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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 12 (June-2 2023) – 158 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An exhaustive study of the pasting and rheological properties of starch gels (maize and rice (normal and waxy in both cases), wheat, potato, and tapioca) at different concentrations was performed. The parameters determined for the gels at the studied concentrations were correlated with the hydration properties and thermal properties by applying principal component analysis (PCA). Wheat starch, followed by normal maize and normal rice starches, presented a greater capacity to modulate their gels’ pasting and viscoelastic properties via their concentration in water. The characteristics of waxy rice and maize, potato, and tapioca starches were only slightly modified by different concentrations in pasting assays, but the gels of potato and tapioca showed noticeable changes in their viscoelastic properties as functions of concentration. View this paper
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31 pages, 5466 KiB  
Review
Volatile Composition of Fortification Grape Spirit and Port Wine: Where Do We Stand?
by Sónia Gomes Ribeiro, Cátia Martins, Tiago Tavares, Alisa Rudnitskaya, Fernando Alves and Sílvia M. Rocha
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122432 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Port wine’s prominence worldwide is unequivocal and the grape spirit, which comprises roughly one fifth of the total volume of this fortified wine, is also a contributor to the recognized quality of this beverage. Nonetheless, information about the influence of the grape spirit [...] Read more.
Port wine’s prominence worldwide is unequivocal and the grape spirit, which comprises roughly one fifth of the total volume of this fortified wine, is also a contributor to the recognized quality of this beverage. Nonetheless, information about the influence of the grape spirit on the final aroma of Port wine, as well as its volatile composition, is extremely limited. Moreover, the aroma characteristics of Port wines are modulated mainly by their volatile profiles. Hence, this review presents a detailed overview of the volatile composition of the fortification spirit and Port wine, along with the methodologies employed for their characterization. Moreover, it gives a general overview of the Douro Demarcated Region (Portugal) and the relevance of fortification spirit to the production of Port wine. As far as we know, this review contains the most extensive database on the volatile composition of grape spirit and Port wine, corresponding to 23 and 208 compounds, respectively. To conclude, the global outlook and future challenges are addressed, with the position of the analytical coverage of the chemical data on volatile components discussed as crucial for the innovation centered on consumer preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
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15 pages, 2690 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Egg White Protein Films Loaded with ε-Polylysine: Evaluation of Their Degradability and Application
by Xin Li, Jianhao Lv, Minghao Niu, Siqi Liu, Yue Wu, Jiahan Liu, Jingwen Xie, Chengfeng Sun and Yue-Meng Wang
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122431 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
There is an ongoing trend to design new kinds of food packaging materials with excellent properties which are environmentally friendly enough. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize egg white protein (EWP)-based composite films with and without ε-polylysine (Lys), as [...] Read more.
There is an ongoing trend to design new kinds of food packaging materials with excellent properties which are environmentally friendly enough. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize egg white protein (EWP)-based composite films with and without ε-polylysine (Lys), as well as to compare their physical–chemical properties, structural properties, degradation and antibacterial properties. The results showed that with the addition of Lys, the composite films showed a decreasing tendency of the water permeability due to the enhanced interaction between proteins and water molecules. As indicated by the structural properties, stronger cross-linking and intermolecular interactions happened with increasing concentration of Lys. In addition, the composite films presented excellent antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus on chilled pork in the presence of Lys. Therefore, our prepared films might be used as a freshness-keeping material with an application in meat preservation. The biodegradation evaluation demonstrated that the composite films were environmental-friendly and have potential applications in the field of food packaging. Full article
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18 pages, 3376 KiB  
Article
Effects of Sun Withering Degree on Black Tea Quality Revealed via Non-Targeted Metabolomics
by Zhuanrong Wu, Yuanfang Jiao, Xinfeng Jiang, Chen Li, Weijiang Sun, Yuqiong Chen, Zhi Yu and Dejiang Ni
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122430 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
In this study, the effects of different sun withering degrees (75% (CK), 69% (S69), 66% (S66), 63% (S63), and 60% (S60) water content in the withered leaves) on black tea sensory quality were investigated by means of sensory evaluation plus metabolomics analysis. Sensory [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of different sun withering degrees (75% (CK), 69% (S69), 66% (S66), 63% (S63), and 60% (S60) water content in the withered leaves) on black tea sensory quality were investigated by means of sensory evaluation plus metabolomics analysis. Sensory evaluation results showed higher sensory quality scores for the black tea in S69–S66, due to better freshness, sweeter taste, and a sweet and even floral and fruity aroma. Additionally, 65 non-volatile components were identified using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Among them, the content increase of amino acids and theaflavins was found to promote the freshness and sweetness of black tea. The aroma of tea was analyzed using combined Solvent Assisted Flavor Evaporation-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SAFE-GC-MS) and Headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extract-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), and 180 volatiles were identified, including 38 variable importance in projection (VIP) > 1 (p < 0.05) and 25 Odor Activity Value (OAV) > 1 volatiles. Statistical analysis revealed 11 volatiles as potential major aroma differential metabolites in black tea with a different sun withering degree, such as volatile terpenoids (linalool, geraniol, (E)-citral, and β-myrcene), amino-acid-derived volatiles (benzeneethanol, benzeneacetaldehyde, and methyl salicylate), carotenoid-derived volatiles (jasmone and β-damascenone), and fatty-acid-derived volatiles ((Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (E)-2-hexenal). Among them, volatile terpenoids and amino acid derived volatiles mainly contributed to the floral and fruity aroma quality of sun-withered black tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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11 pages, 5165 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Changes in Aroma-Related Volatiles in Meat Model: Effect of Fat and D. hansenii Inoculation
by Lei Li, Carmela Belloch and Mónica Flores
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122429 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
This study assessed the effect of replacing pork lard with coconut oil and Debaryomyces hansenii inoculation on the biotransformation of amino acids into volatile compounds in a meat model system. Yeast counts, solid-phase microextraction, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to assess yeast [...] Read more.
This study assessed the effect of replacing pork lard with coconut oil and Debaryomyces hansenii inoculation on the biotransformation of amino acids into volatile compounds in a meat model system. Yeast counts, solid-phase microextraction, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to assess yeast growth and volatile production, respectively. Yeast growth was confirmed until 28 d, although the volatile profile changed until 39 d. Forty-three volatiles were quantified, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. The presence of fat and yeasts contributed to differences in volatiles. In pork lard models, a delayed formation of lipid-derived aldehyde compounds was observed, whereas in coconut oil models, the generation of acid compounds and their respective esters was enhanced. Yeast activity affected amino acid degradation, which produced an increase in branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols. The aroma profile in the coconut models was influenced by hexanal, acid compounds, and their respective esters, whereas in pork lard models, aroma was affected by methional (musty, potato) and 3-methylbutanal (green, cocoa). The yeast inoculation contributed to the generation of 3-methylbutanoic acid (cheesy) and phenylethyl alcohol (floral). The type of fat and yeast inoculation produced a differential effect on the aroma. Full article
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19 pages, 765 KiB  
Systematic Review
Discovering and Mapping Colloquial Terminologies Describing Underutilized and Neglected Food Crops—A Comprehensive Review
by Szymon Wojciech Lara, Amalia Tsiami and Peter Cross
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2428; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122428 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Global levels of biodiversity and dietary diversity are decreasing, leading to food and nutrition insecurity. This is partially due to the homogenization of the global food supply with commodity crops. The reintroduction or introduction of neglected and underutilized species, minor, forgotten, and indigenous [...] Read more.
Global levels of biodiversity and dietary diversity are decreasing, leading to food and nutrition insecurity. This is partially due to the homogenization of the global food supply with commodity crops. The reintroduction or introduction of neglected and underutilized species, minor, forgotten, and indigenous crops and landrace varieties to the wider food systems and further diversification have been outlined as the future strategies for tackling the above by the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization in their policy frameworks. Most of the above species/crops are marginalized and only used across local food systems and in research. With over 15,000 different seed banks and repositories worldwide, information transparency and communication are crucial for database searching and their effective utilization. Much confusion persists around the true nature of those plants, and this prohibits the efficient utilization of their economic potential. A linguistic corpus search and a systematic literature review were conducted using the six most popular collocates to the above terms, which were as follows: ancient, heirloom, heritage, traditional, orphan, and the more distinct term ‘landrace’. The results were interpreted using the Critical Discourse Analysis method. The definitions’ findings show that heirloom, heritage, and ancient are mainly used in the United Kingdom and USA, where they are used to describe ‘naturalized’ and ‘indigenized’ or ‘indigenous’ food crops with a strong affiliation to ‘family’ and the ‘act of passing seeds down from generation to generation’. Orphan crops, on the other hand, are often described as being ‘overlooked’ by growers and ‘underfunded’ by researchers. Landrace is most strongly affiliated with ‘locality’, ‘biocultural diversity’, and ‘indigenous’, and with genomics literature, where the characteristics are often discussed in the context of genetics and population biology. Contextualizing, most of the terms were found to be ‘arbitrary’ and ‘undefinable’ due to their continuing evolution in the socially accepted form of language, perhaps apart from landrace. The review has retrieved 58 definitions for the mentioned 6 terms, together with the primary key terms creating a tool to facilitate a better inter-sector communication and aid in policy. Full article
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17 pages, 1542 KiB  
Article
Wild Fruits of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz: From Traditional Foods to Innovative Sources of Pigments and Antioxidant Ingredients for Food Products
by Cristina Tamayo-Vives, Patricia García-Herrera, María Cortes Sánchez-Mata, Rosa M. Cámara-Hurtado, María Luisa Pérez-Rodríguez, Laura Aceituno, Manuel Pardo-de-Santayana, María Inês Días, Lillian Barros and Patricia Morales
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122427 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) and whitebeam (Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz) are wild species traditionally used as ethnic foods in the Mediterranean area. Their red berries, and mainly the peels, may be used as ingredients due to their color (replacing other synthetic [...] Read more.
Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) and whitebeam (Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz) are wild species traditionally used as ethnic foods in the Mediterranean area. Their red berries, and mainly the peels, may be used as ingredients due to their color (replacing other synthetic colorants) or functional properties. Some previous studies analyze all edible fruits, but there is very little literature on the composition and properties of the pulpless epidermis of the fruits of C. monogyna and no literature concerning the fruits of S. aria. Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and families of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and total monomeric anthocyanins were determined in the epidermis of C. monogyna and S. aria fruits. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was also determined using QUENCHER (Quick-Easy-New-CHEap-Reproducible) methodology. Anthocyanins profiles were analyzed in hydroalcoholic extracts through HPLC/MS. C. monogyna fruits presented higher content of TPC than S. aria, with hydroxybenzoic acids (2870.6 mg GAE/100g dw) as the major family, followed by flavonols (771.4 mg QE/100 g dw) and hydroxycinnamic acids (610.3 FAE/100 g dw). Anthocyanins were found in 251.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/100 g dw, characterized by the content of cyanidin-O-hexoxide and peonidin-O-hexoxide. The levels of these compounds correlated with higher values of a* parameter (higher intensity of reddish color). These fruits also showed higher antioxidant capacity by Q-Folin–Ciocalteu and Q-FRAP. S. aria peels had fewer phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins (33.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/100 g dw), containing different cyanidin derivatives. From these results, new insights about the composition of the epidermis of these wild fruits are provided, and their potential as ingredients for the food industry is corroborated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnic Foods: Scientific Insights and Innovative Development)
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15 pages, 1628 KiB  
Article
Compositional Differences of Greek Cheeses of Limited Production
by Eleni C. Pappa, Efthymia Kondyli, Athanasios C. Pappas, Elisavet Giamouri, Aikaterini Sarri, Alexandros Mavrommatis, Evangelos Zoidis, Lida Papalamprou, Panagiotis Simitzis, Michael Goliomytis, Eleni Tsiplakou and Constantinos A. Georgiou
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122426 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Greece has a long tradition in cheesemaking, with 22 cheeses registered as protected designation of origin (PDO), 1 as protected geographical indication (PGI), and 1 applied for PGI. Several other cheeses are produced locally without any registration, which significantly contribute to the local [...] Read more.
Greece has a long tradition in cheesemaking, with 22 cheeses registered as protected designation of origin (PDO), 1 as protected geographical indication (PGI), and 1 applied for PGI. Several other cheeses are produced locally without any registration, which significantly contribute to the local economy. The present study investigated the composition (moisture, fat, salt, ash, and protein content), color parameters, and oxidative stability of cheeses that do not have a PDO/PGI certification, purchased from a Greek market. Milk and cheese types were correctly assigned for 62.8 and 82.1 % of samples, respectively, through discriminant analysis. The most important factors for milk type discrimination were L, a and b color attributes, salt, ash, fat-in-dry-matter, moisture-in-non-fat-substance, salt-in-moisture, and malondialdehyde contents, whereas a and b, and moisture, ash, fat, moisture-in-non-fat substance contents, and pH were the most influential characteristics for sample discrimination according to cheese type. A plausible explanation may be the differences in milk chemical composition between three animal species, namely cows, sheep, and goats and for the manufacture procedure and ripening. This is the very first report on the proximate analysis of these, largely ignored, chesses aiming to simulate interest for further study and production valorization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology)
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13 pages, 1731 KiB  
Review
Advances in Starch Nanoparticle for Emulsion Stabilization
by Jianwei Zhou, Meimei Guo, Yu Qin, Wenjun Wang, Ruiling Lv, Enbo Xu, Tian Ding, Donghong Liu and Zhengzong Wu
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122425 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Starch nanoparticles (SNPs) are generally defined as starch grains smaller than 600–1000 nm produced from a series of physical, chemical, or biologically modified starches. Many studies have reported the preparation and modification of SNPs, which are mostly based on the traditional “top-down” strategy. [...] Read more.
Starch nanoparticles (SNPs) are generally defined as starch grains smaller than 600–1000 nm produced from a series of physical, chemical, or biologically modified starches. Many studies have reported the preparation and modification of SNPs, which are mostly based on the traditional “top-down” strategy. The preparation process generally has problems with process complexity, long reaction periods, low yield, high energy consumption, poor repeatability, etc. A “bottom-up” strategy, such as an anti-solvent method, is proven to be suitable for the preparation of SNPs, and they are synthesized with small particle size, good repeatability, a low requirement on equipment, simple operation, and great development potential. The surface of raw starch contains a large amount of hydroxyl and has a high degree of hydrophilicity, while SNP is a potential emulsifier for food and non-food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Processing Technology of Starch Based Products in Food Industry)
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24 pages, 7241 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamics and Physicochemical Properties of Immobilized Maleic Anhydride-Modified Xylanase and Its Application in the Extraction of Oligosaccharides from Wheat Bran
by Yang Zhao, Xinrui Li, Shuo Guo, Jingwen Xu, Yan Cui, Mingzhu Zheng and Jingsheng Liu
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122424 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Xylanases are the preferred enzymes for the extracting of oligosaccharides from wheat bran. However, free xylanases have poor stability and are difficult to reuse, which limit their industrial application. In the present study, we covalently immobilized free maleic anhydride-modified xylanase (FMA-XY) to improve [...] Read more.
Xylanases are the preferred enzymes for the extracting of oligosaccharides from wheat bran. However, free xylanases have poor stability and are difficult to reuse, which limit their industrial application. In the present study, we covalently immobilized free maleic anhydride-modified xylanase (FMA-XY) to improve its reusability and stability. The immobilized maleic anhydride-modified xylanase (IMA-XY) exhibited better stability compared with the free enzyme. After six repeated uses, 52.24% of the activity of the immobilized enzyme remained. The wheat bran oligosaccharides extracted using IMA-XY were mainly xylopentoses, xylohexoses, and xyloheptoses, which were the β-configurational units and α-configurational units of xylose. The oligosaccharides also exhibited good antioxidant properties. The results indicated that FMA-XY can easily be recycled and can remain stable after immobilization; therefore, it has good prospects for future industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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13 pages, 1560 KiB  
Article
Influence of Heat Treatment on the Chemical, Physical, Microbiological and Sensorial Properties of Pork Liver Pâté as Affected by Fat Content
by Zuzana Lazárková, Alena Kratochvílová, Richardos Nikolaos Salek, Zdeněk Polášek, Ladislav Šiška, Markéta Pětová and František Buňka
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2423; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122423 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
The novelty of this study is the investigation of the effect of different heat treatments and, simultaneously, the effect of different fat levels on the quality of pork liver pâtés. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of heat treatment and fat [...] Read more.
The novelty of this study is the investigation of the effect of different heat treatments and, simultaneously, the effect of different fat levels on the quality of pork liver pâtés. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of heat treatment and fat content on selected properties of pork liver pâté. For this purpose, four batches of pâtés with two different fat contents (30 and 40% (w/w)) and two different heat treatments (pasteurisation: target temperature 70 °C, holding time of 10 min; sterilisation: target temperature 122 °C, holding time of 10 min) were manufactured. Chemical (pH, dry matter, crude protein, total lipid, ammonia, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), microbiological, colour, textural, rheological, and sensory analyses were performed. Both different heat treatment and fat content affected most of the parameters observed. Sterilisation ensured the commercial sterility of the manufactured pâtés, resulting in elevated TBARS values, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and springiness, and increased rheological parameters (G′, G″, G*, and η*), as well as colour changes (decrease in L* and increase in a*, b*, and C* values) and deterioration of appearance, consistency, and flavour also being detected (p < 0.05). Higher fat content caused similar variations in the textural and viscoelastic properties, i.e., the increase in hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and springiness, and also in G′, G″, G*, and η* (p < 0.05). However, the colour and sensorial parameters changed in different ways compared to the changes induced by the sterilisation effect. Overall, the observed changes might not be desirable for some consumers and further research would be appropriate to improve especially the sensorial attributes of sterilised pork liver pâtés. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Food Physical Characterization)
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59 pages, 1620 KiB  
Review
Biopolymer-Based Sustainable Food Packaging Materials: Challenges, Solutions, and Applications
by Kalpani Y. Perera, Amit K. Jaiswal and Swarna Jaiswal
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122422 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 12149
Abstract
Biopolymer-based packaging materials have become of greater interest to the world due to their biodegradability, renewability, and biocompatibility. In recent years, numerous biopolymers—such as starch, chitosan, carrageenan, polylactic acid, etc.—have been investigated for their potential application in food packaging. Reinforcement agents such as [...] Read more.
Biopolymer-based packaging materials have become of greater interest to the world due to their biodegradability, renewability, and biocompatibility. In recent years, numerous biopolymers—such as starch, chitosan, carrageenan, polylactic acid, etc.—have been investigated for their potential application in food packaging. Reinforcement agents such as nanofillers and active agents improve the properties of the biopolymers, making them suitable for active and intelligent packaging. Some of the packaging materials, e.g., cellulose, starch, polylactic acid, and polybutylene adipate terephthalate, are currently used in the packaging industry. The trend of using biopolymers in the packaging industry has increased immensely; therefore, many legislations have been approved by various organizations. This review article describes various challenges and possible solutions associated with food packaging materials. It covers a wide range of biopolymers used in food packaging and the limitations of using them in their pure form. Finally, a SWOT analysis is presented for biopolymers, and the future trends are discussed. Biopolymers are eco-friendly, biodegradable, nontoxic, renewable, and biocompatible alternatives to synthetic packaging materials. Research shows that biopolymer-based packaging materials are of great essence in combined form, and further studies are needed for them to be used as an alternative packaging material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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11 pages, 1977 KiB  
Article
Quantitation of L-cystine in Food Supplements and Additives Using 1H qNMR: Method Development and Application
by Zhen Chen, Xiaofang Lian, Meichen Zhou, Xiuli Zhang and Cong Wang
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2421; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122421 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
Cystine-enriched food supplements are increasingly popular due to their beneficial health effects. However, the lack of industry standards and market regulations resulted in quality issues with cystine food products, including cases of food adulteration and fraud. This study established a reliable and practical [...] Read more.
Cystine-enriched food supplements are increasingly popular due to their beneficial health effects. However, the lack of industry standards and market regulations resulted in quality issues with cystine food products, including cases of food adulteration and fraud. This study established a reliable and practical method for determining cystine in food supplements and additives using quantitative NMR (qNMR). With the optimized testing solvent, acquisition time, and relaxation delay, the method exhibited higher sensitivity, precision, and reproducibility than the conventional titrimetric method. Additionally, it was more straightforward and more economical than HPLC and LC-MS. Furthermore, the current qNMR method was applied to investigate different food supplements and additives regarding cystine quantity. As a result, four of eight food supplement samples were found to be inaccurately labeled or even with fake labeling, with the relative actual amount of cystine ranging from 0.3% to 107.2%. In comparison, all three food additive samples exhibited satisfactory quality (the relative actual amount of cystine: 97.0–99.9%). Notably, there was no obvious correlation between the quantifiable properties (price and labeled cystine amount) of the tested food supplement samples and their relative actual amount of cystine. The newly developed qNMR-based approach and the subsequent findings might help standardization and regulation of the cystine supplement market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR Applications in Food Analysis)
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25 pages, 666 KiB  
Review
Molecular Barcoding: A Tool to Guarantee Correct Seafood Labelling and Quality and Preserve the Conservation of Endangered Species
by Laura Filonzi, Alessia Ardenghi, Pietro Maria Rontani, Andrea Voccia, Claudio Ferrari, Riccardo Papa, Nicolò Bellin and Francesco Nonnis Marzano
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2420; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122420 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2653
Abstract
The recent increase in international fish trade leads to the need for improving the traceability of fishery products. In relation to this, consistent monitoring of the production chain focusing on technological developments, handling, processing and distribution via global networks is necessary. Molecular barcoding [...] Read more.
The recent increase in international fish trade leads to the need for improving the traceability of fishery products. In relation to this, consistent monitoring of the production chain focusing on technological developments, handling, processing and distribution via global networks is necessary. Molecular barcoding has therefore been suggested as the gold standard in seafood species traceability and labelling. This review describes the DNA barcoding methodology for preventing food fraud and adulteration in fish. In particular, attention has been focused on the application of molecular techniques to determine the identity and authenticity of fish products, to discriminate the presence of different species in processed seafood and to characterize raw materials undergoing food industry processes. In this regard, we herein present a large number of studies performed in different countries, showing the most reliable DNA barcodes for species identification based on both mitochondrial (COI, cytb, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA) and nuclear genes. Results are discussed considering the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques in relation to different scientific issues. Special regard has been dedicated to a dual approach referring to both the consumer’s health and the conservation of threatened species, with a special focus on the feasibility of the different genetic and genomic approaches in relation to both scientific objectives and permissible costs to obtain reliable traceability. Full article
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12 pages, 3123 KiB  
Article
Amino Acid Composition of a Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) Skin Gelatin Hydrolysate and Its Antiapoptotic Effects on Etoposide-Induced Osteoblasts
by Hong-Fang Liu, Xiao-Wen Pan, Hua-Qiang Li, Xiao-Nan Zhang and Xin-Huai Zhao
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122419 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
A gelatin hydrolysate with a hydrolysis degree of 13.7% was generated using the skin gelatin of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and papain-catalyzed enzymatic hydrolysis. The results of analysis demonstrated that four amino acids, namely Ala, Gly, Pro, and 4-Hyp, were the [...] Read more.
A gelatin hydrolysate with a hydrolysis degree of 13.7% was generated using the skin gelatin of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and papain-catalyzed enzymatic hydrolysis. The results of analysis demonstrated that four amino acids, namely Ala, Gly, Pro, and 4-Hyp, were the most abundant in the obtained gelatin hydrolysate with measured molar percentages ranging from 7.2% to 35.4%; more importantly, the four amino acids accounted for 2/3 of the total measured amino acids. However, two amino acids, Cys and Tyr, were not detected in the generated gelatin hydrolysate. The experimental results indicated that the gelatin hydrolysate at a dose of 50 µg/mL could combat etoposide-induced apoptosis in human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19 cells), causing a decrease in the total apoptotic cells from 31.6% to 13.6% (via apoptotic prevention) or 13.3% to 11.8% (via apoptotic reversal). Meanwhile, the osteoblasts exposed to the gelatin hydrolysate showed expression changes for 157 genes (expression folds > 1.5-fold), among which JNKK, JNK1, and JNK3 were from the JNK family with a 1.5–2.7-fold downregulated expression. Furthermore, the protein expressions of JNKK, JNK1, JNK3, and Bax in the treated osteoblasts showed a 1.25–1.41 fold down-regulation, whereas JNK2 expression was not detected in the osteoblasts. It is thus suggested that gelatin hydrolysate is rich in the four amino acids and has an in vitro antiapoptotic effect on etoposide-stimulated osteoblasts via mitochondrial-mediated JNKK/JNK(1,3)/Bax downregulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity of Protein Hydrolysates Extracted from Foods)
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17 pages, 1377 KiB  
Article
Effect of Potassium Permanganate, Ultraviolet Radiation and Titanium Oxide as Ethylene Scavengers on Preservation of Postharvest Quality and Sensory Attributes of Broccoli Stored with Tomatoes
by Ramiro Alonso-Salinas, Santiago López-Miranda, Ana González-Báidez, Antonio José Pérez-López, Luis Noguera-Artiaga, Estrella Núñez-Delicado, Ángel Carbonell-Barrachina and José Ramón Acosta-Motos
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122418 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
This study introduces an effective solution to enhance the postharvest preservation of broccoli, a vegetable highly sensitive to ethylene, a hormone produced by climacteric fruits such as tomatoes. The proposed method involves a triple combination of ethylene elimination techniques: potassium permanganate (KMnO4 [...] Read more.
This study introduces an effective solution to enhance the postharvest preservation of broccoli, a vegetable highly sensitive to ethylene, a hormone produced by climacteric fruits such as tomatoes. The proposed method involves a triple combination of ethylene elimination techniques: potassium permanganate (KMnO4) filters combined with ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) and titanium oxide (TiO2), along with a continuous airflow to facilitate contact between ethylene and these oxidizing agents. The effectiveness of this approach was evaluated using various analytical techniques, including measurements of weight, soluble solids content, total acidity, maturity index, color, chlorophyll, total phenolic compounds, and sensory analysis conducted by experts. The results demonstrated a significant improvement in the physicochemical quality of postharvest broccoli when treated with the complete system. Notably, broccoli subjected to this innovative method exhibited enhanced organoleptic quality, with heightened flavors and aromas associated with fresh green produce. The implementation of this novel technique holds great potential for the food industry as it reduces postharvest losses, extends the shelf life of broccoli, and ultimately enhances product quality while minimizing waste. The successful development and implementation of this new technique can significantly improve the sustainability of the food industry while ensuring the provision of high-quality food to consumers. Full article
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19 pages, 1758 KiB  
Review
Subcritical and Supercritical Fluids to Valorize Industrial Fruit and Vegetable Waste
by Muhammad Talha Afraz, Xindong Xu, Muhammad Adil, Muhammad Faisal Manzoor, Xin-An Zeng, Zhong Han and Rana Muhammad Aadil
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2417; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122417 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
The valorization of industrial fruit and vegetable waste has gained significant attention due to the environmental concerns and economic opportunities associated with its effective utilization. This review article comprehensively discusses the application of subcritical and supercritical fluid technologies in the valorization process, highlighting [...] Read more.
The valorization of industrial fruit and vegetable waste has gained significant attention due to the environmental concerns and economic opportunities associated with its effective utilization. This review article comprehensively discusses the application of subcritical and supercritical fluid technologies in the valorization process, highlighting the potential benefits of these advanced extraction techniques for the recovery of bioactive compounds and unconventional oils from waste materials. Novel pressurized fluid extraction techniques offer significant advantages over conventional methods, enabling effective and sustainable processes that contribute to greener production in the global manufacturing sector. Recovered bio-extract compounds can be used to uplift the nutritional profile of other food products and determine their application in the food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Valorization processes also play an important role in coping with the increasing demand for bioactive compounds and natural substitutes. Moreover, the integration of spent material in biorefinery and biorefining processes is also explored in terms of energy generation, such as biofuels or electricity, thus showcasing the potential for a circular economy approach in the management of waste streams. An economic evaluation is presented, detailing the cost analysis and potential barriers in the implementation of these valorization strategies. The article emphasizes the importance of fostering collaboration between academia, industry, and policymakers to enable the widespread adoption of these promising technologies. This, in turn, will contribute to a more sustainable and circular economy, maximizing the potential of fruit and vegetable waste as a source of valuable products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Emerging Nonthermal Technologies in the Food Industry)
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13 pages, 2091 KiB  
Article
ACE-Inhibitory Activity of Whey Proteins Fractions Derived of Fermentation by Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG and Streptococcus thermophilus SY-102
by Laura Berenice Olvera-Rosales, Emmanuel Pérez-Escalante, Araceli Castañeda-Ovando, Elizabeth Contreras-López, Alma Elizabeth Cruz-Guerrero, Patricia Regal-López, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas and Luis Guillermo González-Olivares
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122416 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Many studies have reported the benefits of probiotic microorganisms and the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Determining the proteolytic and ACE inhibition capacities during whey fermentation was the goal of the study. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, Streptococcus thermophilus SY-102, and both bacteria together [...] Read more.
Many studies have reported the benefits of probiotic microorganisms and the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Determining the proteolytic and ACE inhibition capacities during whey fermentation was the goal of the study. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, Streptococcus thermophilus SY-102, and both bacteria together were initially inoculated into whey, reaching an initial concentration of 108 CFU per milliliter in each fermentation system. Through the use of TNBS, SDS-PAGE, and SEC-HPLC methods, the proteolytic profile was examined. An in vitro investigation was performed to test the ACE inhibition capacity. With S. thermophilus, the logarithmic phase of microbial development was shorter than with L. rhamnosus (6 and 12 h, respectively). The logarithmic phase in the co-culture fermentation, however, was extended to 24 h. There were no significant differences in pH between the fermentations. However, the co-culture had a greater concentration of protein hydrolysis (453 ± 0.06 μg/mL), as indicated by the amount of free amino groups. Similarly, this fermentation produced more low molecular weight peptides. The higher inhibition activity, which increased at the conclusion of the fermentation with the co-culture and reached 53.42%, was influenced by the higher peptide synthesis. These findings highlighted the significance of creating useful co-culture products. Full article
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15 pages, 6506 KiB  
Article
Potential of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for Efficient Classification Based on Postharvest Storage Time, Cultivar and Maturity in Coconut Water
by Xiaojun Shen, Tao Wang, Jingyi Wei, Xin Li, Fuming Deng, Xiaoqing Niu, Yuanyuan Wang, Jintao Kan, Weimin Zhang, Yong-Huan Yun and Fusheng Chen
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122415 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Coconut water (CW) is a popular and healthful beverage, and ensuring its quality is crucial for consumer satisfaction. This study aimed to explore the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometric methods for analyzing CW quality and distinguishing samples based on postharvest storage [...] Read more.
Coconut water (CW) is a popular and healthful beverage, and ensuring its quality is crucial for consumer satisfaction. This study aimed to explore the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometric methods for analyzing CW quality and distinguishing samples based on postharvest storage time, cultivar, and maturity. CW from nuts of Wenye No. 2 and Wenye No. 4 cultivars in China, with varying postharvest storage time and maturities, were subjected to NIRS analysis. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were developed to predict reducing sugar and soluble sugar contents, revealing moderate applicability but lacking accuracy, with the residual prediction deviation (RPD) values ranging from 1.54 to 1.83. Models for TSS, pH, and TSS/pH exhibited poor performance with RPD values below 1.4, indicating limited predictability. However, the study achieved a total correct classification rate exceeding 95% through orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models, effectively discriminating CW samples based on postharvest storage time, cultivar, and maturity. These findings highlight the potential of NIRS combined with appropriate chemometric methods as a valuable tool for analyzing CW quality and efficiently distinguishing samples. NIRS and chemometric techniques enhance quality control in coconut water, ensuring consumer satisfaction and product integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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17 pages, 4977 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ultrasonic Pretreatment on the Far-Infrared Drying Process and Quality Characteristics of Licorice
by Jianwei Shang, Qian Zhang, Tongxun Wang, Yanrui Xu, Zepeng Zang, Fangxin Wan, Yuanman Yue and Xiaopeng Huang
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122414 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
In this paper, the effects of different ultrasonic pretreatment processes on the far-infrared drying characteristics, quality indexes, and microstructure of licorice are evaluated. The results showed that ultrasonic pretreatment, combined with far-infrared drying, significantly reduced the drying time and moisture content of licorice [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effects of different ultrasonic pretreatment processes on the far-infrared drying characteristics, quality indexes, and microstructure of licorice are evaluated. The results showed that ultrasonic pretreatment, combined with far-infrared drying, significantly reduced the drying time and moisture content of licorice compared with those of the control group. The highest total flavonoid content was obtained at an ultrasound power of 80 W. The total phenolic content (0.686 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) was higher than that in the control group, the increase was 19.4%, and its content was the highest at the sonication frequency of 20 kHz. The antioxidant capacity tended to increase and then decrease with the increase in sonication time, sonication power, and sonication frequency, and was the highest at 30 min of sonication. The soluble sugar content (31.490 mg glucose equivalent/g) was the highest at 30 kHz and 30 min. Observation of the microstructure revealed that the surface structure of the ultrasonic pretreated licorice slices changed significantly, forming more micropore channels, which facilitated the mass heat transfer during the drying process. In conclusion, ultrasonic pretreatment can significantly improve the quality of licorice tablets and significantly reduce the time required for subsequent drying. The combination of pretreatment parameters of 60 W ultrasonic power and 40 kHz ultrasonic frequency for 30 min was found to be an optimal combination of pretreatment parameters; therefore, this study may provide a technical reference for the industrialization of licorice drying. Full article
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16 pages, 647 KiB  
Review
A Review on Isolation, Characterization, Modification, and Applications of Proso Millet Starch
by Simmi Ranjan Kumar, Nuttinee Tangsrianugul and Manop Suphantharika
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2413; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122413 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3545
Abstract
Proso millet starch (PMS) as an unconventional and underutilized millet starch is becoming increasingly popular worldwide due to its health-promoting properties. This review summarizes research progress in the isolation, characterization, modification, and applications of PMS. PMS can be isolated from proso millet grains [...] Read more.
Proso millet starch (PMS) as an unconventional and underutilized millet starch is becoming increasingly popular worldwide due to its health-promoting properties. This review summarizes research progress in the isolation, characterization, modification, and applications of PMS. PMS can be isolated from proso millet grains by acidic, alkaline, or enzymatic extraction. PMS exhibits typical A-type polymorphic diffraction patterns and shows polygonal and spherical granular structures with a granule size of 0.3–17 µm. PMS is modified by chemical, physical, and biological methods. The native and modified PMS are analyzed for swelling power, solubility, pasting properties, thermal properties, retrogradation, freeze–thaw stability, and in vitro digestibility. The improved physicochemical, structural, and functional properties and digestibility of modified PMS are discussed in terms of their suitability for specific applications. The potential applications of native and modified PMS in food and nonfood products are presented. Future prospects for research and commercial use of PMS in the food industry are also highlighted. Full article
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15 pages, 981 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Cold Brew Coffee Using Central Composite Design and Its Properties Compared with Hot Brew Coffee
by Nur Hadiyani Zakaria, Kanyawee Whanmek, Sirinapa Thangsiri, Wimonphan Chathiran, Warangkana Srichamnong, Uthaiwan Suttisansanee and Chalat Santivarangkna
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122412 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
The cold brew coffee (CBC) trend is increasing globally; nevertheless, there is limited literature on this popular beverage. Many studies have focused on the health benefits of green coffee beans and coffee brewed by conventional hot water methods. Thus, whether cold brew conveys [...] Read more.
The cold brew coffee (CBC) trend is increasing globally; nevertheless, there is limited literature on this popular beverage. Many studies have focused on the health benefits of green coffee beans and coffee brewed by conventional hot water methods. Thus, whether cold brew conveys similar benefits is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influences of brewing conditions on physicochemical properties using response surface methodology in order to optimize the brewing parameters and compare the resulting CBC with the coffee from the French Press method. Central Composite Design was used to evaluate the effects and optimize the brewing parameters (i.e., water temperature, coffee-to-water ratio (C2WR), coffee mesh size, and extraction time) on total dissolved solids (TDS). Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, volatile compounds, and organic acids were compared between CBC and its French Press counterpart. Our results showed that water temperature, C2WR, and coffee mesh size significantly influenced the TDS of CBC. The optimized brewing conditions were water temperature (4 °C), C2WR (1:14), coffee mesh size (0.71 mm), and 24-h extraction time. At similar TDS, caffeine content, volatile compounds, and organic acids were higher in CBC, while other properties showed no significant difference. In conclusion, this study showed that at similar TDS, CBC has characteristics generally similar to hot brew coffee, except for the caffeine and sensory-related compound content. The model for the prediction of TDS from this study may benefit food services or industries for the optimization of brewing conditions to obtain different characteristics of CBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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29 pages, 404 KiB  
Review
Ancient Wheats—A Nutritional and Sensory Analysis Review
by Hala Roumia, Zoltán Kókai, Bernadett Mihály-Langó, Éva Csajbókné Csobod and Csilla Benedek
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2411; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122411 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to provide a critical evaluation of the nutritional and sensory properties of ancient wheats (spelt, emmer, einkorn, and kamut) and the methods used to analyze them. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main analytical methods [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to provide a critical evaluation of the nutritional and sensory properties of ancient wheats (spelt, emmer, einkorn, and kamut) and the methods used to analyze them. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main analytical methods applied to study the nutritional properties of ancient wheats. According to our findings, protein content was the most commonly studied macronutrient across all types of ancient wheat species. The article notes that einkorn bran showed the highest protein and ash content, which reveals the potential of ancient wheats to be more widely used in food products. Regarding the majority of amino acids in spelt wheat cultivars, the general trend in the data was rather consistent. This review also compares sensory evaluation methods for different wheat products made from ancient wheats, such as bread, pasta, cooked grains, porridge, snacks, and muffins. The various reported methods and panel sizes used prove that ancient wheat products have many potential sensory advantages. Overall, using ancient wheats in wheat products can enhance the nutritional benefits, increase diversity in the food systems, and may be more appealing to consumers looking for something different, thereby contributing to the development of more sustainable and locally based food systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Grains and Grain-Based Foods)
17 pages, 3031 KiB  
Article
The Application of Ultraviolet Treatment to Prolong the Shelf Life of Chilled Beef
by Shuang Teng, Junlan Gan, Yu Chen, Liyuan Yang and Keping Ye
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122410 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1728
Abstract
This study simulated the storage conditions of chilled beef at retail or at home, and the sterilization and preservation effects of short-time ultraviolet irradiation were studied. The conditions of different irradiation distances (6 cm, 9 cm, and 12 cm) and irradiation times (6 [...] Read more.
This study simulated the storage conditions of chilled beef at retail or at home, and the sterilization and preservation effects of short-time ultraviolet irradiation were studied. The conditions of different irradiation distances (6 cm, 9 cm, and 12 cm) and irradiation times (6 s, 10 s, and 14 s) of ultraviolet (UV) sterilization in chilled beef were optimized, so as to maximally reduce the initial bacterial count, but not affect the quality of the chilled beef. Then, the preservation effect on the chilled beef after the optimized UV sterilization treatment during 0 ± 0.2 °C storage was investigated. The results showed that UV irradiation with parameters of 6 cm and 14 s formed the optimal UV sterilization conditions for the chilled beef, maximally reducing the number of microorganisms by 0.8 log CFU/g without affecting lipid oxidation or color change. The 6 cm and 14 s UV sterilization treatment of the chilled beef was able to reduce the initial microbial count, control the bacterial growth, and delay the increase in the TVB-N values during storage. Compared with the control group, the total bacterial count decreased by 0.56–1.51 log CFU/g and the TVB-N value decreased by 0.20–5.02 mg N/100 g in the UV-treated group. It was found that the TBARS value of the UV treatment group increased during late storage; on days 9–15 of storage, the TBARS values of the treatment group were 0.063–0.12 mg MDA/kg higher than those of the control group. However, UV treatment had no adverse impact on the pH, color, or sensory quality of chilled beef. These results prove that UV treatment can effectively reduce the microbial count on the surface of beef and improve its microbial safety, thus maintaining the quality of beef and prolonging its shelf life. This study could provide a theoretical basis for the preservation technology of chilled beef in small-space storage equipment. Full article
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16 pages, 4454 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity against Foodborne Pathogens and Antioxidant Activity of Plant Leaves Traditionally Used as Food Packaging
by Wisuwat Thongphichai, Veerachai Pongkittiphan, Areerat Laorpaksa, Worakorn Wiwatcharakornkul and Suchada Sukrong
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122409 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
In accordance with Thai wisdom, indigenous plant leaves have been used as food packaging to preserve freshness. Many studies have demonstrated that both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities contribute to protecting food from spoilage. Hence, the ethanolic extracts of leaves from selected plants traditionally [...] Read more.
In accordance with Thai wisdom, indigenous plant leaves have been used as food packaging to preserve freshness. Many studies have demonstrated that both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities contribute to protecting food from spoilage. Hence, the ethanolic extracts of leaves from selected plants traditionally used as food packaging, including Nelumbo nucifera (1), Cocos nucifera (2), Nypa fruticans (3), Nepenthes mirabilis (4), Dendrocalamus asper (5), Cephalostachyum pergracile (6), Musa balbisiana (7), and Piper sarmentosum (8), were investigated to determine whether they have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens that might be beneficial for food quality. Extracts 14 exhibited high phenolic content at 82.18–115.15 mg GAE/g and high antioxidant capacity on DPPH, FRAP and SRSA assay at 14.71–34.28 μg/mL, 342.92–551.38 μmol Fe2+/g, and 11.19–38.97 μg/mL, respectively, while leaf extracts 58 showed lower phenolic content at 34.43–50.08 mg GAE/g and lower antioxidant capacity on DPPH, FRAP, and SRSA at 46.70–142.16 μg/mL, 54.57–191.78 μmol Fe2+/g, and 69.05–>120 μg/mL, respectively. Extracts 14 possessed antimicrobial activities against food-relevant bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Only N. mirabilis extract (4) showed antimicrobial activities against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Abony and Candida albicans. Extracts 58 showed slight antimicrobial activities against B. cereus and E. coli. As the growth and activity of microorganisms are the main cause of food spoilage, N. fruticans (3) was selected for bioassay-guided isolation to obtain 3-O-caffeoyl shikimic acid (I), isoorientin (II) and isovitexin (III), which are responsible for its antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens. N. fruticans was identified as a new source of natural antimicrobial compounds IIII, among which 3-O-caffeoyl shikimic acid was proven to show antimicrobial activity for the first time. These findings support the use of leaves for wrapping food and protecting food against oxidation and foodborne pathogens through their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, respectively. Thus, leaves could be used as a natural packaging material and natural preservative. Full article
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21 pages, 1457 KiB  
Article
Impact of Homegrown School Feeding Program on Smallholders’ Farmer Household Food Security in Northeastern Nigeria
by Bulus Barnabas, Sylvester Amoako Agyemang, Edvin Zhllima and Miroslava Bavorova
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2408; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122408 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
In various countries of the global south, school feeding programs are implemented in order to alleviate short-time hunger in children, improved their nutrition and provide employment for food vendors. The impact of these programs is important not only in terms of pupils’ nutrition [...] Read more.
In various countries of the global south, school feeding programs are implemented in order to alleviate short-time hunger in children, improved their nutrition and provide employment for food vendors. The impact of these programs is important not only in terms of pupils’ nutrition but also in improving farmers’ livelihoods productivity and food security. This study analyzes the impact of the school feeding program on smallholder farmers’ household food security based on data collected in 2021 from 240 farmers surveyed in northeast Nigeria. Differently from other studies, several econometric methods are used to analyze the data, namely, binary probit regression, propensity score matching, inverse probability weighted adjusted regression, and endogenous switching regression. The results show that about 40% of the beneficial smallholder farmers are food secure compared to 20% of the nonbeneficiary households. Findings revealed that the Homegrown school feeding program (HGSF) positively improved smallholder farmers household food security status across all the models. Results provide evidence for the need to expand school feeding programs vis-a-vis interventions in facilitating farmers’ access to capital and capacity building for better integration in the supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Food Processing)
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12 pages, 3469 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Fermentation Conditions and Metabolite Profiling of Grape Juice Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria for Improved Flavor and Bioactivity
by Dilinu Kuerban, Jing Lu, Zekun Huangfu, Liang Wang, Yanan Qin and Minwei Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2407; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122407 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
To enrich the flavor compounds and retain the content of polyphenolics in grape juice (GJ) under long-term storage, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lacticaseibacillus casei, and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, were screened and the optimal fermentation conditions were determined as fermentation temperature [...] Read more.
To enrich the flavor compounds and retain the content of polyphenolics in grape juice (GJ) under long-term storage, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lacticaseibacillus casei, and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, were screened and the optimal fermentation conditions were determined as fermentation temperature of 41.2 °C for 24 h with an initial LAB density of 8.5 × 106 CFU/mL. Surprisingly, the retention rates of TPC still remained at 50% after storage for 45 days at 4 °C. Moreover, 251 different metabolites were identified, include 23 polyphenolics, 11 saccharides, and 9 organic acids. Most importantly, the total content of polyphenolics reserved was 92.65% at the end of fermentation. Among them, ephedrannin A content significantly decreased; however, 2′,6′-Di-O-acetylononin gradually increased with the fermentation time, which resulted in FGJ maintaining excellent bioactivity. Meanwhile, organic acid content (palmitoylethanolamide, tetraacetylethylenediamine) increased with saccharides (linamarin) decreasing, which leads to FGJ having a unique taste. Furthermore, a total of 85 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, mainly including esters, aldehydes, and alcohols. Interestingly, key VOCs could be formed by carboxylic acids and derivatives, and fatty acyls via complex metabolic pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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13 pages, 3238 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant, and Hypoglycemic Activities of Ribes meyeri Fruits
by Le Zhang, Qiang Wang, Yayun Zhao, Juan Ge and Dajun He
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122406 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 999
Abstract
Ribes meyeri is a Ribes genus in the Saxifragaceae family, which is used as both medicine and food. However, the active components and biological activities of R. meyeri fruits are still unknown. In this paper, the phenolic components and their antioxidant and hypoglycemic [...] Read more.
Ribes meyeri is a Ribes genus in the Saxifragaceae family, which is used as both medicine and food. However, the active components and biological activities of R. meyeri fruits are still unknown. In this paper, the phenolic components and their antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of R. meyeri fruits were studied. Firstly, a total of 42 phenolic components of R. meyeri fruits, including 26 anthocyanins, 9 flavonoids, and 7 phenolic acids, were tentatively identified using HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS, and the main four anthocyanins were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. The result indicated that cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside is the main anthocyanin in the R. meyeri fruits. The anthocyanin fraction of R. meyeri fruits exhibited significant inhibitory activity on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The anthocyanin fraction from R. meyeri fruits significantly increased the glucose uptake of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This is the first study of a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the phenolics of R. meyeri fruits. Full article
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17 pages, 4805 KiB  
Article
Hot Water Treatment Improves Date Drying and Maintains Phytochemicals and Fruit Quality Characteristics of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
by Jianhui Li, Imtiaz Hussain, Muhammad Azam, Muhammad Arslan Khan, Muhammad Tahir Akram, Khalid Naveed, Muhammad Asif, Naveeda Anjum, Jiaoke Zeng, Jiukai Zhang and Hongru Liu
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122405 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Fresh date fruits (cvs. Hillawi and Khadrawi) were harvested at the khalal stage and treated with hot water treatment (HWT) for different time durations (control, HWT-1 min, HWT-3 min, HWT-5 min, and HWT-7 min) to investigate the physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical properties, and sensory [...] Read more.
Fresh date fruits (cvs. Hillawi and Khadrawi) were harvested at the khalal stage and treated with hot water treatment (HWT) for different time durations (control, HWT-1 min, HWT-3 min, HWT-5 min, and HWT-7 min) to investigate the physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical properties, and sensory attributes. The results revealed that both date cultivars took less time to reach the tamar stage in response to HWT-7 min compared to control. However, Hillawi date fruit showed a higher fruit ripening index (75%) at HWT-3 min, while Khadrawi fruit had a higher ripening index (80%) at HWT-5 min than untreated fruit (10%). Higher weight loss and lower moisture contents were observed in Hillawi (25%) and Khadrawi (20%) date fruit as the immersion period increased in both cultivars. Moreover, soluble solid content was higher in Hillawi (11.77° Brix) in response to HWT-3 min and Khadrawi (10.02° Brix) date fruit immersed in HWT-5 min in contrast with the control group, whereas significantly lower levels of titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content were observed in Hillawi (0.162%, 0.67 mg/100 g) and Khadrawi (0.206%, 0.73 mg/100 g) date fruit in response to HWT (HWT-1 min, HWT-3 min, HWT-5 min, and HWT-7 min) than untreated fruit. Furthermore, noticeably higher levels of reducing sugar (69.83%, 57.01%), total sugar (34.47%, 31.14%), glucose (36.84%, 29.42%), fructose (33.99%, 27.61%), and sucrose (3.16%, 1.33%) were found in hot water-treated Hillawi (immersed for 3-min) and Khadrawi (immersed for 5-min) date fruit, respectively. In addition, total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total antioxidants, and total tannins were substantially superior in date fruits subjected to HWT-3 min (in Hillawi, 128 mg GAE/100 g, 61.78%, 20.18 mg CEQ/100 g) and HWT-5 min (in Khadrawi, 139.43 mg GAE/100 g, 72.84%, and 18.48 mg CEQ/100 g) compared to control. Overall, sensory attributes were recorded to be higher in Hillawi and Khadrawi date fruit after treatment for 3 min and 5 min, respectively. Our findings suggest that HWT is a promising technique that can be adopted commercially to improve fruit ripening and preserved nutritional quality of dates after harvest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-harvest Quality Control of Fruits and Vegetables)
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12 pages, 4168 KiB  
Article
Antioxidants Discovery for Differentiation of Monofloral Stingless Bee Honeys Using Ambient Mass Spectrometry and Metabolomics Approaches
by Wei Chean Chuah, Huei Hong Lee, Daniel H. J. Ng, Ai Ling Ho, Mohd Rosni Sulaiman and Fook Yee Chye
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2404; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122404 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Stingless bee honey (SBH) is a natural, sweet product produced by stingless bees (Meliponini tribe) that has been used as a traditional medicine to treat various illnesses. It has been shown that SBH has high nutritional value and health-promoting properties due to the [...] Read more.
Stingless bee honey (SBH) is a natural, sweet product produced by stingless bees (Meliponini tribe) that has been used as a traditional medicine to treat various illnesses. It has been shown that SBH has high nutritional value and health-promoting properties due to the presence of plant bioactive compounds from different botanical flora of the foraged nectar. In this study, the antioxidant activities of seven monofloral honeys from acacia, agarwood, coconut, dwarf mountain pine (DMP), Mexican creeper (MC), rubber, and starfruit botanical origins were investigated. The antioxidant properties of SBH studied had a range from 19.7 to 31.4 mM TE/mg for DPPH assays, 16.1 to 29.9 mM TE/mg for ABTS assays, 69.0 to 167.6 mM TE/mg for ORAC assays, and 45.5 to 89.3 mM Fe2+/mg for FRAP assays. Acacia honey showed the highest level of antioxidant properties. The models built from mass spectral fingerprints from direct ambient mass spectrometry showed distinct clusters of SBH by botanical origin and correlated with the antioxidant properties. An untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics approach was undertaken to identify the antioxidant compounds that could explain the unique antioxidant and compositional profiles of the monofloral SBH by its botanical origin. The antioxidants that were identified predominantly consisted of alkaloids and flavonoids. Flavonoid derivatives, which are potent antioxidants, were found to be key markers of acacia honey. This work provides the fundamental basis for the identification of potential antioxidant markers in SBH associated with the botanical origin of the foraged nectar. Full article
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18 pages, 5090 KiB  
Article
Virtual Cold Chain Method to Evaluate the Effect of Rising Temperature on the Quality Evolution of Peach Fruit
by Hui Liu, Zhenzhen Lv, Wenbo Yang, Ang Li, Jiechao Liu, Qiang Zhang and Zhonggao Jiao
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122403 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Poor temperature management along a cold chain leads to fruit quality deterioration and loss. In order to determine the threshold value of temperature fluctuation in a cold chain, peach fruits were stored in four different virtual cold chains applying different temperature–time scenarios. Core [...] Read more.
Poor temperature management along a cold chain leads to fruit quality deterioration and loss. In order to determine the threshold value of temperature fluctuation in a cold chain, peach fruits were stored in four different virtual cold chains applying different temperature–time scenarios. Core temperature profiling, the physicochemical qualities, and the activities of the peaches’ antioxidant enzymes were monitored during cold storage and shelf life. Abusive temperature management (temperature increased to 20 and 15 °C three times) resulted in a significant increase in a peach’s core temperature to the highest temperature measured: 17.6 °C. The ethylene production rate at the end of the shelf life of peaches under these temperatures was 21.03–28.16% higher than the constant-temperature group and accompanied by significantly lower levels of flesh firmness, titratable acid content, total phenol and flavonoid content, and peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities (p < 0.05). The results of a principal component analysis (PCA) and heatmap confirmed the results. Limited temperature increases (10 °C) in a cold chain had little impact on the quality of the peaches, while temperature increases higher than 15 °C three times would negatively affect the quality of the peaches significantly. The temperature of a cold chain needs to be controlled precisely to reduce the loss of peaches. Full article
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