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Diagnostics, Volume 13, Issue 6 (March-2 2023) – 204 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Liver cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. At present, α-fetoprotein (AFP) is the only widely recognized biomarker for liver cancer, highlighting the urgent need to identify additional biomarkers for this type of cancer. Previous studies have shown that the CmPn signaling network, involving the CCM signaling complex (CSC), progesterone (PRG), classic nuclear PRG receptor (nPR), and non-classic membrane PRG receptor (mPR), is involved in the tumorigenesis of breast and liver cancers. This study investigated the CmPn network and found multiple CmPn members, including CCM1, PAQR7, PGRMC1, and nPRs, may serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer subtypes, especially in both HCCs and CCAs. View this paper 
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10 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
Single-Center Experience with Simultaneous Mural Aortic Thrombosis and Peripheral Obstructive Disease in Pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 Era
by Filippo Benedetto, Francesco La Corte, Domenico Spinelli, Gabriele Piffaretti, Santi Trimarchi and Giovanni De Caridi
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061208 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Background: Mural aortic thrombosis associated with chronic peripheral obstruction of the lower limbs is an unusual event. Repeated embolism of instability aortic mural thrombosis caused acute limb ischemia (Rutherford 2 classification) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We report a single-center experience [...] Read more.
Background: Mural aortic thrombosis associated with chronic peripheral obstruction of the lower limbs is an unusual event. Repeated embolism of instability aortic mural thrombosis caused acute limb ischemia (Rutherford 2 classification) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We report a single-center experience for patients with transmural aortic thrombosis and peripheral artery disease. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of 54 patients with aortic mural thrombus disease with PAD presentation, treated at our center between 2013 and 2022. Results: Thirty patients (six with proven SARS-CoV-2 infection) underwent hybrid or staged treatment for an aortic lesion and for lower limb ischemia, by the placement of an endovascular aortic stent graft and a femoro-distal or a popliteal-distal bypass graft. The remaining 24 cases were only subjected to an intravascular treatment of the thoracic or abdominal aorta. Transient renal failure occurred in three patients. No embolic events were detected during the procedures. Aortic-related mortality was reported in just one patient who died from multiple organ failure. There was an embolic stroke in one patient with proven SARS-CoV-2 infection, three major amputations in patients with proven SARS-CoV-2 infection and no aortic-related mortality. Conclusions: Stent coverage of complex aortic lesions, alone or in association with a distal bypass graft, supports this approach in a variety of settings. The COVID-19 pandemic caused an increased mortality and amputation rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Vascular Diseases Diagnostics)
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15 pages, 5179 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of a Novel Prognostic Tool to Predict Recurrence of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation after the First-Time Catheter Ablation: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Junjie Huang, Hao Chen, Quan Zhang, Rukai Yang, Shuai Peng, Zhijian Wu, Na Liu, Liang Tang, Zhenjiang Liu and Shenghua Zhou
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061207 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2926
Abstract
There is no gold standard to tell frustrating outcomes after the catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The study aims to construct a prognostic tool. We retrospectively analyzed 315 patients with PAF who underwent first-time ablation at the Second Xiangya Hospital of [...] Read more.
There is no gold standard to tell frustrating outcomes after the catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The study aims to construct a prognostic tool. We retrospectively analyzed 315 patients with PAF who underwent first-time ablation at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. The endpoint was identified as any documented relapse of atrial tachyarrhythmia lasting longer than 30 s after the three-month blanking period. Univariate Cox regression analyzed eleven preablation parameters, followed by two supervised machine learning algorithms and stepwise regression to construct a nomogram internally validated. Five factors related to ablation failure were as follows: female sex, left atrial appendage emptying flow velocity ≤31 cm/s, estimated glomerular filtration rate <65.8 mL/(min·1.73 m2), P wave duration in lead aVF ≥ 120 ms, and that in lead V1 ≥ 100 ms, which constructed a nomogram. It was correlated with the CHA2DS2-VASc score but outperformed the latter evidently in discrimination and clinical utility, not to mention its robust performances in goodness-of-fit and calibration. In addition, the nomogram-based risk stratification could effectively separate ablation outcomes. Patients at risk of relapse after PAF ablation can be recognized at baseline using the proposed five-factor nomogram. Full article
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12 pages, 391 KiB  
Review
The Sarcoma-Specific Instrument to Longitudinally Assess Health-Related Outcomes of the Routine Care Cycle
by Nasian Mosku, Philip Heesen, Salome Christen, Mario F. Scaglioni, Beata Bode, Gabriela Studer and Bruno Fuchs
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061206 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Patient-based health related quality of life (HRQoL) measurements are associated with an improvement in quality of care and outcomes. For a complex disease such as sarcoma, there is no disease-specific questionnaire available which covers all clinically relevant dimensions. Herein, we report on the [...] Read more.
Patient-based health related quality of life (HRQoL) measurements are associated with an improvement in quality of care and outcomes. For a complex disease such as sarcoma, there is no disease-specific questionnaire available which covers all clinically relevant dimensions. Herein, we report on the development of an electronically implemented, sarcoma-specific instrument to assess health-related outcomes, which encompasses a combination of generic questionnaires tailored to the respective disease and treatment status covering the entire longitudinal care cycle. An interoperable digital platform was designed to provide a node between patients and physicians and to integrate the sarcoma-specific HRQoL instrument with patient and physician-based quality indicators to allow longitudinal structured real-world-time data evidence analytics. This approach enables the prediction modeling of disease, and by attributing cost tags to quality indicators, treatment effectiveness for a given disease will be directly correlated with financial expenses, which may ultimately lead to a more sustainable healthcare system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
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22 pages, 4429 KiB  
Article
MicroRNA-155 and Disease-Related Immunohistochemical Parameters in Cutaneous Melanoma
by Manal S. Fawzy, Afaf T. Ibrahiem, Naglaa A. Bayomy, Amin K. Makhdoom, Khalid S. Alanazi, Abdulaziz M. Alanazi, Abdulaziz M. Mukhlef and Eman A. Toraih
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061205 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Cutaneous melanoma is a severe and life-threatening form of skin cancer with growing incidences. While novel interventions have improved prognoses for these patients, early diagnosis of targeted treatment remains the most effective approach. MicroRNAs have grown to good use as potential biomarkers for [...] Read more.
Cutaneous melanoma is a severe and life-threatening form of skin cancer with growing incidences. While novel interventions have improved prognoses for these patients, early diagnosis of targeted treatment remains the most effective approach. MicroRNAs have grown to good use as potential biomarkers for early detection and as targets for treatment. miR-155 is well-studied for its role in tumor cell survival and proliferation in various tissues, although its role in melanoma remains controversial. In silico data analysis was performed in the dbDEMC v.3 to identify differentially expressed miRNA. We validated gene targets in melanoma using TarBase v8.0 and miRPath v3.0 and determined protein-protein interactions of the target genes. One hundred forty patients (age range 21–90 years) with cutaneous melanoma who underwent resection were included. Molecular assessment using Real-Time RT-qPCR, clinicopathological associations, and a literature review for the different roles of miR-155 in melanoma were performed. Analysis of the dbDEMC reveals controversial findings. While there is evidence of upregulation of miR-155 in primary and metastatic melanoma samples, others suggest decreased expression in later-stage melanoma and cases with brain metastasis. miR-155 has been overexpressed in prior cases of melanoma and precancerous lesions, and it was found to be dysregulated when compared to benign nevi. While miR-155 expression was associated with favorable outcomes in some studies, others showed an association with metastasis. Patients with high levels of miR-155 also noted reduction after receiving anti-PD-1 treatment, correlated with more prolonged overall survival. In our patient’s cohort, 22.9% relapsed during treatment, and 45% developed recurrence, associated with factors such as lymph node infiltration, high mitotic index, and positive staining for CD117. Although overall analysis revealed miR-155 downregulation in melanoma specimens compared to non-cancer tissues, increased expression of miR-155 was associated with cases of superficial spreading melanoma subtype (p = 0.005) and any melanoma with a high mitotic rate (p = 0.010). The analysis did not identify optimum cutoff values to predict relapse, recurrence, or mortality. In conclusion, miR-155 could have, in part, a potential prognostic utility in cutaneous melanoma. Further mechanistic studies are required to unravel the multifunctional role of miR-155 in melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
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18 pages, 20680 KiB  
Article
Rare Benign Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions of the Hand without Skin Damage—Clinical, Imagistic and Histopathological Diagnosis, Retrospective Study
by Mihaela Pertea, Oxana Madalina Grosu, Alexandru Filip, Dan Cristian Moraru, Stefana Luca, Madalina-Cristina Fotea, Sorinel Lunca, Doinita Olinici, Vladimir Poroch, Claudiu Carp and Bogdan Veliceasa
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061204 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Background: The broad spectrum of diagnoses and clinical features of hand tumors and the absence of pathognomonic signs often lead to an inaccurate or delayed diagnosis. However, only a few reports have comprehensively referenced the diagnosis and clinical features of hand tumors. This [...] Read more.
Background: The broad spectrum of diagnoses and clinical features of hand tumors and the absence of pathognomonic signs often lead to an inaccurate or delayed diagnosis. However, only a few reports have comprehensively referenced the diagnosis and clinical features of hand tumors. This study intends to highlight the clinical, imaging and histological characteristics of uncommon hand tumors or tumor-like lesions. Methods: In this retrospective study, we report a series of 80 patients diagnosed with rare hand tumors and tumor-like lesions without skin damage. Age, gender, tumor location, imaging examinations and clinical and laboratory findings were analyzed. The histopathological exam established the final diagnosis. Surgery was indicated and performed in all cases. Results: This study included: neurofibroma, glomus tumor, lipoma, schwannoma, epidermal inclusion cyst and idiopathic tenosynovitis with “rice bodies.” We have described the clinical, imagistic and histopathological particularities of these tumors. Surgical management included the complete removal of tumors, with no recurrence recorded within two years and overall high patient satisfaction. The most common findings were lipomas and the rarest neurofibromas. Conclusions: To optimize the care of hand tumors and reduce diagnostic and treatment errors, knowledge of hand tumor types and their clinical and laboratory characteristics is necessary for every surgeon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Tumors/Cancers)
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21 pages, 3509 KiB  
Article
Construct ceRNA Network and Risk Model of Breast Cancer Using Machine Learning Methods under the Mechanism of Cuproptosis
by Jianzhi Deng, Fei Fu, Fengming Zhang, Yuanyuan Xia and Yuehan Zhou
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061203 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
Breast cancer (BRCA) has an undesirable prognosis and is the second most common cancer among women after lung cancer. A novel mechanism of programmed cell death called cuproptosis is linked to the development and spread of tumor cells. However, the function of cuproptosis [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BRCA) has an undesirable prognosis and is the second most common cancer among women after lung cancer. A novel mechanism of programmed cell death called cuproptosis is linked to the development and spread of tumor cells. However, the function of cuproptosis in BRCA remains unknown. To this date, no studies have used machine learning methods to screen for characteristic genes to explore the role of cuproptosis-related genes (CRGs) in breast cancer. Therefore, 14 cuproptosis-related characteristic genes (CRCGs) were discovered by the feature selection of 39 differentially expressed CRGs using the three machine learning methods LASSO, SVM-RFE, and random forest. Through the PPI network and immune infiltration analysis, we found that PRNP was the key CRCG. The miRTarBase, TargetScan, and miRDB databases were then used to identify hsa-miR-192-5p and hsa-miR-215-5p as the upstream miRNA of PRNP, and the upstream lncRNA, CARMN, was identified by the StarBase database. Thus, the mRNA PRNP/miRNA hsa-miR-192-5p and hsa-miR-215-5p/lncRNA CARMN ceRNA network was constructed. This ceRNA network, which has not been studied before, is extremely innovative. Furthermore, four cuproptosis-related lncRNAs (CRLs) were screened in TCGA-BRCA by univariate Cox, LASSO, and multivariate Cox regression analysis. The risk model was constructed by using these four CRLs, and the risk score = C9orf163 * (1.8365) + PHC2-AS1 * (−2.2985) + AC087741.1 * (−0.9504) + AL109824.1 * (0.6016). The ROC curve and C-index demonstrated the superior predictive capacity of the risk model, and the ROC curve demonstrated that the AUC of 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS in all samples was 0.721, 0.695, and 0.633, respectively. Finally, 50 prospective sensitive medicines were screened with the pRRophetic R package, among which 17-AAG may be a therapeutic agent for high-risk patients, while the other 49 medicines may be suitable for the treatment of low-risk patients. In conclusion, our study constructs a new ceRNA network and a novel risk model, which offer a theoretical foundation for the treatment of BRCA and will aid in improving the prognosis of BRCA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning in Precise and Personalized Diagnosis)
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15 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
Mammaglobin-A Expression Is Highly Specific for Tumors Derived from the Breast, the Female Genital Tract, and the Salivary Gland
by Natalia Gorbokon, Patrick Timm, David Dum, Anne Menz, Franziska Büscheck, Cosima Völkel, Andrea Hinsch, Maximilian Lennartz, Andreas M Luebke, Claudia Hube-Magg, Christoph Fraune, Till Krech, Patrick Lebok, Till S Clauditz, Frank Jacobsen, Guido Sauter, Ria Uhlig, Stefan Steurer, Sarah Minner, Andreas H. Marx, Ronald Simon, Eike Burandt, Christian Bernreuther and Doris Höflmayeradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061202 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Human mammaglobin-A (SCGB2A2) is a secretory protein with an unknown function that is used as a diagnostic marker for breast cancer. However, other tumors can also express mammaglobin-A. To comprehensively study patterns of mammaglobin-A expression, a tissue microarray containing 16,328 samples from 128 [...] Read more.
Human mammaglobin-A (SCGB2A2) is a secretory protein with an unknown function that is used as a diagnostic marker for breast cancer. However, other tumors can also express mammaglobin-A. To comprehensively study patterns of mammaglobin-A expression, a tissue microarray containing 16,328 samples from 128 different tumor types as well as 608 samples of 76 different normal tissue types was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin-A positivity was found in only a few normal tissues, including luminal cells of the breast as well as endocervical and endometrial glands. In tumor tissues, 37 of 128 tumor categories showed mamma-globin-A staining, 32 of which were derived from one of four organs: breast (6 tumor categories), endometrium (5 tumor categories), ovary (5 tumor categories), and salivary glands (16 tumor categories). Only five additional tumor types showed occasional weak mammaglobin positivity, including medullary thyroid cancer, teratoma of the testis, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and pharynx, and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Among 1139 evaluable invasive breast carcinomas of no special type, low mammaglobin-A immunostaining was linked to high BRE grade (p = 0.0011), loss of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression (p < 0.0001 each), and triple-negative status (p < 0.0001) but not to patient survival. In endometrial cancer, mammaglobin-A loss was linked to an advanced tumor stage (p = 0.0198). Our data characterize mammaglobin-A as a highly specific marker for tumors derived from either the breast, female genitals, or salivary gland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
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11 pages, 2100 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Assessment of Lung Volumes and Enhancement in Patients with COVID-19: Role of Dual-Energy CT
by Giovanni Foti, Chiara Longo, Niccolò Faccioli, Massimo Guerriero, Flavio Stefanini and Dora Buonfrate
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061201 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been used for detecting pulmonary embolism, but the role of lung perfusion DECT as a predictor of prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been defined yet. The aim of our study was to explore whether the [...] Read more.
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been used for detecting pulmonary embolism, but the role of lung perfusion DECT as a predictor of prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been defined yet. The aim of our study was to explore whether the enhancement pattern in COVID-19+ patients relates to the disease outcome. A secondary aim was to compare the lung volumes in two subgroups of patients. In this observational study, we considered all consecutive COVID-19+ patients who presented to the emergency room between January 2021 and December 2021 with respiratory symptoms (with mild to absent lung consolidation) and were studied by chest contrast-enhanced DECT to be eligible. Two experienced radiologists post-processed the images using the “lung-analysis” software (SyngoVia). Absolute and relative enhancement lung volumes were assessed. Patients were stratified in two subgroups depending on clinical outcome at 30 days: (i) good outcome (i.e., discharge, absence of clinical or imaging signs of disease); (ii) bad outcome (i.e., hospitalization, death). Patient sub-groups were compared using chi-square test or Fisher test for qualitative parameters, chi-square test or Spearman’s Rho test for quantitative parameters, Students’ t-test for parametric variables and Wilcoxon test for non-parametric variables. We enrolled 78 patients (45M), of whom, 16.7% had good outcomes. We did not observe any significant differences between the two groups, both in terms of the total enhancement evaluation (p = 0.679) and of the relative enhancement (p = 0.918). In contrast, the average lung volume of good outcome patients (mean value of 4262 mL) was significantly larger than that of bad outcome patients (mean value of 3577.8 mL), p = 0.0116. All COVID-19+ patients, with either good or bad outcomes, presented similar enhancement parameters and relative enhancements, underlining no differences in lung perfusion. Conversely, a significant drop in lung volume was identified in the bad outcome subgroup eligible compared to the good outcome subgroup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Imaging in COVID-19)
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10 pages, 2218 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound Placental Remodeling Patterns and Pathology Characteristics in Patients with History of Mild SARS-CoV-2 Infection during Pregnancy
by Adelina Staicu, Camelia Albu, Georgiana Nemeti, Cosmina Ioana Bondor, Dan Boitor-Borza, Andreia Paraschiva Preda, Andreea Florian, Iulian Gabriel Goidescu, Diana Sachelaru, Nelida Bora, Roxana Constantin, Mihai Surcel, Florin Stamatian, Ioana Cristina Rotar, Gheorghe Cruciat and Daniel Muresan
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061200 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
Introduction: This research aims to describe a progressive pattern of ultrasound placental remodeling in patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal, cohort study which enrolled 23 pregnant women with a history of former mild [...] Read more.
Introduction: This research aims to describe a progressive pattern of ultrasound placental remodeling in patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal, cohort study which enrolled 23 pregnant women with a history of former mild SARS-CoV-2 infection during the current pregnancy. Four obstetricians analyzed placental ultrasound images from different gestational ages following COVID infection and identified the presence and degree of remodeling. We assessed the inter-rater agreement and the interclass correlation coefficients. Pathology workup included placental biometry, macroscopic and microscopic examination. Results: Serial ultrasound evaluation of the placental morphology revealed a progressive pattern of placental remodeling starting from 30–32 weeks of gestation towards term, occurring approximately 8–10 weeks after the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Placental changes—the “starry sky” appearance and the “white line” along the basal plate—were identified in all cases. Most placentas presented normal subchorionic perivillous fibrin depositions and focal stem villi perivillous fibrin deposits. Focal calcifications were described in only 13% of the cases. Conclusions: We identified two ultrasound signs of placental remodeling as potential markers of placental viral shedding following mild SARS-CoV-2. The most likely pathology correspondence for the imaging aspect is perivillous and, respectively, massive subchorionic fibrin deposits identified in most cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease in Pregnancy)
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10 pages, 561 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Selected Cephalometric Parameters, Nasolabial Angle and Its Components in Adolescent Females
by Mikołaj Gołębiowski, Agnieszka Świątkowska, Przemysław Pastuszak and Mansur Rahnama
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061199 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Nasolabial angle is commonly used to assess the soft tissue profile of the subnasal region. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasolabial angle, the inclination of the lower border of the nose and upper lip, upper [...] Read more.
Nasolabial angle is commonly used to assess the soft tissue profile of the subnasal region. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between the nasolabial angle, the inclination of the lower border of the nose and upper lip, upper incisor inclination and upper lip thickness. A sample of 142 female adolescents aged 13–18 years was chosen. A modified cephalometric analysis was performed with the nasolabial angle, and its components were traced according to Fitzgerald’s method. All analysed parameters showed a statistically significant correlation with the nasolabial angle (NLA). The highest correlation was found for the labial (L/FH) and nasal (N/FH) components of the nasolabial angle, respectively. Upper incisor inclinations (1+:SN, U1FA) and upper lip thickness (ULT) had a stronger correlation with L/FH than NLA, but no correlation was found between these parameters and N/FH. Upper lip thickness did not influence the relationship between incisor inclination and NLA or L/FH. The position of the upper incisors and upper lip thickness influence the nasolabial angle indirectly through its labial component (L/FH). Therefore, it seems purposeful to assess the nasolabial angle as a sum of two independent angles, of which only one (L/FH) can be influenced by orthodontic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Diagnosis of Orthodontics)
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13 pages, 8581 KiB  
Article
Superselective Catheter Angiographies of the Wrist (SCAW): Approaches for Vascularized Bone Grafts
by Leonie Goelz, Simon Kim, Andreas Eisenschenk, Sven Mutze and Ariane Asmus
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061198 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Background: This study assesses the variability of the palmar radiocarpal artery (PRCA), dorsal carpal branch of the ulnar artery (DCBUA), and anterior interosseous artery (AIA) in superselective catheter angiographies of the wrist (SCAW). Methods: Secondary analysis of consecutive SCAW (2009–2011). Measurements of the [...] Read more.
Background: This study assesses the variability of the palmar radiocarpal artery (PRCA), dorsal carpal branch of the ulnar artery (DCBUA), and anterior interosseous artery (AIA) in superselective catheter angiographies of the wrist (SCAW). Methods: Secondary analysis of consecutive SCAW (2009–2011). Measurements of the distances of the PRCA to the midface of the radiocarpal joint, the DCBUA to the styloid process of the ulnar, and maximum diameters of PRCA, DCBUA, and AIA. Results: Seven female and ten male patients (mean 35 years) received SCAW. All patients suffered from Kienbock’s disease. The mean distance from the PRCA to the radiocarpal joint was 7.9 ± 2.3 mm and the distance from the DCBUA to the styloid process of the ulna was 29.6 ± 13.6 mm. The mean maximum diameter of the PRCA was 0.6 ± 0.2 mm, that of the DCBUA was 1.1 ± 0.4 mm, and that of the AIA 1.2 ± 0.3 mm. In six cases (35%), all three arteries contributed to the PRCA; in eight cases (47%), the radial and AIA; in two cases (12%), the radial and ulnar artery; and in one case (6%), only the radial artery contributed. Conclusions: SCAW are feasible to assist in preoperative planning. Os pisiforme transfer with DCBUA might be the best choice for a vascular bone graft in Kienbock’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging Diagnosis in Musculoskeletal Medicine)
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12 pages, 7744 KiB  
Article
Low-Risk Women with Suspicious Microcalcifications in Mammography—Can an Additional Breast MRI Reduce the Biopsy Rate?
by Patrik Pöschke, Evelyn Wenkel, Carolin C. Hack, Matthias W. Beckmann, Michael Uder and Sabine Ohlmeyer
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061197 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Background: In the German Mammography Screening Program, 62% of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 38% of invasive breast cancers are associated with microcalcifications (MCs). Vacuum-assisted stereotactic breast biopsies are necessary to distinguish precancerous lesions from benign calcifications because mammographic discrimination is not [...] Read more.
Background: In the German Mammography Screening Program, 62% of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 38% of invasive breast cancers are associated with microcalcifications (MCs). Vacuum-assisted stereotactic breast biopsies are necessary to distinguish precancerous lesions from benign calcifications because mammographic discrimination is not possible. The aim of this study was to investigate if breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRM) could assist the evaluation of MCs and thus help reduce biopsy rates. Methods: In this IRB-approved study, 58 women (mean age 58 +/− 24 years) with 59 suspicious MC clusters in the MG were eligible for this prospective single-center trial. Additional breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted before biopsy. Results: The breast MRI showed a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 84%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 75% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 91% for the differentiation between benign and malignant in these 59 MCs found with MG. Breast MRI in addition to MG could increase the PPV from 36% to 75% compared to MG alone. The MRI examination led to nine additional suspicious classified lesions in the study cohort. A total of 55% (5/9) of them turned out to be malignant. A total of 32 of 59 (54 %) women with suspicious MCs and benign histology were classified as non-suspicious by MRI. Conclusion: An additionally performed breast MRI could have increased the diagnostic reliability in the assessment of MCs. Further, in our small cohort, a considerable number of malignant lesions without mammographically visible MCs were revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diagnostic Medical Imaging in 2023)
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12 pages, 1253 KiB  
Article
Involvement of APOBEC3A/B Deletion in Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)-like Positive Human Breast Cancer
by Nathália de Sousa Pereira, Glauco Akelinghton Freire Vitiello and Marla Karine Amarante
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1196; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061196 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1699
Abstract
The association between mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like sequences and human breast cancer (BC) is largely documented in the literature, but further research is needed to determine how they influence carcinogenesis. APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases are viral restriction factors that have been implicated in [...] Read more.
The association between mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like sequences and human breast cancer (BC) is largely documented in the literature, but further research is needed to determine how they influence carcinogenesis. APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases are viral restriction factors that have been implicated in cancer mutagenesis, and a germline deletion that results in the fusion of the APOBEC3A coding region with the APOBEC3B 3′-UTR has been linked to increased mutagenic potential, enhanced risk of BC development, and poor prognosis. However, little is known about factors influencing APOBEC3 family activation in cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that MMTV infection and APOBEC3-mediated mutagenesis may be linked in the pathogenesis of BC. We investigated APOBEC3A/B genotyping, MMTV-like positivity, and clinicopathological parameters of 209 BC patients. We show evidence for active APOBEC3-mediated mutagenesis in human-derived MMTV sequences and comparatively investigate the impact of APOBEC3A/B germline deletion in MMTV-like env positive and negative BC in a Brazilian cohort. In MMTV-like negative samples, APOBEC3A/B deletion was negatively correlated with tumor stage while being positively correlated with estrogen receptor expression. Although APOBEC3A/B was not associated with MMTV-like positivity, samples carrying both MMTV-like positivity and APOBEC3A/B deletion had the lowest age-at-diagnosis of all study groups, with all patients being less than 50 years old. These results indicate that APOBEC3 mutagenesis is active against MMTV-like sequences, and that APOBEC3A/B deletion might act along with the MMTV-like presence to predispose people to early-onset BC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Breast Disease: From Screening to Diagnosis and Therapy)
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14 pages, 966 KiB  
Review
Non-Aneurysmal Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Literature Review
by Iulian Roman-Filip, Valentin Morosanu, Zoltan Bajko, Corina Roman-Filip and Rodica Ioana Balasa
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061195 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3411
Abstract
Spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (NAPMSAH) (addressing point 1) is a relatively rare occurrence in clinical settings as it is rarely misdiagnosed and usually involves a significantly better prognosis than the classical aneurysmal pattern. We hereby focused on a comprehensive analysis of this distinct [...] Read more.
Spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (NAPMSAH) (addressing point 1) is a relatively rare occurrence in clinical settings as it is rarely misdiagnosed and usually involves a significantly better prognosis than the classical aneurysmal pattern. We hereby focused on a comprehensive analysis of this distinct pathological entity with the purpose of analysing possible pathophysiological entities, outcomes and treatment options involving this diagnosis with a focus on demographical, epidemiological and clinical data. The clinical setting includes focal neurological signs related to the anatomical structures, while computer tomography followed by tomographic angiography are the most common diagnosis tools, with a typical hyperdense lesion involving the midbrain, fourth ventricle and subthalamic areas without an angiographic correspondent, such as an aneurysmal pathology. Further investigations can also be used to highlight this diagnosis, such as interventional angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Given the rarity of this condition and its relatively better prognosis, treatment options usually remain conservative. In the present review, the main characteristics of NAPMSAH are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of the Brain and Blood Vessels in Ischemic Stroke)
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12 pages, 1121 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies in Mexican Population: A Five Vaccine Comparison
by Fernando Alcorta-Nuñez, Diana Cristina Pérez-Ibave, Carlos Horacio Burciaga-Flores, Miguel Ángel Garza, Moisés González-Escamilla, Patricia Rodríguez-Niño, Juan Francisco González-Guerrero, Adelina Alcorta-Garza, Oscar Vidal-Gutiérrez, Genaro A. Ramírez-Correa and María Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061194 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Neutralizing antibodies (NAs) are key immunological markers and are part of the humoral response of the adaptive immune system. NA assays determine the presence of functional antibodies to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. We performed a real-world evidence study to detect NAs that confer protection [...] Read more.
Neutralizing antibodies (NAs) are key immunological markers and are part of the humoral response of the adaptive immune system. NA assays determine the presence of functional antibodies to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. We performed a real-world evidence study to detect NAs that confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 after the application of five vaccines (Pfizer/BioNTech, AstraZeneca, Sinovac, Moderna, and CanSino) in the Mexican population. Side effects of COVID-19 vaccines and clinical and demographic factors associated with low immunogenicity were also evaluated. A total of 242 SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated subjects were recruited. Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna proved the highest percentage of inhibition in a mono-vaccine scheme. Muscular pain, headache, and fatigue were the most common adverse events. None of the patients reported severe adverse events. We found an estimated contagion-free time of 207 (IQR: 182–231) and 187 (IQR: 184–189) days for Pfizer/BioNTech and CanSino in 12 cases in each group. On the basis of our results, we consider that the emerging vaccination strategy in Mexico is effective and safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Diagnostics of Emerging Pathogens for Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 298 KiB  
Review
Menopausal Changes in the Microbiome—A Review Focused on the Genitourinary Microbiome
by Min Gu Park, Seok Cho and Mi Mi Oh
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061193 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
A balanced interaction between the host and its microbiome is crucial to health. Research regarding the significance of the gut and vaginal microbiomes in female health is substantial. However, less data regarding the urinary microbiome are available. Interactions between the gut, vaginal, and [...] Read more.
A balanced interaction between the host and its microbiome is crucial to health. Research regarding the significance of the gut and vaginal microbiomes in female health is substantial. However, less data regarding the urinary microbiome are available. Interactions between the gut, vaginal, and urinary microbiomes are also currently being researched. Hormone-induced dysbiosis after menopause is believed to have effects on physical changes and health consequences. Postmenopausal changes in the gut microbiome are associated with increased short-chain fatty acids and hydrogen sulfide levels. Increased vaginal pH caused by reduced estrogen alters the vaginal microbiome, resulting in reduced levels of Lactobacillus. Such changes influence the vaginal structure and functions, contributing to the onset of genitourinary syndrome of menopause. A dysbiosis of the urinary microbiome is associated with urgency and urinary incontinence and also related to interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and neuropathic bladder. As these diseases commonly affect postmenopausal women, hormone-induced changes in the microbiome may play a role. Menopause increases the alpha diversity of the urinary microbiome and lowers the percentage of Lactobacillus in urine, and such changes precede recurrent cystitis. More research regarding the effects of changes in the urinary microbiome due to menopause on urinary tract diseases is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome in Urological Diseases)
12 pages, 2428 KiB  
Article
Is Laser Therapy an Adjuvant in the Treatment of Peri-Implant Mucositis? A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Luminița Lazăr, Timea Dakó, Izabella-Éva Mureșan, Mircea Suciu, George-Alexandru Maftei, Monica Tatarciuc and Ana-Petra Lazăr
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061192 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
(1) Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of peri-implant mucositis may reduce inflammatory markers and halt the progression of the condition to peri-implantitis. Adjunctive laser treatment may have therapeutic benefits that are not yet well known. The aim of this study was to determine [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of peri-implant mucositis may reduce inflammatory markers and halt the progression of the condition to peri-implantitis. Adjunctive laser treatment may have therapeutic benefits that are not yet well known. The aim of this study was to determine the advantages and limitations of laser therapy as an adjuvant in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis. (2) Methods: A total of 42 patients with at least 2 implants situated in different hemiarches were included in this study and divided into two groups: G1 (received laser therapy) and G2 (no laser therapy). Periodontal health status indices were recorded at the initial moment (T0), and all patients underwent non-surgical debridement therapy accompanied by oral hygiene training. In patients from group G1, one implant site received adjuvant laser therapy (subgroup IL), and the other one did not receive active laser light (IC). The plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and bleeding on probing (BOP) values recorded after 3 months (T1) and 6 months (T2) were analyzed and compared with those at T0. (3) Results: PI values considerably reduced at moment T1 and T2 for both G1 and G2 (p = 0.0031). PPD was also reduced, but the difference between the groups and the three recording moments was not statistically significant. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the BOP values between G1 IL and G1 IC for T0/T1 (p = 0.0182) and T1/T2 (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant difference between G2 and G1 IL or G1 IC. (4) Conclusions: Laser therapy as an adjunct to conventional treatment of peri-implant mucositis leads to a statistically significant reduction in bleeding on probing at 3-month and 6-month re-evaluations. Moreover, it leads to an evident reduction in probing depth but with no statistical significance. These results should be interpreted with caution, and more in-depth research should be performed to create a complete laser therapy protocol for peri-implant mucositis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in 2022)
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10 pages, 1636 KiB  
Study Protocol
Clinical Value of Novel Echocardiographic Biomarkers Assessing Myocardial Work in Acute Heart Failure—Rationale and Design of the “Beyond Myo-HF Study”
by Vasileios Anastasiou, Stylianos Daios, Dimitrios V. Moysidis, Maria-Anna Bazmpani, Thomas Zegkos, Theodoros Karamitsos, Kali Makedou, Christos Savopoulos, Georgios Efthimiadis, Antonios Ziakas and Vasileios Kamperidis
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061191 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Background. Despite ongoing treatment advancements in chronic heart failure (HF), mortality and readmission rates remain high for patients hospitalized for decompensated acute HF. These patients represent a distinct HF group, which requires emergent echocardiographic evaluation in an attempt to provide optimal and individualized [...] Read more.
Background. Despite ongoing treatment advancements in chronic heart failure (HF), mortality and readmission rates remain high for patients hospitalized for decompensated acute HF. These patients represent a distinct HF group, which requires emergent echocardiographic evaluation in an attempt to provide optimal and individualized acute care. The role of serial advanced echocardiographic assessment in acute HF for risk stratification and treatment guidance has not been thoroughly explored. Methods. The “Beyond Myo-HF Study” is a prospective, non-interventional cohort trial designed to enroll acutely admitted patients with symptoms and/or signs of HF. The aim of this study is to investigate whether intrahospital changes of conventional and novel echocardiographic indices of myocardial function and congestion-related markers can predict early mortality, late mortality, and HF rehospitalization. As per the protocol, all patients undergo a pair of state-of-the-art echocardiographic assessments, with a rigorous protocol including speckle tracking analysis of all cardiac chambers and myocardial work analysis for the left and right ventricle, upon admission and pre-discharge. Their laboratory profile is captured at those two time-points, and their therapeutic management is recorded. Patients will be followed-up for a median period of 12 months after enrollment. Conclusions. The “Beyond Myo-HF” study is an ongoing, prospective trial aspiring to provide deep insight into the pathophysiology of acute HF, to enlighten the reverse cardiac functional and anatomical remodeling during hospitalization, and to recognize echocardiographic patterns capable of predicting adverse outcomes during and post decompensation of acute HF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis of Valvular Heart Disease and Myocardial Function)
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7 pages, 237 KiB  
Communication
Galactomannan-Antigen Testing from Non-Directed Bronchial Lavage for Rapid Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Critically Ill Patients: A Proof-of-Concept Study
by Kathrin Rothe, Miriam Dibos, Stefanie J. Haschka, Roland M. Schmid, Dirk Busch, Sebastian Rasch and Tobias Lahmer
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061190 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is associated with high mortality. For diagnosis, galactomannan-antigen in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is recommended, with higher sensitivity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Because of invasiveness, bronchoalveolar lavage might be withheld due to patients’ or technical limitations, leading to a [...] Read more.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is associated with high mortality. For diagnosis, galactomannan-antigen in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is recommended, with higher sensitivity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Because of invasiveness, bronchoalveolar lavage might be withheld due to patients’ or technical limitations, leading to a delay in diagnosis while early diagnosis is crucial for patient outcome. To address this problem, we performed an analysis of patient characteristics of intubated patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with comparison of galactomannan-antigen testing between non-directed bronchial lavage (NBL) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A total of 32 intubated ICU patients with suspected invasive pulmonary aspergillosis could be identified. Mycological cultures were positive in 37.5% for A. fumigatus. Galactomannan-antigen in NBL (ODI 4.3 ± 2.4) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (ODI 3.6 ± 2.2) showed consistent results (p-value 0.697). Galactomannan-antigen testing for detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis using deep tracheal secretion showed comparable results to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Because of widespread availability in intubated patients, galactomannan-antigen from NBL can be used as a screening parameter in critical risk groups with high pretest probability for invasive aspergillosis to accelerate diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage remains the gold standard for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis to be completed to confirm diagnosis, but results from NBL remove time sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
14 pages, 1939 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Fast-Track Pathway in Hip and Knee Replacement Surgery by Propensity Score Matching on Patient-Reported Outcomes
by Andrea Campagner, Frida Milella, Stefania Guida, Susan Bernareggi, Giuseppe Banfi and Federico Cabitza
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061189 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasty procedures have steadily increased over the past few decades, and their use is expected to grow further, mainly due to an increasing number of elderly patients. Cost-containment strategies, supporting a rapid recovery with a positive [...] Read more.
Total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasty procedures have steadily increased over the past few decades, and their use is expected to grow further, mainly due to an increasing number of elderly patients. Cost-containment strategies, supporting a rapid recovery with a positive functional outcomes, high patient satisfaction, and enhanced patient reported outcomes, are needed. A Fast Track surgical procedure (FT) is a coordinated perioperative approach aimed at expediting early mobilization and recovery following surgery and, accordingly, shortening the length of hospital stay (LOS), convalescence and costs. In this view, rapid rehabilitation surgery optimizes traditional rehabilitation methods by integrating evidence-based practices into the procedure. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of Fast Track versus Care-as-Usual surgical procedures and pathways (including rehabilitation) on a mid-term patient-reported outcome (PROs), the SF12 (with regard both to Physical and Mental Scores), 3 months after hip or knee replacement surgery, with the use of Propensity score-matching (PSM) analysis to address the issue of the comparability of the groups in a non-randomized study. We were interested in the evaluation of the entire pathways, including the postoperative rehabilitation stage, therefore, we only used early home discharge as a surrogate to differentiate between the Fast Track and Care-as-Usual rehabilitation pathways. Our study shows that the entire Fast Track pathway, which includes the post-operative rehabilitation stage, has a significantly positive impact on physical health-related status (SF12 Physical Scores), as perceived by patients 3 months after hip or knee replacement surgery, as opposed to the standardized program, both in terms of the PROs score and the relative improvements observed, as compared with the minimum clinically important difference. This result encourages additional research into the effects of Fast Track rehabilitation on the entire process of care for patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty, focusing only on patient-reported outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Diagnosis of Patients during Rehabilitation Training)
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15 pages, 877 KiB  
Article
The Accuracy of Pre-Endoscopic Scores for Mortality Prediction in Patients with Upper GI Bleeding and No Endoscopy Performed
by Sergiu Marian Cazacu, Dragoș Ovidiu Alexandru, Răzvan-Cristian Statie, Sevastița Iordache, Bogdan Silviu Ungureanu, Vlad Florin Iovănescu, Petrică Popa, Victor Mihai Sacerdoțianu, Carmen Daniela Neagoe and Mirela Marinela Florescu
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1188; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061188 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1530
Abstract
(1) Background: The assessment of mortality and rebleeding rate in upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is essential, and several prognostic scores have been proposed. Some patients with UGIB did not undergo endoscopy, either because they refused the procedure, suffered from alcohol withdrawal symptoms or [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The assessment of mortality and rebleeding rate in upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is essential, and several prognostic scores have been proposed. Some patients with UGIB did not undergo endoscopy, either because they refused the procedure, suffered from alcohol withdrawal symptoms or altered general status, or because the bleeding was severe enough to cause death before the endoscopy. The mortality risk in the subgroup of patients without endoscopy is poorly evaluated in the literature. (2) Methods: The purpose of the study was to identify the most useful scores for the assessment of in-hospital mortality in patients with UGIB with no endoscopy performed and no known etiology. A total of 198 patients with UGIB and no endoscopy performed were admitted between January 2017 and December 2021 and the accuracy of 12 prognostic scores and the Charlson comorbidity index for in-hospital mortality prediction were analyzed, as well as Child–Pugh Turcotte (CPT) and Meld scores in patients with cirrhosis. (3) Results: The mortality rate was 37.9%, higher than in variceal (21.9%, p < 0.0001) and non-variceal bleeding (7.4%, p < 0.0001). The most accurate scores by AUC were the International Bleeding score (INBS, 0.844), Glasgow Blatchford (0.783), MAP score (0.78), Iino (0.766), AIM65 and modified N-score (0.745 each), modified Glasgow-Blatchford (0.73), H3B2 and N-score (0.701); Rockall, Baylor, and T-score had an AUC below 0.7. MELD score was superior to CPT in patients with cirrhosis (AUC 0.811 versus 0.670). (4) Conclusions: The mortality rate in UGIB with no endoscopy was higher than in both variceal and non-variceal bleeding and was higher in the pandemic period but with no statistical significance (45.3% versus 32.14%, p = 0.0586), mainly because of positive cases. Only one case of rebleeding was noted; the hospitalization period was significantly shorter. The most accurate score was International Bleeding Score; the MELD score had a higher but moderate accuracy compared with CPT in patients with cirrhosis. Full article
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18 pages, 8998 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Prognostic Significance of BRAF Gene Analysis in Children and Adolescents with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Eleni P Kotanidou, Styliani Giza, Vasiliki Rengina Tsinopoulou, Kosmas Margaritis, Anastasia Papadopoulou, Eleni Sakellari, Savvas Kolanis, Eleni Litou, Anastasios Serbis and Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061187 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
Thyroid cancer represents the prominent endocrine cancer in children. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) constitutes its most frequent (>90%) pediatric histological type. Mutations energizing the mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are definitely related to PTC. Its most common genetic alteration is in proto-oncogene B-Raf (BRAF). [...] Read more.
Thyroid cancer represents the prominent endocrine cancer in children. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) constitutes its most frequent (>90%) pediatric histological type. Mutations energizing the mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are definitely related to PTC. Its most common genetic alteration is in proto-oncogene B-Raf (BRAF). Mutated BRAF is proposed as a prognostic tool in adult PTC. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the association of mutated BRAF gene and prognostic clinicopathological characteristics of PTC in children/adolescents. Systematic search for relevant studies included PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov and Cochrane Library. Pooled estimates of odds ratios for categorical data and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated using random/fixed-effect meta-analytic models. BRAFV600E mutation presents a pooled pediatric/adolescent prevalence of 33.12%. Distant metastasis is significantly associated with mutated BRAF gene (OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.16–0.61, p = 0.001). Tumor size (MD = −0.24, 95% CI = −0.62–0.135, p = 0.21), multifocality (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.65–2.34, p = 0.74), vascular invasion (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.67–2.05, p = 0.57), lymph node metastasis (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.63–1.33, p = 0.66), extra-thyroid extension (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.53–1.13, p = 0.19) and tumor recurrence (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 0.68–4.21, p = 0.376) presented no association or risk with BRAF mutation among pediatric/adolescent PTC. Mutated BRAF gene in children and adolescents is less common than in adults. Mutation in BRAF relates significantly to distant metastasis among children/adolescents with PTC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prognostic Factors for Pediatric Tumors)
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10 pages, 1755 KiB  
Article
Considering Diastolic Dyssynchrony as a Predictor of Favorable Response in LV-Only Fusion Pacing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
by Andra Gurgu, Constantin-Tudor Luca, Cristina Vacarescu, Lucian Petrescu, Emilia-Violeta Goanta, Mihai-Andrei Lazar, Diana-Aurora Arnăutu and Dragos Cozma
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061186 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Background: CRT improves systolic and diastolic function, increasing cardiac output. Aim of the study: to assess the outcome of LV diastolic dyssynchrony in a population of fusion pacing CRT. Methods: Diastolic dyssynchrony was measured by offline speckle-tracking-derived TDI timing assessment of the simultaneity [...] Read more.
Background: CRT improves systolic and diastolic function, increasing cardiac output. Aim of the study: to assess the outcome of LV diastolic dyssynchrony in a population of fusion pacing CRT. Methods: Diastolic dyssynchrony was measured by offline speckle-tracking-derived TDI timing assessment of the simultaneity of E″ and A″ basal septal and lateral walls. New parameters introduced: E″ and, respectively, A″ time (E″T/A″T) as the time difference between E″ (respectively, A″) peak septal and lateral wall. Patients were divided into super-responders (SR), responders (R), and non-responders (NR). Results: Baseline characteristics: 62 pts (62 ± 11 y.o.) with idiopathic DCM, EF 27 ± 5.2%; 29% type III diastolic dysfunction (DD), 63% type II, 8% type I. Average follow-up 45 ± 19 months: LVEF 37 ± 7.9%, 34%SR, 61%R, 5%NR. The E″T decreased from 90 ± 20 ms to 25 ± 10 ms in SR with significant LV reverse remodeling (LV end-diastolic volume 193.7 ± 81 vs. 243.2 ± 82 mL at baseline, p < 0.0028) and lower LV filling pressures (E/E′ 13.2 ± 4.6 vs. 11.4 ± 4.5, p = 0.0295). DD profile improved in 65% of R with a reduction in E/E′ ratio (21 ± 9 vs. 14 ± 4 ms, p < 0.0001). Significant cut-off value calculated by ROC curve for LV diastolic dyssynchrony is E″T > 80 ms and A″T > 30 msec. Conclusions: The study identifies the cut-off values of diastolic dyssynchrony parameters as predictors of favorable outcomes in responders and super-responder patients with fusion CRT pacing. These findings may have important implications in patient selection and follow-up. Full article
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2 pages, 180 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Advance in Diagnostic and Management of Ischemic Heart Disease”
by Maria Dorobanțu
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061185 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Ischemic heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Diagnostic and Management of Ischemic Heart Disease)
9 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Adenomyosis in Pregnancy—Should It Be Managed in High-Risk Obstetric Units?
by Rodrigo Orozco, José Carlos Vilches, Ignacio Brunel, Manuel Lozano, Gema Hernández, David Pérez-Del Rey, Laura Meloni and Juan Luis Alcázar
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061184 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Background: Uterine adenomyosis is an increasingly frequent disorder. Our study aimed to demonstrate the presence of obstetric complications in the population affected by this condition to demonstrate the need for follow-up in high-risk obstetric units. Material and Methods: The data for the study [...] Read more.
Background: Uterine adenomyosis is an increasingly frequent disorder. Our study aimed to demonstrate the presence of obstetric complications in the population affected by this condition to demonstrate the need for follow-up in high-risk obstetric units. Material and Methods: The data for the study were obtained from TriNetX, LLC, between 2010 and 2020. The outcomes analyzed were intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, hypertension, abruption placentae, and spontaneous abortion. Seven thousand six hundred and eight patients were included in the cohort of pregnant patients with adenomyosis, and 566,153 women in the cohort of pregnant patients without any history of endometriosis. Results: Upon calculating the total risk of presenting any of these problems during pregnancy, we obtained an OR = 1.521, implying that a pregnancy with adenomyosis was 52.1% more likely to present some complication. We found: IUGR OR = 1.257 (95% CI: 1.064–1.485) (p = 0.007); preterm delivery OR = 1.422 (95% CI: 1.264–1.600) (p = 0.0001); cesarean delivery OR = 1.099 (95% CI: 1.002–1.205) (p = 0.046); hypertensive disorders OR = 1.177 (95% CI: 1.076–1.288) (p = 0.0001); abruption placentae OR = 1.197 (95% CI: 1.008–1.422) (p = 0.040), and spontaneous abortion OR = 1.529 (95% CI: 1.360–1.718) (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: We conclude that the review carried out and the data we obtained on increased risk provide sufficient evidence to recommend that patients with adenomyosis should be managed in obstetric high-risk units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gynecological Ultrasound)
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Article
Concordance between US and MRI Two-Dimensional Measurement and Volumetric Segmentation in Fetal Ventriculomegaly
by George Hadjidekov, Gleb Haynatzki, Petya Chaveeva, Miroslav Nikolov, Gabriele Masselli and Andrea Rossi
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061183 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1802
Abstract
We provide a study comparison between two-dimensional measurement and volumetric (3D) segmentation of the lateral ventricles and brain structures in fetuses with isolated and non-isolated ventriculomegaly with 3D virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) ultrasonography vs. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyzed with 3D-Slicer software. [...] Read more.
We provide a study comparison between two-dimensional measurement and volumetric (3D) segmentation of the lateral ventricles and brain structures in fetuses with isolated and non-isolated ventriculomegaly with 3D virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) ultrasonography vs. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyzed with 3D-Slicer software. In this cross-sectional study, 40 fetuses between 20 and 38 gestational weeks with various degrees of ventriculomegaly were included. A total of 71 ventricles were measured with ultrasound (US) and with MRI. A total of 64 sonographic ventricular volumes, 80 ventricular and 40 fetal brain MR volumes were segmented and analyzed using both imaging modalities by three observers. Sizes and volumes of the ventricles and brain parenchyma were independently analyzed by two radiologists, and interobserver correlation of the results with 3D fetal ultrasound data was performed. The semiautomated rotational multiplanar 3D VOCAL technique was performed for ultrasound volumetric measurements. Results were compared to manually extracted ventricular and total brain volumes in 3D-Slicer. Segmentation of fetal brain structures (cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, brainstem, ventricles) performed independently by two radiologists showed high interobserver agreement. An excellent agreement between VOCAL and MRI volumetric and two-dimensional measurements was established, taking into account the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and a Bland–Altman plot was established. US and MRI are valuable tools for performing fetal brain and ventricular volumetry for clinical prognosis and patient counseling. Our datasets could provide the backbone for further construction of quantitative normative trajectories of fetal intracranial structures and support earlier detection of abnormal brain development and ventriculomegaly, its timing and progression during gestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Imaging and Theranostics)
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10 pages, 1553 KiB  
Article
First Results of a New Deep Learning Reconstruction Algorithm on Image Quality and Liver Metastasis Conspicuity for Abdominal Low-Dose CT
by Joël Greffier, Quentin Durand, Chris Serrand, Renaud Sales, Fabien de Oliveira, Jean-Paul Beregi, Djamel Dabli and Julien Frandon
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061182 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
The study’s aim was to assess the impact of a deep learning image reconstruction algorithm (Precise Image; DLR) on image quality and liver metastasis conspicuity compared with an iterative reconstruction algorithm (IR). This retrospective study included all consecutive patients with at least one [...] Read more.
The study’s aim was to assess the impact of a deep learning image reconstruction algorithm (Precise Image; DLR) on image quality and liver metastasis conspicuity compared with an iterative reconstruction algorithm (IR). This retrospective study included all consecutive patients with at least one liver metastasis having been diagnosed between December 2021 and February 2022. Images were reconstructed using level 4 of the IR algorithm (i4) and the Standard/Smooth/Smoother levels of the DLR algorithm. Mean attenuation and standard deviation were measured by placing the ROIs in the fat, muscle, healthy liver, and liver tumor. Two radiologists assessed the image noise and image smoothing, overall image quality, and lesion conspicuity using Likert scales. The study included 30 patients (mean age 70.4 ± 9.8 years, 17 men). The mean CTDIvol was 6.3 ± 2.1 mGy, and the mean dose-length product 314.7 ± 105.7 mGy.cm. Compared with i4, the HU values were similar in the DLR algorithm at all levels for all tissues studied. For each tissue, the image noise significantly decreased with DLR compared with i4 (p < 0.01) and significantly decreased from Standard to Smooth (−26 ± 10%; p < 0.01) and from Smooth to Smoother (−37 ± 8%; p < 0.01). The subjective image assessment confirmed that the image noise significantly decreased between i4 and DLR (p < 0.01) and from the Standard to Smoother levels (p < 0.01), but the opposite occurred for the image smoothing. The highest scores for overall image quality and conspicuity were found for the Smooth and Smoother levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Imaging in Computed Tomography)
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12 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with the Effectiveness of Regimens for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Patients Coinfected with HIV/AIDS: Cohort 2015 to 2019
by Natália Helena de Resende, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda, Adriano Max Moreira Reis, Cristiane Aparecida Menezes de Pádua, João Paulo Amaral Haddad, Paulo Vitor Rozario da Silva, Dirce Inês da Silva and Wânia da Silva Carvalho
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061181 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1323
Abstract
(1) Background: Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a significant challenge for tuberculosis (TB) control, with increasing mortality rates worldwide. Moreover, the loss to follow-up is very high, with low adherence to treatment, resulting in unfavorable endpoints. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a significant challenge for tuberculosis (TB) control, with increasing mortality rates worldwide. Moreover, the loss to follow-up is very high, with low adherence to treatment, resulting in unfavorable endpoints. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of TB treatment in patients coinfected with HIV/AIDS and its associated factors. (2) Methods: Patients coinfected with TB and HIV/AIDS at a Reference Hospital for infectious diseases were followed up for a maximum of one year from the start of TB treatment until cure or censorship (death, abandonment, and transfer) from 2015 to 2019. The Cox proportional model was used to identify risk factors for effectiveness. (3) Results: Of the 244 patients included in the cohort, 58.2% (142/244) had no treatment effectiveness, 12.3% (30/244) died, and 11.1% (27/244) abandoned treatment. Viral suppression at the onset of TB treatment (HR = 1.961, CI = 1.123–3.422), previous use of Antiretroviral Therapy (HR = 1.676, CI = 1.060–2.651), new cases (HR = 2.407, CI = 1.197–3.501), not using illicit drugs (HR = 1.763, CI = 1.141–2.723), and using the basic TB regimen (HR = 1.864, CI = 1.084–3.205) were significant variables per the multivariate Cox regression analysis. (4) Conclusion: TB treatment for most TB patients coinfected with HIV/AIDS was not effective. This study identified that an undetectable viral load at the beginning of the disease, previous use of ART, not using illicit drugs and not having previously taken anti-TB treatment are factors associated with successful TB treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Surveillance of Tuberculosis)
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19 pages, 2215 KiB  
Article
NGAL as Biomarker of Clinical and Subclinical Damage of Kidney Function after Coronary Angiography
by Iliyana Petrova, Alexander Alexandrov, Georgi Vladimirov, Hristo Mateev, Ivaylo Bogov, Iva Paskaleva and Nina Gotcheva
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061180 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a serious complication after angiographic examinations in cardiology. Diagnosis may be delayed based on standard serum creatinine, and subclinical forms of kidney damage may not be detected at all. In our study, we investigate the clinical use [...] Read more.
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a serious complication after angiographic examinations in cardiology. Diagnosis may be delayed based on standard serum creatinine, and subclinical forms of kidney damage may not be detected at all. In our study, we investigate the clinical use in these directions of a “damage”-type biomarker—neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Among patients with a high-risk profile undergoing scheduled coronary angiography and/or angioplasty, plasma NGAL was determined at baseline and at 4th and 24th h after contrast administration. In the CI-AKI group, NGAL increased significantly at the 4th hour (Me 109.3 (IQR 92.1–148.7) ng/mL versus 97.6 (IQR 69.4–127.0) ng/mL, p = 0.006) and at the 24th hour (Me 131.0 (IQR 81.1–240.8) ng/mL, p = 0.008). In patients with subclinical CI-AKI, NGAL also increased significantly at the 4th hour (Me 94.0 (IQR 75.5–148.2) ng/mL, p = 0.002) and reached levels close to those in patients with CI-AKI. Unlike the new biomarker, however, serum creatinine did not change significantly in this group. The diagnostic power of NGAL is extremely good—AUC 0.847 (95% CI: 0.677–1.000; p = 0.001) in CI-AKI and AUC 0.731 (95% CI: 0.539–0.924; p = 0.024) in subclinical CI-AKI. NGAL may be a reliable biomarker for the early diagnosis of clinical and subclinical forms of renal injury after contrast angiographic studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kidney Disease: Biomarkers, Diagnosis, and Prognosis: 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
National Knowledge-Driven Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea—The Swedish Approach
by Ludger Grote, Carl-Peter Anderberg, Danielle Friberg, Gert Grundström, Kerstin Hinz, Göran Isaksson, Tarmo Murto, Zarita Nilsson, Jonas Spaak, Göran Stillberg, Karin Söderberg, Åke Tegelberg, Jenny Theorell-Haglöw, Martin Ulander and Jan Hedner
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061179 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3669
Abstract
Introduction: This paper describes the development of “Swedish Guidelines for OSA treatment” and the underlying managed care process. The Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) is traditionally used as a single parameter for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity classification, although poorly associated with symptomatology and [...] Read more.
Introduction: This paper describes the development of “Swedish Guidelines for OSA treatment” and the underlying managed care process. The Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) is traditionally used as a single parameter for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity classification, although poorly associated with symptomatology and outcome. We instead implement a novel matrix for shared treatment decisions based on available evidence. Methods: A national expert group including medical and dental specialists, nurses, and patient representatives developed the knowledge-driven management model. A Delphi round was performed amongst experts from all Swedish regions (N = 24). Evidence reflecting treatment effects was extracted from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized clinical trials. Results: The treatment decision in the process includes a matrix with five categories from a “very weak”” to “very strong” indication to treat, and it includes factors with potential influence on outcome, including (A) OSA-related symptoms, (B) cardiometabolic comorbidities, (C) frequency of respiratory events, and (D) age. OSA-related symptoms indicate a strong incitement to treat, whereas the absence of symptoms, age above 65 years, and no or well-controlled comorbidities indicate a weak treatment indication, irrespective of AHI. Conclusions: The novel treatment matrix is based on the effects of treatments rather than the actual frequency of respiratory events during sleep. A nationwide implementation of this matrix is ongoing, and the outcome is monitored in a prospective evaluation by means of the Swedish Sleep Apnea Registry (SESAR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Disorders)
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