Next Issue
Volume 12, July-2
Previous Issue
Volume 12, June-2
 
 

Foods, Volume 12, Issue 13 (July-1 2023) – 204 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): From pudding, egg tart and other processing enterprise feedback problems, following storage for some time after rehydration of egg yolk powder fat precipitation, heating to form egg yolk gel results in a significant amount of oil precipitation, which affects the taste and flavor of egg yolk powder itself, and then affects the application prospects of egg yolk powder. In this work, we study the change and mechanism of gel properties during the storage of egg yolk powder and investigate the relationship between the changes in the structure and properties of egg yolk gel and egg yolk powder during storage. In our study, the egg yolk powder was stored at 37 °C for 0, 1, 3, 6 months during an accelerated storage experiment, and the influence of storage time on the gel properties of egg yolk powder was analyzed. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
17 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
Biological Activities of p-Hydroxycinnamic Acids in Maintaining Gut Barrier Integrity and Function
by Zi-Ying Wang, Ying Yin, Dong-Ni Li, Dan-Yue Zhao and Jun-Qing Huang
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2636; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132636 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
It is well established that p-Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), including ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids, possess a characteristic phenylpropanoid C6-C3 backbone and account for about one-third of the phenolic compounds in our diet. HCAs are typically associated with various plant cell wall components, [...] Read more.
It is well established that p-Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), including ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids, possess a characteristic phenylpropanoid C6-C3 backbone and account for about one-third of the phenolic compounds in our diet. HCAs are typically associated with various plant cell wall components, including mono-, di-, and polysaccharides, sterols, polyamines, glycoproteins, and lignins. Interestingly, enzymes produced by intestinal microbes liberate HCAs from these associations. HCAs are completely absorbed in their free form upon ingestion and undergo specific reactions upon absorption in the small intestine or liver. The gut epithelium, composed of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), acts as a physical barrier against harmful bacteria and a site for regulated interactions between bacteria and the gut lumen. Thus, maintaining the integrity of the epithelial barrier is essential for establishing a physiochemical environment conducive to homeostasis. This review summarizes the protective effects of HCAs on the intestinal barrier, achieved through four mechanisms: preserving tight junction proteins (TJPs), modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, exerting antioxidant activity, and regulating the intestinal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources from Food Waste and Food Co-products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1173 KiB  
Article
Physiochemical and Sensory Properties of Bread Fortified with Wheat Bran and Whey Protein Isolates
by Jaromír Pořízka, Zuzana Slavíková, Karolína Bidmonová, Miroslava Vymětalová and Pavel Diviš
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2635; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132635 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of fortifying baked goods with wheat bran (WBPI) and whey protein isolates (WPI) on their physicochemical and sensory properties. The aim was to enhance the nutritional value by incorporating high-protein ingredients. WBPI and WPI, which are rich in [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of fortifying baked goods with wheat bran (WBPI) and whey protein isolates (WPI) on their physicochemical and sensory properties. The aim was to enhance the nutritional value by incorporating high-protein ingredients. WBPI and WPI, which are rich in essential amino acids, were chosen to create high-protein flour blends. The main advantage of WBPI is that it is derived from readily available and inexpensive wheat bran. High-protein flour blends fortified with substitutions of 5%, 10%, and 15% flour with WBPI and WPI were subjected to chemical and rheological analysis. WBPI substitution slightly increased water binding and softening, but it resulted in a decrease in dough quality. In contrast, WPI substitution prolonged dough development time, improved dough stability, and enhanced farinographic quality. WBPI-substituted dough exhibited comparable extensographic properties to the reference flour, with 5% WBPI substitution leading to improved energy and dough resistance. However, as the level of WBPI flour substitution increased, extensographic parameters gradually declined without further enhancing the dough’s mechanical properties. Samples with 5% WPI substitution demonstrated superior mechanical properties compared to the reference sample. Baguette with high WBPI substitution was associated with reduced overall acceptance due to a bitter taste caused by the presence of small peptides, ferulic acid, and tannins, as confirmed by correlation analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Food Physical Characterization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3611 KiB  
Article
Effect of Peanut Protein Treated with Alkaline Protease and Flavorzyme on BALB/c Mice
by Erlian Shu, Shuo Wang, Bing Niu and Qin Chen
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132634 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1321
Abstract
This article aims to analyze the effects of enzyme treatment concentration, temperature, and time on peanut protein so as to obtain an optimal enzymatic hydrolysis condition for flavorzyme (Fla) and alkaline protease (Alk). The results were as follows: enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 60 °C [...] Read more.
This article aims to analyze the effects of enzyme treatment concentration, temperature, and time on peanut protein so as to obtain an optimal enzymatic hydrolysis condition for flavorzyme (Fla) and alkaline protease (Alk). The results were as follows: enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 60 °C and 55 °C, enzyme concentration 10% and 4%, enzymatic hydrolysis time 80 min and 60 min, and double enzyme hydrolysis ratio 2% Fla + 5% Alk, respectively. The BALB/c mice were sensitized with gavage of peanut protein before and after enzyme treatment to evaluate the effects of different enzyme treatments on peanut allergenicity. Compared with the mice sensitized with raw peanuts, the weight growth rate of the mice sensitized with enzyme treatment peanut increased but not as much as the control, the degranulation degree of mast cell and basophils decreased, the inflammatory infiltration and congestion in jejunum and lung tissue decreased, the expression of proinflammatory factors and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) gene decreased, and the secretion of specific antibodies (IgE, and IgG) decreased, and the binding ability of peanut protein with peanut-specific IgE antibodies decreased as well. The results above indicate that the allergenicity of peanut protein decreases after enzyme treatment and the dual enzyme (Fla + Alk) treatment can be much more efficient. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 1794 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hopper Loading on the Formation of Alkyl Alcohols in Olive Fruits and Its Relationship with Sensory Quality Losses of Virgin Olive Oil
by Abdelaziz Boudebouz, Agustí Romero, Juan-F. Hermoso, Ricard Boqué and Montserrat Mestres
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132633 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 750
Abstract
The storage of olives in large hoppers is a widespread practice in oil mills, but these large volumes and their unloading can cause a physical deterioration of the olives that will affect the quality of the oil obtained. This research deals with the [...] Read more.
The storage of olives in large hoppers is a widespread practice in oil mills, but these large volumes and their unloading can cause a physical deterioration of the olives that will affect the quality of the oil obtained. This research deals with the effect of hopper charge on the formation of alkyl alcohols in olive fruits and its relationship with the sensory quality losses of ‘Arbequina’ virgin olive oil. The contents of ethanol, methanol, and acetaldehyde were measured in olive samples loaded and stored for a short time in a large hopper and analyzed at three different hopper-discharging times, which are related to three different positions inside the hopper. The corresponding oil from each sampling was obtained by using ABENCOR and was evaluated by a trained tasting panel. Results showed that the ethanol content in olives increased during their storage in the hopper, while methanol and acetaldehyde contents did not show significant differences. Regarding their position in the hopper, fruits located at the bottom or on the lateral sides showed a greater deterioration. The sensory analyses showed an inverse relationship between the positive attributes of olive oils and their content of alcohols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Research on Olive Oil Quality, Production and Consumption)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3546 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effectiveness of Fermented Banana Peel Extracts for the Biosorption and Removal of Cadmium to Mitigate Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
by Lan-Chun Chou and Cheng-Chih Tsai
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2632; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132632 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1839
Abstract
This study identified 11 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that exhibited tolerance to heavy metal cadmium concentrations above 50 ppm for 48 h. Among these strains, T126-1 and T40-1 displayed the highest tolerance, enduring cadmium concentrations up to 500 ppm while still inhibiting [...] Read more.
This study identified 11 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that exhibited tolerance to heavy metal cadmium concentrations above 50 ppm for 48 h. Among these strains, T126-1 and T40-1 displayed the highest tolerance, enduring cadmium concentrations up to 500 ppm while still inhibiting bacterial growth by 50%. Moreover, the fermentation of banana peel using LAB significantly enhanced the clearance rate of cadmium (p < 0.05) compared to nonfermented banana peel. Additionally, the LAB-fermented banana peel exhibited higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and reduced power values. Strain T40-1 exhibited a significant improvement in its ability to chelate ferrous ions (p < 0.05). Regarding antibiotic resistance, both the T40-1 and TH3 strains demonstrated high resistance with a third-level inhibition rate against ampicillin and tetracycline. Cell viability tests revealed that incubation with the T40-1 and TH3 strains for a duration of 24 h did not result in any cellular damage. Moreover, these LAB strains effectively mitigated oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), caused by 2 ppm cadmium on cells. Furthermore, the LAB strains were able to reduce the inflammatory response, as evidenced by a decrease in interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels (p < 0.05). The use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis provided valuable insight into the interaction between metal ions and the organic functional groups present on the cell wall of fermented banana peel. In summary, this study highlights the potential of the LAB strains T40-1 and TH3 in terms of their tolerance to the cadmium, ability to enhance cadmium clearance rates, and their beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
Determination of Fatty Acid Profile in Processed Fish and Shellfish Foods
by Vincenzo Nava, Vincenzo Lo Turco, Patrizia Licata, Veselina Panayotova, Katya Peycheva, Francesco Fazio, Rossana Rando, Giuseppa Di Bella and Angela Giorgia Potortì
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132631 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Seafood products are a crucial dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are essential for human health. However, the presence of these n-3 PUFA may be subject to changes related to different processing methods. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Seafood products are a crucial dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are essential for human health. However, the presence of these n-3 PUFA may be subject to changes related to different processing methods. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition, focusing on n-3 PUFA, in different processed fish and shellfish products of both EU and non-EU origin. The products were purchased from supermarkets and ethnic food shops in Messina (Italy). Gas chromatography with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID) was used for analysis. Based on the fatty acid profile, the atherogenicity index (AI), thrombogenicity index (TI), and flesh lipid quality index (FLQ) were determined: 0.13–1.04 (AI), 0.19–0.89 (TI), and 0.41–29.90 (FLQ). The percentages of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids fell within the following ranges: 13.55–50.48%, 18.91–65.58%, and 13.84–52.73%, respectively. Considering that all samples showed low AI and TI indices and that all processed fish products proved to be a good source of beneficial PUFAs, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), their consumption is recommended for humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foods of Marine Origin)
16 pages, 11889 KiB  
Article
Geographic Pattern of Variations in Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernels from China
by Xianghui Yan, Xiaofeng Gong, Zheling Zeng, Jiaheng Xia, Maomao Ma, Junxin Zhao, Guohua Zhang, Pengbo Wang, Dongman Wan, Ping Yu and Deming Gong
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132630 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) is an important non-conventional edible plant species found in East Asia. Here, a detailed characterization for the chemical composition and nutritional value of C. camphora seed kernels (CCSKs) collected from different regions in China is provided. The results showed [...] Read more.
Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) is an important non-conventional edible plant species found in East Asia. Here, a detailed characterization for the chemical composition and nutritional value of C. camphora seed kernels (CCSKs) collected from different regions in China is provided. The results showed that there were significant differences among the CCSK samples in weights (1000 fruits, 1000 seeds and 1000 kernels), proximate composition, minerals, phenolics, flavonoids and amino acid contents. The highest contents of oil (62.08%) and protein (22.17%) were found in the CCSK samples collected from Chongqing and Shanghai, respectively. The highest content of mineral in the CCSK samples was K (4345.05–7186.89 mg/kg), followed by P (2735.86–5385.36 mg/kg), Ca (1412.27–3327.37 mg/kg) and Mg (2028.65–3147.32 mg/kg). The CCSK sample collected from Guizhou had the highest levels of total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC), while that from Chongqing had the lowest levels. In addition, the most abundant fatty acid in the CCSK samples was capric acid (57.37–60.18%), followed by lauric acid (35.23–38.29%). Similarities in the fatty acid composition among the CCSK samples were found. The CCSK sample collected from Guizhou had the highest percentage (36.20%) of essential amino acids to total amino acids, and Chongqing had the lowest value (28.84%). These results indicated that CCSK may be developed as an excellent source of plant-based medium-chain oil, protein, dietary fiber, minerals, phytochemicals and essential amino acids. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 742 KiB  
Review
The Role of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Skin Cancer: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential
by Lucia Peterle, Serena Sanfilippo, Francesco Borgia, Federica Li Pomi, Rossella Vadalà, Rosaria Costa, Nicola Cicero and Sebastiano Gangemi
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2629; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132629 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Skin cancer is a prevalent type of cancer worldwide and has a high growth rate compared to other diseases. Although modern targeted therapies have improved the management of cutaneous neoplasms, there is an urgent requirement for a safer, more affordable, and effective chemoprevention [...] Read more.
Skin cancer is a prevalent type of cancer worldwide and has a high growth rate compared to other diseases. Although modern targeted therapies have improved the management of cutaneous neoplasms, there is an urgent requirement for a safer, more affordable, and effective chemoprevention and treatment strategy for skin cancer. Nutraceuticals, which are natural substances derived from food, have emerged as a potential alternative or adjunctive treatment option. In this review, we explore the current evidence on the use of omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols (curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, apigenin, resveratrol, and genistein) for the treatment of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), as well as in their prevention. We discuss the mechanisms of action of the aforementioned nutraceuticals and their probable therapeutic benefits in skin cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, apigenin, resveratrol, and genistein have several properties, among which are anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor, which can help to prevent and treat skin cancer. However, their effectiveness is limited due to poor bioavailability. Nanoparticles and other delivery systems can improve their absorption and targeting. More research is needed to evaluate their safety and effectiveness as a natural approach to skin cancer prevention and treatment. These compounds should not replace conventional cancer treatments, but may be used as complementary therapy under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2675 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Potential of Spray- and Freeze-Dried Extract from Oregano Processing Wastes, Using an Optimized Ultrasound-Assisted Method
by Patroklos Vareltzis, Aggelos Stergiou, Kallirhoe Kalinderi and Maria Chamilaki
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132628 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
Origanum vulgare is recognized worldwide for its numerous applications, in the food industry and beyond. However, the extraction of its essential oils generates a significant amount of waste. The aim of this research was to achieve the valorization of solid waste from oregano [...] Read more.
Origanum vulgare is recognized worldwide for its numerous applications, in the food industry and beyond. However, the extraction of its essential oils generates a significant amount of waste. The aim of this research was to achieve the valorization of solid waste from oregano hydro-distillation, by (i) optimizing the ultrasound extraction of antioxidants, (ii) evaluating the effect of spray and freeze drying on the extract’s physicochemical properties, and (iii) characterizing the obtained powder by its antioxidant capacity. A central composite design of experiments was used to optimize the sample/solvent ratio, ethanol/water ratio, and extraction time. The extract was analyzed for its antioxidant potential by determining the percentage of DPPH inhibition, FRAP, and total phenolic content (TPC). The GAB model best fit the data for the moisture sorption isotherm of the resulting powder. The antioxidant activity of the powders was tested in a ground-beef food system. The TPC was maximized at times longer than 58 min, a sample/solvent ratio between 0.058 and 0.078, and a ratio of ethanol/water around 1. Neither drying method significantly affected the antioxidant properties of the extract, even though the resulting powders from each showed a different morphology (determined using SEM). Encapsulation with maltodextrin protected the spray-dried extract during a 6-month storage period. Powders from both drying methods equally retarded lipid oxidation, and were comparable to the synthetic antioxidant BHT. It is concluded that oregano processing waste is a potent source of antioxidants, and that its dried extract, via an ultrasound-assisted process, can potentially be used as a natural alternative to synthetic antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction, Characterization and Bioactive Properties of Plants Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4195 KiB  
Article
The Effects and Regulatory Mechanism of Casein-Derived Peptide VLPVPQK in Alleviating Insulin Resistance of HepG2 Cells
by Dapeng Li, Jianxin Cao, Jin Zhang, Tong Mu, Rubin Wang, Huanhuan Li, Honggang Tang, Lihong Chen, Xiuyu Lin, Xinyan Peng and Ke Zhao
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132627 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
The liver plays a key role in keeping the homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism. Insulin resistance of the liver induced by extra glucose and lipid ingestion contributes greatly to chronic metabolic disease, which is greatly threatening to human health. The small peptide, [...] Read more.
The liver plays a key role in keeping the homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism. Insulin resistance of the liver induced by extra glucose and lipid ingestion contributes greatly to chronic metabolic disease, which is greatly threatening to human health. The small peptide, VLPVPQK, originating from casein hydrolysates of milk, shows various health-promoting functions. However, the effects of VLPVPQK on metabolic disorders of the liver are still not fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, the effects and regulatory mechanism of VLPVPQK on insulin-resistant HepG2 cells was further investigated. The results showed that VLPVPQK exerted strong scavenging capacities against various free radicals, including oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and cellular reactive oxygen species. In addition, supplementation of VLPVPQK (62.5, 125, and 250 μM) significantly reversed the high glucose and fat (30 mM glucose and 0.2 mM palmitic acid) induced decrement of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, VLPVPQK intervention affected the transcriptomic profiling of the cells. The differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR < 0.05, and absolute fold change (FC) > 1.5) between VLPVPQK and the model group were mostly enriched in the carbohydrate metabolism-related KEGG pathways. Interestingly, the expression of two core genes (HKDC1 and G6PC1) involved in the above pathways was dramatically elevated after VLPVPQK intervention, which played a key role in regulating glucose metabolism. Furthermore, supplementation of VLPVPQK reversed the high glucose and fat-induced depression of AKR1B10. Overall, VLPVPQK could alleviate the metabolic disorder of hepatocytes by elevating the glucose uptake and eliminating the ROS, while the HKDC1 and AKR1B10 genes might be the potential target genes and play important roles in the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 977 KiB  
Article
Edible/Biodegradable Packaging with the Addition of Spent Coffee Grounds Oil
by Dani Dordevic, Simona Dordevic, Fouad Ali Abdullah Abdullah, Tamara Mader, Nino Medimorec, Bohuslava Tremlova and Ivan Kushkevych
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132626 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
Background: Following petroleum, coffee ranks as the second most extensively exchanged commodity worldwide. The definition of spent coffee ground (SCG) can be outlined as the waste generated after consuming coffee. The aims of the study are to produce edible/biodegradable packaging with the addition [...] Read more.
Background: Following petroleum, coffee ranks as the second most extensively exchanged commodity worldwide. The definition of spent coffee ground (SCG) can be outlined as the waste generated after consuming coffee. The aims of the study are to produce edible/biodegradable packaging with the addition of spent coffee grounds (SCG) oil and to investigate how this fortification can affect chemical, textural, and solubility properties of experimentally produced films. Methods: The produced films were based on κ-carrageenan and pouring–drying techniques in petri dishes. Two types of emulsifiers were used: Tween 20 and Tween 80. The films were analyzed by antioxidant and textural analysis, and their solubility was also tested. Results: Edible/biodegradable packaging samples produced with the addition of SCG oil showed higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant capacity in comparison with control samples produced without the addition of SCG oil. The results of the research showed that the fortification of edible/biodegradable packaging with the addition of SCG oil changed significantly (p < 0.05) both chemical and physical properties of the films. Conclusions: Based on the findings obtained, it was indicated that films manufactured utilizing SCG oil possess considerable potential to serve as an effective and promising material for active food packaging purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 17917 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Analysis of Protocatechualdehyde against Listeria monocytogenes and Its Effect on Chicken Quality Characteristics
by Sichen Liao, Lu Tian, Qi Qi, Lemei Hu, Minmin Wang, Chang Gao, Haoyue Cui, Zhongchao Gai and Guoli Gong
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2625; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132625 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The development of natural antimicrobial agents offers new strategies for food preservation due to the health hazards associated with the spoilage of meat products caused by microbial contamination. In this paper, the inhibitory mechanism of protocatechualdehyde (PCA) on Listeria monocytogenes was described, and [...] Read more.
The development of natural antimicrobial agents offers new strategies for food preservation due to the health hazards associated with the spoilage of meat products caused by microbial contamination. In this paper, the inhibitory mechanism of protocatechualdehyde (PCA) on Listeria monocytogenes was described, and its effect on the preservation of cooked chicken breast was evaluated. The results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PCA on L. monocytogenes was 0.625 mg/mL. Secondly, PCA destroyed the integrity of the L. monocytogenes cell membrane, which was manifested as a decrease in membrane hyperpolarization, intracellular ATP level, and intracellular pH value. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) observed a cell membrane rupture. Transcriptome analysis showed that PCA may inhibit cell growth by affecting amino acid, nucleotide metabolism, energy metabolism, and the cell membrane of L. monocytogenes. Additionally, it was discovered that PCA enhanced the color and texture of cooked chicken breast meat while decreasing the level of thiobarbituric acid active substance (TBARS). In conclusion, PCA as a natural antibacterial agent has a certain reference value in extending the shelf life of cooked chicken breast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 3486 KiB  
Review
Research Progress of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Edible Oil—A Review
by Yingyi Han and Xueli Cao
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132624 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2424
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely used in different types of consumer and industrial applications such as surfactants, household cleaning products, textiles, carpets, cosmetics, firefighting foams, and food packaging because of their good stability and special physicochemical properties of hydrophobicity, oleophobicity, high temperature [...] Read more.
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely used in different types of consumer and industrial applications such as surfactants, household cleaning products, textiles, carpets, cosmetics, firefighting foams, and food packaging because of their good stability and special physicochemical properties of hydrophobicity, oleophobicity, high temperature resistance, etc. Meanwhile, PFASs are considered an emerging organic pollutant due to their persistence and potential toxicity to human health. PFASs occur in edible oil, an important component of the global diet, mainly in three ways: raw material contamination, process contamination, and migration from oil contact materials. Thus, the occurrence of PFAS in edible oils has drawn more and more attention in recent years. In this work, the pertinent literature of the last two decades from the Web of Science database was researched. This review systematically addressed the potential sources, the contamination levels, and the progress of the determination of PFASs in edible oil. It aims to provide a relatively whole profile of PFASs in edible oil, render assistance to minimise human exposure to PFASs, and standardise the detection methods of perfluoroalkyl substances in edible oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Comparative Phytochemical Analyses of Flowers from Primula veris subsp. veris Growing Wild and from Ex Situ Cultivation in Greece
by Konstantia Graikou, Anna Mpishinioti, Nikolaos Tsafantakis, Eleni Maloupa, Katerina Grigoriadou and Ioanna Chinou
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132623 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
In the last decades, Primula veris subsp. veris (roots and flowers) has been over harvested through legal and illegal ways in Greece, due to its extremely high commercial demand, as it is used in industry because of its well-known therapeutic properties. As ex [...] Read more.
In the last decades, Primula veris subsp. veris (roots and flowers) has been over harvested through legal and illegal ways in Greece, due to its extremely high commercial demand, as it is used in industry because of its well-known therapeutic properties. As ex situ cultures of the plant have been already developed, in the current comparative study, the herbal teas (infusions) from both flowers of cowslip growing wild in the Prespa Lake Park (NW Greece), and from ex situ propagated and cultivated plant material, have been investigated, with the ultimate goal of assessing them qualitatively. Furthermore, through classic phytochemical studies, the ten most abundant metabolites, belonging to the chemical categories of flavonol-glycosides and methoxy flavones, have been identified and structurally determined. The chemical profile of both infusions has been further analyzed through UHPLC-HRMS, showing that they show only light differences. The total phenolic content (TPC) of both studied samples (wild and ex situ cultivation), was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, followed by an antioxidant activity assay though DPPH where, in both cases, wild plants exerted higher phenolic load and stronger antioxidative properties. According to the reported results, it could be proposed that the ex situ cultivated plant material could facilitate the mass production of plants and the sustainable cultivation of cowslip in the Greek mountains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
11 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Isolation of Yeast and LAB from Dry Coffee Pulp and Monitoring of Organic Acids in Inoculated Green Beans
by Na Zhao, Mito Kokawa, Rasool Khan Amini, Weixue Dong and Yutaka Kitamura
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132622 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to play an important role in the fermentation process of coffee post-harvest. This study aimed to isolate and screen yeast and LAB to be applied in lab-scale refermentation of commercial green coffee beans and coffee [...] Read more.
Yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to play an important role in the fermentation process of coffee post-harvest. This study aimed to isolate and screen yeast and LAB to be applied in lab-scale refermentation of commercial green coffee beans and coffee pulp with the aim of modifying the composition of organic acids (OAs) in coffee beans. Yeast and LAB strains were isolated from green coffee beans and dry coffee pulp and identified, and their effect on OA concentration in the coffee beans was quantified. In addition, the effects of different fermentation conditions (additional carbon source, different inoculum dose, and different types of coffee pulp) were evaluated based on OA quantification. Nine yeast isolates of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were identified, and 11 LAB isolates of the species Enterococcus mundtii were identified. Of the 7 OAs quantified, quinic acid was the most abundant. The inoculation of isolated yeasts and LAB led to higher concentrations of OAs, showing the potential to realize modification of the OA composition of green coffee beans by re-fermentation with coffee-originated isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Starter Cultures in Food and Beverage Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1141 KiB  
Article
Are the Blueberries We Buy Good Quality? Comparative Study of Berries Purchased from Different Outlets
by M. Teresa Sanchez-Ballesta, Carmen Marti-Anders, M. Dolores Álvarez, M. Isabel Escribano, Carmen Merodio and Irene Romero
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2621; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132621 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2617
Abstract
Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are becoming increasingly popular for their nutritional and health benefits, and their economic value is therefore increasing. The loss of quality that can occur due to softening and fungal attack is an important consideration when marketing blueberries. Despite [...] Read more.
Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are becoming increasingly popular for their nutritional and health benefits, and their economic value is therefore increasing. The loss of quality that can occur due to softening and fungal attack is an important consideration when marketing blueberries. Despite the added value of blueberries, no studies have been carried out on how the fruit arrives at the outlets just before purchase by the consumer in terms of firmness, physico-chemical parameters, phenolic compounds, and fungal growth. The aim of this work has been, therefore, to investigate possible differences in quality parameters between blueberries purchased from ten different outlets, regardless of the supplier. The results showed that all the samples were of acceptable quality, although they all had a low maturity index at the point of sale. None of the samples studied showed clear signs of fungal decay at the time of purchase, although we were able to grow and identify some pathogen specimens after cultivation. In terms of total phenolic and anthocyanin content, as well as antioxidant activity, all the samples showed low values, possibly due to their postharvest storage, but they were within the expected range for this fruit. On the other hand, differences in the measured parameters were observed between samples of the same cultivar while no differences were found between conventionally and organically grown blueberries. This suggests that preharvest (such as edaphoclimatic conditions, agricultural practices, and cultivars) and postharvest factors (such as treatments used, storage, and transport temperatures) could influence the berry quality when they reach the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3032 KiB  
Communication
Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Pea Starch
by Gang Li, Xiaohong Ge, Changsheng Guo and Benguo Liu
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2620; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132620 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
The effects of ultrasonic treatment on the structure and physicochemical properties of pea starch were investigated in this study. The results showed that ultrasonic treatment increased the hydrolysis rate and particle size of pea starch. In the process of treatment, there were some [...] Read more.
The effects of ultrasonic treatment on the structure and physicochemical properties of pea starch were investigated in this study. The results showed that ultrasonic treatment increased the hydrolysis rate and particle size of pea starch. In the process of treatment, there were some depressions and pores on the surface of pea starch granules. Although the crystallization type of starch was retained, its crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature of pea starch remained stable after ultrasonic treatment, but its peak viscosity, trough viscosity, cold viscosity, breakdown viscosity and setback viscosity all declined significantly. The transparency of starch paste decreased, but proper ultrasonic treatment could improve the strength of starch gel. The obtained results can provide a reference for the physical modification of pea starch. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4705 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Social Well-Being on Population Diet Nutritional Value and Antiradical Status
by Victor Gorbachev, Igor Nikitin, Daria Velina, Natalia Zhuchenko, Alexander N. Kosenkov, Andrey Sokolov, Igor Zavalishin, Alla Stolyarova and Evgeny Nikulchev
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2619; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132619 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
The paper presents the result of assessing the antiradical status of consumers (in the context of Russia) in connection with their well-being. This approach is based on a multistage study, in which the results of sociological surveys were applied, as well as estimates [...] Read more.
The paper presents the result of assessing the antiradical status of consumers (in the context of Russia) in connection with their well-being. This approach is based on a multistage study, in which the results of sociological surveys were applied, as well as estimates of the antiradical potential (ARP) of diets obtained using neural networks, bootstrapping the chemical composition of diets, and calculating reference values using mathematical models. The paper presents data collected from residents living in the territories of at least 21 regions and cities of Russia: Magadan, Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Krasnodar, Lipetsk, Vladivostok, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Voronezh, etc. A total of 1001 people were interviewed, which, according to our calculations, gives a margin of error in value of approximately 3.1%. To calculate the lack of vitamins in the diets of residents of the Russian Federation, data on the chemical composition of food products from the FNDDS database were used. The assessment of dietary habits showed a lack of vitamins below the recommended level in 73% of Russians for vitamin D, 59% for retinol, 38% for β-carotenes, 13% for vitamin E, and 6% for ascorbic acid. The study showed that at least 36% of the Russian population has a low antiradical status, while it was found that “poor” consumers are more likely to consume economically more expensive foods (in terms of their nutritional value). The “poor” segments of the population consume 180–305% more canned food and 38–68% more sweet carbonated drinks than other social groups, but their consumption of vegetables is 23–48% lower. On the contrary, “wealthy” consumers consume 17–25% more complex (varied) dishes, 10–68% more fresh vegetables, and 8–39% more fish. From the obtained values it follows that consumers with low levels of ARP in their diets are in a group with an increased probability of a number of “excess” diseases (diseases of the cardiovascular system, obesity, etc.). In general, the ARP values of food consumed for low-income segments of the population were 2.3 times lower (the ratio was calculated as the percentage of consumers below the level of 11,067 equivalents necessary for the disposal of free radicals generated in the human body per day) than for those who can afford expensive food (consumers with high income). A simple increase in consumption of unbalanced foods, in our opinion, will only contribute to the entry of these consumers into the “average diet trap”. All this makes it imperative to develop comprehensive measures to create a new concept of public catering; otherwise, we can expect a reduction in both the health of the population and the performance of the economy of the whole country. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 18526 KiB  
Article
Detection of Chili Foreign Objects Using Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Chemometric and Target Detection Algorithms
by Zhan Shu, Xiong Li and Yande Liu
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132618 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Chilies undergo multiple stages from field production to reaching consumers, making them susceptible to contamination with foreign materials. Visually similar foreign materials are difficult to detect manually or using color sorting machines, which increases the risk of their presence in the market, potentially [...] Read more.
Chilies undergo multiple stages from field production to reaching consumers, making them susceptible to contamination with foreign materials. Visually similar foreign materials are difficult to detect manually or using color sorting machines, which increases the risk of their presence in the market, potentially affecting consumer health. This paper aims to enhance the detection of visually similar foreign materials in chilies using hyperspectral technology, employing object detection algorithms for fast and accurate identification and localization to ensure food safety. First, the samples were scanned using a hyperspectral camera to obtain hyperspectral image information. Next, a spectral pattern recognition algorithm was used to classify the pixels in the images. Pixels belonging to the same class were assigned the same color, enhancing the visibility of foreign object targets. Finally, an object detection algorithm was employed to recognize the enhanced images and identify the presence of foreign objects. Random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and minimum distance classification algorithms were used to enhance the hyperspectral images of the samples. Among them, RF algorithm showed the best performance, achieving an overall recognition accuracy of up to 86% for randomly selected pixel samples. Subsequently, the enhanced targets were identified using object detection algorithms including R-CNN, Faster R-CNN, and YoloV5. YoloV5 exhibited a recognition rate of over 96% for foreign objects, with the shortest detection time of approximately 12 ms. This study demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral imaging technology, spectral pattern recognition techniques, and object detection algorithms can accurately and rapidly detect challenging foreign objects in chili peppers, including red stones, red plastics, red fabrics, and red paper. It provides a theoretical reference for online batch detection of chili pepper products, which is of significant importance for enhancing the overall quality of chili pepper products. Furthermore, the detection of foreign objects in similar particulate food items also holds reference value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2543 KiB  
Article
Genetic Variation and Heritability of Sensory and Artisan Bread Traits in a Set of SRW Wheat Breeding Lines
by Maria P. Castellari, Senay Simsek, Jae-Bom Ohm, Robert Perry, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, Timothy D. Phillips, Krista L. Jacobsen and David A. Van Sanford
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2617; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132617 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Focus on local food production and supply chains has heightened in recent years, as evidenced and amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess the suitability of soft red winter (SRW) wheat breeding lines for local artisan bakers interested in locally [...] Read more.
Focus on local food production and supply chains has heightened in recent years, as evidenced and amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess the suitability of soft red winter (SRW) wheat breeding lines for local artisan bakers interested in locally sourced, strong gluten wheat for bread. Seventy-six genotyped SRW wheat breeding lines were milled into whole wheat flour and baked into small loaves. Bread aroma, flavor, and texture were evaluated by a sensory panel, and bread quality traits, including sedimentation volume, dough extensibility, and loaf volume, were measured to estimate heritability. SE-HPLC was performed on white flour, and breeding lines were characterized for different protein fraction ratios. Heritability of loaf volume was moderately high (h2 = 0.68), while heritability of sedimentation volume, a much easier trait to measure, was slightly lower (h2 = 0.55). Certain protein fraction ratios strongly related to loaf volume had high heritability (h2 = 0.7). Even though only a moderate heritability estimate of dough extensibility was found in our study, high positive correlations were found between this parameter and sedimentation volume (r = 0.6) and loaf volume (r = 0.53). This low-input and highly repeatable parameter could be useful to estimate dough functionality characteristics. Flavor and texture heritability estimates ranged from 0.16 to 0.37, and the heritability estimate of aroma was not significantly different from zero. However, the sensorial characteristics were significantly correlated with each other, suggesting that we might be able to select indirectly for aroma by selecting for flavor or texture characteristics. From a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified six SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with loaf volume that could be useful in breeding for this trait. Producing high-quality strong gluten flour in our high rainfall environment is a challenge, but it provides local growers and end users with a value-added opportunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 709 KiB  
Article
Green Assessment of Phenolic Acid Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Advanced Potato Mutant Lines through UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS Quantification
by Clara Gomez-Urios, Hristo Kalaydzhiev, Jesus Blesa, Maria Jose Esteve, Emiliya Nacheva, Dida Iserliyska and Nasya Tomlekova
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2616; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132616 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Potatoes are one of the most consumed crops worldwide. They contain a high amount of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds and vitamins with important antioxidant activities, which makes this crop of high biological value for human health. The goal of this research [...] Read more.
Potatoes are one of the most consumed crops worldwide. They contain a high amount of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds and vitamins with important antioxidant activities, which makes this crop of high biological value for human health. The goal of this research was to biochemically evaluate polyphenol levels and antioxidant capacities in parent and control genotypes compared to advanced mutant potato lines in the M1V8 generation. This will reveal the genetic changes that result from induced mutagenesis. The quantified compounds and the evaluated antioxidant activity boost the health benefits of consuming the improved mutant potatoes. In the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of eighteen mutant and initial potato genotypes were analyzed by UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS and the ORAC method, respectively. In each of the hybrid combinations, mutant lines with an improved phenolic compound profile were observed. Representative samples from the third hybrid combination had notable increases in phenolic compound concentrations, as well as the presence of metabolites not found in the parental lines. With one exception, the remaining nine mutants showed significantly higher antioxidant capacities. The results will be used in future potato breeding programs, with participation of the valuable mutant lines containing new phenolic substances not present in the initial genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3232 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Effects of Theaflavins against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella paratyphi B: Role of Environmental Factors and Food Matrices
by Jun Wang, Hongyan Shan, Ping Li, Yanan Liu, Xun Zhang, Jingguo Xu and Songnan Li
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132615 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of different environmental factors (temperature, pH, and NaCl) and food matrices (skimmed milk powder, lecithin, and sucrose) on the antibacterial activity of theaflavins (TFs) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Salmonella paratyphi B ( [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of different environmental factors (temperature, pH, and NaCl) and food matrices (skimmed milk powder, lecithin, and sucrose) on the antibacterial activity of theaflavins (TFs) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Salmonella paratyphi B (S. paratyphi B). TFs showed a larger diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ, 12.58 ± 0.09 mm–16.36 ± 0.12 mm) value against S. aureus than that of S. paratyphi B (12.42 ± 0.43 mm–15.81 ± 0.24 mm) at the same concentration (2–10 mg/mL). When temperatures were 25–121 °C, the DIZ of TFs against both S. aureus and S. paratyphi B was not significantly different. As pH increased from 2 to 10, their DIZ values decreased significantly from 16.78 ± 0.23 mm to 13.43 ± 0.08 mm and 15.63 ± 0.42 mm to 12.18 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. Their DIZ values increased slightly as the NaCl concentration increased from 0.2 mol/L to 0.8 mol/L, while their DIZ values decreased significantly for skimmed milk powder concentrations in the range of 20–120 g/L. Regarding the concentrations of lecithin and sucrose were 2–12 g/L and 10–60 g/L, their DIZ values showed no significant change against S. paratyphi B, but an increased trend for S. aureus. Under the above different environmental factors and food matrices, TFs maintained excellent antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. paratyphi B, providing a theoretical guidance for applying TFs as novel antibacterial additives in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Natural Compounds in Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4971 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Recent Progress in Engineering Three-Dimensional Scaffolds for Cultured Meat Production
by Yuan Wang, Liqiang Zou, Wei Liu and Xing Chen
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132614 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5272
Abstract
Cultured meat is a new type of green, safe, healthy, and sustainable alternative to traditional meat that will potentially alleviate the environmental impact of animal farming and reduce the requirement for animal slaughter. However, the cultured meat structures that have been prepared lack [...] Read more.
Cultured meat is a new type of green, safe, healthy, and sustainable alternative to traditional meat that will potentially alleviate the environmental impact of animal farming and reduce the requirement for animal slaughter. However, the cultured meat structures that have been prepared lack sufficient tissue alignment. To create a product that is similar in texture and taste to traditional animal meat, muscle stem cells must be organized in a way that imitates the natural structure of animal tissue. Recently, various scaffold technologies and biomaterials have been developed to support the three-dimensional (3D) cultivation and organization of muscle stem cells. Hence, we propose an overview of the latest advancements and challenges in creating three-dimensional scaffolds for the biomanufacturing of cultured meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recombinant Proteins for Food Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 4237 KiB  
Article
Chemical Variability of Essential Oils from Corsican Hops and Highlighting Their Influence on Hops’ Aroma
by Axel Dabbous-Wach, Jean-Valère Lorenzetti, Julien Paolini and Jean Costa
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2613; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132613 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Essential oils from wild Corsican hops have never been described before. Following selective harvesting and extraction of plant material, chemical analysis was performed by GC–FID and GC–MS. Subsequent quantitative analysis demonstrated significant inter-stations variability due to pedoclimatic conditions. These singularities produce organoleptic differences, [...] Read more.
Essential oils from wild Corsican hops have never been described before. Following selective harvesting and extraction of plant material, chemical analysis was performed by GC–FID and GC–MS. Subsequent quantitative analysis demonstrated significant inter-stations variability due to pedoclimatic conditions. These singularities produce organoleptic differences, especially within Italian hops, which are the current benchmark for the Mediterranean hops’ population. Corsican wild hops are no exception. Accordingly, three olfactive bouquets were identified by a panel of selected and trained sensory analysts: woody herbaceous ginger notes, herbaceous citrus notes, and common notes. These bouquets appeared to be correlated to pedoclimatic parameters mentioned earlier such as altitude and proximity to the sea. A very rare and appreciated bouquet was associated with high levels of zingiberene in hops growing at moderate altitude and relatively far from the coastline. This study shows the importance of growing sites and pedoclimatic conditions to produce hops with the desired organoleptic notes during the beer making process and provides detailed identification of essential oils from Corsican wild hops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 668 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Nutritional Profile of Tenebrio molitor Using the Leaves of Moringa oleifera
by Konstantina Kotsou, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Eleni Bozinou, Christos I. Rumbos, Christos G. Athanassiou and Stavros I. Lalas
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132612 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
Nowadays, more and more research is being carried out on various feeds of Tenebrio molitor larvae, in order to increase their nutritional value and render them a valuable component of the human diet. In this study, Moringa oleifera leaves were used in different [...] Read more.
Nowadays, more and more research is being carried out on various feeds of Tenebrio molitor larvae, in order to increase their nutritional value and render them a valuable component of the human diet. In this study, Moringa oleifera leaves were used in different proportions (up to 50%) to substitute wheat bran (the usually employed feed), in order to evaluate their effect on the growth and development of the larvae, as well as on their composition in crude protein, fat and fatty acids, ash, vitamins, and antioxidants. It was found that the addition of M. oleifera leaves in the feed had no negative impact on the development and survival of the insects, while an increase in their nutritional value was recorded. More specifically, an increase in the crude protein of up to 22.61% and vitamin C and A contents of up to 40.74% and 491.63%, respectively, was recorded. Therefore, the use of M. oleifera leaves as a feed additive is highly recommended for rearing T. molitor larvae to enhance the nutritional value of the insects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4948 KiB  
Article
Extraction Efficiency and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Green Tea Catechins by Different Infusion Methods
by Tsukasa Orita, Satoshi Chogahara, Mayuko Okuda, Kozue Sakao, Takeshi Miyata and De-Xing Hou
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2611; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132611 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Alpha-glucosidase is an important target for glycemic control with the aim of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Green tea catechins have been reported to inhibit alpha-glucosidase activity as a potential beverage to control blood glucose levels. However, the effects of [...] Read more.
Alpha-glucosidase is an important target for glycemic control with the aim of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Green tea catechins have been reported to inhibit alpha-glucosidase activity as a potential beverage to control blood glucose levels. However, the effects of the daily infusion style of green tea on tea catechins and their activity remain unclear. In this study, the extraction efficiency of catechins was investigated for 12 green tea extracts (GTEs) infused with 70% ethanol (70% EtOH for 24 h, a favored solvent for catechin extraction), room temperature water infusion (RT H2O for 24 h, an easy way to drink tea), and hot water infusion (Hot H2O for 90 s, a standard way to drink tea). Eight catechins were quantified by HPLC, and the inhibitory effect of GTEs and their catechins on alpha-glucosidase was measured with both rat intestinal enzymes and human Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory mechanism was further analyzed in silico by docking catechins to human alpha-glucosidase using Molecular Operating Environment software. The results showed that total catechins and gallate catechins were efficiently extracted in the order of 70% EtOH, RT H2O, and Hot H2O, and the inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase also followed a similar order. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of GTEs was significantly positively correlated with the contents of total catechins, especially gallate catechins. Gallate catechins, such as EGCg and ECg, showed lower IC50 values than free catechins for the enzyme in both rats and humans. In silico simulation revealed that gallate catechins were bound to the different sites with free catechins, and the docking energy of gallate catechins was lower than that of free catechins. Taken together, our data indicated that the daily infusion style of green tea significantly impacted the extraction efficiency and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of catechins, which will give us insight into the use of green tea catechins for glycemic control through efficient infusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1393 KiB  
Article
Dyes Used in Processed Meat Products in the Polish Market, and Their Possible Risks and Benefits for Consumer Health
by Katarzyna Czech-Załubska, Daniel Klich, Agnieszka Jackowska-Tracz, Anna Didkowska, Janusz Bogdan and Krzysztof Anusz
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2610; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132610 - 06 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Manufacturers are obliged to label processed meat products with information concerning the additives used and nutritional values. The aim of the study was to identify the dyes most frequently used in processed meat, evaluate their influence on specific food qualities, assess whether their [...] Read more.
Manufacturers are obliged to label processed meat products with information concerning the additives used and nutritional values. The aim of the study was to identify the dyes most frequently used in processed meat, evaluate their influence on specific food qualities, assess whether their use was correct and review their effect on health. The analysis was based on information on the labels and images of processed meat, and used a generalised linear model with a binary dependent variable. The risks and benefits for human health were defined based on the available literature. Twelve dyes were found to be used in the manufacture of processed meat. Carmine was found in 183 of 273 (67.03%) evaluated assortments containing dyes. The occurrence of water, flavourings and high fat and carbohydrate contents increased the chances that a dye would be present in a particular product. Unauthorised use of food additives was found in 20 products, with smoked meat products demonstrating the highest number of non-compliances. In general, the dyes used with food are considered safe; however, reservations are associated with the use of E150C and E150D caramels due to their potential carcinogenic effect, and carmine and annatto due to their allergic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Nutrients and Contaminants in Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Styrene Monomer Levels in Polystyrene-Packed Dairy Products from the Market versus Simulated Migration Testing
by Valeria Guazzotti, Veronika Hendrich, Anita Gruner, Angela Störmer and Frank Welle
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2609; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132609 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1390
Abstract
In view of the fact that a specific migration limit (SML) is to be established in the near future for styrene monomer in plastic food contact materials (FCMs), data on the dietary exposure of the European population, as well as sensitive and reliable [...] Read more.
In view of the fact that a specific migration limit (SML) is to be established in the near future for styrene monomer in plastic food contact materials (FCMs), data on the dietary exposure of the European population, as well as sensitive and reliable analytical methodologies to implement compliance testing, are needed. The properties of the substance styrene as well as those of styrenic polymers pose challenges for analysts and their design of experimental migration tests. The aim of this study was to assess the level of styrene in polystyrene (PS)-packed dairy products from supermarkets and compare these values with the results from simulated migration testing. In addition to the conventional food simulant and test conditions described in Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 for refrigerated dairy products (50% ethanol for 10 days at 40 °C), milder simulants and test conditions (10% ethanol and 20% ethanol for 10 days at 40 °C and 20 °C) were investigated. Styrene levels in the investigated foods ranged from 2.8 µg/kg to 22.4 µg/kg. The use of 50% ethanol causes interactions with PS (swelling) that do not occur with dairy products and leads to highly exaggerated migration results. In contrast, testing PS for 10 days at 40 °C with 10% and 20% ethanol leads to higher styrene migration levels than found in real food, which are still conservative but far less extreme. Testing PS for 10 days at 20 °C leads to styrene migration levels that are more comparable to, but still overestimate, those found in real food products stored under refrigerated conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
18 pages, 373 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Composition of Brazilian BRS Carmem (Muscat Belly A × BRS Rúbea) Grapes: Evaluation of Their Potential Use as Bioingredients
by Yara Paula Nishiyama-Hortense, Carolina Olivati, José Pérez-Navarro, Reginaldo Teodoro Souza, Natália S. Janzantti, Roberto Da-Silva, Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Sergio Gómez-Alonso and Ellen Silva Lago-Vanzela
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2608; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132608 - 05 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The BRS Carmem grape was developed as an alternative for processing juices and wines. This study aimed to determine the phenolic compounds (PC) in the edible parts of this grape from two harvests—one harvested at ideal maturation time and another when the grapes [...] Read more.
The BRS Carmem grape was developed as an alternative for processing juices and wines. This study aimed to determine the phenolic compounds (PC) in the edible parts of this grape from two harvests—one harvested at ideal maturation time and another when the grapes were still immature—using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Student’s t-test was used (α = 0.05) to evaluate differences in the PC content between the edible parts and between the harvests. Both skins showed a predominance of flavonols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives (HCAD) and stilbenes, with higher concentrations for harvest 1 than harvest 2. For both harvests (harvest 1 and harvest 2), the HCAD (mg of caftaric acid•kg fruit−1) was higher in whole grapes (383.98 and 67.09) than in their skins (173.95 and 21.74), with a predominance of trans-caffeic acid for all samples; the flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins (mg of (+)-catechin•kg fruit−1) presented higher concentrations in the seeds (flavan-3-ols: 203.20 and 182.71, proanthocyanidins: 453.57 and 299.86) than in the skins (flavan-3-ols: 1.90 and 4.56, proanthocyanidins: 37.58 and 98.92); the stilbenes concentration (µg 3-glc-resveratrol•kg fruit−1) was higher for the seeds from harvest 2 (896.25) than those from harvest 1 (48.67). BRS Carmem grapes contain a phenolic composition complex, and still have a relevant concentration of flavonols, anthocyanins and stilbenes, even when immature. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 417 KiB  
Review
Nordic Crops as Alternatives to Soy—An Overview of Nutritional, Sensory, and Functional Properties
by Jaqueline Auer, Johanna Östlund, Klara Nilsson, Mathias Johansson, Anja Herneke and Maud Langton
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132607 - 05 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
Soy (Glycine max) is used in a wide range of products and plays a major role in replacing animal-based products. Since the cultivation of soy is limited by cold climates, this review assessed the nutritional, sensory, and functional properties of three alternative cold-tolerant [...] Read more.
Soy (Glycine max) is used in a wide range of products and plays a major role in replacing animal-based products. Since the cultivation of soy is limited by cold climates, this review assessed the nutritional, sensory, and functional properties of three alternative cold-tolerant crops (faba bean (Vicia faba), yellow pea (Pisum sativum), and oat (Avena sativa)). Lower protein quality compared with soy and the presence of anti-nutrients are nutritional problems with all three crops, but different methods to adjust for these problems are available. Off-flavors in all pulses, including soy, and in cereals impair the sensory properties of the resulting food products, and few mitigation methods are successful. The functional properties of faba bean, pea, and oat are comparable to those of soy, which makes them usable for 3D printing, gelation, emulsification, and extrusion. Enzymatic treatment, fermentation, and fibrillation can be applied to improve the nutritional value, sensory attributes, and functional properties of all the three crops assessed, making them suitable for replacing soy in a broad range of products, although more research is needed on all attributes. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop