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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 11 (June-1 2023) – 185 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The global production of synthetic plastics from petroleum-based raw ingredients exceeds 150 million metric tons. The environment is threatened by tons of plastic waste, thus endangering wildlife and the public’s health. These threats have increased the interest in biodegradable polymers as potential substitutes for traditional packaging materials. This study aimed to produce and characterize k-carrageenan films incorporating Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil. The results showed the reduction in biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes when they were formed directly on the k-carrageenan films. The produced k-carrageenan films were transparent and slightly hydrophobic. View this paper
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12 pages, 2077 KiB  
Article
Foaming and Other Functional Properties of Freeze-Dried Mare’s Milk
by Dorota Cais-Sokolińska, Joanna Teichert and Jolanta Gawałek
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2274; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112274 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the freeze-drying process on the preservation of mare’s milk. This was achieved through the characterization of the functional properties of reconstituted freeze-dried mare’s milk. The chemical composition, bulk density, foam capacity, and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the freeze-drying process on the preservation of mare’s milk. This was achieved through the characterization of the functional properties of reconstituted freeze-dried mare’s milk. The chemical composition, bulk density, foam capacity, and ability to form emulsions of the atherogenic, thrombogenic, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acid index were investigated. The freeze-drying process did not change the proportion of the milk components in the dry matter. The moisture content of the freeze-dried mare’s milk was 10.3 g/kg and the bulk was below 0.1 g/mL. The foaming capacity was 111.3%; hence, the foaming capacity of the milk was very poor. The oil binding capacity was 2.19 g/g of protein. The freeze-drying process improves the binding degree and retention of oil by milk proteins, but produced foam was unstable, short-lived, and lacked the ability to retain air fractions. The atherogenic index and thrombogenic index values calculated for reconstituted milk were 1.02 and 0.53, respectively. The hypercholesterolemia fatty acid index was 25.01. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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21 pages, 1821 KiB  
Article
Effects of Endogenous Anti-Oxidative Components from Different Vegetable Oils on Their Oxidative Stability
by Yuchen Ma, Guangyi Wang, Zeyuan Deng, Bing Zhang and Hongyan Li
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2273; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112273 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
The effects of endogenous anti-oxidative components of ten common edible vegetable oils (palm olein, corn oil, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, perilla seed oil, high oleic sunflower oil, peanut oil, camellia oil, linseed oil, and sesame oil) on oxidation were explored in this research. [...] Read more.
The effects of endogenous anti-oxidative components of ten common edible vegetable oils (palm olein, corn oil, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, perilla seed oil, high oleic sunflower oil, peanut oil, camellia oil, linseed oil, and sesame oil) on oxidation were explored in this research. The oxidation processes and patterns of the oils were investigated with the Schaal oven test using fatty acids and the oxidative stability index, acid value, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, total oxidation value, and content of major endogenous anti-oxidative components as indicators. The major endogenous anti-oxidative components in vegetable oils were tocopherols, sterols, polyphenols, and squalene, among which α-tocopherol, β-sitosterol, and polyphenols showed good anti-oxidative activity. However, squalene and polyphenols were relatively low and showed limited anti-oxidative effects. Moreover, the oxidative stability index of edible vegetable oils oxidized at high temperature (120 °C) was positively correlated with the content of saturated fatty acids (r = 0.659) and negatively correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (r = −0.634) and calculated oxidizability (r = −0.696). When oxidized at a low temperature (62 °C), oxidative stability was influenced by a combination of fatty acid composition as well as endogenous anti-oxidative components. An improved TOPSIS based on Mahalanobis distance was used to evaluate the oxidative stability of different types of vegetable oils. Moreover, the oxidative stability of corn oil was better than the other vegetable oils, while perilla seed oil was very weak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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15 pages, 1312 KiB  
Article
Development of a Ready-to-Eat Fish Product Enriched with Fish Oil Entrapped in a κ-Carrageenan Egg White Fish Protein Hydrolysate Dry Powder
by María Carmen Gómez-Guillén, Selene Pérez-García, Ailén Alemán, María Elvira López-Caballero, Carmen G. Sotelo and María Pilar Montero
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2272; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112272 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
This work describes the development of a ready-to-eat (RTE) product based on an equal mixture of fish mince from three undervalued fish species with different fat contents and protein gelling capacity, which was enriched with fish oil entrapped in a κ-carrageenan egg white [...] Read more.
This work describes the development of a ready-to-eat (RTE) product based on an equal mixture of fish mince from three undervalued fish species with different fat contents and protein gelling capacity, which was enriched with fish oil entrapped in a κ-carrageenan egg white fish protein hydrolysate powder, obtained by either spray drying (SD) or heat drying (HD) at 80 °C (HD80). Previously, the spray-dried (SD) powder and heat-dried powders obtained at 45 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C (HD45, HD60 and HD80) were characterised in terms of water solubility, lipid oxidation (TBARS), hygroscopicity and ζ potential. All HD powders showed higher hygroscopicity and lower TBARS than the SD powder. The dry powder was incorporated into a blend composed of salt-ground batter and raw mince to improve binding and textural properties. Changes in water-holding capacity, colour, shear strength and microorganisms were monitored during the processing steps. The RTE product presented a high protein content and a noticeable amount of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids. The use of undervalued fish species together with fish oil and a protein hydrolysate from fish waste contribute to improving the sustainability of fishery resources, being conducive to obtaining a potentially functional RTE product. Full article
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14 pages, 1500 KiB  
Article
Changes in Household Dietary Diversity in Herder Communities over the Past 20 Years: Evidence from Xilin Gol Grassland of China
by Wanni Yang, Lin Zhen and Yunjie Wei
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2271; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112271 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 963
Abstract
Food security is critical for socioeconomic development. In grassland areas, inappropriate food consumption patterns can cause irreversible damage to vulnerable local ecosystems. This study aims to examine the household dietary diversity status and development trend over the past 20 years in Chinese herder [...] Read more.
Food security is critical for socioeconomic development. In grassland areas, inappropriate food consumption patterns can cause irreversible damage to vulnerable local ecosystems. This study aims to examine the household dietary diversity status and development trend over the past 20 years in Chinese herder communities. We draw on a cross-sectional dataset of 230 households involving 652 family members from the Xilin Gol Grassland areas in North China. Household dietary diversity was assessed using the household dietary diversity score (HDDS), which was calculated based on 12 food groups. Results show that HDDS increased from 3.74 in 1999 to 5.92 in 2019, with an annual average growth rate of 2.45% during the past 20 years. The increase in plant-based food scores made a major contribution to the HDDS improvement. The variations in household dietary diversity status between pastoral areas and agro-pastoral areas showed differences among different types of grassland in arid and semiarid transitional zones. It is worth paying more attention to monitoring the main impact factors that affect HDDS and how these changes might impact the local ecosystem, which will benefit regional sustainable development. Full article
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15 pages, 2937 KiB  
Article
Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tea Leaves Using Magnetic Approach
by Xiaohan Zhao, Xiao Feng, Jingwen Chen, Lanxin Zhang, Lingzi Zhai, Sizhe Lv, Yonghao Ye, Yongqi Chen, Tian Zhong, Xi Yu and Ying Xiao
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112270 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
A rapid and efficient method using an alkyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles-based extraction technique combined with Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography was developed for the detection of trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea leaves. As a popular coating for chromatographic column packing materials, C [...] Read more.
A rapid and efficient method using an alkyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles-based extraction technique combined with Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography was developed for the detection of trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea leaves. As a popular coating for chromatographic column packing materials, C18-alkyl has been demonstrated to be effective in separating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the magnetism of the nanomaterials accelerates the extraction process while their high surface ratio enables desirable dispersity in the sample matrix. Meanwhile, the adsorbents can be washed and reused 30 times without compromising recovery, which greatly reduces the budget. The effects of various parameters were investigated and optimized, and the recoveries for five analytes were in the range of 84.8–105.4%. The RSD of intra-day and inter-day were below 11.9% and 6.8%, respectively. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged from 1.69–9.97 ng g−1 and 5.12–30.21 ng g−1, indicating satisfactory sensitivity. Thus, the proposed methodology is rapid, highly efficient, and economical, and it expands the application of magnetic cleanup approaches in complex food matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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17 pages, 3376 KiB  
Review
Effect of the Combination of Hibiscus sabdariffa in Combination with Other Plant Extracts in the Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Ana María García-Muñoz, Ana I. García-Guillén, Desirée Victoria-Montesinos, María Salud Abellán-Ruiz, Begoña Alburquerque-González and Fernando Cánovas
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2269; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112269 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is a complex and multifactorial disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, exacerbated by a sedentary lifestyle and situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables high in [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome is a complex and multifactorial disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, exacerbated by a sedentary lifestyle and situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables high in polyphenols has a protective effect, reducing cardiovascular risk. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) in combination with other plant extracts has recently attracted scientists’ attention due to its potential use in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the effects of HS in combination with other plant extracts on the prevention of metabolic syndrome, exploring their synergistic effects and potential as therapeutic agents. For this purpose, a systematic search of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was conducted in four different databases and the data obtained were then used for a meta-analysis. Initially, the titles and abstracts of 1368 studies were read. From these, 16 studies were examined closely for their eligibility, and finally, seven RCTs with 332 participants were included in both the meta-analysis and the qualitative analysis. Our results show that HS in combination with other plant extracts improved anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and lipid profile (low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol) compared to a placebo control group. It is important to note that although this meta-analysis suggests that HS in combination with other plant extracts may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular parameters, further research is needed to determine the optimal dose and intake duration. Full article
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15 pages, 3747 KiB  
Article
Study on the In Silico Screening and Characterization, Inhibition Mechanisms, Zinc-Chelate Activity, and Stability of ACE-Inhibitory Peptides Identified in Naked Oat Bran Albumin Hydrolysates
by Yan Li, Junru Li, Chaoxia Cheng, Yajun Zheng, Hanxu Li, Zilin Zhu, Yuxiang Yan, Wenhui Hao and Nan Qin
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112268 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
In this study, naked oat bran albumin hydrolysates (NOBAH) were subjected to gel chromatography with Sephadex G-15, reverse phase-high liquid performance separation, and UPLC-ESI-MS/MS identification. Six safe peptides including Gly-Thr-Thr-Gly-Gly-Met-Gly-Thr (GTTGGMGT), Gln-Tyr-Val-Pro-Phe (QYVPF), Gly-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Leu-Val (GAAAALV), Gly-Tyr-His-Gly-His (GYHGH), Gly-Leu-Arg-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Glu-Gly-Gly (GLRAAAAAAEGG), and Pro-Ser-Ser-Pro-Pro-Ser (PSSPPS) were [...] Read more.
In this study, naked oat bran albumin hydrolysates (NOBAH) were subjected to gel chromatography with Sephadex G-15, reverse phase-high liquid performance separation, and UPLC-ESI-MS/MS identification. Six safe peptides including Gly-Thr-Thr-Gly-Gly-Met-Gly-Thr (GTTGGMGT), Gln-Tyr-Val-Pro-Phe (QYVPF), Gly-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Leu-Val (GAAAALV), Gly-Tyr-His-Gly-His (GYHGH), Gly-Leu-Arg-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Glu-Gly-Gly (GLRAAAAAAEGG), and Pro-Ser-Ser-Pro-Pro-Ser (PSSPPS) were identified. Next, in silico screening demonstrated that QYVPF and GYHGH had both angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity (IC50: 243.36 and 321.94 μmol/L, respectively) and Zinc-chelating ability (14.85 and 0.32 mg/g, respectively). The inhibition kinetics demonstrated that QYVPF and GYHGH were both uncompetitive inhibitors of ACE. Molecular docking showed that QYVPF and GYHGH could bind, respectively, three and five active residues of ACE with short hydrogen bonds (but not belonging to any central pocket). QYVPF and GYHGH could bind, respectively, twenty-two and eleven residues through hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, GYHGH was able to affect zinc tetrahedral coordination in ACE by interacting with His383. The inhibition activities of QYVPF and GYHGH toward ACE were relatively resistant to gastrointestinal digestion. GYHGH improved zinc solubility in the intestines (p > 0.05) because its amino and carboxyl groups were chelating sites for zinc ions. These results suggest the potential applications of naked oat peptides for potential antihypertension or zinc fortification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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27 pages, 372 KiB  
Article
Dual-Layer Index for Efficient Traceability Query of Food Supply Chain Based on Blockchain
by Chaopeng Guo, Yiming Liu, Meiyu Na and Jie Song
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112267 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Blockchain techniques have been introduced to achieve decentralized and transparent traceability systems, which are critical components of food supply chains. Academia and industry have tried to enhance the efficiency of blockchain-based food supply chain traceability queries. However, the cost of traceability queries remains [...] Read more.
Blockchain techniques have been introduced to achieve decentralized and transparent traceability systems, which are critical components of food supply chains. Academia and industry have tried to enhance the efficiency of blockchain-based food supply chain traceability queries. However, the cost of traceability queries remains high. In this paper, we propose a dual-layer index structure for optimizing traceability queries in blockchain, which consists of an external and an internal index. The dual-layer index structure accelerates the external block jump and internal transaction search while preserving the original characteristics of the blockchain. We establish an experimental environment by modeling the blockchain storage module for extensive simulation experiments. The results show that although the dual-layer index structure introduces a little extra storage and construction time, it significantly improves the efficiency of traceability queries. Specifically, the dual-layer index improves the traceability query rate by seven to eight times compared with that of the original blockchain. Full article
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19 pages, 1239 KiB  
Review
A Review of Recent Advances for the Detection of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Hazards in Foodstuffs Using Spectral Imaging Techniques
by Chuanqi Xie and Weidong Zhou
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112266 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Traditional methods for detecting foodstuff hazards are time-consuming, inefficient, and destructive. Spectral imaging techniques have been proven to overcome these disadvantages in detecting foodstuff hazards. Compared with traditional methods, spectral imaging could also increase the throughput and frequency of detection. This study reviewed [...] Read more.
Traditional methods for detecting foodstuff hazards are time-consuming, inefficient, and destructive. Spectral imaging techniques have been proven to overcome these disadvantages in detecting foodstuff hazards. Compared with traditional methods, spectral imaging could also increase the throughput and frequency of detection. This study reviewed the techniques used to detect biological, chemical, and physical hazards in foodstuffs including ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and Raman spectroscopy. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques were discussed and compared. The latest studies regarding machine learning algorithms for detecting foodstuff hazards were also summarized. It can be found that spectral imaging techniques are useful in the detection of foodstuff hazards. Thus, this review provides updated information regarding the spectral imaging techniques that can be used by food industries and as a foundation for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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32 pages, 1499 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Strategies for Increasing Legume Consumption: Culinary and Educational Approaches
by Isaac Amoah, Angela Ascione, Fares M. S. Muthanna, Alessandra Feraco, Elisabetta Camajani, Stefania Gorini, Andrea Armani, Massimiliano Caprio and Mauro Lombardo
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112265 - 04 Jun 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6201
Abstract
Legumes are nutrient-dense crops with health-promoting benefits. However, several barriers are associated with their consumption. Emerging issues including food neophobic tendencies or taboos, unclear dietary guidelines on legume consumption, health concerns, and socio-economic reasons, as well as long cooking procedures, adversely affect legume [...] Read more.
Legumes are nutrient-dense crops with health-promoting benefits. However, several barriers are associated with their consumption. Emerging issues including food neophobic tendencies or taboos, unclear dietary guidelines on legume consumption, health concerns, and socio-economic reasons, as well as long cooking procedures, adversely affect legume consumption frequency. Pre-treatment methods, including soaking, sprouting, and pulse electric field technology, are effective in reducing the alpha-oligosaccharides and other anti-nutritional factors, eventually lowering cooking time for legumes. Extrusion technology used for innovative development of legume-enriched products, including snacks, breakfast cereals and puffs, baking and pasta, represents a strategic way to promote legume consumption. Culinary skills such as legume salads, legume sprouts, stews, soups, hummus, and the development of homemade cake recipes using legume flour could represent effective ways to promote legume consumption. This review aims to highlight the nutritional and health effects associated with legume consumption, and strategies to improve their digestibility and nutritional profile. Additionally, proper educational and culinary approaches aimed to improve legumes intake are discussed. Full article
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24 pages, 2348 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Evaluation of Cd, Cu, and Fe in Different Brands of Craft Beers from Quito, Ecuador
by Oscar López-Balladares, Patricio J. Espinoza-Montero and Lenys Fernández
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112264 - 04 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
The presence of heavy metals in craft beers can endanger human health if the total metal content exceeds the exposure limits recommended by sanitary standards; in addition, they can cause damage to the quality of the beer. In this work, the concentration of [...] Read more.
The presence of heavy metals in craft beers can endanger human health if the total metal content exceeds the exposure limits recommended by sanitary standards; in addition, they can cause damage to the quality of the beer. In this work, the concentration of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Fe(III) was determined in 13 brands of craft beer with the highest consumption in Quito, Ecuador, by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), using as boron-doped diamond (BDD) working electrode. The BDD electrode used has favorable morphological and electrochemical properties for the detection of metals such as Cd(II), Cu(II), and Fe(III). A granular morphology with microcrystals with an average size between 300 and 2000 nm could be verified for the BDD electrode using a scanning electron microscope. Double layer capacitance of the BDD electrode was 0.01412 μF cm−2, a relatively low value; Ipox/Ipred ratios were 0.99 for the potassium ferro-ferricyanide system in BDD, demonstrating that the redox process is quasi-reversible. The figures of merit for Cd(II), Cu(II), and Fe(III) were; DL of 6.31, 1.76, and 1.72 μg L−1; QL of 21.04, 5.87, and 5.72 μg L−1, repeatability of 1.06, 2.43, and 1.34%, reproducibility of 1.61, 2.94, and 1.83% and percentage of recovery of 98.18, 91.68, and 91.68%, respectively. It is concluded that the DPASV method on BDD has acceptable precision and accuracy for the quantification of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Fe(III), and it was verified that some beers did not comply with the permissible limits of food standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Microbiology of Beer)
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19 pages, 2607 KiB  
Review
Effects of the Molecular Structure of Starch in Foods on Human Health
by Jihui Zhu, Yeming Bai and Robert G. Gilbert
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2263; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112263 - 04 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
Starch provides approximately half of humans’ food energy, and its structural features influence human health. The most important structural feature is the chain length distribution (CLD), which affects properties such as the digestibility of starch-containing foods. The rate of digestion of such foods [...] Read more.
Starch provides approximately half of humans’ food energy, and its structural features influence human health. The most important structural feature is the chain length distribution (CLD), which affects properties such as the digestibility of starch-containing foods. The rate of digestion of such foods has a strong correlation with the prevalence and treatment of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity. Starch CLDs can be divided into multiple regions of degrees of polymerization, wherein the CLD in a given region is predominantly, but not exclusively, formed by a particular set of starch biosynthesis enzymes: starch synthases, starch branching enzymes and debranching enzymes. Biosynthesis-based models have been developed relating the ratios of the various enzyme activities in each set to the CLD component produced by that set. Fitting the observed CLDs to these models yields a small number of biosynthesis-related parameters, which, taken together, describe the entire CLD. This review highlights how CLDs can be measured and how the model-based parameters obtained from fitting these distributions are related to the properties of starch-based foods significant for health, and it considers how this knowledge could be used to develop plant varieties to provide foods with improved properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Chemistry and Function)
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13 pages, 1585 KiB  
Article
Determination of Biogenic Amines in Wine from Chinese Markets Using Ion Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
by Zuoyi Zhu, Xinyue Song, Yunzhu Jiang, Jiarong Yao, Zhen Li, Fen Dai and Qiang Wang
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112262 - 04 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
A method for the determination of nine biogenic amines (BAs) in wine was established using ion chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) without derivatization. BAs were separated by a cation exchange column (IonPac CG17, 50 mm × 4 mm, 7 µm) with a gradient aqueous [...] Read more.
A method for the determination of nine biogenic amines (BAs) in wine was established using ion chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) without derivatization. BAs were separated by a cation exchange column (IonPac CG17, 50 mm × 4 mm, 7 µm) with a gradient aqueous formic acid elution. Good linearity was obtained for nine BAs with coefficients of determination (R2) > 0.9972 within the range of 0.01–50 mg/L. The limits of detection and quantification were within the ranges of 0.6–40 µg/L and 2.0–135 µg/L, respectively, with the exception of spermine (SPM). The recoveries were demonstrated within the range of 82.6–103.0%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 4.2%. This simple method featuring excellent sensitivity and selectivity was suitable for the quantification of BAs in wines. The occurrence of BAs in 236 wine samples that are commercially available in China was determined. The BA levels in wines of different geographical origins varied significantly. The acute dietary exposure assessment of BAs was carried out by calculating the estimated short-term intake (ESTI) and comparing the acute reference dose (ARfD) specified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Results showed that the exposure to histamine (HIS) and tyramine (TYR) via the consumption of wines was much lower than the recommended ARfD level for healthy individuals. However, exposure could lead to symptoms in susceptible individuals. These results provided basic data regarding the occurrence and risk of BAs in wines for wine production, health guidance and consumer safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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19 pages, 7292 KiB  
Article
A Novel Approach for the Production of Mildly Salted Duck Egg Using Ozonized Brine Salting
by Chantira Wongnen, Worawan Panpipat, Nisa Saelee, Saroat Rawdkuen, Lutz Grossmann and Manat Chaijan
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2261; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112261 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Salted eggs are normally produced by treating fresh duck eggs with a high salt concentration in order to acquire distinctive features and excellent preservation capabilities as a result of a series of physicochemical changes. This method, however, induces a high salt content in [...] Read more.
Salted eggs are normally produced by treating fresh duck eggs with a high salt concentration in order to acquire distinctive features and excellent preservation capabilities as a result of a series of physicochemical changes. This method, however, induces a high salt content in the product. The goal of this research was to create a new way of producing mildly salted duck eggs using ozonized brine salting. The brine was made by dissolving NaCl (26% w/v) in water or ozonized water at a concentration of 50 ng ozone/mL (ozonized brine). Compared to brine, ozonized brine resulted in salted eggs with reduced ultimate salt levels in both albumen and yolk (p < 0.05). The Haugh unit of the salted eggs generated by ozonized brine was similar to that of the brine-made salted egg group (p > 0.05), but the salted egg produced by ozonized brine matured and solidified faster because the yolk index (0.62) was higher than that of the brine (0.55) (p < 0.05). The final pH of salted eggs generated with brine and ozonized brine was not different (p > 0.05). Regardless of the salting method, both salted eggs contained low TVB-N content (<10 mg/100 g). Ozonized brine increased the protein carbonyl content in salted albumen, which may be related to albumen protein aggregation and served as a salt diffusion barrier. However, after boiling the salted egg, the protein carbonyl level was comparable to that of fresh albumen. The TBARS levels of boiled salted albumen prepared with brine and ozonized brine were comparable (p > 0.05), and the value was extremely low (~0.1 mg MDA equivalent/kg). The TBARS value of the salted yolk prepared with brine was higher than that of the salted yolk prepared with ozonized brine (p < 0.05), and both salted yolks showed increased TBARS values after cooking (p < 0.05). The albumen and yolk components appeared to be altered similarly by both brine and ozonized brine, according to the FTIR spectra. Furthermore, the appearance and color of the yolk and albumen in salted eggs prepared with brine and ozonized brine were comparable. Boiled salted albumen produced with ozonized brine had a denser structure with fewer voids. This could be attributed to the final salted egg’s lower salt content and lower salt diffusion rate, which were likely caused by protein oxidation and, as a result, aggregation when ozonized brine was used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Preservation of Food Products and By-Products)
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10 pages, 1437 KiB  
Article
Influence of Calcium-Sequestering Salts on Heat-Induced Changes in Blends of Skimmed Buffalo and Bovine Milk
by Carolyn T. Mejares, Jayani Chandrapala and Thom Huppertz
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2260; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112260 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Heat-induced interactions of calcium and protein in milk lead to undesirable changes in the milk, such as protein coagulation, which can be minimized through the addition of calcium-sequestering salts prior to heat treatment. Thus, the present study investigated the influence of 5 mM [...] Read more.
Heat-induced interactions of calcium and protein in milk lead to undesirable changes in the milk, such as protein coagulation, which can be minimized through the addition of calcium-sequestering salts prior to heat treatment. Thus, the present study investigated the influence of 5 mM added trisodium citrate (TSC) or disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) on the heat-induced (85 °C and 95 °C for 5 min) changes in physical, chemical, and structural properties of buffalo and bovine skim milk mixtures (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0). Significant changes in pH and calcium activity as a result of TSC or DSHP addition subsequently resulted in higher particle size and viscosity as well as non-sedimentable protein level. These changes are mostly observed during heat treatment at 95 °C and increased proportionally to the concentration of buffalo skim milk in the milk mixture. Significant changes were affected by TSC addition in the 75:25 buffalo:bovine milk blend and buffalo skim milk, but for other milk samples, TSC addition effected comparable changes with DSHP addition. Overall, the addition of TSC or DSHP before heat treatment of buffalo:bovine milk blends caused changes in milk properties that could reduce susceptibility of milk to coagulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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17 pages, 363 KiB  
Review
Minimally Processed Vegetables in Brazil: An Overview of Marketing, Processing, and Microbiological Aspects
by Jéssica A. F. F. Finger, Isabela M. Santos, Guilherme A. Silva, Mariana C. Bernardino, Uelinton M. Pinto and Daniele F. Maffei
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112259 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3692
Abstract
The global demand for minimally processed vegetables (MPVs) has grown, driven by changes in the population’s lifestyle. MPVs are fresh vegetables that undergo several processing steps, resulting in ready-to-eat products, providing convenience for consumers and food companies. Among the processing steps, washing–disinfection plays [...] Read more.
The global demand for minimally processed vegetables (MPVs) has grown, driven by changes in the population’s lifestyle. MPVs are fresh vegetables that undergo several processing steps, resulting in ready-to-eat products, providing convenience for consumers and food companies. Among the processing steps, washing–disinfection plays an important role in reducing the microbial load and eliminating pathogens that may be present. However, poor hygiene practices can jeopardize the microbiological quality and safety of these products, thereby posing potential risks to consumer health. This study provides an overview of minimally processed vegetables (MPVs), with a specific focus on the Brazilian market. It includes information on the pricing of fresh vegetables and MPVs, as well as an examination of the various processing steps involved, and the microbiological aspects associated with MPVs. Data on the occurrence of hygiene indicators and pathogenic microorganisms in these products are presented. The focus of most studies has been on the detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes, with prevalence rates ranging from 0.7% to 100%, 0.6% to 26.7%, and 0.2% to 33.3%, respectively. Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh vegetables in Brazil between 2000 and 2021 were also addressed. Although there is no information about whether these vegetables were consumed as fresh vegetables or MPVs, these data highlight the need for control measures to guarantee products with quality and safety to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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13 pages, 5909 KiB  
Article
Cryoprotective Effects of Carrageenan Oligosaccharides on Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) during Superchilling
by E Liao, Yuxin Wu, Yang Pan, Ying Zhang, Peng Zhang and Jiwang Chen
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112258 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Cryoprotectants are widely used to protect muscle tissue from ice crystal damage during the aquatic products freezing process, but traditional phosphate cryoprotectants may cause an imbalance in the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio for the human body. This study evaluated the effects of carrageenan oligosaccharides (CRGO) [...] Read more.
Cryoprotectants are widely used to protect muscle tissue from ice crystal damage during the aquatic products freezing process, but traditional phosphate cryoprotectants may cause an imbalance in the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio for the human body. This study evaluated the effects of carrageenan oligosaccharides (CRGO) on quality deterioration and protein hydrolysis of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) during superchilling. The physical-chemical analyses showed that CRGO treatments could significantly (p < 0.05) inhibit the increase of pH values, TVB-N, total viable counts, and thawing loss, and improve the water holding capacity and the proportion of immobilized water, which indicated that CRGO treatment effectively delayed the quality deterioration of crayfish. The myofibrillar protein structural results demonstrated that the increase of the disulfide bond, carbonyl content, S0-ANS, and the decrease of total sulfhydryl content were suppressed significantly (p < 0.05) in CRGO treatment groups. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE results showed that the band intensity of myosin heavy chain and actin in CRGO treatment groups were stronger than in the control. Overall, the application of CRGO to crayfish might maintain better quality and stable protein structure during the superchilling process, and CRGO has the potential to replace phosphate as a novel cryoprotectant for aquatic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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18 pages, 1857 KiB  
Article
Phytosome Supplements for Delivering Gymnema inodorum Phytonutrients to Prevent Inflammation in Macrophages and Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes
by Onanong Nuchuchua, Ratchanon Inpan, Wanwisa Srinuanchai, Jirarat Karinchai, Pornsiri Pitchakarn, Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich and Arisa Imsumran
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2257; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112257 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1992
Abstract
Gymnema inodorum (GI) is a leafy green vegetable found in the northern region of Thailand. A GI leaf extract has been developed as a dietary supplement for metabolic diabetic control. However, the active compounds in the GI leaf extract are relatively nonpolar. This [...] Read more.
Gymnema inodorum (GI) is a leafy green vegetable found in the northern region of Thailand. A GI leaf extract has been developed as a dietary supplement for metabolic diabetic control. However, the active compounds in the GI leaf extract are relatively nonpolar. This study aimed to develop phytosome formulations of the GI extract to improve the efficiencies of their phytonutrients in terms of anti-inflammatory and anti-insulin-resistant activities in macrophages and adipocytes, respectively. Our results showed that the phytosomes assisted the GI extract’s dispersion in an aqueous solution. The GI phytocompounds were assembled into a phospholipid bilayer membrane as spherical nanoparticles about 160–180 nm in diameter. The structure of the phytosomes allowed phenolic acids, flavonoids and triterpene derivatives to be embedded in the phospholipid membrane. The existence of GI phytochemicals in phytosomes significantly changed the particle’s surface charge from neutral to negative within the range of −35 mV to −45 mV. The phytosome delivery system significantly exhibited the anti-inflammatory activity of the GI extract, indicated by the lower production of nitric oxide from inflamed macrophages compared to the non-encapsulated extract. However, the phospholipid component of phytosomes slightly interfered with the anti-insulin-resistant effects of the GI extract by decreasing the glucose uptake activity and increasing the lipid degradation of adipocytes. Altogether, the nano-phytosome is a potent carrier for transporting GI phytochemicals to prevent an early stage of T2DM. Full article
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15 pages, 4414 KiB  
Article
Improved Loading Capacity and Viability of Probiotics Encapsulated in Alginate Hydrogel Beads by In Situ Cultivation Method
by Yachun Huang, Lin Zhang, Jielun Hu and Huan Liu
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112256 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
The objective of this research was to encapsulate probiotics by alginate hydrogel beads based on an in situ cultivation method and investigate the influences on the cell loading capacity, surface and internal structure of hydrogel beads and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion property of [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to encapsulate probiotics by alginate hydrogel beads based on an in situ cultivation method and investigate the influences on the cell loading capacity, surface and internal structure of hydrogel beads and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion property of cells. Hydrogel beads were prepared by extrusion and cultured in MRS broth to allow probiotics to grow inside. Up to 10.34 ± 0.02 Log CFU/g of viable cell concentration was obtained after 24 h of in situ cultivation, which broke through the bottleneck of low viable cell counts in the traditional extrusion method. Morphology and rheological analyses showed that the structure of the eventually formed probiotic hydrogel beads can be loosed by the existence of hydrogen bond interaction with water molecules and the internal growth of probiotic microcolonies, while it can be tightened by the acids metabolized by the probiotic bacteria during cultivation. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion analysis showed that great improvement with only 1.09 Log CFU/g of loss in viable cells was found after the entire 6 h of digestion. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that probiotic microcapsules fabricated by in situ cultivation method have the advantages of both high loading capacity of encapsulated viable cells and good protection during gastrointestinal digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Food Hydrocolloids for Hydrogels and Packaging)
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15 pages, 8485 KiB  
Article
A Turn-Off Fluorescent Biomimetic Sensor Based on a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Coated Amino-Functionalized Zirconium (IV) Metal–Organic Framework for the Ultrasensitive and Selective Detection of Trace Oxytetracycline in Milk
by Xiaohui Wang, Chang Liu, Yichuan Cao, Lin Cai, Haiyang Wang and Guozhen Fang
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112255 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Developing sensitive and effective methods to monitor oxytetracycline residues in food is of great significance for maintaining public health. Herein, a fluorescent sensor (NH2-UIO-66 (Zr)@MIP) based on a molecularly imprinted polymer-coated amino-functionalized zirconium (IV) metal–organic framework was successfully constructed and first [...] Read more.
Developing sensitive and effective methods to monitor oxytetracycline residues in food is of great significance for maintaining public health. Herein, a fluorescent sensor (NH2-UIO-66 (Zr)@MIP) based on a molecularly imprinted polymer-coated amino-functionalized zirconium (IV) metal–organic framework was successfully constructed and first used for the ultrasensitive determination of oxytetracycline. NH2-UIO-66 (Zr), with a maximum emission wavelength of 455 nm under 350 nm excitation, was prepared using a microwave-assisted heating method. The NH2-UIO-66 (Zr)@MIP sensor with specific recognition sites for oxytetracycline was then acquired by modifying a molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of NH2-UIO-66 (Zr). The introduction of NH2-UIO-66 (Zr) as both a signal tag and supporter can strengthen the sensitivity of the fluorescence sensor. Thanks to the combination of the unique characteristics of the molecularly imprinted polymer and NH2-UIO-66 (Zr), the prepared sensor not only exhibited a sensitive fluorescence response, specific identification capabilities and a high selectivity for oxytetracycline, but also showed good fluorescence stability, satisfactory precision and reproducibility. The fabricated sensor displayed a fluorescent linear quenching in the OTC concentration range of 0.05–40 μg mL−1, with a detection limit of 0.012 μg mL−1. More importantly, the fluorescence sensor was finally applied for the detection of oxytetracycline in milk, and the results were comparable to those obtained using the HPLC approach. Hence, the NH2-UIO-66 (Zr)@MIP sensor possesses great application potential for the accurate evaluation of trace oxytetracycline in dairy products. Full article
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15 pages, 5597 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Metabolic Components of JUNCAO Wine Based on GC-QTOF-MS
by Jinlin Fan, Zheng Xiao, Wanwei Qiu, Chao Zhao, Chao Yi, Dongmei Lin and Zhanxi Lin
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112254 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1251
Abstract
JUNCAO wine fermentation metabolites are closely related to the final quality of the product. Currently, there are no studies of dynamic metabolite changes during fermentation of JUNCAO wine. Here, we used gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS) metabolomics and multivariate statistical analysis [...] Read more.
JUNCAO wine fermentation metabolites are closely related to the final quality of the product. Currently, there are no studies of dynamic metabolite changes during fermentation of JUNCAO wine. Here, we used gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS) metabolomics and multivariate statistical analysis to explore the relationship between metabolites and fermentation time. A total of 189 metabolites were annotated throughout the fermentation process. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a clear separation between the samples in the early and late stages of fermentation. A total of 60 metabolites were annotated as differential during the fermentation (variable importance in the projection, VIP > 1, and p < 0.05), including 21 organic acids, 10 amino acids, 15 sugars and sugar alcohols, and 14 other metabolites. Pathway analysis showed that the most commonly influenced pathways (impact value > 0.1 and p < 0.05) were tricarboxylic acid cycle, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, and other 10 metabolic pathways. Moreover, integrated metabolic pathways are generated to understand the conversion and accumulation of differential metabolites. Overall, these results provide a comprehensive overview of metabolite changes during fermentation of JUNCAO wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
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22 pages, 2163 KiB  
Article
Moringa oleifera Lam. Commercial Beverages: A Multifaceted Investigation of Consumer Perceptions, Sensory Analysis, and Bioactive Properties
by Jéssica Ferreira Rodrigues, Cristina Soares, Manuela M. Moreira, Maria João Ramalhosa, Neimar Freitas Duarte, Cristina Delerue-Matos and Clara Grosso
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112253 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2065
Abstract
This study employs a multidisciplinary approach to evaluate consumers’ perceptions and acceptance of Moringa oleifera Lam. beverages, examining sensory attributes, chemical composition, and bioactivities. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analyses revealed significant chemovariation in phenolic compositions among commercial moringa beverages. [...] Read more.
This study employs a multidisciplinary approach to evaluate consumers’ perceptions and acceptance of Moringa oleifera Lam. beverages, examining sensory attributes, chemical composition, and bioactivities. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analyses revealed significant chemovariation in phenolic compositions among commercial moringa beverages. A soluble moringa powder drink exhibited the greatest concentrations of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, along with powerful antioxidant capacity powers assessed with ABTS•+, DPPH, FRAP assays, NO, and H2O2 scavenging activities. However, this sample was the least preferred and presented high Cd levels, exceeding WHO-acceptable values of 0.3 mg/kg. Sensory testing indicated that sweet and floral flavors contributed to beverages being liked, while green, grass, herbal flavors, sour, bitter, and precipitate presence were considered unfavorable sensory attributes. Health claims positively influenced acceptance, particularly among women. Consumers associated feelings of health, wellness, relaxation, and leisure with moringa beverages. During purchase, the most observed information included the ingredient list, health benefits, and type/flavor. These findings emphasize the importance of consumer awareness in reading labels, verifying product origins, and ensuring the absence of contaminants. By understanding consumer preferences and the impact of health claims, producers can better tailor M. oleifera beverages to meet consumer expectations while maintaining safety and quality standards. Full article
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15 pages, 3811 KiB  
Article
Development of a Flavor Fingerprint Using HS-GC-IMS for Volatile Compounds from Steamed Potatoes of Different Varieties
by Hong Jiang, Wensheng Duan, Yuci Zhao, Xiaofeng Liu, Guohong Wen, Fankui Zeng and Gang Liu
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112252 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
The variations in flavor substances across different varieties of steamed potatoes were determined by headspace-gas chromatography ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) combined with sensory evaluation. Results showed that 63 representative compounds, including 27 aldehydes, 14 alcohols, 12 ketones, 4 esters, 2 furans, 1 acid [...] Read more.
The variations in flavor substances across different varieties of steamed potatoes were determined by headspace-gas chromatography ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) combined with sensory evaluation. Results showed that 63 representative compounds, including 27 aldehydes, 14 alcohols, 12 ketones, 4 esters, 2 furans, 1 acid and others, together acted as contributors to the flavors in steamed potatoes. Analysis found that species and concentrations of aldehydes, alcohols and ketones in six varieties were the most abundant. In addition, esters, furans and acid were also responsible for flavor. PCA results showed that volatile compounds in Atlantic, Longshu No. 23, Longshu No. 7 and Longshu No. 14 were similar, while Russet Burbank and Longshu No. 16 had distinct characteristic volatiles, which was consistent with sensory evaluation. The combination of sensory evaluation and HS-GC-IMS provided useful knowledge for charactering volatile compounds of steamed potatoes from different varieties, and also demonstrated the promising application of HS-GC-IMS in the detection of potato flavor with various cooking methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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18 pages, 3717 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Synbiotics on Dextran-Sodium-Sulfate-Induced Acute Colitis: The Impact of Chitosan Oligosaccharides on Endogenous/Exogenous Lactiplantibacillus plantarum
by Yunjiao Zhao, Liangyu Xue, Shunqin Li, Tao Wu, Rui Liu, Wenjie Sui and Min Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112251 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
In this work, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from mice feces (LP-M) and pickles (LP-P) were chosen as the endogenous and exogenous L. plantarum, respectively, which were separately combined with chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) to be synbiotics. The anti-inflammatory activity of [...] Read more.
In this work, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from mice feces (LP-M) and pickles (LP-P) were chosen as the endogenous and exogenous L. plantarum, respectively, which were separately combined with chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) to be synbiotics. The anti-inflammatory activity of LP-M, LP-P, COS, and the synbiotics was explored using dextran-sodium-sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis mice, as well as by comparing the synergistic effects of COS with LP-M or LP-P. The results revealed that L. plantarum, COS, and the synbiotics alleviated the symptoms of mice colitis and inhibited the changes in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) caused by DSS. In addition, the intervention of L. plantarum, COS, and the synbiotics increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria Muribaculaceae and Lactobacillus and suppressed the pathogenic bacteria Turicibacter and Escherichia-Shigella. There was no statistically difference between LP-M and the endogenous synbiotics on intestinal immunity and metabolism. However, the exogenous synbiotics improved SCFAs, inhibited the changes in cytokines and MPO activity, and restored the gut microbiota more effectively than exogenous L. plantarum LP-P. This indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous LP-P can be increased by combining it with COS as a synbiotic. Full article
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19 pages, 3353 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Response Conditions on Food Images-Evoked Emotions Measured Using the Valence × Arousal Circumplex-Inspired Emotion Questionnaire (CEQ)
by Han-Seok Seo, Lydia Rockers and Young-Gab Kim
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112250 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1963
Abstract
In 2020, a single-response-based, valence × arousal circumplex-inspired emotion questionnaire (CEQ) was developed. Using a between-participants design, previous studies have found that a multiple response (MR) condition better discriminated test samples (e.g., written food names) based on their evoked emotions than a single [...] Read more.
In 2020, a single-response-based, valence × arousal circumplex-inspired emotion questionnaire (CEQ) was developed. Using a between-participants design, previous studies have found that a multiple response (MR) condition better discriminated test samples (e.g., written food names) based on their evoked emotions than a single response (SR) condition. This research, comprising Studies 1 and 2, aimed to determine the effect of response conditions (i.e., SR vs. MR) on emotional responses to food image samples, using a within-participants design. In Study 1, 105 Korean participants were asked to select a pair of emotion terms (i.e., SR condition) or select all pairs representing their evoked emotions (i.e., MR condition) from a list of 12 pairs of emotion terms of the CEQ, in response to the 14 food images. Both SR and MR conditions were tested within a remote (online) session. To minimize both a potential carry-over effect of the “within-participants design” and an influence of environmental factors in the remote testing, Study 2 asked 64 U.S. participants to do so over two separated sessions on two different days in a controlled laboratory setting. In both Studies 1 and 2, participants selected the CEQ’s emotion-term pairs in the MR condition more frequently than in the SR condition, leading to the MR condition’s higher capacity to discriminate test samples. While the configurations of the correspondence analysis biplots drawn in the SR and MR conditions were similar, those in the MR condition were more likely to be similar to the configurations of the principal component analysis biplots drawn from the ratings of valence and arousal for food image samples. In conclusion, this study provides robust empirical evidence that the MR condition can perform better in capturing sample differences in food-evoked emotions, while the SR condition is also effective in characterizing emotional profiles of test samples. Our findings will provide practical insights to sensory professionals, enabling them to effectively leverage the CEQ or its variants when measuring food-evoked emotions. Full article
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15 pages, 2051 KiB  
Article
Viability and In Vitro Gastrointestinal Transit Tolerance of Multispecies Probiotic Combinations Incorporated into Orange Juice and Drinking Water
by Mahta Moussavi, Javad Barouei, Craig Evans, Michelle C. Adams and Surinder Baines
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112249 - 02 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Little is known about how combining probiotics affects the storage survival and functional performance of individual probiotics when incorporated into non-dairy drinks. Viability of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LG), Limosilactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 (LR), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (Bb), and Propionibacterium jensenii 702 [...] Read more.
Little is known about how combining probiotics affects the storage survival and functional performance of individual probiotics when incorporated into non-dairy drinks. Viability of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LG), Limosilactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 (LR), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (Bb), and Propionibacterium jensenii 702 (PJ), either alone or in multi-species combinations included in orange juice (OJ), were assessed during storage in refrigerated conditions and compared with bottled water (BW). The tolerance of probiotics included in refrigerated OJ to simulated gastrointestinal conditions was also examined. LG and LR viabilities were significantly higher in OJ than in BW (p ≤ 0.001), while the reverse was evident for PJ. Bb maintained high viability in both drinks. LG-PJ in both drinks and Bb-PJ in BW resulted in greater viabilities among the paired combinations compared to their respective monocultures when incorporated separately (p ≤ 0.001). The viability of LG in the LG-Bb-PJ combination improved significantly in BW compared with LG alone (p ≤ 0.001). OJ did not alter bacterial tolerance to simulated gastric juice but diminished tolerance to simulated intestinal juice (SIJ). In all combinations, tolerance of LG and LR to SIJ was improved, whereas tolerance of PJ declined significantly compared with respective monocultures (p ≤ 0.001). In conclusion, probiotic storage stability and gastrointestinal transit tolerance were species-dependent and affected by carrier type and combinations. These effects should be considered when formulating probiotic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Probiotics Research and Innovation in Functional Food Production)
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20 pages, 2206 KiB  
Article
Sorghum Flour Features Related to Dry Heat Treatment and Milling
by Ana Batariuc, Ionica Coțovanu and Silvia Mironeasa
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112248 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Heat treatment of sorghum kernels has the potential to improve their nutritional properties. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of dry heat treatment at two temperatures (121 and 140 °C) and grain fractionation, on the chemical and functional properties [...] Read more.
Heat treatment of sorghum kernels has the potential to improve their nutritional properties. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of dry heat treatment at two temperatures (121 and 140 °C) and grain fractionation, on the chemical and functional properties of red sorghum flour with three different particle sizes (small, medium, and large), for process optimization. The results showed that the treatment temperature had a positive effect on the water absorption capacity, as well as the fat, ash, moisture and carbohydrate content, whereas the opposite tendency was obtained for oil absorption capacity, swelling power, emulsion activity and protein and fiber content. Sorghum flour particle size had a positive impact on water absorption capacity, emulsion activity and protein, carbohydrate and fiber content, while oil absorption capacity, swelling power and fat, ash and moisture content were adversely affected. The optimization process showed that at the treatment temperature at 133 °C, an increase in fat, ash, fiber and carbohydrate content was experienced in the optimal fraction dimension of red sorghum grains. Moreover, the antioxidant performance showed that this fraction produced the best reducing capability when water was used as an extraction solvent. Starch digestibility revealed a 22.81% rise in resistant starch, while the thermal properties showed that gelatinization enthalpy was 1.90 times higher compared to the control sample. These findings may be helpful for researchers and the food industry in developing various functional foods or gluten-free bakery products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal: Storage, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes)
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12 pages, 1803 KiB  
Article
Stability and Digestive Properties of a Dual-Protein Emulsion System Based on Soy Protein Isolate and Whey Protein Isolate
by Ting-Ting Gao, Jing-Xue Liu, Xin Gao, Guo-Qi Zhang and Xiao-Zhi Tang
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112247 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
The stability and digestive properties of a dual-protein emulsion consisting of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) have been systematically studied. The results showed that the particle size and viscosity of the dual-protein emulsion system decreased continuously with the increase [...] Read more.
The stability and digestive properties of a dual-protein emulsion consisting of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) have been systematically studied. The results showed that the particle size and viscosity of the dual-protein emulsion system decreased continuously with the increase in WPI, and this might be related to the large amount of electric charge on the surface of the emulsion droplets. Dual-protein emulsions with ratios of 3:7 and 5:5 showed the highest emulsion activity, while emulsion stability increased with the increase in WPI. The thicker adsorption layer formed at the interface might have contributed to this phenomenon. After in-vitro-simulated digestion, the emulsion droplet particle size increased substantially due to the weakened electrostatic repulsion on the droplet surface, especially for the intestinal digestion phase. Meanwhile, WPI accelerated the release of free fatty acids in the digestion process, which played a positive role in the nutritional value of the dual-protein emulsion. In accelerated oxidation experiments, WPI also improved the antioxidant properties of the dual-protein emulsion system. This study will provide a new insight and necessary theoretical basis for the preparation of dual-protein emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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13 pages, 1258 KiB  
Article
Textural and Consumer-Aided Characterisation and Acceptability of a Hybrid Meat and Plant-Based Burger Patty
by Bjørn Petrat-Melin and Svend Dam
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112246 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2766
Abstract
The hamburger has been targeted for substitution by numerous plant-based alternatives. However, many consumers find the taste of these alternatives lacking, and thus we proposed a hybrid meat and plant-based burger as a more acceptable alternative for these consumers. The burger was made [...] Read more.
The hamburger has been targeted for substitution by numerous plant-based alternatives. However, many consumers find the taste of these alternatives lacking, and thus we proposed a hybrid meat and plant-based burger as a more acceptable alternative for these consumers. The burger was made from 50% meat (beef and pork, 4:1) and 50% plant-based ingredients, including texturised legume protein. Texture and sensory properties were evaluated instrumentally and through a consumer survey (n = 381) using the check-all-that-apply (CATA) method. Expressible moisture measurements indicated a significantly juicier eating experience for the hybrid compared to a beef burger (33.5% vs. 22.3%), which was supported by the CATA survey where “juicy” was used more to describe the hybrid than the beef burger (53% vs. 12%). Texture profile analysis showed the hybrid burger was significantly softer (Young’s modulus: 332 ± 34 vs. 679 ± 80 kPa) and less cohesive than a beef burger (Ratio 0.48 ± 0.02 vs. 0.58 ± 0.01). Despite having different textural and CATA profiles, overall liking of the hybrid burger and a beef burger were not significantly different. Penalty analysis indicated that “meat flavour”, “juiciness”, “spiciness” and “saltiness” were the most important attributes for a burger. In conclusion, the hybrid burger had different attributes and was described with different CATA terms than a beef burger but had the same overall acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior Based on Food Source, Technology and Health Effect)
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15 pages, 644 KiB  
Article
Serotypes, Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles, and Virulence Factors of Salmonella Isolates in Chinese Edible Frogs (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) Collected from Wet Markets in Hong Kong
by Sara Boss, Roger Stephan, Jule Anna Horlbog, Ioannis Magouras, Violaine Albane Colon, Kittitat Lugsomya, Marc J. A. Stevens and Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112245 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Salmonella is an important agent of gastrointestinal disease in humans. While livestock, such as cattle, poultry, and pigs, are well-recognised animal reservoirs of Salmonella, there is a lack of data on Salmonella in edible frogs, even though frog meat is a popular [...] Read more.
Salmonella is an important agent of gastrointestinal disease in humans. While livestock, such as cattle, poultry, and pigs, are well-recognised animal reservoirs of Salmonella, there is a lack of data on Salmonella in edible frogs, even though frog meat is a popular food worldwide. In this study, 103 live edible Chinese frogs (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) were collected from wet markets throughout Hong Kong. After euthanasia, faeces or cloacal swabs were examined for Salmonella. Overall, Salmonella spp. were isolated from 67 (65%, CI: 0.554–0.736) of the samples. The serotypes included S. Saintpaul (33%), S. Newport (24%), S. Bareilly (7%), S. Braenderup (4%), S. Hvittingfoss (4%), S. Stanley (10%), and S. Wandsworth (16%). Many isolates were phylogenetically related. A high number of genes encoding for resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobials, and a high number of virulence determinants, were identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) identified multidrug resistance (MDR) in 21% of the isolates. Resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline was common. These results demonstrate that a high percentage of live frogs sold for human consumption in wet markets are carriers of multidrug-resistant Salmonella. Public health recommendations for handling edible frogs should be considered, to mitigate the risk of Salmonella transmission to humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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