Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (16 June 2023) | Viewed by 30588

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
IPOA Research Group, Agro-Food Technology Department, Instituto de Investigación e Innovación Agroalimentaria y Agroambiental (CIAGRO-UMH), Miguel Hernández University, Orihuela, 03312 Alicante, Spain
Interests: functional foods; dietary fiber; natural inhibitors; antioxidants; healthier meat products; essential oils; in vitro digestion
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LAQV/REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
Interests: analytical methods; food lipids; food technology; food authenticity; food safety; food waste
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Guest Editor
Institute for Global Food Security, Queen's University, Belfast, 19 Chlorine Gardens, Belfast BT9 5DL, UK
Interests: food safety; food security and sustainability; aquaculture; feed and food; natural toxins; drug residues; antibiotics; chemical contaminants; climate change; (bio) analytical chemistry; biosensors; diagnostics; immunoassays; mass spectrometry
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are very proud to lead this Special Issue that aims to promote and support the contributions of women scientists in all areas related to Foods, including the science, technology, engineering, innovation and development of new foods, among others.

Women scientists are leading ground-breaking research across the world and this Special Issue is intended to be a space where this research can be collected, highlighting the involvement of women in the development of our society and as role models for younger generations of women researchers who want to pursue their scientific careers and break the glass ceiling.

Regional, national and international programs are in place which promote gender equality in science, and we hope that this Special Issue series can contribute to achieving this aim.

All types of papers are welcome, including original research papers and review articles.

Although the purpose of this Special Issue is to promote and celebrate the achievements of women in science, no gender-specific restrictions will be imposed, and so we welcome submissions from all authors, irrespective of gender identity.

Prof. Dr. Juana Fernández-López
Prof. Dr. Susana Casal
Prof. Dr. Joana S. Amaral
Prof. Dr. Katrina Campbell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1344 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Bioactive Properties of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) Pericarp
by Bianca R. Albuquerque, Maria Inês Dias, José Pinela, Ricardo C. Calhelha, Tânia C. S. P. Pires, Maria José Alves, Rúbia C. G. Corrêa, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Maria Beatriz P. P. Oliveira and Lillian Barros
Foods 2023, 12(5), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12050994 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3317
Abstract
The industrial processing of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) generates high amounts of waste, as ~60% of the fruit is formed by an inedible pericarp. However, its pericarp has been explored as a source of xanthones; nevertheless, studies addressing the recovery of other [...] Read more.
The industrial processing of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) generates high amounts of waste, as ~60% of the fruit is formed by an inedible pericarp. However, its pericarp has been explored as a source of xanthones; nevertheless, studies addressing the recovery of other chemical compounds from such biomass are still scarce. Hence, this study intended to elucidate the chemical composition of the mangosteen pericarp, including fat-soluble (tocopherols and fatty acids) and water-soluble (organic acids and phenolic compound non-xanthones) compounds present in the following extracts: hydroethanolic (MT80), ethanolic (MTE), and aqueous (MTW). In addition, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antibacterial potentials of the extracts were assessed. The mangosteen pericarp showed a composition with seven organic acids, three tocopherol isomers, four fatty acids and fifteen phenolic compounds. Regarding the extraction of phenolics, the MT80 was the most efficient (54 mg/g extract), followed by MTE (19.79 mg/g extract) and MTW (4.011 mg/g extract). All extracts showed antioxidant and antibacterial activities; however, MT80 and MTE extracts were more efficient than MTW. Only MTW did not show anti-inflammatory properties, whereas MTE and MT80 showed inhibitory activities towards tumor cell lines. Notwithstanding, MTE showed cytotoxicity towards normal cells. Our findings support the idea that the ripe mangosteen pericarp is a source of bioactive compounds, although their recovery is dependent on the extraction solvent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
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18 pages, 6086 KiB  
Article
A Pumpkin-Based Emulsion Gel as a Texture Improvement of Mixed Horsemeat Semi-Smoked Sausages
by Rysgul Ashakayeva, Bakhytkul Assenova, Galiya Tumenova, Almagul Nurgazezova, Gulnara Zhumanova, Zhibek Atambayeva, Assemgul Baikadamova, Dmitrii Il and Assel Dautova
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3886; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233886 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
Semi-smoked sausages were made with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% replacement of horsemeat by emulsion gel made with offal broth (stomach, kidney, liver, heart, brain, and a miscellaneous trimmings of a horse), pumpkin flour, and egg yolk in a ratio of 5:4:1. [...] Read more.
Semi-smoked sausages were made with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% replacement of horsemeat by emulsion gel made with offal broth (stomach, kidney, liver, heart, brain, and a miscellaneous trimmings of a horse), pumpkin flour, and egg yolk in a ratio of 5:4:1. The technological, nutritional, oxidative, and rheological (G′ and G″) properties were studied. Sausage water holding capacity (WHC) rose after being incorporated with pumpkin-based emulsion gel (PEG). There was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) improvement in sausage emulsion stability. Lipid oxidation in all samples, especially 5% and 15% addition of emulsion gel samples, was below the rancidity criterion, which is TBARS > 2.0–2.5 mg MDA/kg sample. This really is encouraging because unsaturated fatty acids, such as those found in horsemeat, are easily oxidized. Use of the emulsion gel did not noticeably alter the sausages’ pH. Using emulsion gel considerably reduced the cooking loss (p < 0.05) of sausages and significantly improved texture (p < 0.05). Partial replacement of mixed horsemeat with emulsion gel improved the physicochemical characteristics of semi-smoked sausages. The elasticity modulus (G′) showed that PEG15 (15% of emulsion gel) was the most resilient gel. The least powerful gels (p < 0.05) were PEG20 and PEG25. According to this study, adding a pumpkin-based emulsion gel to the meat matrix could improve the quality of the emulsified meat system and provide important data for related research and companies as strategies to market a healthier and more nutritious product with the necessary quality characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
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15 pages, 485 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties and Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds of Dietary Fibre Concentrates from Vegetable By-Products
by Ana A. Vaz, Isabel Odriozola-Serrano, Gemma Oms-Oliu and Olga Martín-Belloso
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2578; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172578 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2203
Abstract
The agro-food industry generates a large volume of by-products, whose revaluation is essential for the circular economy. From these by-products, dietary fibre concentrates (DFCs) can be obtained. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterise (a) the proximal composition by analysing soluble, [...] Read more.
The agro-food industry generates a large volume of by-products, whose revaluation is essential for the circular economy. From these by-products, dietary fibre concentrates (DFCs) can be obtained. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterise (a) the proximal composition by analysing soluble, insoluble and total Dietary Fibre (DF), (b) the physicochemical properties, and (c) the phenolic profile of artichoke, red pepper, carrot, and cucumber DFCs. In addition, the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds was also evaluated after in vitro gastrointestinal and colonic digestions. The results showed that the DFCs had more than 30 g/100 g dw. The water holding and retention capacity of the DFCs ranges from 9.4 to 18.7 g of water/g. Artichoke DFC presented high concentration of phenolic compounds (8340.7 mg/kg) compared to the red pepper (304.4 mg/kg), carrot (217.4 mg/kg) and cucumber DFCs (195.7 mg/kg). During in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, soluble phenolic compounds were released from the food matrix, chlorogenic acid, the principal compound in artichoke and carrot DFCs, and hesperetin-7-rutinoside in red pepper cucumber DFCs. Total phenolic content decreased after in vitro colonic digestion hence the chemical transformation of the phenolic compounds by gut microbiota. Based on the results, DFCs could be good functional ingredients to develop DF-enriched food, reducing food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
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13 pages, 2035 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of High-Value Fractions from Fruit Industrial Processing Waste
by Rebeca Esteban-Lustres, Vanesa Sanz, Herminia Domínguez and María Dolores Torres
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142089 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2218
Abstract
This work deals with the valorization of fruit industrial processing waste pretreated with two dehydration methods, air oven and lyophilization. Ultrasound-assisted extraction using a sonication probe was selected to recover the high-value fractions. A battery of experiments following a Box–Behnken design was planned [...] Read more.
This work deals with the valorization of fruit industrial processing waste pretreated with two dehydration methods, air oven and lyophilization. Ultrasound-assisted extraction using a sonication probe was selected to recover the high-value fractions. A battery of experiments following a Box–Behnken design was planned to evaluate the effect of the ultrasound amplitude, extraction duration, and temperature on the yield, protein content, phenolic content, and antiradical capacity of the soluble extracts. Operating at a fixed frequency (24 kHz) and solid:water ratio (1:15), the models predicted (significance degree >95%) the maximum extraction conditions of 69.7% amplitude, 53.43 °C, and 12 min for conventionally dehydrated fruit waste. Under these processing conditions, 52.6% extraction yield was achieved, with a protein content of 0.42 mg/g, total phenolic content of 116.42 mg GAE/g, and antioxidant capacity of 44.95 mg Trolox/g. Similar yields (53.95%) and a notably higher protein content (0.69 mg/g), total phenolic content (135.32 mg GAE/g), and antioxidant capacity (49.52 mg Trolox/g) were identified for lyophilized fruit waste. This treatment required a longer dehydration pretreatment duration (double), higher ultrasound amplitude (80%), and higher extraction temperature (70 °C), but shorter extraction time (4 min). These outcomes highlighted the important impact of the dehydration method on the valorization of the tested waste, with conventional drying saving costs, but the lyophilization procedure enhancing the bioactive features of the waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
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22 pages, 3650 KiB  
Article
Bioactivity and Bioaccessibility of Bioactive Compounds in Gastrointestinal Digestion of Tomato Bagasse Extracts
by Marta Coelho, Carla Oliveira, Ezequiel R. Coscueta, João Fernandes, Ricardo N. Pereira, José A. Teixeira, António Sebastião Rodrigues and Manuela E. Pintado
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071064 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2379
Abstract
A nutrient-rich diet is a key to improving the chemical signals, such as antioxidants, which modulate pathogens’ resistance in the gut and prevent diseases. A current industrial problem is the generation of undervalued by-products, such as tomato bagasse, which are rich in bioactive [...] Read more.
A nutrient-rich diet is a key to improving the chemical signals, such as antioxidants, which modulate pathogens’ resistance in the gut and prevent diseases. A current industrial problem is the generation of undervalued by-products, such as tomato bagasse, which are rich in bioactive compounds and of commercial interest (carotenoids and phenolic compounds). This work analyzed the effect of gastrointestinal digestion on the bioactivity and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from tomato bagasse extracts. Thus, the extraction by ohmic heating (OH) technology was compared with conventional (organic solvents). The results showed that the main phenolic compounds identified by UPLC-qTOF-MS were p-coumaric acid, naringenin, and luteolin. A higher recovery index for total phenolic compounds throughout the gastrointestinal digestion was observed for OH while for carotenoids, a strong reduction after stomach conditions was observed for both extracts. Furthermore, colon-available fraction exhibited a prebiotic effect upon different Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but a strain-dependent and more accentuated effect on OH. Thus, the extraction technology highly influenced bioaccessibility, with OH demonstrating a positive impact on the recovery of bioactive compounds and related health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, prebiotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Of these properties, the last is demonstrated here for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
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Review

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15 pages, 336 KiB  
Review
Goat Meat: Production and Quality Attributes
by Mariero Gawat, Mike Boland, Jaspreet Singh and Lovedeep Kaur
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163130 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4037
Abstract
Goat meat could be a sustainable source of red meat. Its farming requires minimal input, is suitable for free-range farming, and produces a healthier red meat option as it is lean. Although goat meat has advantages for meat production, it still needs to [...] Read more.
Goat meat could be a sustainable source of red meat. Its farming requires minimal input, is suitable for free-range farming, and produces a healthier red meat option as it is lean. Although goat meat has advantages for meat production, it still needs to be established as a valuable part of the meat trade market. But, currently, goat meat production is less specialized; there is less intense breed selection for premium meat production, and often the animals are farmed with a multifunctional purpose, such as for their meat, fiber, and milk. The less structured goat meat industry contributes to the inconsistent quality of goat meat. This paper attempts to describe the characteristics of popular goat breeds and indigenous goats as a source of meat and the potential of various goat breeds for meat production. Additionally, this paper presents goat meat’s quality and physicochemical and sensory attributes that are relevant to understanding the unique attributes of goat meat. Much work is needed for the goat meat processing industry to develop its potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
31 pages, 5466 KiB  
Review
Volatile Composition of Fortification Grape Spirit and Port Wine: Where Do We Stand?
by Sónia Gomes Ribeiro, Cátia Martins, Tiago Tavares, Alisa Rudnitskaya, Fernando Alves and Sílvia M. Rocha
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122432 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Port wine’s prominence worldwide is unequivocal and the grape spirit, which comprises roughly one fifth of the total volume of this fortified wine, is also a contributor to the recognized quality of this beverage. Nonetheless, information about the influence of the grape spirit [...] Read more.
Port wine’s prominence worldwide is unequivocal and the grape spirit, which comprises roughly one fifth of the total volume of this fortified wine, is also a contributor to the recognized quality of this beverage. Nonetheless, information about the influence of the grape spirit on the final aroma of Port wine, as well as its volatile composition, is extremely limited. Moreover, the aroma characteristics of Port wines are modulated mainly by their volatile profiles. Hence, this review presents a detailed overview of the volatile composition of the fortification spirit and Port wine, along with the methodologies employed for their characterization. Moreover, it gives a general overview of the Douro Demarcated Region (Portugal) and the relevance of fortification spirit to the production of Port wine. As far as we know, this review contains the most extensive database on the volatile composition of grape spirit and Port wine, corresponding to 23 and 208 compounds, respectively. To conclude, the global outlook and future challenges are addressed, with the position of the analytical coverage of the chemical data on volatile components discussed as crucial for the innovation centered on consumer preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
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28 pages, 996 KiB  
Review
Sustainability and Gender Perspective in Food Innovation: Foods and Food Processing Coproducts as Source of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients for Woman-Fortified Foods
by Estrella Sayas-Barberá, Jose Angel Pérez-Álvarez, Casilda Navarro-Rodríguez de Vera, Manuela Fernández-López, Manuel Viuda-Martos and Juana Fernández-López
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3661; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223661 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Micro- and macro-nutrient deficiencies among women are considered a global issue that the food industry has not adequately considered until recently. The industry must provide and guarantee a diversity of food products worldwide that allow women to get a correct and balanced diet [...] Read more.
Micro- and macro-nutrient deficiencies among women are considered a global issue that the food industry has not adequately considered until recently. The industry must provide and guarantee a diversity of food products worldwide that allow women to get a correct and balanced diet according their life stage. The food industry must focus on this challenge within a framework of sustainable production, minimizing the use of natural resources and avoiding the emission of waste and pollutants throughout the life cycle of food. Food coproducts are presented as potential bioactive functional compounds which can be useful for technological purposes, due to the fact that they can serve as non-chemical, natural and health-improving food ingredients. In this review, we focus on the potential use of food processing coproducts which must be part of a strategy to promote and improve women’s health and well-being. This knowledge will make it possible to select potential ingredients from coproducts to be used in the fortification of foods intended for consumption by females and to introduce sustainability and gender perspectives into food innovation. The attainment of fortifications for foods for women has to be linked to the use of sustainable sources from food coproducts in order to be economically viable and competitive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
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20 pages, 354 KiB  
Review
Coccidiostats and Poultry: A Comprehensive Review and Current Legislation
by Rui R. Martins, Liliana J. G. Silva, André M. P. T. Pereira, Alexandra Esteves, Sofia C. Duarte and Angelina Pena
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2738; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182738 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4459
Abstract
Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems of the poultry industry. Caused by Eimeria species, Coccidiosis is a contagious parasitic disease affecting poultry with great economic significance. Currently, in order to prevent health problems caused by this disease, broiler farmers make extensive use [...] Read more.
Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems of the poultry industry. Caused by Eimeria species, Coccidiosis is a contagious parasitic disease affecting poultry with great economic significance. Currently, in order to prevent health problems caused by this disease, broiler farmers make extensive use of coccidiostats in poultry feed, maintaining animal health and, in some cases, enhancing feed conversion. The presence of unauthorized substances, residues of veterinary products and chemical contaminants in the food industry is of concern, since they may pose a risk to public health. As the use of coccidiostats has been increasing without any requirements for veterinary prescription, research and surveillance of coccidiostat residues in poultry meat is becoming imperative. This review presents an up-to-date comprehensive discussion of the state of the art regarding coccidiosis, the most used anticoccidials in poultry production, their mode of action, their prophylactic use, occurrence and the European Union (EU) applicable legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
11 pages, 604 KiB  
Review
Control Measurements of Escherichia coli Biofilm: A Review
by Feng Zhou, Dehua Wang, Jiamiao Hu, Yi Zhang, Bee K. Tan and Shaoling Lin
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2469; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162469 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3267
Abstract
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans and animals. In particular, E. coli can easily form biofilm on the surface of living or non-living carriers, which can lead to the cross-contamination of food. This review [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans and animals. In particular, E. coli can easily form biofilm on the surface of living or non-living carriers, which can lead to the cross-contamination of food. This review mainly summarizes the formation process of E. coli biofilm, the prevalence of biofilm in the food industry, and inhibition methods of E. coli biofilm, including chemical and physical methods, and inhibition by bioactive extracts from plants and animals. This review aims to provide a basis for the prevention and control of E. coli biofilm in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
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