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Biosensors, Volume 14, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 56 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A rapid, selective assay using 35 nm gold nanoparticles to detect a common EGFR mutation linked to non-small-cell lung cancer was developed. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized with high stability and monodispersity via a seed-mediated growth method and further functionalized with a 16 bp thiolated oligonucleotide using a pH-assisted approach. Our assay achieved a detection limit of 1.5 ug mL−1 using a 0.15 nmol dm−3 gold nanoparticle concentration. This study offers a simple, cost-effective method for detecting lung cancer-related DNA sequences, potentially enabling early diagnosis. View this paper
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11 pages, 706 KiB  
Article
Body Size, Cerebral Blood Flow, Ambient Temperature, and Relative Brain Temperatures in Newborn Infants under Incubator Care
by Satoko Fukaya, Sachiko Iwata, Kennosuke Tsuda, Akiko Hirose, Masahiro Kinoshita, Shinji Saitoh and Osuke Iwata
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040209 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Subtle changes in body temperature affect the outcomes of ill newborns. However, the temperature profile of neonatal brains remains largely unknown. In open-cot care, increased cerebral perfusion is correlated with higher superficial brain temperatures. This study investigated the dependence of brain temperature (relative [...] Read more.
Subtle changes in body temperature affect the outcomes of ill newborns. However, the temperature profile of neonatal brains remains largely unknown. In open-cot care, increased cerebral perfusion is correlated with higher superficial brain temperatures. This study investigated the dependence of brain temperature (relative to rectal temperature) on ambient temperature, body size, cerebral perfusion, and metabolism in infants receiving incubator care. Rectal, scalp, and brain temperatures, superior vena cava flow, and brain oxygenation were assessed using echocardiography, thermo-compensatory temperature monitoring, and near-infrared spectroscopy in 60 newborns. These infants had a mean postconceptional age of 36.9 (2.2) weeks and weighed 2348 (609) g at the time of evaluation. The ambient temperature was maintained at 30.0 (1.0) °C. A higher rectal temperature was associated with greater postconceptional age (p = 0.002), body weight (p < 0.001), and head circumference (p < 0.001). Relative scalp, superficial brain, and deep brain temperatures were associated with smaller head circumference (p < 0.001, p = 0.030, and p = 0.015, respectively) and superior vena cava flow (p = 0.002, p = 0.003, and p = 0.003, respectively). In infants receiving incubator care, larger head sizes and increased brain perfusion were associated with lower relative scalp and brain temperatures. When considered alongside previous reports, cerebral perfusion may contribute to maintaining stable cerebral tissue temperature against ambient temperature changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors Applied in Neuroscience)
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13 pages, 2812 KiB  
Article
Complex Spatial Illumination Scheme Optimization of Backscattering Mueller Matrix Polarimetry for Tissue Imaging and Biosensing
by Wei Jiao, Zheng Zhang, Nan Zeng, Rui Hao, Honghui He, Chao He and Hui Ma
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040208 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Polarization imaging and sensing techniques have shown great potential for biomedical and clinical applications. As a novel optical biosensing technology, Mueller matrix polarimetry can provide abundant microstructural information of tissue samples. However, polarimetric aberrations, which lead to inaccurate characterization of polarization properties, can [...] Read more.
Polarization imaging and sensing techniques have shown great potential for biomedical and clinical applications. As a novel optical biosensing technology, Mueller matrix polarimetry can provide abundant microstructural information of tissue samples. However, polarimetric aberrations, which lead to inaccurate characterization of polarization properties, can be induced by uneven biomedical sample surfaces while measuring Mueller matrices with complex spatial illuminations. In this study, we analyze the detailed features of complex spatial illumination-induced aberrations by measuring the backscattering Mueller matrices of experimental phantom and tissue samples. We obtain the aberrations under different spatial illumination schemes in Mueller matrix imaging. Furthermore, we give the corresponding suggestions for selecting appropriate illumination schemes to extract specific polarization properties, and then provide strategies to alleviate polarimetric aberrations by adjusting the incident and detection angles in Mueller matrix imaging. The optimized scheme gives critical criteria for the spatial illumination scheme selection of non-collinear backscattering Mueller matrix measurements, which can be helpful for the further development of quantitative tissue polarimetric imaging and biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics for Bioapplications: Sensors and Technology)
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12 pages, 1218 KiB  
Article
An Organic Electrochemical Transistor-Based Sensor for IgG Levels Detection of Relevance in SARS-CoV-2 Infections
by Antonio Algarín Pérez and Pablo Acedo
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040207 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Organic electrochemical transistors appear as an alternative for relatively low-cost, easy-to-operate biosensors due to their intrinsic amplification. Herein, we present the fabrication, characterization, and validation of an immuno-detection system based on commercial sensors using gold electrodes where no additional surface treatment is performed [...] Read more.
Organic electrochemical transistors appear as an alternative for relatively low-cost, easy-to-operate biosensors due to their intrinsic amplification. Herein, we present the fabrication, characterization, and validation of an immuno-detection system based on commercial sensors using gold electrodes where no additional surface treatment is performed on the gate electrode. The steady-state response of these sensors has been studied by analyzing different semiconductor organic channels in order to optimize the biomolecular detection process and its the application to monitoring human IgG levels due to SARS-CoV-2 infections. Detection levels of up to tens of μgmL1 with sensitivities up to 13.75% [μg/mL]−1, concentration ranges of medical relevance in seroprevalence studies, have been achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors Based on Transistors)
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16 pages, 11049 KiB  
Article
Development of FRET Biosensor to Characterize CSK Subcellular Regulation
by Mingxing Ouyang, Yujie Xing, Shumin Zhang, Liting Li, Yan Pan and Linhong Deng
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040206 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) is the major inhibitory kinase for Src family kinases (SFKs) through the phosphorylation of their C-tail tyrosine sites, and it regulates various types of cellular activity in association with SFK function. As a cytoplasmic protein, CSK needs be recruited [...] Read more.
C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) is the major inhibitory kinase for Src family kinases (SFKs) through the phosphorylation of their C-tail tyrosine sites, and it regulates various types of cellular activity in association with SFK function. As a cytoplasmic protein, CSK needs be recruited to the plasma membrane to regulate SFKs’ activity. The regulatory mechanism behind CSK activity and its subcellular localization remains largely unclear. In this work, we developed a genetically encoded biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to visualize the CSK activity in live cells. The biosensor, with an optimized substrate peptide, confirmed the crucial Arg107 site in the CSK SH2 domain and displayed sensitivity and specificity to CSK activity, while showing minor responses to co-transfected Src and Fyn. FRET measurements showed that CSK had a relatively mild level of kinase activity in comparison to Src and Fyn in rat airway smooth muscle cells. The biosensor tagged with different submembrane-targeting signals detected CSK activity at both non-lipid raft and lipid raft microregions, while it showed a higher FRET level at non-lipid ones. Co-transfected receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTPα) had an inhibitory effect on the CSK FRET response. The biosensor did not detect obvious changes in CSK activity between metastatic cancer cells and normal ones. In conclusion, a novel FRET biosensor was generated to monitor CSK activity and demonstrated CSK activity existing in both non-lipid and lipid raft membrane microregions, being more present at non-lipid ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nano- and Micro-Technologies in Biosensors)
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21 pages, 4535 KiB  
Article
Wearable Ring-Shaped Biomedical Device for Physiological Monitoring through Finger-Based Acquisition of Electrocardiographic, Photoplethysmographic, and Galvanic Skin Response Signals: Design and Preliminary Measurements
by Gabriele Volpes, Simone Valenti, Giuseppe Genova, Chiara Barà, Antonino Parisi, Luca Faes, Alessandro Busacca and Riccardo Pernice
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040205 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Wearable health devices (WHDs) are rapidly gaining ground in the biomedical field due to their ability to monitor the individual physiological state in everyday life scenarios, while providing a comfortable wear experience. This study introduces a novel wearable biomedical device capable of synchronously [...] Read more.
Wearable health devices (WHDs) are rapidly gaining ground in the biomedical field due to their ability to monitor the individual physiological state in everyday life scenarios, while providing a comfortable wear experience. This study introduces a novel wearable biomedical device capable of synchronously acquiring electrocardiographic (ECG), photoplethysmographic (PPG), galvanic skin response (GSR) and motion signals. The device has been specifically designed to be worn on a finger, enabling the acquisition of all biosignals directly on the fingertips, offering the significant advantage of being very comfortable and easy to be employed by the users. The simultaneous acquisition of different biosignals allows the extraction of important physiological indices, such as heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV), pulse arrival time (PAT), GSR level, blood oxygenation level (SpO2), and respiratory rate, as well as motion detection, enabling the assessment of physiological states, together with the detection of potential physical and mental stress conditions. Preliminary measurements have been conducted on healthy subjects using a measurement protocol consisting of resting states (i.e., SUPINE and SIT) alternated with physiological stress conditions (i.e., STAND and WALK). Statistical analyses have been carried out among the distributions of the physiological indices extracted in time, frequency, and information domains, evaluated under different physiological conditions. The results of our analyses demonstrate the capability of the device to detect changes between rest and stress conditions, thereby encouraging its use for assessing individuals’ physiological state. Furthermore, the possibility of performing synchronous acquisitions of PPG and ECG signals has allowed us to compare HRV and pulse rate variability (PRV) indices, so as to corroborate the reliability of PRV analysis under stationary physical conditions. Finally, the study confirms the already known limitations of wearable devices during physical activities, suggesting the use of algorithms for motion artifact correction. Full article
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15 pages, 3422 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Microfluidic Impedance Cytometry by Bypass Electrode Layout Design
by Guangzu Wu, Zhiwei Zhang, Manman Du, Dan Wu, Junting Zhou, Tianteng Hao and Xinwu Xie
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040204 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Microfluidic impedance cytometry (MIC) has emerged as a popular technique for single-cell analysis. Traditional MIC electrode designs consist of a pair of (or three) working electrodes, and their detection performance needs further improvements for microorganisms. In this study, we designed an 8-electrode MIC [...] Read more.
Microfluidic impedance cytometry (MIC) has emerged as a popular technique for single-cell analysis. Traditional MIC electrode designs consist of a pair of (or three) working electrodes, and their detection performance needs further improvements for microorganisms. In this study, we designed an 8-electrode MIC device in which the center pair was defined as the working electrode, and the connection status of bypass electrodes could be changed. This allowed us to compare the performance of layouts with no bypasses and those with floating or grounding electrodes by simulation and experiment. The results of detecting Φ 5 μm beads revealed that both the grounding and the floating electrode outperformed the no bypass electrode, and the grounding electrode demonstrated the best signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), coefficient of variation (CV), and detection sensitivity. Furthermore, the effects of different bypass grounding areas (numbers of grounding electrodes) were investigated. Finally, particles passing at high horizontal positions can be detected, and Φ 1 μm beads can be measured in a wide channel (150 μm) using a fully grounding electrode, with the sensitivity of bead volume detection reaching 0.00097%. This provides a general MIC electrode optimization technology for detecting smaller particles, even macromolecular proteins, viruses, and exosomes in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices)
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14 pages, 3020 KiB  
Review
Advances in Biosensors for the Rapid Detection of Marine Biotoxins: Current Status and Future Perspectives
by Xiangwei Zhu, Yufa Zhao, Long Wu, Xin Gao, Huang Huang, Yu Han and Ting Zhu
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040203 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Marine biotoxins (MBs), harmful metabolites of marine organisms, pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems and human health due to their diverse composition and widespread occurrence. Consequently, rapid and efficient detection technology is crucial for maintaining marine ecosystem and human health. In recent [...] Read more.
Marine biotoxins (MBs), harmful metabolites of marine organisms, pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems and human health due to their diverse composition and widespread occurrence. Consequently, rapid and efficient detection technology is crucial for maintaining marine ecosystem and human health. In recent years, rapid detection technology has garnered considerable attention for its pivotal role in identifying MBs, with advancements in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. These technologies offer attributes such as speed, high throughput, and automation, thereby meeting detection requirements across various scenarios. This review provides an overview of the classification and risks associated with MBs. It briefly outlines the current research status of marine biotoxin biosensors and introduces the fundamental principles, advantages, and limitations of optical, electrochemical, and piezoelectric biosensors. Additionally, the review explores the current applications in the detection of MBs and presents forward-looking perspectives on their development, which aims to be a comprehensive resource for the design and implementation of tailored biosensors for effective MB detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Biosensors and Biosensing)
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13 pages, 6235 KiB  
Article
SERS-Based Microneedle Biosensor for In Situ and Sensitive Detection of Tyrosinase
by Zimeng Gu, Di Zhao, Hongyan He and Zhenhui Wang
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040202 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Tyrosinase (TYR) emerges as a key enzyme that exerts a regulatory influence on the synthesis of melanin, thereby assuming the role of a critical biomarker for the detection of melanoma. Detecting the authentic concentration of TYR in the skin remains a primary challenge. [...] Read more.
Tyrosinase (TYR) emerges as a key enzyme that exerts a regulatory influence on the synthesis of melanin, thereby assuming the role of a critical biomarker for the detection of melanoma. Detecting the authentic concentration of TYR in the skin remains a primary challenge. Distinguished from ex vivo detection methods, this study introduces a novel sensor platform that integrates a microneedle (MN) biosensor with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology for the in situ detection of TYR in human skin. The platform utilized dopamine (DA)-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as the capturing substrate and 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA)-modified silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) acting as the SERS probe. Here, the Au NPs were functionalized with mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) for DA capture. In the presence of TYR, DA immobilized on the MN is preferentially oxidized to dopamine quinone (DQ), a process that results in a decreased density of SERS probes on the platform. TYR concentration was detected through variations in the signal intensity emitted by the phenylboronic acid. The detection system was able to evaluate TYR concentrations within a linear range of 0.05 U/mL to 200 U/mL and showed robust anti-interference capabilities. The proposed platform, integrating MN-based in situ sensing, SERS technology, and TYR responsiveness, holds significant importance for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical and Photonic Biosensors)
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20 pages, 2019 KiB  
Article
A Smartphone-Based M-Health Monitoring System for Arrhythmia Diagnosis
by Jun Luo, Mengru Zhang, Haohang Li, Dan Tao and Ruipeng Gao
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040201 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 819
Abstract
Deep learning technology has been widely adopted in the research of automatic arrhythmia detection. However, there are several limitations in existing diagnostic models, e.g., difficulties in extracting temporal information from long-term ECG signals, a plethora of parameters, and sluggish operation speed. Additionally, the [...] Read more.
Deep learning technology has been widely adopted in the research of automatic arrhythmia detection. However, there are several limitations in existing diagnostic models, e.g., difficulties in extracting temporal information from long-term ECG signals, a plethora of parameters, and sluggish operation speed. Additionally, the diagnosis performance of arrhythmia is prone to mistakes from signal noise. This paper proposes a smartphone-based m-health system for arrhythmia diagnosis. First, we design a cycle-GAN-based ECG denoising model which takes real-world noise signals as input and aims to produce clean ECG signals. In order to train its two generators and two discriminators simultaneously, we explore an unsupervised pre-training strategy to initialize the generator and accelerate the convergence speed during training. Second, we propose an arrhythmia diagnosis model based on the time convolution network (TCN). This model can identify 34 common arrhythmia events using eight-lead ECG signals, and we deploy such a model on the Android platform to develop an at-home ECG monitoring system. Experimental results have demonstrated that our approach outperforms the existing noise reduction methods and arrhythmia diagnosis models in terms of denoising effect, recognition accuracy, model size, and operation speed, making it more suitable for deployment on mobile devices for m-health monitoring services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors and Healthcare)
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25 pages, 4415 KiB  
Review
PCR Independent Strategy-Based Biosensors for RNA Detection
by Xinran Li, Haoqian Wang, Xin Qi, Yi Ji, Fukai Li, Xiaoyun Chen, Kai Li and Liang Li
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040200 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
RNA is an important information and functional molecule. It can respond to the regulation of life processes and is also a key molecule in gene expression and regulation. Therefore, RNA detection technology has been widely used in many fields, especially in disease diagnosis, [...] Read more.
RNA is an important information and functional molecule. It can respond to the regulation of life processes and is also a key molecule in gene expression and regulation. Therefore, RNA detection technology has been widely used in many fields, especially in disease diagnosis, medical research, genetic engineering and other fields. However, the current RT-qPCR for RNA detection is complex, costly and requires the support of professional technicians, resulting in it not having great potential for rapid application in the field. PCR-free techniques are the most attractive alternative. They are a low-cost, simple operation method and do not require the support of large instruments, providing a new concept for the development of new RNA detection methods. This article reviews current PCR-free methods, overviews reported RNA biosensors based on electrochemistry, SPR, microfluidics, nanomaterials and CRISPR, and discusses their challenges and future research prospects in RNA detection. Full article
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12 pages, 4146 KiB  
Article
Rapid Surface Charge Mapping Based on a Liquid Crystal Microchip
by Leixin Ouyang, Heyi Chen, Ruiting Xu, Rubia Shaik, Ge Zhang and Jiang Zhe
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040199 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Rapid surface charge mapping of a solid surface remains a challenge. In this study, we present a novel microchip based on liquid crystals for assessing the surface charge distribution of a planar or soft surface. This chip enables rapid measurements of the local [...] Read more.
Rapid surface charge mapping of a solid surface remains a challenge. In this study, we present a novel microchip based on liquid crystals for assessing the surface charge distribution of a planar or soft surface. This chip enables rapid measurements of the local surface charge distribution of a charged surface. The chip consists of a micropillar array fabricated on a transparent indium tin oxide substrate, while the liquid crystal is used to fill in the gaps between the micropillar structures. When an object is placed on top of the chip, the local surface charge (or zeta potential) influences the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules, resulting in changes in the magnitude of transmitted light. By measuring the intensity of the transmitted light, the distribution of the surface charge can be accurately quantified. We calibrated the chip in a three-electrode configuration and demonstrated the validity of the chip for rapid surface charge mapping using a borosilicate glass slide. This chip offers noninvasive, rapid mapping of surface charges on charged surfaces, with no need for physical or chemical modifications, and has broad potential applications in biomedical research and advanced material design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Biomedical Biosensing with Microelectrode Arrays)
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12 pages, 3035 KiB  
Article
Weak Value Amplification-Based Biochip for Highly Sensitive Detection and Identification of Breast Cancer Exosomes
by Jingru Zhao, Xiaotian Guan, Sihao Zhang, Zhou Sha and Shuqing Sun
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040198 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Exosomes constitute an emerging biomarker for cancer diagnosis because they carry multiple proteins that reflect the origins of the parent cell. The highly sensitive detection of exosomes is a crucial prerequisite for the diagnosis of cancer. In this study, we report an exosome [...] Read more.
Exosomes constitute an emerging biomarker for cancer diagnosis because they carry multiple proteins that reflect the origins of the parent cell. The highly sensitive detection of exosomes is a crucial prerequisite for the diagnosis of cancer. In this study, we report an exosome detection system based on quantum weak value amplification (WVA). The WVA detection system consists of a reflection detection light path and a Zr-ionized biochip. Zr-ionized biochips effectively capture exosomes through the specific interaction between zirconium dioxide and the phosphate groups on the lipid bilayer of exosomes. Aptamer-modified gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are then used to specifically recognize proteins on exosomes to enhance the detection signal. The sensitivity and resolution of the detection system are 2944.07 nm/RIU and 1.22 × 10−5 RIU, respectively. The concentration of exosomes can be directly quantified by the WVA system, ranging from 105–107 particles/mL with the detection limit of 3 × 104 particles/mL. The use of Au NPs-EpCAM for the specific enhancement of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 exosomes is demonstrated. The results indicate that the WVA detection system can be a promising candidate for the detection of exosomes as tumor markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noble Metal Nanoparticle-Based Nanoplatforms for Biosensors)
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19 pages, 2525 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Lateral Flow Assays for Viral Protein Detection with Nanomaterial-Based Optical Sensors
by Min Jung Kim, Izzati Haizan, Min Ju Ahn, Dong-Hyeok Park and Jin-Ha Choi
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040197 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Controlling the progression of contagious diseases is crucial for public health management, emphasizing the importance of early viral infection diagnosis. In response, lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been successfully utilized in point-of-care (POC) testing, emerging as a viable alternative to more traditional diagnostic [...] Read more.
Controlling the progression of contagious diseases is crucial for public health management, emphasizing the importance of early viral infection diagnosis. In response, lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been successfully utilized in point-of-care (POC) testing, emerging as a viable alternative to more traditional diagnostic methods. Recent advancements in virus detection have primarily leveraged methods such as reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), reverse transcription–loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Despite their proven effectiveness, these conventional techniques are often expensive, require specialized expertise, and consume a significant amount of time. In contrast, LFAs utilize nanomaterial-based optical sensing technologies, including colorimetric, fluorescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), offering quick, straightforward analyses with minimal training and infrastructure requirements for detecting viral proteins in biological samples. This review describes the composition and mechanism of and recent advancements in LFAs for viral protein detection, categorizing them into colorimetric, fluorescent, and SERS-based techniques. Despite significant progress, developing a simple, stable, highly sensitive, and selective LFA system remains a formidable challenge. Nevertheless, an advanced LFA system promises not only to enhance clinical diagnostics but also to extend its utility to environmental monitoring and beyond, demonstrating its potential to revolutionize both healthcare and environmental safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nano- and Micro-Technologies in Biosensors)
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12 pages, 1003 KiB  
Article
L-Lactate Electrochemical Biosensor Based on an Integrated Supramolecular Architecture of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Avidin and a Recombinant Biotinylated Lactate Oxidase
by Alejandro Tamborelli, Michael López Mujica, Marilla Amaranto, José Luis Barra, Gustavo Rivas, Agustina Godino and Pablo Dalmasso
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040196 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
L-Lactate is an important bioanalyte in the food industry, biotechnology, and human healthcare. In this work, we report the development of a new L-lactate electrochemical biosensor based on the use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes non-covalently functionalized with avidin (MWCNT-Av) deposited at glassy carbon [...] Read more.
L-Lactate is an important bioanalyte in the food industry, biotechnology, and human healthcare. In this work, we report the development of a new L-lactate electrochemical biosensor based on the use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes non-covalently functionalized with avidin (MWCNT-Av) deposited at glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) as anchoring sites for the bioaffinity-based immobilization of a new recombinant biotinylated lactate oxidase (bLOx) produced in Escherichia coli through in vivo biotinylation. The specific binding of MWCNT-Av to bLOx was characterized by amperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The amperometric detection of L-lactate was performed at −0.100 V, with a linear range between 100 and 700 µM, a detection limit of 33 µM, and a quantification limit of 100 µM. The proposed biosensor (GCE/MWCNT-Av/bLOx) showed a reproducibility of 6.0% and it was successfully used for determining L-lactate in food and enriched serum samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensing, Biosafety and Diagnosis)
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11 pages, 3572 KiB  
Article
Coffee Ring Effect Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Biosensor via 2-λ Fitting Detection Method
by Youjun Zeng, Dongyun Kai, Zhenxiao Niu, Zhaogang Nie, Yuye Wang, Yonghong Shao, Lin Ma, Fangteng Zhang, Guanyu Liu and Jiajie Chen
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040195 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 615
Abstract
SPR biosensors have been extensively used for investigating protein–protein interactions. However, in conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors, detection is limited by the Brownian-motion-governed diffusion process of sample molecules in the sensor chip, which makes it challenging to detect biomolecule interactions at ultra-low [...] Read more.
SPR biosensors have been extensively used for investigating protein–protein interactions. However, in conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors, detection is limited by the Brownian-motion-governed diffusion process of sample molecules in the sensor chip, which makes it challenging to detect biomolecule interactions at ultra-low concentrations. Here, we propose a highly sensitive SPR imaging biosensor which exploits the coffee ring effect (CRE) for in situ enrichment of molecules on the sensing surface. In addition, we designed a wavelength modulation system utilizing two LEDs to reduce the system cost and enhance the detection speed. Furthermore, a detection limit of 213 fM is achieved, which amounts to an approximately 365 times improvement compared to traditional SPR biosensors. With further development, we believe that this SPR imaging system with high sensitivity, less sample consumption, and faster detection speed can be readily applied to ultra-low-concentration molecular detection and interaction analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Biosensors for Disease Detection)
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15 pages, 2287 KiB  
Article
A CRISPR/Cas12a-Based System for Sensitive Detection of Antimicrobial-Resistant Genes in Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales
by Jiyong Shin, Sei Rim Kim, Zifan Xie, Yong-Su Jin and Yi-Cheng Wang
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040194 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria pose a significant global health threat, and bacteria that produce New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) are particularly concerning due to their resistance to most β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems. The emergence and spread of NDM-producing genes in food-producing animals highlight the need [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria pose a significant global health threat, and bacteria that produce New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) are particularly concerning due to their resistance to most β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems. The emergence and spread of NDM-producing genes in food-producing animals highlight the need for a fast and accurate method for detecting AMR bacteria. We therefore propose a PCR-coupled CRISPR/Cas12a-based fluorescence assay that can detect NDM-producing genes (blaNDM) in bacteria. Thanks to its designed gRNA, this CRISPR/Cas12a system was able to simultaneously cleave PCR amplicons and ssDNA-FQ reporters, generating fluorescence signals. Our method was found to be highly specific when tested against other foodborne pathogens that do not carry blaNDM and also demonstrated an excellent capability to distinguish single-nucleotide polymorphism. In the case of blaNDM-1 carrying E. coli, the assay performed exceptionally well, with a detection limit of 2.7 × 100 CFU/mL: 100 times better than conventional PCR with gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the developed assay detected AMR bacteria in food samples and exhibited enhanced performance compared to previously published real-time PCR assays. Thus, this novel PCR-coupled CRISPR/Cas12a-based fluorescence assay has considerable potential to improve current approaches to AMR gene detection and thereby contribute to mitigating the global threat of AMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CRISPR/Cas-Based Biosensing Systems: Development and Applications)
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12 pages, 1474 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Detection of Estrogen-like Compounds by Genetically Engineered Yeast Sensor Strains
by Nidaa Abu-Rmailah, Liat Moscovici, Carolin Riegraf, Hadas Atias, Sebastian Buchinger, Georg Reifferscheid and Shimshon Belkin
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040193 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 928
Abstract
The release of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) to the environment poses a health hazard to both humans and wildlife. EDCs can activate or inhibit endogenous endocrine functions by binding hormone receptors, leading to potentially adverse effects. Conventional analytical methods can detect EDCs at a [...] Read more.
The release of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) to the environment poses a health hazard to both humans and wildlife. EDCs can activate or inhibit endogenous endocrine functions by binding hormone receptors, leading to potentially adverse effects. Conventional analytical methods can detect EDCs at a high sensitivity and precision, but are blind to the biological activity of the detected compounds. To overcome this limitation, yeast-based bioassays have previously been developed as a pre-screening method, providing an effect-based overview of hormonal-disruptive activity within the sample prior to the application of analytical methods. These yeast biosensors express human endocrine-specific receptors, co-transfected with the relevant response element fused to the specific fluorescent protein reporter gene. We describe several molecular manipulations of the sensor/reporter circuit in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioreporter strain that have yielded an enhanced detection of estrogenic-like compounds. Improved responses were displayed both in liquid culture (96-well plate format) as well as in conjunction with sample separation using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The latter approach allows for an assessment of the biological effect of individual sample components without the need for their chemical identification at the screening stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensing for Environmental Monitoring)
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14 pages, 4396 KiB  
Article
Live Cell Monitoring of Separase Activity, a Key Enzymatic Reaction for Chromosome Segregation, with Chimeric FRET-Based Molecular Sensor upon Cell Cycle Progression
by Md. Shazadur Rahman, Yutaka Shindo, Kotaro Oka, Wataru Ikeda and Miho Suzuki
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040192 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 879
Abstract
Separase is a key cysteine protease in the separation of sister chromatids through the digestion of the cohesin ring that inhibits chromosome segregation as a trigger of the metaphase–anaphase transition in eukaryotes. Its activity is highly regulated by binding with securin and cyclinB-CDK1 [...] Read more.
Separase is a key cysteine protease in the separation of sister chromatids through the digestion of the cohesin ring that inhibits chromosome segregation as a trigger of the metaphase–anaphase transition in eukaryotes. Its activity is highly regulated by binding with securin and cyclinB-CDK1 complex. These bindings prevent the proteolytic activity of separase until the onset of anaphase. Chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy are frequently observed in malignancies. However, there are some difficulties in biochemical examinations due to the instability of separase in vitro and the fact that few spatiotemporal resolution approaches exist for monitoring live separase activity throughout mitotic processes. Here, we have developed FRET-based molecular sensors, including GFP variants, with separase-cleavable sequences as donors and covalently attached fluorescent dyes as acceptor molecules. These are applicable to conventional live cell imaging and flow cytometric analysis because of efficient live cell uptake. We investigated the performance of equivalent molecular sensors, either localized or not localized inside the nucleus under cell cycle control, using flow cytometry. Synchronized cell cycle progression rendered significant separase activity detections in both molecular sensors. We obtained consistent outcomes with localized molecular sensor introduction and cell cycle control by fluorescent microscopic observations. We thus established live cell separase activity monitoring systems that can be used specifically or statistically, which could lead to the elucidation of separase properties in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives of Fluorescent Biosensors)
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12 pages, 22801 KiB  
Article
Wireless Flexible System for Highly Sensitive Ammonia Detection Based on Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotubes
by Yi Zhuang, Xue Wang, Pengfei Lai, Jin Li, Le Chen, Yuanjing Lin and Fei Wang
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040191 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Ammonia (NH3) is a harmful atmospheric pollutant and an important indicator of environment, health, and food safety conditions. Wearable devices with flexible gas sensors offer convenient real-time NH3 monitoring capabilities. A flexible ammonia gas sensing system to support the internet [...] Read more.
Ammonia (NH3) is a harmful atmospheric pollutant and an important indicator of environment, health, and food safety conditions. Wearable devices with flexible gas sensors offer convenient real-time NH3 monitoring capabilities. A flexible ammonia gas sensing system to support the internet of things (IoT) is proposed. The flexible gas sensor in this system utilizes polyaniline (PANI) with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decoration as a sensitive material, coated on a silver interdigital electrode on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Gas sensors are combined with other electronic components to form a flexible electronic system. The IoT functionality of the system comes from a microcontroller with Wi-Fi capability. The flexible gas sensor demonstrates commendable sensitivity, selectivity, humidity resistance, and long lifespan. The experimental data procured from the sensor reveal a remarkably low detection threshold of 0.3 ppm, aligning well with the required specifications for monitoring ammonia concentrations in exhaled breath gas, which typically range from 0.425 to 1.8 ppm. Furthermore, the sensor demonstrates a negligible reaction to the presence of interfering gases, such as ethanol, acetone, and methanol, thereby ensuring high selectivity for ammonia detection. In addition to these attributes, the sensor maintains consistent stability across a range of environmental conditions, including varying humidity levels, repeated bending cycles, and diverse angles of orientation. A portable, stable, and effective flexible IoT system solution for real-time ammonia sensing is demonstrated by collecting data at the edge end, processing the data in the cloud, and displaying the data at the user end. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible Electronics for Biosensing)
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25 pages, 1370 KiB  
Review
Electronic Tongues and Noses: A General Overview
by Diego Tibaduiza, Maribel Anaya, Johan Gómez, Juan Sarmiento, Maria Perez, Cristhian Lara, Johan Ruiz, Nicolas Osorio, Katerin Rodriguez, Isaac Hernandez and Carlos Sanchez
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040190 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 897
Abstract
As technology advances, electronic tongues and noses are becoming increasingly important in various industries. These devices can accurately detect and identify different substances and gases based on their chemical composition. This can be incredibly useful in fields such as environmental monitoring and industrial [...] Read more.
As technology advances, electronic tongues and noses are becoming increasingly important in various industries. These devices can accurately detect and identify different substances and gases based on their chemical composition. This can be incredibly useful in fields such as environmental monitoring and industrial food applications, where the quality and safety of products or ecosystems should be ensured through a precise analysis. Traditionally, this task is performed by an expert panel or by using laboratory tests but sometimes becomes a bottleneck because of time and other human factors that can be solved with technologies such as the provided by electronic tongue and nose devices. Additionally, these devices can be used in medical diagnosis, quality monitoring, and even in the automotive industry to detect gas leaks. The possibilities are endless, and as these technologies continue to improve, they will undoubtedly play an increasingly important role in improving our lives and ensuring our safety. Because of the multiple applications and developments in this field in the last years, this work will present an overview of the electronic tongues and noses from the point of view of the approaches developed and the methodologies used in the data analysis and steps to this aim. In the same manner, this work shows some of the applications that can be found in the use of these devices and ends with some conclusions about the current state of these technologies. Full article
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38 pages, 8341 KiB  
Review
Single-Cell RNA Sequencing in Organ and Cell Transplantation
by Roozbeh Abedini-Nassab, Fatemeh Taheri, Ali Emamgholizadeh and Hossein Naderi-Manesh
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040189 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Single-cell RNA sequencing is a high-throughput novel method that provides transcriptional profiling of individual cells within biological samples. This method typically uses microfluidics systems to uncover the complex intercellular communication networks and biological pathways buried within highly heterogeneous cell populations in tissues. One [...] Read more.
Single-cell RNA sequencing is a high-throughput novel method that provides transcriptional profiling of individual cells within biological samples. This method typically uses microfluidics systems to uncover the complex intercellular communication networks and biological pathways buried within highly heterogeneous cell populations in tissues. One important application of this technology sits in the fields of organ and stem cell transplantation, where complications such as graft rejection and other post-transplantation life-threatening issues may occur. In this review, we first focus on research in which single-cell RNA sequencing is used to study the transcriptional profile of transplanted tissues. This technology enables the analysis of the donor and recipient cells and identifies cell types and states associated with transplant complications and pathologies. We also review the use of single-cell RNA sequencing in stem cell implantation. This method enables studying the heterogeneity of normal and pathological stem cells and the heterogeneity in cell populations. With their remarkably rapid pace, the single-cell RNA sequencing methodologies will potentially result in breakthroughs in clinical transplantation in the coming years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Microfluidics in Cell Manipulation and Biosensing)
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11 pages, 8847 KiB  
Article
Solvent-Free and Cost-Efficient Fabrication of a High-Performance Nanocomposite Sensor for Recording of Electrophysiological Signals
by Shuyun Zhuo, Anan Zhang, Alexandre Tessier, Chris Williams and Shideh Kabiri Ameri
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040188 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based nanocomposites have found applications in making sensors for various types of physiological sensing. However, the sensors’ fabrication process is usually complex, multistep, and requires longtime mixing and hazardous solvents that can be harmful to the environment. Here, we report a [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based nanocomposites have found applications in making sensors for various types of physiological sensing. However, the sensors’ fabrication process is usually complex, multistep, and requires longtime mixing and hazardous solvents that can be harmful to the environment. Here, we report a flexible dry silver (Ag)/CNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite-based sensor made by a solvent-free, low-temperature, time-effective, and simple approach for electrophysiological recording. By mechanical compression and thermal treatment of Ag/CNT, a connected conductive network of the fillers was formed, after which the PDMS was added as a polymer matrix. The CNTs make a continuous network for electrons transport, endowing the nanocomposite with high electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and durability. This process is solvent-free and does not require a high temperature or complex mixing procedure. The sensor shows high flexibility and good conductivity. High-quality electroencephalography (EEG) and electrooculography (EOG) were performed using fabricated dry sensors. Our results show that the Ag/CNT/PDMS sensor has comparable skin–sensor interface impedance with commercial Ag/AgCl-coated dry electrodes, better performance for noninvasive electrophysiological signal recording, and a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) even after 8 months of storage. The SNR of electrophysiological signal recording was measured to be 26.83 dB for our developed sensors versus 25.23 dB for commercial Ag/AgCl-coated dry electrodes. Our process of compress-heating the functional fillers provides a universal approach to fabricate various types of nanocomposites with different nanofillers and desired electrical and mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Biosensors for Detection)
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11 pages, 8063 KiB  
Article
Fundamental Study of a Wristwatch Sweat Lactic Acid Monitor
by Sakae Konno and Hiroyuki Kudo
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040187 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
A lactic acid (LA) monitoring system aimed at sweat monitoring was fabricated and tested. The sweat LA monitoring system uses a continuous flow of phosphate buffer saline, instead of chambers or cells, for collecting and storing sweat fluid excreted at the skin surface. [...] Read more.
A lactic acid (LA) monitoring system aimed at sweat monitoring was fabricated and tested. The sweat LA monitoring system uses a continuous flow of phosphate buffer saline, instead of chambers or cells, for collecting and storing sweat fluid excreted at the skin surface. To facilitate the use of the sweat LA monitoring system by subjects when exercising, the fluid control system, including the sweat sampling device, was designed to be unaffected by body movements or muscle deformation. An advantage of our system is that the skin surface condition is constantly refreshed by continuous flow. A real sample test was carried out during stationary bike exercise, which showed that LA secretion increased by approximately 10 μg/cm2/min compared to the baseline levels before exercise. The LA levels recovered to baseline levels after exercise due to the effect of continuous flow. This indicates that the wristwatch sweat LA monitor has the potential to enable a detailed understanding of the LA distribution at the skin surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Wearable Biosensors for Human Health Monitoring)
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17 pages, 2738 KiB  
Article
Multi-Functional Nano-Doped Hollow Fiber from Microfluidics for Sensors and Micromotors
by Yanpeng Wang, Zhaoyang Wang, Haotian Sun, Tong Lyu, Xing Ma, Jinhong Guo and Ye Tian
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040186 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Nano-doped hollow fiber is currently receiving extensive attention due to its multifunctionality and booming development. However, the microfluidic fabrication of nano-doped hollow fiber in a simple, smooth, stable, continuous, well-controlled manner without system blockage remains challenging. In this study, we employ a microfluidic [...] Read more.
Nano-doped hollow fiber is currently receiving extensive attention due to its multifunctionality and booming development. However, the microfluidic fabrication of nano-doped hollow fiber in a simple, smooth, stable, continuous, well-controlled manner without system blockage remains challenging. In this study, we employ a microfluidic method to fabricate nano-doped hollow fiber, which not only makes the preparation process continuous, controllable, and efficient, but also improves the dispersion uniformity of nanoparticles. Hydrogel hollow fiber doped with carbon nanotubes is fabricated and exhibits superior electrical conductivity (15.8 S m−1), strong flexibility (342.9%), and versatility as wearable sensors for monitoring human motions and collecting physiological electrical signals. Furthermore, we incorporate iron tetroxide nanoparticles into fibers to create magnetic-driven micromotors, which provide trajectory-controlled motion and the ability to move through narrow channels due to their small size. In addition, manganese dioxide nanoparticles are embedded into the fiber walls to create self-propelled micromotors. When placed in a hydrogen peroxide environment, the micromotors can reach a top speed of 615 μm s−1 and navigate hard-to-reach areas. Our nano-doped hollow fiber offers a broad range of applications in wearable electronics and self-propelled machines and creates promising opportunities for sensors and actuators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Microfluidics in Cell Manipulation and Biosensing)
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13 pages, 1579 KiB  
Article
Colorimetric and Electrochemical Dual-Mode Detection of Thioredoxin 1 Based on the Efficient Peroxidase-Mimicking and Electrocatalytic Property of Prussian Blue Nanoparticles
by Jeong Un Kim, Jee Min Kim, Annadurai Thamilselvan, Ki-Hwan Nam and Moon Il Kim
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040185 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 852
Abstract
As a potent detection method for cancer biomarkers in physiological fluid, a colorimetric and electrochemical dual-mode sensing platform for breast cancer biomarker thioredoxin 1 (TRX1) was developed based on the excellent peroxidase-mimicking and electrocatalytic property of Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs). PBNPs were hydrothermally [...] Read more.
As a potent detection method for cancer biomarkers in physiological fluid, a colorimetric and electrochemical dual-mode sensing platform for breast cancer biomarker thioredoxin 1 (TRX1) was developed based on the excellent peroxidase-mimicking and electrocatalytic property of Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs). PBNPs were hydrothermally synthesized using K3[Fe(CN)6] as a precursor and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. The synthesized spherical PBNPs showed a significant peroxidase-like activity, having approximately 20 and 60% lower Km values for 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and H2O2, respectively, compared to those of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The PBNPs also enhanced the electron transfer on the electrode surface. Based on the beneficial features, PBNPs were used to detect target TRX1 via sandwich-type immunoassay procedures. Using the strategies, TRX1 was selectively and sensitively detected, yielding limit of detection (LOD) values as low as 9.0 and 6.5 ng mL−1 via colorimetric and electrochemical approaches, respectively, with a linear range of 10–50 ng mL−1 in both strategies. The PBNP-based TRX1 immunoassays also exhibited a high degree of precision when applied to real human serum samples, demonstrating significant potentials to replace conventional HRP-based immunoassay systems into rapid, robust, reliable, and convenient dual-mode assay systems which can be widely utilized for the identification of important target molecules including cancer biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Biosensing Application)
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13 pages, 3447 KiB  
Article
Innovative Detection of Biomarkers Based on Chemiluminescent Nanoparticles and a Lensless Optical Sensor
by Cristina Potrich, Gianluca Palmara, Francesca Frascella, Lucio Pancheri and Lorenzo Lunelli
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040184 - 9 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
The identification and quantification of biomarkers with innovative technologies is an urgent need for the precise diagnosis and follow up of human diseases. Body fluids offer a variety of informative biomarkers, which are traditionally measured with time-consuming and expensive methods. In this context, [...] Read more.
The identification and quantification of biomarkers with innovative technologies is an urgent need for the precise diagnosis and follow up of human diseases. Body fluids offer a variety of informative biomarkers, which are traditionally measured with time-consuming and expensive methods. In this context, lateral flow tests (LFTs) represent a rapid and low-cost technology with a sensitivity that is potentially improvable by chemiluminescence biosensing. Here, an LFT based on gold nanoparticles functionalized with antibodies labeled with the enzyme horseradish peroxidase is combined with a lensless biosensor. This biosensor comprises four Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) coupled in close proximity to the LFT strip. Microfluidics for liquid handling complete the system. The development and the setup of the biosensor is carefully described and characterized. C-reactive protein was selected as a proof-of-concept biomarker to define the limit of detection, which resulted in about 0.8 pM when gold nanoparticles were used. The rapid readout (less than 5 min) and the absence of sample preparation make this biosensor promising for the direct and fast detection of human biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Biosensors and Their Applications)
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17 pages, 5985 KiB  
Review
Non-Invasive Biosensing for Healthcare Using Artificial Intelligence: A Semi-Systematic Review
by Tanvir Islam and Peter Washington
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040183 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 962
Abstract
The rapid development of biosensing technologies together with the advent of deep learning has marked an era in healthcare and biomedical research where widespread devices like smartphones, smartwatches, and health-specific technologies have the potential to facilitate remote and accessible diagnosis, monitoring, and adaptive [...] Read more.
The rapid development of biosensing technologies together with the advent of deep learning has marked an era in healthcare and biomedical research where widespread devices like smartphones, smartwatches, and health-specific technologies have the potential to facilitate remote and accessible diagnosis, monitoring, and adaptive therapy in a naturalistic environment. This systematic review focuses on the impact of combining multiple biosensing techniques with deep learning algorithms and the application of these models to healthcare. We explore the key areas that researchers and engineers must consider when developing a deep learning model for biosensing: the data modality, the model architecture, and the real-world use case for the model. We also discuss key ongoing challenges and potential future directions for research in this field. We aim to provide useful insights for researchers who seek to use intelligent biosensing to advance precision healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors Aiming for Practical Uses)
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10 pages, 6272 KiB  
Communication
Development of a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Rapid Detection of Gallic Acid
by Jiajing Duan, Xiuxia Zheng, Ran Tao, Long Li, Fengzhong Wang, Yufeng Sun and Bei Fan
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040182 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Gallic acid (GA) is closely related to the quality of herbal medicines and other agricultural products. In order to facilitate the rapid detection of GA, we developed a monoclonal antibody-based ic-ELISA method. Antigens with and without connecting arms were prepared. It was found [...] Read more.
Gallic acid (GA) is closely related to the quality of herbal medicines and other agricultural products. In order to facilitate the rapid detection of GA, we developed a monoclonal antibody-based ic-ELISA method. Antigens with and without connecting arms were prepared. It was found that the introduction of connecting arms (linear carbon chain) was beneficial for immune response. By utilizing hybridoma technology, a specific mAb (anti-GA-M702) was screened and identified, which exhibited a 1:40,500 antibody titer and IgG2b antibody subtype. The ic-ELISA assay was established based on anti-GA-M702. The optimal working concentrations of the encapsulated antigen and antibody were 0.5 µg/mL and 0.67 µg/mL, respectively. The ic-ELISA method showed a linear detection range of 297.17–2426.61 ng/mL for GA with a sensitivity of 849.18 ng/mL. It displayed a good applicability for the determination of GA in Galla chinensis. In conclusion, the ic-ELISA method provides an efficient approach to the rapid detection of GA in products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoassays and Biosensing)
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12 pages, 2035 KiB  
Article
Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Biosensor for Quantization of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 in Serum via Target-Induced Cleavage of Oligopeptide
by Manping Qian, Yu Zeng, Meng Li, Qiang Gao, Chengxiao Zhang and Honglan Qi
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040181 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 768
Abstract
A highly sensitive and selective electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was developed for the determination of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) in serum via the target-induced cleavage of an oligopeptide. One ECL probe (named as Ir-peptide) was synthesized by covalently linking a new cyclometalated iridium(III) [...] Read more.
A highly sensitive and selective electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was developed for the determination of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) in serum via the target-induced cleavage of an oligopeptide. One ECL probe (named as Ir-peptide) was synthesized by covalently linking a new cyclometalated iridium(III) complex ([(3-pba)2Ir(bpy-COOH)](PF6)) (3-pba = 3-(2-pyridyl) benzaldehyde, bpy-COOH = 4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridine-4-carboxylic acid) with an oligopeptide (CGVPLSLTMGKGGK). An ECL biosensor was fabricated by firstly casting Nafion and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a glassy carbon electrode and then self-assembling both of the ECL probes, 6-mercapto-1-hexanol and zwitterionic peptide, on the electrode surface, from which the AuNPs could be used to amplify the ECL signal and Ir-peptide could serve as an ECL probe to detect the MMP-3. Thanks to the MMP-3-induced cleavage of the oligopeptide contributing to the decrease in ECL intensity and the amplification of the ECL signal using AuNPs, the ECL biosensor could selectively and sensitively quantify MMP-3 in the concentration range of 10–150 ng·mL−1 and with both a limit of quantification (26.7 ng·mL−1) and a limit of detection (8.0 ng·mL−1) via one-step recognition. In addition, the developed ECL biosensor showed good performance in the quantization of MMP-3 in serum samples, with a recovery of 92.6% ± 2.8%–105.6% ± 5.0%. An increased level of MMP-3 was found in the serum of rheumatoid arthritis patients compared with that of healthy people. This work provides a sensitive and selective biosensing method for the detection of MMP-3 in human serum, which is promising in the identification of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biosensors)
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16 pages, 5676 KiB  
Article
Highly Sensitive and Linear Resonator-Based Biosensor for White Blood Cell Counting: Feasible Measurement Method and Intrinsic Mechanism Exploration
by Yi-Ke Wang, Bo-Wen Shi, Jun-Ming Zhao, Yan-Xiong Wang, Yan-Feng Jiang, Gang-Long Yang, Xiao-Dong Gao and Tian Qiang
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040180 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 785
Abstract
Since different quantities of white blood cells (WBCs) in solution possess an adaptive osmotic pressure of cells, the WBCs themselves and in solution have similar concentrations, resulting in them having similar dielectric properties. Therefore, a microwave sensor could have difficulty in sensing the [...] Read more.
Since different quantities of white blood cells (WBCs) in solution possess an adaptive osmotic pressure of cells, the WBCs themselves and in solution have similar concentrations, resulting in them having similar dielectric properties. Therefore, a microwave sensor could have difficulty in sensing the quantity variation when WBCs are in solution. This paper presents a highly sensitive, linear permittivity-inspired microwave biosensor for WBCs, counting through the evaporation method. Such a measurement method is proposed to record measurements after the cell solution is dripped onto the chip and is completely evaporated naturally. The proposed biosensor consists of an air-bridged asymmetric differential inductor and a centrally located circular fork-finger capacitor fabricated on a GaAs substrate using integrated passive fabrication technology. It is optimized to feature a larger sensitive area and improved Q-factor, which increases the effective area of interaction between cells and the electromagnetic field and facilitates the detection of their changes in number. The sensing relies on the dielectric properties of the cells and the change in the dielectric constant for different concentrations, and the change in resonance properties, which mainly represents the frequency shift, corresponds to the macroscopic change in the concentration of the cells. The microwave biosensors are used to measure biological samples with concentrations ranging from 0.25 × 106 to 8 × 106 cells per mL in a temperature (26.00 ± 0.40 °C) and humidity (54.40 ± 3.90 RH%) environment. The measurement results show a high sensitivity of 25.06 Hz/cells·mL−1 with a highly linear response of r2 = 0.99748. In addition, a mathematical modeling of individual cells in suspension is performed to estimate the dielectric constant of individual cells and further explain the working mechanism of the proposed microwave biosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-Based Biosensors for Rapid Detection and Monitoring)
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