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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 5 (March-1 2022) – 151 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In recent years, consumers have paid close attention to the harmful effects of saturated fats in their daily diet. Therefore, as an important consumer-driven research direction, incorporating vegetable oils through pre-emulsification has received notable attention for delivering polyunsaturated fatty acids to emulsified-type meat products. A high-pressure homogenizer can be used to manufacture nanoemulsions. Three typical pre-emulsifier proteins are egg white protein isolate, porcine plasma protein, and sodium caseinate. Thus, the effect of nano-sized emulsion droplets and the roles of active/inactive pre-emulsifier proteins on the rheological property of composite myofibrillar protein gel should be investigated from the emulsion-filled gels model. View this paper
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14 pages, 1389 KiB  
Article
A Multivariate Approach to Study the Bacterial Diversity Associated to the Wooden Shelves Used for Aging Traditional Sicilian Cheeses
by Raimondo Gaglio, Gabriele Busetta, Riccardo Gannuscio, Luca Settanni, Giuseppe Licitra and Massimo Todaro
Foods 2022, 11(5), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050774 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
The present study was carried to correlate the microbial diversity of the biofilms developed on the wooden boards used for aging traditional Sicilian cheeses with cheese typology. To this end, the microbial diversity of the shelves in contact with the cheeses PDO Pecorino [...] Read more.
The present study was carried to correlate the microbial diversity of the biofilms developed on the wooden boards used for aging traditional Sicilian cheeses with cheese typology. To this end, the microbial diversity of the shelves in contact with the cheeses PDO Pecorino Siciliano, PDO Piacentinu Ennese, and TAP Caciocavallo Palermitano, during ripening, was evaluated by a multivariate statistical approach. The shelf biofilms of this study were previously analyzed for their microbial composition, but no correlation between biodiversity and cheese type was investigated. Canonical discriminant analysis confirmed a cheese typology effect on the microbial loads of the wooden shelves investigated. Regarding the plate count data, the centroids of different cheeses were statistically distant from one another. This analysis also showed a good graphic separation of data regarding bacterial order operational taxonomy units (OTUs). Thus, the microbiological differences imputed to the cheese typologies were not affected by the environmental conditions of the facilities. Furthermore, wooden shelf lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated for their ability to inhibit the main dairy pathogens. Although inhibitors were mainly enterococci, P. pentosaceus WS287 and W. paramesenteroides WS581 showed the highest inhibition activity, indicating their possible application to control the undesired bacteria in situ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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11 pages, 2547 KiB  
Article
ε-Poly-l-Lysine Enhances Fruit Disease Resistance in Postharvest Longans (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) by Modulating Energy Status and ATPase Activity
by Junzheng Sun, Hongbin Chen, Yihui Chen, Mengshi Lin, Yen-Con Hung, Yuji Jiang and Hetong Lin
Foods 2022, 11(5), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050773 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
ε-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) holds a strong antibacterial property and is widely used for food preservation. However, the application of ε-PL to enhance fruit disease resistance in postharvest longans (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) has not been explored. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
ε-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) holds a strong antibacterial property and is widely used for food preservation. However, the application of ε-PL to enhance fruit disease resistance in postharvest longans (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) has not been explored. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of ε-PL treatment on disease occurrence and energy metabolism of longans infected with Phomopsis longanae Chi (P. longanae). It was found that, in comparison with P. longanae-inoculated longans, ε-PL could decrease the fruit disease index and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) content, increase the amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and energy charge, and enhance the activities of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) (such as H+-, Mg2+-, and Ca2+-ATPase) in the mitochondria, protoplasm, and vacuole. The results suggest that the higher levels of ATPase activity and energy status played essential roles in disease resistance of postharvest longan fruit. Therefore, the ε-PL treatment can be used as a safe and efficient postharvest method to inhibit the disease occurrence of longan fruit during storage at room temperature. Full article
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3 pages, 178 KiB  
Editorial
New Strategies for Innovative and Enhanced Meat and Meat Products
by Gonzalo Delgado-Pando and Tatiana Pintado
Foods 2022, 11(5), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050772 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
New strategies in the field of meat and meat product development are certainly needed in order to overcome not only the health-related problems these products might contribute to, but also from the perspectives of sustainability and the economy [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies for Innovative and Enhanced Meat and Meat Products)
15 pages, 3070 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Protein and Effect of Heat Treatment on Its In Vitro Digestion Characteristics
by Xingfen He, Bin Wang, Baotang Zhao and Fumin Yang
Foods 2022, 11(5), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050771 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3009
Abstract
To extract and utilise the protein in quinoa efficiently, we investigated the effect of rate of quinoa protein isolate (QPI) extraction by ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction and traditional alkaline extraction methods using single-factor experiments and Box-Behnken design. The effect of different heat treatment temperature [...] Read more.
To extract and utilise the protein in quinoa efficiently, we investigated the effect of rate of quinoa protein isolate (QPI) extraction by ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction and traditional alkaline extraction methods using single-factor experiments and Box-Behnken design. The effect of different heat treatment temperature and time on QPI functional properties and in vitro digestion characteristics were also investigated. The results showed that the optimal conditions of ultrasound- assisted alkaline extraction process were: ultrasonic time 99 min, solid-liquid ratio 1:20 w:v, ultrasonic temperature 47 °C, and pH 10, and its extraction rate and purity were 74.67 ± 1.08% and 87.17 ± 0.58%, respectively. It was 10.18% and 5.49% higher than that of the alkali-soluble acid precipitation method, respectively. The isoelectric point (pI) of QPI obtained by this method was 4.5. The flexibility and turbidity of QPI had maximum values at 90 °C, 30 min, and 121 °C, 30 min, which were 0.42 and 0.94, respectively. In addition, heat treatment changed the 1.77–2.79 ppm protein characteristic region in QPI’s nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectroscopy (1H NMR). After heating at 90 °C and 121 °C for 30 min, the hydrolysis degree and total amino acid content at the end of digestion (121 °C, 30 min) were significantly lower than those of untreated QPI by 20.64% and 27.85%. Our study provides basic data for the efficient extraction and utilisation of QPI. Full article
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15 pages, 942 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Irrigation-Initiation Timing on the Phenolic Composition and Overall Quality of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines Grown in a Semi-Arid Climate
by Elyashiv Drori, Sarel Munitz, Ania Pinkus, Maria Stanevsky and Yishai Netzer
Foods 2022, 11(5), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050770 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2194
Abstract
In semi-arid areas, vineyards grown for winemaking are usually mildly irrigated by drip irrigation systems in a manner maintaining drought stress. This practice ensures the proper development of vegetative and reproductive organs on the one hand, and on the other, the development of [...] Read more.
In semi-arid areas, vineyards grown for winemaking are usually mildly irrigated by drip irrigation systems in a manner maintaining drought stress. This practice ensures the proper development of vegetative and reproductive organs on the one hand, and on the other, the development of high-quality grapes which can be hampered by overly abundant water application. In previous work, we have developed and demonstrated an irrigation model suitable for high-quality grape production in semi-arid areas. Here, we tackle the question of proper irrigation initiation dates—should one wait for vines to develop drought stress before the initiation of irrigation, or rather commence irrigation earlier? Our results show that vines which undergo initial irrigation late in the growing season tend to develop a lower midday stem water potential even after irrigation initiation. In addition, these vines tend to produce a lower number of bunches per vine and smaller berry size, leading to lower yields. The wine produced from the late-irrigated treatments had a higher phenolic content, primarily due to higher levels of catechin and epicatechin. Their levels increased as irrigation initiation dates were delayed, while caffeic acid levels showed an opposite trend. Late irrigation also led to higher color intensities compared to those of irrigation at earlier stages, due to higher levels of most anthocyanins. Finally, we show that the overall wine sensory score, representing its overall quality, was approximately five points higher for wines made from delayed irrigation treatments compared to wines made from early season irrigation treatments. Full article
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16 pages, 1143 KiB  
Review
Research Progress and Trends of Phenylethanoid Glycoside Delivery Systems
by Jin Huang, Dandan Zhao, Chaojing Cui, Jianxiong Hao, Zhentao Zhang and Limin Guo
Foods 2022, 11(5), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050769 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
Background: Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) are obtained from a wide range of sources and show strong biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, antibacterial and neuroprotective effects. However, intestinal malabsorption and the low bioavailability of PhGs seriously affect their application. Delivery systems are an [...] Read more.
Background: Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) are obtained from a wide range of sources and show strong biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, antibacterial and neuroprotective effects. However, intestinal malabsorption and the low bioavailability of PhGs seriously affect their application. Delivery systems are an effective method to improve the bioavailability of active substances. Scope and approach: In this article, the biological activities of and delivery systems for PhGs are introduced. The application statuses of delivery systems for echinacoside, acteoside and salidroside are reviewed. Finally, the problems of the lack of uniform standards for delivery systems and the poor targeted delivery accuracy of PhGs in the current research are proposed and suggestions for future research are put forward based on those problems. Key findings and conclusions: Although there are still some problems in the delivery system of phenylethanoside, such as inconsistent standards and inaccurate delivery, phenylethanoside itself has been proven to have a variety of physiological activities. Therefore, the action mechanism and application of phenylethanoside and its delivery system should be studied further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Systems)
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23 pages, 41273 KiB  
Review
New Consumer Research Technology for Food Behaviour: Overview and Validity
by Garmt Dijksterhuis, René de Wijk and Marleen Onwezen
Foods 2022, 11(5), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050767 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3903
Abstract
Background: the last decade has witnessed an explosion of new consumer behaviour research technology, and new methods are published almost monthly. To what extent are these methods applicable in the specific area of food consumer science, and if they are, are they any [...] Read more.
Background: the last decade has witnessed an explosion of new consumer behaviour research technology, and new methods are published almost monthly. To what extent are these methods applicable in the specific area of food consumer science, and if they are, are they any good? Methods: in this paper, we attempt to give an overview of the developments in this area. We distinguish between (‘input’) methods needed to shape the measurement context a consumer is brought in, e.g., by means of ‘immersive’ methods, and (‘output’) methods that perform measurements proper. Concerning the latter, we distinguish between methods focusing on neuro-science, on psychology, and on behaviour. In addition, we suggest a way to assess the validity of the methods, based on psychological theory, concerning biases resulting from consumer awareness of a measurement situation. The methods are evaluated on three summarising validity criteria; conclusions: the conclusion is that behavioural measures generally appear more valid than psychological or neuro-scientific methods. The main conclusion is that validity of a method should never be taken for granted, and it should be always be assessed in the context of the research question. Full article
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4 pages, 195 KiB  
Editorial
Value-Added Products from Agro-Food Residues
by Ana Belen Diaz and Ana Blandino
Foods 2022, 11(5), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050766 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
The agri-food sector produces large amounts of waste annually, most of which is lignocellulosic biomass [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value Added Products from Agro-Food Residues)
3 pages, 197 KiB  
Editorial
Microalgae for the Food Industry: From Biomass Production to the Development of Functional Foods
by Tomás Lafarga and Gabriel Acién
Foods 2022, 11(5), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050765 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
The human population is expected to reach 9 [...] Full article
16 pages, 2287 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Pasteurization-Resistant Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Seafoods Using a Modified, Two-Step Enrichment
by Guadalupe Meza, Hussain Majrshi and Hung King Tiong
Foods 2022, 11(5), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050764 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4004
Abstract
Persistent Vibrio-parahaemolyticus-associated vibriosis cases, attributed, in part, to the inefficient techniques for detecting viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) Vibrio pathogens and the ingestion of undercooked seafood, is the leading cause of bacterial seafood-borne outbreaks, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States. The effect of extreme [...] Read more.
Persistent Vibrio-parahaemolyticus-associated vibriosis cases, attributed, in part, to the inefficient techniques for detecting viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) Vibrio pathogens and the ingestion of undercooked seafood, is the leading cause of bacterial seafood-borne outbreaks, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States. The effect of extreme heat processing on Vibrio biology and its potential food safety implication has been underexplored. In the present work, environmental samples from the wet market, lagoon, and estuarine environments were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus recovery using a modified, temperature-dependent, two-step enrichment method followed by culture-based isolation, phenotype, and genotype characterizations. The work recovered novel strains (30% of 12 isolates) of V. parahaemolyticus from prolonged-heat-processing conditions (80 °C, 20 min), as confirmed by 16S rDNA bacterial identification. Select strains, VHT1 and VHT2, were determined to be hemolysis- and urease-positive pathogens. PCR analyses of chromosomal DNA implicated the tdh-independent, tlh-associated hemolysis in these strains. Both strains exhibited significant, diverse antibiotic profiles (p < 0.05). Turbidimetric and viable count assays revealed the pasteurization-resistant V. parahaemolyticus VHT1/VHT2 (62 °C, 8 h). These findings disclose the efficiency of Vibrio extremist recovery by the modified, two-step enrichment technique and improve knowledge of Vibrio biology essential to food safety reformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
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14 pages, 3947 KiB  
Article
Discrimination of the Red Jujube Varieties Using a Portable NIR Spectrometer and Fuzzy Improved Linear Discriminant Analysis
by Zuxuan Qi, Xiaohong Wu, Yangjian Yang, Bin Wu and Haijun Fu
Foods 2022, 11(5), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050763 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
In order to quickly, nondestructively, and effectively distinguish red jujube varieties, based on the combination of fuzzy theory and improved LDA (iLDA), fuzzy improved linear discriminant analysis (FiLDA) algorithm was proposed to classify near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra of red jujube samples. FiLDA shows [...] Read more.
In order to quickly, nondestructively, and effectively distinguish red jujube varieties, based on the combination of fuzzy theory and improved LDA (iLDA), fuzzy improved linear discriminant analysis (FiLDA) algorithm was proposed to classify near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra of red jujube samples. FiLDA shows performs better than iLDA in dealing with NIR spectra containing noise. Firstly, the portable NIR spectrometer was employed to gather the NIR spectra of five kinds of red jujube, and the initial NIR spectra were pretreated by standard normal variate transformation (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), Savitzky-Golay smoothing (S-G smoothing), mean centering (MC) and Savitzky-Golay filter (S-G filter). Secondly, the high-dimensional spectra were processed for dimension reduction by principal component analysis (PCA). Then, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), iLDA and FiLDA were applied to extract features from the NIR spectra, respectively. Finally, K nearest neighbor (KNN) served as a classifier for the classification of red jujube samples. The highest classification accuracy of this identification system for red jujube, by using FiLDA and KNN, was 94.4%. These results indicated that FiLDA combined with NIR spectroscopy was an available method for identifying the red jujube varieties and this method has wide application prospects. Full article
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20 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
Quality Evaluation Indices for Soybean Oil in Relation to Cultivar, Application of N Fertiliser and Seed Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum
by Ewa Szpunar-Krok and Anna Wondołowska-Grabowska
Foods 2022, 11(5), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050762 - 6 Mar 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4142
Abstract
Soybean ranks second in production and consumption of vegetable oils worldwide and these are expected to continue to increase. The suitability of soybean oil for specific uses is determined by the fatty acid composition from which a number of indices and indicators can [...] Read more.
Soybean ranks second in production and consumption of vegetable oils worldwide and these are expected to continue to increase. The suitability of soybean oil for specific uses is determined by the fatty acid composition from which a number of indices and indicators can be calculated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indices of nutritional and health-promoting fat in seeds of soybean cultivars grown in 2016–2019 under the influence of varying doses of N and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Omega 3 and Omega 6, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), index of desirable fatty acids (DFA), sum of hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (OFA), index of atherogenicity (AI), index of thrombogenicity (TI), oleic desaturation ratio (ODR), linoleic desaturation ratio (LDR), calculated oxidizability value (COX) and the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio (HH), saturation fat index (S/P) and ALA/LA, OL/(LA+ALA) ratios and the consumer index (CI) were included. Fat quality indices for soybean seeds were strongly determined by weather conditions. Seeds of the cv. Aldana contained higher amounts of Omega 6 and featured more favourable MUFA/PUFA and OL/(LA+ALA) ratios, while the seeds of the cv. Annushka had more favourable CI and higher ODR, COX and S/P indices. No important differences were observed regarding the effect of nitrogen dose and seed inoculation on the formation of the DFA, OFA, HH, AI, TI and CI indices. The value of the S/P index suggests that higher nitrogen rates (60 kg∙ha−1) and the lack of inoculation treatment produce seeds with a more favourable dietary fatty acid balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient-Rich Foods for a Healthy Diet)
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13 pages, 507 KiB  
Article
Compositional and Morphological Characterization of ‘Sorrento’ and ‘Chandler’ Walnuts
by R. Romano, L. De Luca, M. Vanacore, A. Genovese, C. Cirillo, A. Aiello and R. Sacchi
Foods 2022, 11(5), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050761 - 6 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2475
Abstract
In Italy, most of the cultivated walnuts belong to the Sorrento ecotype, and they are considered commercially valuable due to their specific organoleptic characteristics. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the morphological and compositional characteristics of walnuts sampled from [...] Read more.
In Italy, most of the cultivated walnuts belong to the Sorrento ecotype, and they are considered commercially valuable due to their specific organoleptic characteristics. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the morphological and compositional characteristics of walnuts sampled from ‘Sorrento’ trees cultivated in different locations in Campania and trees of both the ‘Chandler’ and ‘Sorrento’ varieties derived from the same location. The results demonstrated that ‘Sorrento’ and ‘Chandler’ walnuts have different biometric characteristics and a different fat content, with the highest fat content being found in the ‘Sorrento’ variety. Regarding the fatty acid (FA) composition, the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFAs and SFAs) was highest in the ‘Sorrento’ variety (from 13 to 15% for MUFAs and from 11 to 13% for SFAs), while the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content was highest in the ‘Chandler’ variety (77%). The total phenolics content (TPC) was highest in the ‘Sorrento’ variety (from 910 to 1230 mg GAE/100 g), while no difference in γ-tocopherol content was found. Furthermore, the influence of walnut area cultivation was shown for fat content, FA composition and TPC. Therefore, both walnut varieties demonstrated good nutritional properties considering the PUFAs and γ-tocopherol content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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44 pages, 2586 KiB  
Review
Advancements in Biodegradable Active Films for Food Packaging: Effects of Nano/Microcapsule Incorporation
by Fatemeh Baghi, Adem Gharsallaoui, Emilie Dumas and Sami Ghnimi
Foods 2022, 11(5), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050760 - 6 Mar 2022
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 9272
Abstract
Food packaging plays a fundamental role in the modern food industry as a main process to preserve the quality of food products from manufacture to consumption. New food packaging technologies are being developed that are formulated with natural compounds by substituting synthetic/chemical antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Food packaging plays a fundamental role in the modern food industry as a main process to preserve the quality of food products from manufacture to consumption. New food packaging technologies are being developed that are formulated with natural compounds by substituting synthetic/chemical antimicrobial and antioxidant agents to fulfill consumers’ expectations for healthy food. The strategy of incorporating natural antimicrobial compounds into food packaging structures is a recent and promising technology to reach this goal. Concepts such as “biodegradable packaging”, “active packaging”, and “bioactive packaging” currently guide the research and development of food packaging. However, the use of natural compounds faces some challenges, including weak stability and sensitivity to processing and storage conditions. The nano/microencapsulation of these bioactive compounds enhances their stability and controls their release. In addition, biodegradable packaging materials are gaining great attention in the face of ever-growing environmental concerns about plastic pollution. They are a sustainable, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective alternative to conventional plastic packaging materials. Ultimately, a combined formulation of nano/microencapsulated antimicrobial and antioxidant natural molecules, incorporated into a biodegradable food packaging system, offers many benefits by preventing food spoilage, extending the shelf life of food, reducing plastic and food waste, and preserving the freshness and quality of food. The main objective of this review is to illustrate the latest advances in the principal biodegradable materials used in the development of active antimicrobial and antioxidant packaging systems, as well as the most common nano/microencapsulated active natural agents incorporated into these food-packaging materials. Full article
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18 pages, 2441 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Synbiotics Administration on Stress-Related Parameters in Thai Subjects—A Preliminary Study
by Ekasit Lalitsuradej, Sasithorn Sirilun, Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Komsak Pintha, Payungsak Tantipaiboonwong, Suchanat Khongtan, Pranom Fukngoen, Sartjin Peerajan and Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
Foods 2022, 11(5), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050759 - 6 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
Urbanization influences our lifestyle, especially in fast-paced environments where we are more prone to stress. Stress management is considered advantageous in terms of longevity. The use of probiotics for psychological treatment has a small amount of diverse proven evidence to support this. However, [...] Read more.
Urbanization influences our lifestyle, especially in fast-paced environments where we are more prone to stress. Stress management is considered advantageous in terms of longevity. The use of probiotics for psychological treatment has a small amount of diverse proven evidence to support this. However, studies on stress management in stressed subjects using synbiotics are still limited. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of synbiotics on stress in the Thai population. A total of 32 volunteers were enrolled and screened using a Thai Stress Test (TST) to determine their stress status. Participants were divided into the stressed and the non-stressed groups. Synbiotics preparation comprised a mixture of probiotics strains in a total concentration of 1 × 1010 CFU/day (5.0 × 109 CFU of Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 and 5.0 × 109 CFU of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis) and 10 g prebiotics (5 g galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), and 5 g oligofructose (FOS)). All parameters were measured at baseline and after the 12th week of the study. In the stressed group, the administration of synbiotics significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the negative scale scores of TST, and tryptophan. In the non-stressed group, the synbiotics administration decreased tryptophan significantly (p < 0.05), whereas dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), acetate and propionate were increased significantly (p < 0.05). In both groups, cortisol, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were reduced, whereas anti-inflammatory mediator interleukin-10 (IL-10) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were increased. In conclusion, synbiotics administration attenuated the negative feelings via the negative scale scores of TST in stressed participants by modulating the HPA-axis, IL-10, IgA, and LPS. In comparison, synbiotics administration for participants without stress did not benefit stress status but showed remodeling SCFAs components, HPA-axis, and tryptophan catabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Future Trends in Fermented and Functional Foods)
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15 pages, 1341 KiB  
Article
Fiber-Rich Cranberry Pomace as Food Ingredient with Functional Activity for Yogurt Production
by Laurita Varnaitė, Milda Keršienė, Aušra Šipailienė, Rita Kazernavičiūtė, Petras Rimantas Venskutonis and Daiva Leskauskaitė
Foods 2022, 11(5), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050758 - 6 Mar 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3849
Abstract
In this study, different amounts (from 2% to 4.5%) of dietary fiber-rich cranberry pomace (CP) were added to yogurt before or after fermentation to increase dietary fiber content without changing the textural properties of the product. The addition of CP reduced whey loss, [...] Read more.
In this study, different amounts (from 2% to 4.5%) of dietary fiber-rich cranberry pomace (CP) were added to yogurt before or after fermentation to increase dietary fiber content without changing the textural properties of the product. The addition of CP reduced whey loss, improved the firmness and viscosity, increased the total phenol compound content and the antioxidant capacity values (DPPH•, ABTS, and ORAC) of the yogurt in a dose-dependent manner, and had no significant effect on the viability of the yogurt culture bacteria. For all CP-supplemented yogurt samples, the bioaccessibility index of the polyphenols after in vitro intestinal phase digestion was approximately 90%. However, yogurt with CP added before fermentation exhibited a significantly (p < 0.05) lower degree of protein hydrolysis post-gastric and post-intestinal than the yogurt with CP added after fermentation. Yogurt supplemented with 4.5% CP could be considered a good antioxidant dairy product and a good source of dietary fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Antioxidant-Containing Foods and Related By-Products)
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17 pages, 334 KiB  
Article
Inhibition of Several Bacterial Species Isolated from Squid and Shrimp Skewers by Different Natural Edible Compounds
by Lourenço Pinto de Rezende, Joana Bastos Barbosa, Ana Maria Gomes, Ana Machado Silva, Daniela Fonseca Correia and Paula Teixeira
Foods 2022, 11(5), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050757 - 6 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Seafood is an excellent source of nutrients, essential for a healthy diet, ranging from proteins and fatty acids to vitamins and minerals. Seafood products are highly perishable foods due to their nutritional characteristics and composition. The application of nontoxic, natural, and edible preservatives [...] Read more.
Seafood is an excellent source of nutrients, essential for a healthy diet, ranging from proteins and fatty acids to vitamins and minerals. Seafood products are highly perishable foods due to their nutritional characteristics and composition. The application of nontoxic, natural, and edible preservatives to extend the shelf-life and inhibit bacterial proliferation of several foods has been a hot topic. Consequently, this work aimed to perform the microbiological characterization of squid and shrimp skewers during their shelf-life (five days) and evaluate the susceptibility of randomly isolated microorganisms to several natural edible compounds so that their application for the preservation and shelf-life extension of the product might be analyzed in the future. The product had considerably high total microorganisms loads of about 5 log CFU/g at day zero and 9 log CFU/g at day five. In addition, high bacterial counts of Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacterales, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were found, especially on the last day of storage, being Pseudomonas the dominant genus. However, no Escherichia coli or Listeria monocytogenes were detected on the analyzed samples. One hundred bacterial isolates were randomly selected and identified through 16s rRNA sequencing, resulting in the detection of several Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas spp., and LAB. The antibacterial activity of carvacrol, olive leaf extract, limonene, Citrox®, different chitosans, and ethanolic propolis extracts was evaluated by the agar diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined only for Citrox® since only this solution could inhibit all the identified isolates. At concentrations higher than or equal to 1.69% (v/v), Citrox® demonstrated bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity to 97% and 3% of the isolates, respectively. To our knowledge, there are no available data about the effectiveness of this commercial product on seafood isolates. Although preliminary, this study showed evidence that Citrox® has the potential to be used as a natural preservative in these seafood products, improving food safety and quality while reducing waste. However, further studies are required, such as developing a Citrox®-based coating and its application on this matrix to validate its antimicrobial effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foods of Marine Origin)
19 pages, 376 KiB  
Review
Biocontrol Approaches against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Foods
by Pradeep Puligundla and Seokwon Lim
Foods 2022, 11(5), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050756 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5074
Abstract
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a well-known water- and food-borne zoonotic pathogen that can cause gastroenteritis in humans. It threatens the health of millions of people each year; several outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 infections have been linked to the consumption of contaminated [...] Read more.
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a well-known water- and food-borne zoonotic pathogen that can cause gastroenteritis in humans. It threatens the health of millions of people each year; several outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 infections have been linked to the consumption of contaminated plant foods (e.g., lettuce, spinach, tomato, and fresh fruits) and beef-based products. To control E. coli O157:H7 in foods, several physical (e.g., irradiation, pasteurization, pulsed electric field, and high-pressure processing) and chemical (e.g., using peroxyacetic acid; chlorine dioxide; sodium hypochlorite; and organic acids, such as acetic, lactic, and citric) methods have been widely used. Although the methods are quite effective, they are not applicable to all foods and carry intrinsic disadvantages (alteration of sensory properties, toxicity, etc.). Therefore, the development of safe and effective alternative methods has gained increased attention recently. Biocontrol agents, including bacteriophages, probiotics, antagonistic bacteria, plant-derived natural compounds, bacteriocins, endolysins, and enzymes, are rapidly emerging as effective, selective, relatively safe for human consumption, and environmentally friendly alternatives. This paper summarizes advances in the application of biocontrol agents for E. coli O157:H7 control in foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
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19 pages, 392 KiB  
Review
Innovative and Healthier Dairy Products through the Addition of Microalgae: A Review
by Héctor Hernández, Maria Cristiana Nunes, Catarina Prista and Anabela Raymundo
Foods 2022, 11(5), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050755 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5668
Abstract
In recent years, the development of healthier foods, richer in nutraceutical or functional compounds, has been in great demand. Microalgae are attracting increasing attention, as their incorporation in foods and beverages can be a promising strategy to develop sustainable foods with improved nutritional [...] Read more.
In recent years, the development of healthier foods, richer in nutraceutical or functional compounds, has been in great demand. Microalgae are attracting increasing attention, as their incorporation in foods and beverages can be a promising strategy to develop sustainable foods with improved nutritional profiles and a strong positive impacts on health. Despite the increasing market demand in plant-based foods, the popularity of fermented dairy foods has increased in the recent years since they are a source of microorganisms with health-promoting effects. In this context, the incorporation of microalgae in cheeses, fermented milks and other dairy products represents an interesting approach towards the development of innovative and added-value hybrid products based on animal proteins and enriched with vegetable origin ingredients recognized as extremely valuable sources of bioactive compounds. The effect of the addition of microalgal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris, Arthrospira platensis, Pavlova lutheri, and Diacronema vlkianum, among others) and its derivates on the physicochemical composition, colorimetric and antioxidant properties, texture and rheology behavior, sensory profile, and viability of starter cultures and probiotics in yogurt, cheese and ice cream is discussed in the current work. This review of the literature on the incorporation of microalgae in dairy products aims to contribute to a better understanding of the potential use of these unique food ingredients in the development of new sustainable products and of their beneficial effects on health. Considering the importance of commercialization, regulatory issues about the use of microalgae in dairy products are also discussed. Full article
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18 pages, 3251 KiB  
Article
Kombucha Reduces Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes of Mice by Regulating Gut Microbiota and Its Metabolites
by Suyun Xu, Yanping Wang, Jinju Wang and Weitao Geng
Foods 2022, 11(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050754 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 5537
Abstract
Kombucha, which is rich in tea polyphenols and organic acid, is a kind of acidic tea soup beverage fermented by acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria. Kombucha has been reported to possess anti-diabetic activity, but the underlying mechanism was not well understood. [...] Read more.
Kombucha, which is rich in tea polyphenols and organic acid, is a kind of acidic tea soup beverage fermented by acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria. Kombucha has been reported to possess anti-diabetic activity, but the underlying mechanism was not well understood. In this study, a high-fat, high-sugar diet combined with streptozotocin (STZ) injection was used to induce T2DM model in mice. After four weeks of kombucha intervention, the physiological and biochemical index were measured to determine the diabetes-related indicators. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the changes in gut microbiota from the feces. The results showed that four weeks of kombucha intervention increased the abundance of SCFAs-producing bacteria and reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria and pathogenic bacteria. The improvement in gut microbiota reduced the damage of intestinal barrier, thereby reducing the displacement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inhibiting the occurrence of inflammation and insulin resistance in vivo. In addition, the increased levels of SCFAs-producing bacteria, and thus increasing the SCFAs, improved islet β cell function by promoting the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones (GLP-1/PYY). This study methodically uncovered the hypoglycemic mechanism of kombucha through gut microbiota intervention, and the result suggested that kombucha may be introduced as a new functional drink for T2DM prevention and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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9 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Maternal Protein Restriction and Post-Weaning High-Fat Feeding Alter Plasma Amino Acid Profiles and Hepatic Gene Expression in Mice Offspring
by Moe Miyoshi, Kenji Saito, Huijuan Jia and Hisanori Kato
Foods 2022, 11(5), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050753 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy is closely associated with epigenetic changes in the child, and it affects the development of obesity throughout the child’s life. Here, we investigate the effect of fetal low protein exposure and post-weaning high-fat consumption on plasma amino acid profiles [...] Read more.
Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy is closely associated with epigenetic changes in the child, and it affects the development of obesity throughout the child’s life. Here, we investigate the effect of fetal low protein exposure and post-weaning high-fat consumption on plasma amino acid profiles and hepatic gene expression. Mother C57BL/6J mice were fed a 20% (CN) or 9% (LP) casein diet during pregnancy. After birth, the male offspring of both these groups were fed a high-fat diet (HF) from 6 to 32 weeks. At 32 weeks, the final body weight between the two groups remained unchanged, but the LP-HF group showed markedly higher white fat weight and plasma leptin levels. The LP-HF group exhibited a significant increase in the concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, histidine, phenylalanine, serine, and tyrosine. However, no differences were observed in the lipid content in the liver. According to the hepatic gene expression analysis, the LP-HF group significantly upregulated genes involved in the chromatin modification/organization pathways. Thus, maternal low protein and a post-weaning high-fat environment contributed to severe obesity states and changes in gene expression related to hepatic chromatin modification in offspring. These findings provide novel insights for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases at the early life stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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24 pages, 2202 KiB  
Review
Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) Essential Oil as a Food Preservative Source: Chemistry, Quality Control, Activity Assessment, and Applications to Olive Industry Products
by Stella A. Ordoudi, Maria Papapostolou, Nikolaos Nenadis, Fani Th. Mantzouridou and Maria Z. Tsimidou
Foods 2022, 11(5), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050752 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7045
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) find application as flavoring agents in the food industry and are also desirable ingredients as they possess preservative properties. The Mediterranean diet involves the use of a lot of herbs and spices and their products (infusions, EOs) as condiments and [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) find application as flavoring agents in the food industry and are also desirable ingredients as they possess preservative properties. The Mediterranean diet involves the use of a lot of herbs and spices and their products (infusions, EOs) as condiments and for the preservation of foods. Application of EOs has the advantage of homogeneous dispersion in comparison with dry leaf use in small pieces or powder. Among them, Laurus nobilis (bay laurel) L. EO is an interesting source of volatiles, such as 1,8-cineole and eugenol, which are known for their preservative properties. Its flavor suits cooked red meat, poultry, and fish, as well as vegetarian dishes, according to Mediterranean recipes. The review is focused on its chemistry, quality control aspects, and recent trends in methods of analysis and activity assessment with a focus on potential antioxidant activity and applications to olive industry products. Findings indicate that this EO is not extensively studied in comparison with those from other Mediterranean plants, such as oregano EO. More work is needed to establish authenticity and activity methods, whereas the interest for using it for the preparation of flavored olive oil or for the aromatization and preservation of table oils must be further encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactive Compounds and Foods of the Mediterranean Diet)
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24 pages, 4667 KiB  
Article
Mineral Content and Volatile Profiling of Prunus avium L. (Sweet Cherry) By-Products from Fundão Region (Portugal)
by Ana R. Nunes, Ana C. Gonçalves, Edgar Pinto, Filipa Amaro, José D. Flores-Félix, Agostinho Almeida, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves and Luís R. Silva
Foods 2022, 11(5), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050751 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Large amounts of Prunus avium L. by-products result from sweet cherry production and processing. This work aimed to evaluate the mineral content and volatile profiling of the cherry stems, leaves, and flowers of the Saco cultivar collected from the Fundão region (Portugal). A [...] Read more.
Large amounts of Prunus avium L. by-products result from sweet cherry production and processing. This work aimed to evaluate the mineral content and volatile profiling of the cherry stems, leaves, and flowers of the Saco cultivar collected from the Fundão region (Portugal). A total of 18 minerals were determined by ICP-MS, namely 8 essential and 10 non-essential elements. Phosphorus (P) was the most abundant mineral, while lithium (Li) was detected in trace amounts. Three different preparations were used in this work to determine volatiles: hydroethanolic extracts, crude extracts, and aqueous infusions. A total of 117 volatile compounds were identified using HS-SPME/GC-MS, distributed among different chemical classes: 31 aldehydes, 14 alcohols, 16 ketones, 30 esters, 4 acids, 4 monoterpenes, 3 norisoprenoids, 4 hydrocarbons, 7 heterocyclics, 1 lactone, 1 phenol, and 2 phenylpropenes. Benzaldehyde, 4-methyl-benzaldehyde, hexanal, lilac aldehyde, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one were the major volatile compounds. Differences in the types of volatiles and their respective amounts in the different extracts were found. This is the first study that describes the mineral and volatile composition of Portuguese sweet cherry by-products, demonstrating that they could have great potential as nutraceutical ingredients and natural flavoring agents to be used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy—the Way to Make More Sustainable Food Systems)
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14 pages, 1825 KiB  
Article
Effects of Enzymatic Konjac Glucomannan Hydrolysates on Textural Properties, Microstructure, and Water Distribution of Grass Carp Surimi Gels
by Wenjin Wu, Feng Que, Xuehong Li, Liu Shi, Wei Deng, Xiaoyan Fu, Guangquan Xiong, Jing Sun, Lan Wang and Shanbai Xiong
Foods 2022, 11(5), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050750 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
This present work investigated the influence of konjac glucomannan (KGM) enzymatic hydrolysates on the textural properties, microstructure, and water distribution of surimi gel from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The molecular weight (Mw) of KGM enzymatic hydrolyzed by β-dextranase degraded [...] Read more.
This present work investigated the influence of konjac glucomannan (KGM) enzymatic hydrolysates on the textural properties, microstructure, and water distribution of surimi gel from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The molecular weight (Mw) of KGM enzymatic hydrolyzed by β-dextranase degraded from 149.03 kDa to 36.84 kDa with increasing enzymatic time. In the microstructure of surimi gels, KGM enzymatic hydrolysates with higher Mw showed entangled rigid-chains, while KGM enzymatic hydrolysates with lower Mw (36.84 kDa) exhibited swelled fragments. The hardness of surimi gel with a decline in KGM Mw exhibited first increasing then decreasing trends, while the whiteness of surimi gel increased. When KGM Mw decreased, the immobile water percentage of total signals decreased from 96.7% to 93.6%, and mobile water increased from 3.03% to 6.37%. In particular, the surimi gel with the addition of K2 showed better gel strength and water distributions. KGM enzymatic hydrolysates are expected to be used as a low-calorie healthy gel enhancer in surimi processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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15 pages, 4261 KiB  
Article
Effects of Selenium Nanoparticles on Preventing Patulin-Induced Liver, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Damage
by Yue Qiu, Xinlu Chen, Zhangxi Chen, Xuejun Zeng, Tianli Yue and Yahong Yuan
Foods 2022, 11(5), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050749 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Patulin (PAT) is a toxic fungal metabolite, and oxidative damage was proved to be its important toxicity mechanism. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were prepared by reducing sodium selenite with chitosan as a stabilizer and used for preventing PAT-induced liver, kidney and gastrointestinal damage. SeNPs [...] Read more.
Patulin (PAT) is a toxic fungal metabolite, and oxidative damage was proved to be its important toxicity mechanism. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were prepared by reducing sodium selenite with chitosan as a stabilizer and used for preventing PAT-induced liver, kidney and gastrointestinal damage. SeNPs have good dispersibility, in vitro antioxidant activity, and are much less cytotoxic than sodium selenite. Cell culture studies indicated that SeNPs can effectively alleviate PAT-induced excessive production of intracellular ROS, the decline of glutathione peroxidase activity, and the suppression of cell viability. Evaluation of serum biochemical parameters, histopathology, oxidative stress biomarkers and activities of antioxidant enzymes in a mouse model showed that pre-treatment with SeNPs (2 mg Se/kg body weight) could ameliorate PAT-induced oxidative damage to the liver and kidneys of mice, but PAT-induced gastrointestinal oxidative damage and barrier dysfunction were not recovered by SeNPs, possibly because the toxin doses suffered by the gastrointestinal as the first exposed tissues exceeded the regulatory capacity of SeNPs. These results suggested that a combination of other strategies may be required to completely block PAT toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Toxicology)
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16 pages, 1005 KiB  
Review
Quality of Pepper Seed By-Products: A Review
by Tanja Cvetković, Jasmina Ranilović and Stela Jokić
Foods 2022, 11(5), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050748 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4307
Abstract
Peppers are grown all around the world, usually for fresh consumption, as well as for the industrial production of different products. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds are mostly considered a by-product. Recent investigations have shown that pepper seeds have the potential to [...] Read more.
Peppers are grown all around the world, usually for fresh consumption, as well as for the industrial production of different products. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds are mostly considered a by-product. Recent investigations have shown that pepper seeds have the potential to be a valuable source of edible oil and fiber-rich flour and protein after processing. Pepper seed oil is a high-quality edible oil according to quality analysis (nutritional, chemical, sensory and antioxidant characteristics) and is suitable as an ingredient for use in the food and nonfood industries (pharmaceutical, chemical, cosmetic industries). The literature review presented in this paper revealed the high quality of two pepper seed by-products (pepper seed oil and pepper seed flour (Capsicum annuum L.)), which could guide the food industry toward new product development based on the circular bioeconomy. Full article
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28 pages, 523 KiB  
Review
Fruit Juice Spoilage by Alicyclobacillus: Detection and Control Methods—A Comprehensive Review
by Patra Sourri, Chrysoula C. Tassou, George-John E. Nychas and Efstathios Z. Panagou
Foods 2022, 11(5), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050747 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 12116
Abstract
Fruit juices have an important place in humans’ healthy diet. They are considered to be shelf stable products due to their low pH that prevents the growth of most bacteria. However thermo-acidophilic endospore forming bacteria of the genus Alicyclobacillus have the potential to [...] Read more.
Fruit juices have an important place in humans’ healthy diet. They are considered to be shelf stable products due to their low pH that prevents the growth of most bacteria. However thermo-acidophilic endospore forming bacteria of the genus Alicyclobacillus have the potential to cause spoilage of commercially pasteurized fruit juices. The flat sour type spoilage, with absence of gas production but presence of chemical spoilage compounds (mostly guaiacol) and the ability of Alicyclobacillus spores to survive after pasteurization and germinate under favorable conditions make them a major concern for the fruit juice industry worldwide. Their special characteristics and presence in the fruit juice industry has resulted in the development of many isolation and identification methods based on cell detection (plating methods, ELISA, flow cytometry), nucleic acid analysis (PCR, RAPD-PCR, ERIC-PCR, DGGE-PCR, RT-PCR, RFLP-PCR, IMS-PCR, qPCR, and 16S rRNA sequencing) and measurement of their metabolites (HPLC, GC, GC-MS, GC-O, GC-SPME, Electronic nose, and FTIR). Early detection is a big challenge that can reduce economic loss in the industry while the development of control methods targeting the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus is of paramount importance as well. This review includes a discussion of the various chemical (oxidants, natural compounds of microbial, animal and plant origin), physical (thermal pasteurization), and non-thermal (High Hydrostatic Pressure, High Pressure Homogenization, ultrasound, microwaves, UV-C light, irradiation, ohmic heating and Pulse Electric Field) treatments to control Alicyclobacillus growth in order to ensure the quality and the extended shelf life of fruit juices. Full article
17 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Biological Potential of Himanthalia elongata (L.) S.F.Gray and Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell Subcritical Water Extracts
by Inês Gomes, Helena Rodrigues, Carla Rodrigues, Marta Marques, Paula Paíga, Alexandre Paiva, Pedro Simões, Virgínia Cruz Fernandes, Mónica Vieira, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Cristina Soares and Clara Grosso
Foods 2022, 11(5), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050746 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3138
Abstract
Neuroprotection is a need that remains unmet in treating chronic neurodegenerative disorders, despite decades of extensive research. To find new neuroprotective compounds, extracts of Himanthalia elongata (L.) S.F.Gray and of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell were obtained through subcritical water extraction applying a four-step [...] Read more.
Neuroprotection is a need that remains unmet in treating chronic neurodegenerative disorders, despite decades of extensive research. To find new neuroprotective compounds, extracts of Himanthalia elongata (L.) S.F.Gray and of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell were obtained through subcritical water extraction applying a four-step temperature gradient. The fractions obtained were screened against brain enzymes involved in neurodegenerative etiology, namely in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, all contributing factors to the progression of neurodegeneration. Results showed no significant enzyme inhibition but strong radical scavenging activities, particularly in the fourth fraction, extracted at the highest temperature (250 °C), highlighting their ability to retard oxidative and nitrosative stresses. At higher temperatures, fractions were composed of phenolic compounds and Maillard reaction products, a combination that contributed to their antioxidant activity and, consequently, their neuroprotective properties. All fractions were evaluated for the presence of iodine, 14 organochlorine and 7 organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceuticals used in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases (14), psychiatric drugs (8), and metabolites (8). The fractions studied did not present any of the screened contaminants, and only fraction 1 of E. bicyclis should be used with caution due to iodine content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization and Use of Seaweeds in the Food Sector)
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14 pages, 2309 KiB  
Article
Dry but Not Humid Thermal Processing of Aloe vera Gel Promotes Cytotoxicity on Human Intestinal Cells HT-29
by Zaira López, Michelle N. Salazar Zúñiga, Antoni Femenia, Gustavo J. Acevedo-Hernández, Jaime A. Godínez Flores, M. Eduardo Cano and Peter Knauth
Foods 2022, 11(5), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050745 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
Aloe vera products, both in food and cosmetics, are becoming increasingly popular due to their claimed beneficial effects, which are mainly attributed to the active compound acemannan. Usually, these end products are based on powdered starting materials. High temperatures during the drying process [...] Read more.
Aloe vera products, both in food and cosmetics, are becoming increasingly popular due to their claimed beneficial effects, which are mainly attributed to the active compound acemannan. Usually, these end products are based on powdered starting materials. High temperatures during the drying process to obtain the starting materials have several advantages, like shortening the drying time, eliminating toxic aloin and reducing bacterial contamination. Nevertheless, there are two major drawbacks: first, at temperatures of 80 °C or higher, structural changes in acemannan, especially its deacetylation (>46%), are triggered, which does not happen at lower temperatures (14% at 60 °C); secondly, a toxic principle is formed at higher temperatures, resulting in a higher cytotoxicity. Thus, two temperature-dependent but opposing effects cause with a median cytotoxic concentration of CC50 = 0.4× a peak of cytotoxicity at 80 °C; at 60 °C this cytotoxic substance is not formed and at 100 °C aloin is more readily eliminated, resulting in a CC50 = 1.1× and CC50 = 1.4×, respectively. The cytotoxic substance generated by dry heat at 80 °C is not a modified polysaccharide because its polysaccharide-enriched alcohol-insoluble fraction is with CC50 = 0.9× less cytotoxic. Moreover, this substance is polar enough to be washed away with ethanol. Additionally, when Aloe gel is heated at 80 °C under humid conditions (pasteurization), the cytotoxicity does not increase (CC50 = 1.6×). Finally, to produce powdered starting materials from Aloe gel, it is recommended to use temperatures of around 60 °C in order to preserve the acemannan structure (and thus biological activity) and the low cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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18 pages, 18841 KiB  
Article
Design of a Blockchain-Enabled Traceability System Framework for Food Supply Chains
by Lixing Wang, Yulin He and Zhenning Wu
Foods 2022, 11(5), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050744 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 6087
Abstract
Tracing food products along the entire supply chain is important for achieving better management of food products. Traditionally, centralized traceability systems have been developed for such purposes. One major drawback of this approach is that different users of the supply chain have their [...] Read more.
Tracing food products along the entire supply chain is important for achieving better management of food products. Traditionally, centralized traceability systems have been developed for such purposes. One major drawback of this approach is that different users of the supply chain have their own systems with their own complexities and distinct features; thus, the interaction among them creates challenges when implementing a single centralized system. Therefore, a decentralized traceability system is favorable for tracing food products along the supply chain. In this study, we develop a supply chain traceability system framework based on blockchain and radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The system consists of a decentralized blockchain-enabled data storage platform for data management and an RFID system at the packaging level for data collection and storage. We applied a consortium blockchain to the application. Fabric 2.0 in Hyperledger was chosen as the development platform. The proposed blockchain-enabled platform can provide decentralized data management and its underlying algorithm can guarantee data security. The system includes a creatively designed blockchain-enabled data structure in the RFID tag. When people scan the tag, the relevant information is written in the tag as a block linked to the previous blocks; simultaneously, the information is transmitted to the blockchain platform and recorded on the platform. No battery is required and the system works when there is an RFID reader nearby. The usage conditions included shipment, stocking, and storage. The RFID tag can be directly attached to paper packaging. This approach embeds the blockchain technique into the RFID tag and develops a corresponding system. The new traceability system has the potential to simplify the tracking of products and can be scaled for industrial use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers on Sustainable Food Packaging)
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