT312 with strong purification capabilities for soy molasses and optimized the purification conditions. The study revealed that yeast YT312 was Wickerhamomyces anomalus, exhibiting a broad range of growth temperatures and pH levels alongside a high tolerance to glucose, sucrose, and NaCl. Through single-factor and orthogonal experiments, it was established that under specific conditions—0.375% inoculum size, 30 °C fermentation temperature, 150 rpm shaking speed, 10-fold dilution ratio, pH of 7, and 12 h of fermentation—sucrose was completely removed from soy molasses, while functional raffinose and stachyose were retained at rates of 96.1% and 90.2%, respectively. Consequently, W. anomalus YT312 displayed exceptional characteristics for the biological purification of soy molasses and the production of FSO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Enzymes in Fermented Products)
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21 pages, 6368 KiB  
Article
Effects of Fermentation with Tetragenococcus halophilus and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the Volatile Profiles of Soybean Protein Hydrolysates
by Chenchen Cao, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Weizheng Sun, Mouming Zhao, Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse and Guowan Su
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4513; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244513 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 850
Abstract
The effects of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast on the aroma of samples were analyzed in this work. The volatile features of different soybean hydrolysates were investigated using both GC-MS and GC-IMS. Only 47 volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) were detected [...] Read more.
The effects of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast on the aroma of samples were analyzed in this work. The volatile features of different soybean hydrolysates were investigated using both GC-MS and GC-IMS. Only 47 volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) were detected when using GC-IMS, while a combination of GC-MS and GC-IMS resulted in the identification of 150 compounds. LAB-yeast fermentation could significantly increase the diversity and concentrations of VFCs (p < 0.05), including alcohols, acids, esters, and sulfurs, while reduce the contents of aldehydes and ketones. Hierarchical clustering and orthogonal partial least squares analyses confirmed the impact of fermentation on the VFCs of the hydrolysates. Seven compounds were identified as significant compounds distinguishing the aromas of different groups. The partial least squares regression analysis of the 25 key VFCs (ROAV > 1) and sensory results revealed that the treatment groups positively correlated with aromatic, caramel, sour, overall aroma, and most of the key VFCs. In summary, fermentation effectively reduced the fatty and bean-like flavors of soybean hydrolysates, enhancing the overall flavor quality, with sequential inoculation proving to be more effective than simultaneous inoculation. These findings provided a theoretical basis for improving and assessing the flavor of soybean protein hydrolysates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Enzymes in Fermented Products)
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18 pages, 4969 KiB  
Article
Microbial Communities and Correlation between Microbiota and Volatile Compounds in Fermentation Starters of Chinese Sweet Rice Wine from Different Regions
by Jing Zou, Xiaohui Chen, Chenyu Wang, Yang Liu, Miao Li, Xinyuan Pan and Xuedong Chang
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2932; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152932 - 02 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Chinese sweet rice wines (CSRW) are traditional, regionally distinct alcoholic beverages that are generally brewed with glutinous rice and fermentation starters. This study aimed to characterize microbial communities and volatile compounds of CSRW starters and explore correlations between them. The major volatiles in [...] Read more.
Chinese sweet rice wines (CSRW) are traditional, regionally distinct alcoholic beverages that are generally brewed with glutinous rice and fermentation starters. This study aimed to characterize microbial communities and volatile compounds of CSRW starters and explore correlations between them. The major volatiles in starters include 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 2-nonanol, phenylethyl alcohol, 2-nonanone, acetophenone, and benzaldehyde. Microbiological analysis based on high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology demonstrated that starter bacterial communities are dominated by Weissella, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus, while Saccharomycopsis and Rhizopus predominate in fungal communities. Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism are the most active metabolic pathways in starters. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that 15 important volatile compounds including alcohols, acids, aldehydes and esters were significantly positively correlated with nine microbial genera (|r| > 0.7, p < 0.05), including five bacterial genera (i.e., Weissella, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, and Nocardiopsis) and four fungal genera (i.e., Saccharomycopsis, Rhizopus, Wickerhamomyces, and Cyberlindnera), spanning 19 distinct relationships and these microorganisms were considered the core functional microorganisms in CSRW starters. The most important positive correlations detected between phenylethyl alcohol and Weissella or Saccharomycopsis and between 2-nonanol and Pediococcus. This study can serve as a reference to guide the development of defined starter cultures for improving the aromatic quality of CSRW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Enzymes in Fermented Products)
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16 pages, 7433 KiB  
Article
Study on the Trend in Microbial Changes during the Fermentation of Black Tea and Its Effect on the Quality
by Changwei Liu, Haiyan Lin, Kuofei Wang, Zhixu Zhang, Jianan Huang and Zhonghua Liu
Foods 2023, 12(10), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12101944 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
The role of tea endophytes in black tea fermentation and their impact on black tea quality remain unclear. We collected fresh leaves of Bixiangzao and Mingfeng tea and processed them into black tea, while testing the biochemical composition of both the fresh leaves [...] Read more.
The role of tea endophytes in black tea fermentation and their impact on black tea quality remain unclear. We collected fresh leaves of Bixiangzao and Mingfeng tea and processed them into black tea, while testing the biochemical composition of both the fresh leaves and the black tea. We also used high-throughput techniques, such as 16S rRNA, to analyze the dynamic changes in the microbial community structure and function during black tea processing in order to investigate the influence of dominant microorganisms on the quality of black tea formation. Our results showed that bacteria, such as Chryseobacterium and Sphingomonas, and Pleosporales fungi dominated the entire black tea fermentation process. Predicted functional analysis of the bacterial community indicated that glycolysis-related enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and tricarboxylic acid cycle-related enzymes were significantly elevated during the fermentation stage. Amino acids, soluble sugars, and tea pigment content also increased considerably during fermentation. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that the relative bacterial abundance was closely related to the content of tea polyphenols and catechins. This study provides new insights into the changes in microbial communities during the fermentation of black tea and demonstrates understanding of the basic functional microorganisms involved in black tea processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms and Enzymes in Fermented Products)
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