Photonics for Bioapplications: Sensors and Technology

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical and Photonic Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 15635

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Instituto de Telecomunicações and University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: optical fiber sensors; fiber Bragg gratings; fiber sensors applications; biosensing; eHealth applications
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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa, Italy
Interests: optical sensors; biosensors and chemical sensors; optical fiber sensors and optoelectronic devices
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Guest Editor
Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy
Interests: cell division cycle alterations; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors; tumor suppressor genes; cancer; altered hypoxia response
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The last decade has witnessed an increasing interest in the development of photonic systems for bioapplications, ranging from biological, biochemical, environmental to biomedical and point-of-care instrumentations.

This Special Issue will focus on the current state-of-the-art of photonic sensing systems for bioapplications, covering recent technological improvements, novel materials and bio-receptors, smart sensing bio-surfaces, emerging applications, innovative sensor configurations, and all the associated sensing instrumentations.

Both original research papers and review articles describing the current state-of-the-art in this research field are welcome. We hope that this SI will provide you with an overview of the present status and future outlook of the aforementioned topics.

Dr. Nélia Jordão Alberto
Dr. Maria de Fátima Domingues
Dr. Nunzio Cennamo
Prof. Dr. Adriana Borriello
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • optical fiber biosensing
  • optical fiber immunosensors
  • new bio/chemical probes for bioapplications
  • molecular diagnosis
  • point-of-care devices
  • biomarker detection
  • wearable biomedical sensors
  • optical sensors in e-Health architectures
  • energy-efficient eHealth architecture
  • big data analysis for eHealth
  • plasmonic sensors and interrogation systems
  • advanced signal processing techniques
  • photonic integrated circuits (PICs) for bioapplications
  • imaging sensors
  • low-cost, miniaturized, selective, and multiparameter photonic devices

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2812 KiB  
Article
Complex Spatial Illumination Scheme Optimization of Backscattering Mueller Matrix Polarimetry for Tissue Imaging and Biosensing
by Wei Jiao, Zheng Zhang, Nan Zeng, Rui Hao, Honghui He, Chao He and Hui Ma
Biosensors 2024, 14(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14040208 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Polarization imaging and sensing techniques have shown great potential for biomedical and clinical applications. As a novel optical biosensing technology, Mueller matrix polarimetry can provide abundant microstructural information of tissue samples. However, polarimetric aberrations, which lead to inaccurate characterization of polarization properties, can [...] Read more.
Polarization imaging and sensing techniques have shown great potential for biomedical and clinical applications. As a novel optical biosensing technology, Mueller matrix polarimetry can provide abundant microstructural information of tissue samples. However, polarimetric aberrations, which lead to inaccurate characterization of polarization properties, can be induced by uneven biomedical sample surfaces while measuring Mueller matrices with complex spatial illuminations. In this study, we analyze the detailed features of complex spatial illumination-induced aberrations by measuring the backscattering Mueller matrices of experimental phantom and tissue samples. We obtain the aberrations under different spatial illumination schemes in Mueller matrix imaging. Furthermore, we give the corresponding suggestions for selecting appropriate illumination schemes to extract specific polarization properties, and then provide strategies to alleviate polarimetric aberrations by adjusting the incident and detection angles in Mueller matrix imaging. The optimized scheme gives critical criteria for the spatial illumination scheme selection of non-collinear backscattering Mueller matrix measurements, which can be helpful for the further development of quantitative tissue polarimetric imaging and biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics for Bioapplications: Sensors and Technology)
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16 pages, 3168 KiB  
Article
Asterias forbesi-Inspired SERS Substrates for Wide-Range Detection of Uric Acid
by Hyunjun Park, Kyunghwan Chai, Woochang Kim, Joohyung Park, Wonseok Lee and Jinsung Park
Biosensors 2024, 14(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14010008 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Uric acid (UA), the final metabolite of purine, is primarily excreted through urine to maintain an appropriate concentration in the bloodstream. However, any malfunction in this process can lead to complications due to either deficiency or excess amount of UA. Hence, the development [...] Read more.
Uric acid (UA), the final metabolite of purine, is primarily excreted through urine to maintain an appropriate concentration in the bloodstream. However, any malfunction in this process can lead to complications due to either deficiency or excess amount of UA. Hence, the development of a sensor platform with a wide-range detection is crucial. To realize this, we fabricated a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate inspired by a type of starfish with numerous protrusions, Asterias forbesi. The Asterias forbesi-inspired SERS (AF-SERS) substrate utilized an Au@Ag nanostructure and gold nanoparticles to mimic the leg and protrusion morphology of the starfish. This substrate exhibited excellent Raman performance due to numerous hotspots, demonstrating outstanding stability, reproducibility, and repeatability. In laboratory settings, we successfully detected UA down to a concentration of 1.16 nM (limit of detection) and demonstrated selectivity against various metabolites. In the experiments designed for real-world application, the AF-SERS substrate detected a broad range of UA concentrations, covering deficiencies and excesses, in both serum and urine samples. These results underscore the potential of the developed AF-SERS substrate as a practical detection platform for UA in real-world applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics for Bioapplications: Sensors and Technology)
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13 pages, 3588 KiB  
Article
Ternary Heterojunction Graphitic Carbon Nitride/Cupric Sulfide/Titanium Dioxide Photoelectrochemical Sensor for Sesamol Quantification and Antioxidant Synergism
by Likun Huang, Jingshi Yang, Zhishan Liang, Ruilian Liang, Hui Luo, Zhonghui Sun, Dongxue Han and Li Niu
Biosensors 2023, 13(9), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13090859 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Sesamol (SM) is a potent natural antioxidant that can quench free radicals and modulate the cholinergic system in the brain, thereby ameliorating memory and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity can be amplified by synergistic interactions between different [...] Read more.
Sesamol (SM) is a potent natural antioxidant that can quench free radicals and modulate the cholinergic system in the brain, thereby ameliorating memory and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity can be amplified by synergistic interactions between different antioxidants. Here, we constructed a ternary heterojunction graphitic carbon nitride/cupric sulfide/titanium dioxide (g-C3N4/CuS/TiO2) photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor for the quantification of SM and its synergistic interactions with other antioxidants. Crucially, the Schottky barrier in ternary semiconductors considerably enhances electron transfer. The PEC sensor showed a wide linear range for SM detection, ranging from 2 to 1277 μmol L−1, and had a limit of detection of 1.8 μmol L−1. Remarkably, this sensing platform could evaluate the synergism between SM and five typical lipid-soluble antioxidants: tert-butyl hydroquinone, vitamin E, butyl hydroxyanisole, propyl gallate, and butylated hydroxytoluene. Owing to its low redox potential, SM could reduce antioxidant radicals and promote their regeneration, which increased the overall antioxidant performance. The g-C3N4/CuS/TiO2 PEC sensor exhibited high sensitivity, satisfactory selectivity, and stability, and was successfully applied for SM determination in both soybean and peanut oils. The findings of this study provide guidance for the development of nutritional foods, nutrition analysis, and the treatment of diseases caused by free radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics for Bioapplications: Sensors and Technology)
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11 pages, 3036 KiB  
Article
Thermo-Visco-Elastometry of RF-Wave-Heated and Ablated Flesh Tissues Containing Au Nanoparticles
by Bayan Kurbanova, Zhannat Ashikbayeva, Aida Amantayeva, Akbota Sametova, Wilfried Blanc, Abduzhappar Gaipov, Daniele Tosi and Zhandos Utegulov
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010008 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
We report non-contact laser-based Brillouin light-scattering (BLS) spectroscopy measurements of the viscoelastic properties of hyperthermally radiofrequency (RF)-heated and ablated bovine liver and chicken flesh tissues with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The spatial lateral profile of the local surface temperature in the flesh samples [...] Read more.
We report non-contact laser-based Brillouin light-scattering (BLS) spectroscopy measurements of the viscoelastic properties of hyperthermally radiofrequency (RF)-heated and ablated bovine liver and chicken flesh tissues with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The spatial lateral profile of the local surface temperature in the flesh samples during their hyperthermia was measured through optical backscattering reflectometry (OBR) using Mg–silica-NP-doped sensing fibers distributed with an RF applicator and correlated with viscoelastic variations in heat-affected and ablated tissues. Substantial changes in the tissue stiffness after heating and ablation were directly related to their heat-induced structural modifications. The main proteins responsible for muscle elasticity were denatured and irreversibly aggregated during the RF ablation. At T > 100 °C, the proteins constituting the flesh further shrank and became disorganized, leading to substantial plastic deformation of biotissues. Their uniform destruction with larger thermal lesions and a more viscoelastic network was attained via AuNP-mediated RF hyperthermal ablation. The results demonstrated here pave the way for simultaneous real-time hybrid optical sensing of viscoelasticity and local temperature in biotissues during their denaturation and gelation during hyperthermia for future applications that involve mechanical- and thermal-property-controlled theranostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics for Bioapplications: Sensors and Technology)
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16 pages, 3152 KiB  
Article
Hierarchical Ti-MOF Microflowers for Synchronous Removal and Fluorescent Detection of Aluminum Ions
by Jianguo Zhou, Jieyao Song, Guangqiang Ma, Yongjian Li, Yanan Wei, Fei Liu and Hongjian Zhou
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12110935 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Bifunctional luminescence metal-organic frameworks with unique nanostructures have drawn ongoing attention for simultaneous determination and elimination of metal ions in the aqueous environment, but still remain a great challenge. In this work, three-dimensional hierarchical titanium metal-organic framework (Ti-MOF) microflowers were developed by a [...] Read more.
Bifunctional luminescence metal-organic frameworks with unique nanostructures have drawn ongoing attention for simultaneous determination and elimination of metal ions in the aqueous environment, but still remain a great challenge. In this work, three-dimensional hierarchical titanium metal-organic framework (Ti-MOF) microflowers were developed by a secondary hydrothermal method for not only highly sensitive and selective detection of Al(III), but also simultaneously efficient decontamination. The resulting Ti-MOF microflowers with a diameter of 5–6 μm consisted of nanorods with a diameter of ∼200 nm and a length of 1–2 μm, which provide abundant, surface active sites for determination and elimination of Al(III) ions. Because of their substantial specific surface area and superior fluorescence characteristics, Ti-MOF microflowers are used as fluorescence probes for quantitative determination of Al(III) in the aqueous environment. Importantly, the specific FL enhancement by Al(III) via a chelation-enhanced fluorescence mechanism can be utilized for selective and quantitative determination of Al(III). The Al(III) detection has a linear range of 0.4–15 µM and a detection limit as low as 75 nM. By introducing ascorbic acid, interference of Fe(III) can be avoided to achieve selective detection of Al(III) under various co-existing cations. It is noteworthy that the Ti-MOF microflowers exhibit excellent adsorption capacity for Al(III) with a high adsorption capacity of 25.85 mg g−1. The rapid adsorption rate is consistent with a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Ti-MOF is a promising contender as an adsorbent and a fluorescent chemical sensor for simultaneous determination and elimination of Al(III) due to its exceptional water stability, high porosity, and intense luminescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics for Bioapplications: Sensors and Technology)
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16 pages, 6619 KiB  
Article
Fiber-Optic Distributed Sensing Network for Thermal Mapping of Gold Nanoparticles-Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation
by Akbota Sametova, Sabit Kurmashev, Zhannat Ashikbayeva, Aida Amantayeva, Wilfried Blanc, Timur Sh. Atabaev and Daniele Tosi
Biosensors 2022, 12(5), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12050352 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
In this work, we report the design of an optical fiber distributed sensing network for the 2-dimensional (2D) in situ thermal mapping of advanced methods for radiofrequency thermal ablation. The sensing system is based on six high-scattering MgO-doped optical fibers, interleaved by a [...] Read more.
In this work, we report the design of an optical fiber distributed sensing network for the 2-dimensional (2D) in situ thermal mapping of advanced methods for radiofrequency thermal ablation. The sensing system is based on six high-scattering MgO-doped optical fibers, interleaved by a scattering-level spatial multiplexing approach that allows simultaneous detection of each fiber location, in a 40 × 20 mm grid (7.8 mm2 pixel size). Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed on bovine phantom, using a pristine approach and methods mediated by agarose and gold nanoparticles in order to enhance the ablation properties. The 2D sensors allow the detection of spatiotemporal patterns, evaluating the heating properties and investigating the repeatability. We observe that agarose-based ablation yields the widest ablated area in the best-case scenario, while gold nanoparticles-mediated ablation provides the best trade-off between the ablated area (53.0–65.1 mm2, 61.5 mm2 mean value) and repeatability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics for Bioapplications: Sensors and Technology)
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Review

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35 pages, 3569 KiB  
Review
Cost-Effective Fiber Optic Solutions for Biosensing
by Cátia Leitão, Sónia O. Pereira, Carlos Marques, Nunzio Cennamo, Luigi Zeni, Madina Shaimerdenova, Takhmina Ayupova and Daniele Tosi
Biosensors 2022, 12(8), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080575 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5142
Abstract
In the last years, optical fiber sensors have proven to be a reliable and versatile biosensing tool. Optical fiber biosensors (OFBs) are analytical devices that use optical fibers as transducers, with the advantages of being easily coated and biofunctionalized, allowing the monitorization of [...] Read more.
In the last years, optical fiber sensors have proven to be a reliable and versatile biosensing tool. Optical fiber biosensors (OFBs) are analytical devices that use optical fibers as transducers, with the advantages of being easily coated and biofunctionalized, allowing the monitorization of all functionalization and detection in real-time, as well as being small in size and geometrically flexible, thus allowing device miniaturization and portability for point-of-care (POC) testing. Knowing the potential of such biosensing tools, this paper reviews the reported OFBs which are, at the moment, the most cost-effective. Different fiber configurations are highlighted, namely, end-face reflected, unclad, D- and U-shaped, tips, ball resonators, tapered, light-diffusing, and specialty fibers. Packaging techniques to enhance OFBs’ application in the medical field, namely for implementing in subcutaneous, percutaneous, and endoscopic operations as well as in wearable structures, are presented and discussed. Interrogation approaches of OFBs using smartphones’ hardware are a great way to obtain cost-effective sensing approaches. In this review paper, different architectures of such interrogation methods and their respective applications are presented. Finally, the application of OFBs in monitoring three crucial fields of human life and wellbeing are reported: detection of cancer biomarkers, detection of cardiovascular biomarkers, and environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics for Bioapplications: Sensors and Technology)
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