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Cells, Volume 12, Issue 17 (September-1 2023) – 86 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Obesity-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a global epidemic with negative social and economic impacts. Moreover, there is an exponential growth of obesity-related health problems, such as dyslipidemia, fatty liver, high blood pressure, coronary artery diseases, and stroke. The growing body of evidence indicates that low-grade inflammation is mediated by classically activated macrophages in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced T2D. Despite the acknowledged importance of these macrophage subsets in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MS), the molecular events that govern metabolic tissue inflammation remain misunderstood. In this study, we provide the evidence that CITED2 restrains pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization and limits diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. View this paper
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18 pages, 7044 KiB  
Article
Slow Interstitial Fluid Flow Activates TGF-β Signaling and Drives Fibrotic Responses in Human Tenon Fibroblasts
by Cornelius Jakob Wiedenmann, Charlotte Gottwald, Kosovare Zeqiri, Janne Frömmichen, Emma Bungert, Moritz Gläser, Jeanne Ströble, Robert Lohmüller, Thomas Reinhard, Jan Lübke and Günther Schlunck
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172205 - 04 Sep 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
Background: Fibrosis limits the success of filtering glaucoma surgery. We employed 2D and 3D in vitro models to assess the effects of fluid flow on human tenon fibroblasts (HTF). Methods: HTF were exposed to continuous or pulsatile fluid flow for 48 or 72 [...] Read more.
Background: Fibrosis limits the success of filtering glaucoma surgery. We employed 2D and 3D in vitro models to assess the effects of fluid flow on human tenon fibroblasts (HTF). Methods: HTF were exposed to continuous or pulsatile fluid flow for 48 or 72 h, at rates expected at the transscleral outflow site after filtering surgery. In the 2D model, the F-actin cytoskeleton and fibronectin 1 (FN1) were visualized by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In the 3D model, mRNA and whole cell lysates were extracted to analyze the expression of fibrosis-associated genes by qPCR and Western blot. The effects of a small-molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor ALK5 were studied. Results: Slow, continuous fluid flow induced fibrotic responses in the 2D and 3D models. It elicited changes in cell shape, the F-actin cytoskeleton, the deposition of FN1 and activated the intracellular TGF-β signaling pathway to induce expression of fibrosis-related genes, such as CTGF, FN1 and COL1A1. ALK5-inhibition reduced this effect. Intermittent fluid flow also induced fibrotic changes, which decreased with increasing pause duration. Conclusions: Slow interstitial fluid flow is sufficient to induce fibrosis, could underlie the intractable nature of fibrosis following filtering glaucoma surgery and might be a target for antifibrotic therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Profibrotic Mediators in Hypertrophic Scarring)
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21 pages, 1655 KiB  
Review
Combination of Genomic Landsscape and 3D Culture Functional Assays Bridges Sarcoma Phenotype to Target and Immunotherapy
by Filomena de Nigris, Concetta Meo and Wulf Palinski
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172204 - 04 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Genomic-based precision medicine has not only improved tumour therapy but has also shown its weaknesses. Genomic profiling and mutation analysis have identified alterations that play a major role in sarcoma pathogenesis and evolution. However, they have not been sufficient in predicting tumour vulnerability [...] Read more.
Genomic-based precision medicine has not only improved tumour therapy but has also shown its weaknesses. Genomic profiling and mutation analysis have identified alterations that play a major role in sarcoma pathogenesis and evolution. However, they have not been sufficient in predicting tumour vulnerability and advancing treatment. The relative rarity of sarcomas and the genetic heterogeneity between subtypes also stand in the way of gaining statistically significant results from clinical trials. Personalized three-dimensional tumour models that reflect the specific histologic subtype are emerging as functional assays to test anticancer drugs, complementing genomic screening. Here, we provide an overview of current target therapy for sarcomas and discuss functional assays based on 3D models that, by recapitulating the molecular pathways and tumour microenvironment, may predict patient response to treatments. This approach opens new avenues to improve precision medicine when genomic and pathway alterations are not sufficient to guide the choice of the most promising treatment. Furthermore, we discuss the aspects of the 3D culture assays that need to be improved, such as the standardisation of growth conditions and the definition of in vitro responses that can be used as a cut-off for clinical implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics and Novel Targeted Treatment of Soft-Tissue Sarcoma)
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14 pages, 9359 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, and Astrocytes to Myelin Debris Uptake in an Explant Model of Inflammatory Demyelination in Rats
by Mariarosaria Cammarota and Francesca Boscia
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2203; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172203 - 03 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
The internalization and degradation of myelin in glia contributes to the resolution of neuroinflammation and influences disease progression. The identification of a three-dimensional experimental model to study myelin processing under neuroinflammation will offer a novel approach for studying treatment strategies favoring inflammation resolution [...] Read more.
The internalization and degradation of myelin in glia contributes to the resolution of neuroinflammation and influences disease progression. The identification of a three-dimensional experimental model to study myelin processing under neuroinflammation will offer a novel approach for studying treatment strategies favoring inflammation resolution and neuroprotection. Here, by using a model of neuroinflammation in hippocampal explants, we show that myelin debris accumulated immediately after insult and declined at 3 days, a time point at which tentative repair processes were observed. Olig2+ oligodendrocytes upregulated the LRP1 receptor and progressively increased MBP immunoreactivity both at peri-membrane sites and within the cytosol. Oligodendrocyte NG2+ precursors increased in number and immunoreactivity one day after insult, and moderately internalized MBP particles. Three days after insult MBP was intensely coexpressed by microglia and, to a much lesser extent, by astrocytes. The engulfment of both MBP+ debris and whole MBP+ cells contributed to the greatest microglia response. In addition to improving our understanding of the spatial-temporal contribution of glial scarring to myelin uptake under neuroinflammation, our findings suggest that the exposure of hippocampal explants to LPS + IFN-γ-induced neuroinflammation may represent a valuable demyelination model for studying both the extrinsic and intrinsic myelin processing by glia under neuroinflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glial Scar: Formation and Regeneration)
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26 pages, 5238 KiB  
Article
MicroRNA-375 Is Induced during Astrocyte-to-Neuron Reprogramming and Promotes Survival of Reprogrammed Neurons when Overexpressed
by Xuanyu Chen, Ivan Sokirniy, Xin Wang, Mei Jiang, Natalie Mseis-Jackson, Christine Williams, Kristopher Mayes, Na Jiang, Brendan Puls, Quansheng Du, Yang Shi and Hedong Li
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172202 - 03 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
While astrocyte-to-neuron (AtN) reprogramming holds great promise in regenerative medicine, the molecular mechanisms that govern this unique biological process remain elusive. To understand the function of miRNAs during the AtN reprogramming process, we performed RNA-seq of both mRNAs and miRNAs on human astrocyte [...] Read more.
While astrocyte-to-neuron (AtN) reprogramming holds great promise in regenerative medicine, the molecular mechanisms that govern this unique biological process remain elusive. To understand the function of miRNAs during the AtN reprogramming process, we performed RNA-seq of both mRNAs and miRNAs on human astrocyte (HA) cultures upon NeuroD1 overexpression. Bioinformatics analyses showed that NeuroD1 not only activated essential neuronal genes to initiate the reprogramming process but also induced miRNA changes in HA. Among the upregulated miRNAs, we identified miR-375 and its targets, neuronal ELAVL genes (nELAVLs), which encode a family of RNA-binding proteins and were also upregulated by NeuroD1. We further showed that manipulating the miR-375 level regulated nELAVLs’ expression during NeuroD1-mediated reprogramming. Interestingly, miR-375/nELAVLs were also induced by the reprogramming factors Neurog2 and ASCL1 in HA, suggesting a conserved function to neuronal reprogramming, and by NeuroD1 in the mouse astrocyte culture and spinal cord. Functionally, we showed that miR-375 overexpression improved NeuroD1-mediated reprogramming efficiency by promoting cell survival at early stages in HA and did not appear to compromise the maturation of the reprogrammed neurons. Lastly, overexpression of miR-375-refractory ELAVL4 induced apoptosis and reversed the cell survival-promoting effect of miR-375 during AtN reprogramming. Together, we demonstrated a neuroprotective role of miR-375 during NeuroD1-mediated AtN reprogramming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Neurogenesis: Volume 2)
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23 pages, 3938 KiB  
Article
Calcineurin-Dependent Homeostatic Response of C. elegans Muscle Cells upon Prolonged Activation of Acetylcholine Receptors
by Franklin Florin, Benjamin Bonneau, Luis Briseño-Roa, Jean-Louis Bessereau and Maëlle Jospin
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172201 - 03 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Pharmacological adaptation is a common phenomenon observed during prolonged drug exposure and often leads to drug resistance. Understanding the cellular events involved in adaptation could provide new strategies to circumvent this resistance issue. We used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the adaptation [...] Read more.
Pharmacological adaptation is a common phenomenon observed during prolonged drug exposure and often leads to drug resistance. Understanding the cellular events involved in adaptation could provide new strategies to circumvent this resistance issue. We used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the adaptation to levamisole, an ionotropic acetylcholine receptor agonist, used for decades to treat nematode parasitic infections. Genetic screens in C. elegans identified “adapting mutants” that initially paralyze upon exposure to levamisole as the wild type (WT), but recover locomotion after a few hours whereas WT remain paralyzed. Here, we show that levamisole induces a sustained increase in cytosolic calcium concentration in the muscle cells of adapting mutants, lasting several hours and preceding a decrease in levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors (L-AChR) at the muscle plasma membrane. This decrease correlated with a drop in calcium concentration, a relaxation of the animal’s body and a resumption of locomotion. The decrease in calcium and L-AChR content depends on calcineurin activation in muscle cells. We also showed that levamisole adaptation triggers homeostatic mechanisms in muscle cells including mitochondria remodeling, lysosomal tubulation and an increase in autophagic activity. Levamisole adaptation thus provides a new experimental paradigm for studying how cells cope with calcium stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Caenorhabditis elegans: Cell Biology and Physiology)
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35 pages, 5714 KiB  
Review
Human iPSCs as Model Systems for BMP-Related Rare Diseases
by Gonzalo Sánchez-Duffhues and Christian Hiepen
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172200 - 02 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Disturbances in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling contribute to onset and development of a number of rare genetic diseases, including Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). After decades of animal research to build a solid foundation [...] Read more.
Disturbances in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling contribute to onset and development of a number of rare genetic diseases, including Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). After decades of animal research to build a solid foundation in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms, the progressive implementation of iPSC-based patient-derived models will improve drug development by addressing drug efficacy, specificity, and toxicity in a complex humanized environment. We will review the current state of literature on iPSC-derived model systems in this field, with special emphasis on the access to patient source material and the complications that may come with it. Given the essential role of BMPs during embryonic development and stem cell differentiation, gain- or loss-of-function mutations in the BMP signalling pathway may compromise iPSC generation, maintenance, and differentiation procedures. This review highlights the need for careful optimization of the protocols used. Finally, we will discuss recent developments towards complex in vitro culture models aiming to resemble specific tissue microenvironments with multi-faceted cellular inputs, such as cell mechanics and ECM together with organoids, organ-on-chip, and microfluidic technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue iPS Cells (iPSCs) for Modelling and Treatment of Human Diseases 2022)
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18 pages, 14244 KiB  
Article
Morphology of Neutrophils during Their Activation and NETosis: Atomic Force Microscopy Study
by Viktoria Sergunova, Vladimir Inozemtsev, Nina Vorobjeva, Elena Kozlova, Ekaterina Sherstyukova, Snezhanna Lyapunova and Aleksandr Chernysh
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2199; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172199 - 02 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
Confocal microscopy and fluorescence staining of cellular structures are commonly used to study neutrophil activation and NETosis. However, they do not reveal the specific characteristics of the neutrophil membrane surface, its nanostructure, and morphology. The aim of this study was to reveal the [...] Read more.
Confocal microscopy and fluorescence staining of cellular structures are commonly used to study neutrophil activation and NETosis. However, they do not reveal the specific characteristics of the neutrophil membrane surface, its nanostructure, and morphology. The aim of this study was to reveal the topography and nanosurface characteristics of neutrophils during activation and NETosis using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We showed the main stages of neutrophil activation and NETosis, which include control cell spreading, cell fragment formation, fusion of nuclear segments, membrane disruption, release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and final cell disintegration. Changes in neutrophil membrane nanosurface parameters during activation and NETosis were quantified. It was shown that with increasing activation time there was a decrease in the spectral intensity of the spatial periods. Exposure to the activator A23187 resulted in an increase in the number and average size of cell fragments over time. Exposure to the activators A23187 and PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) caused the same pattern of cell transformation from spherical cells with segmented nuclei to disrupted cells with NET release. A23187 induced NETosis earlier than PMA, but PMA resulted in more cells with NETosis at the end of the specified time interval (180 min). In our study, we used AFM as the main research tool. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) images are provided for identification and detailed analysis of the phenomena studied. In this way, we exploited the advantages of both techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy in Cell Biology)
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13 pages, 1629 KiB  
Article
Identification of Unique microRNA Profiles in Different Types of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy
by Sandra Muñoz-Braceras, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Maria Casal-Dominguez, Katherine Pak, José César Milisenda, Shajia Lu, Massimo Gadina, Faiza Naz, Gustavo Gutierrez-Cruz, Stefania Dell’Orso, Jiram Torres-Ruiz, Josep Maria Grau-Junyent, Albert Selva-O’Callaghan, Julie J. Paik, Jemima Albayda, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Thomas E. Lloyd, Andrea M. Corse and Andrew L. Mammen
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172198 - 02 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Dermatomyositis (DM), antisynthetase syndrome (AS), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), and inclusion body myositis (IBM) are four major types of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Muscle biopsies from each type of IIM have unique transcriptomic profiles. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), thereby regulating their [...] Read more.
Dermatomyositis (DM), antisynthetase syndrome (AS), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), and inclusion body myositis (IBM) are four major types of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Muscle biopsies from each type of IIM have unique transcriptomic profiles. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), thereby regulating their expression and modulating transcriptomic profiles. In this study, 18 DM, 12 IMNM, 6 AS, 6 IBM, and 6 histologically normal muscle biopsies underwent miRNA profiling using the NanoString nCounter system. Eleven miRNAs were exclusively differentially expressed in DM compared to controls, seven miRNAs were only differentially expressed in AS, and nine miRNAs were specifically upregulated in IBM. No differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in IMNM. We also analyzed miRNA-mRNA associations to identify putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs. In DM and AS, these were predominantly related to inflammation and cell cycle progression. Moreover, our analysis showed an association between miR-30a-3p, miR-30e-3p, and miR-199b-5p downregulation in DM and the upregulation of target genes induced by type I interferon. In conclusion, we show that muscle biopsies from DM, AS, and IBM patients have unique miRNA signatures and that these miRNAs might play a role in regulating the expression of genes known to be involved in IIM pathogenesis. Full article
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18 pages, 7506 KiB  
Article
JNK Signalling Regulates Self-Renewal of Proliferative Urine-Derived Renal Progenitor Cells via Inhibition of Ferroptosis
by Lisa Nguyen, Leonie Thewes, Michelle Westerhoff, Wasco Wruck, Andreas S. Reichert, Carsten Berndt and James Adjaye
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2197; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172197 - 02 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
With a global increase in chronic kidney disease patients, alternatives to dialysis and organ transplantation are needed. Stem cell-based therapies could be one possibility to treat chronic kidney disease. Here, we used multipotent urine-derived renal progenitor cells (UdRPCs) to study nephrogenesis. UdRPCs treated [...] Read more.
With a global increase in chronic kidney disease patients, alternatives to dialysis and organ transplantation are needed. Stem cell-based therapies could be one possibility to treat chronic kidney disease. Here, we used multipotent urine-derived renal progenitor cells (UdRPCs) to study nephrogenesis. UdRPCs treated with the JNK inhibitor—AEG3482 displayed decreased proliferation and downregulated transcription of cell cycle-associated genes as well as the kidney progenitor markers—SIX2, SALL1 and VCAM1. In addition, levels of activated SMAD2/3, which is associated with the maintenance of self-renewal in UdRPCs, were decreased. JNK inhibition resulted in less efficient oxidative phosphorylation and more lipid peroxidation via ferroptosis, an iron-dependent non-apoptotic cell death pathway linked to various forms of kidney disease. Our study is the first to describe the importance of JNK signalling as a link between maintenance of self-renewal and protection against ferroptosis in SIX2-positive renal progenitor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Stem Cells)
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12 pages, 4389 KiB  
Article
Lysophosphatidic Acid Signalling Regulates Human Sperm Viability via the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/AKT Pathway
by Hao-Yu Liao and Cristian O’Flaherty
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2196; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172196 - 02 Sep 2023
Viewed by 970
Abstract
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signalling is essential for maintaining germ cell viability during mouse spermatogenesis; however, its role in human spermatozoa is unknown. We previously demonstrated that peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) releases lysophospholipids such as LPA or arachidonic [...] Read more.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signalling is essential for maintaining germ cell viability during mouse spermatogenesis; however, its role in human spermatozoa is unknown. We previously demonstrated that peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) releases lysophospholipids such as LPA or arachidonic acid (AA) and that inhibiting PRDX6 iPLA2 activity impairs sperm cell viability. The exogenous addition of LPA bypassed the inhibition of PRDX6 iPLA2 activity and maintained the active phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Here, we aimed to study PI3K/AKT pathway regulation via LPA signalling and protein kinases in maintaining sperm viability. The localization of LPARs in human spermatozoa was determined using immunocytochemistry, and P-PI3K and P-AKT substrate phosphorylations via immunoblotting. Sperm viability was determined using the hypo-osmotic swelling test. LPAR1, 3, 5 and 6 were located on the sperm plasma membrane. The inhibition of LPAR1-3 with Ki16425 promoted the impairment of sperm viability and decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K AKT substrates. Inhibitors of PKC, receptor-type PTK and PLC impaired sperm viability and the PI3K/AKT pathway. Adding 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-snglycerol (OAG), a cell-permeable analog of diacylglycerol (DAG), prevented the loss of sperm viability and maintained the phosphorylation of PI3K. In conclusion, human sperm viability is supported by LPAR signalling and regulated by PLC, PKC and RT-PTK by maintaining phosphorylation levels of PI3K and AKT substrates. Full article
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19 pages, 4753 KiB  
Article
Lymphatic Endothelial-to-Myofibroblast Transition: A Potential New Mechanism Underlying Skin Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis
by Irene Rosa, Eloisa Romano, Bianca Saveria Fioretto, Khadija El Aoufy, Silvia Bellando-Randone, Marco Matucci-Cerinic and Mirko Manetti
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172195 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
At present, only a few reports have addressed the possible contribution of the lymphatic vascular system to the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Based on the evidence that blood vascular endothelial cells can undertake the endothelial-to-myofibroblast transition (EndMT) contributing to SSc-related skin fibrosis, [...] Read more.
At present, only a few reports have addressed the possible contribution of the lymphatic vascular system to the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Based on the evidence that blood vascular endothelial cells can undertake the endothelial-to-myofibroblast transition (EndMT) contributing to SSc-related skin fibrosis, we herein investigated whether the lymphatic endothelium might represent an additional source of profibrotic myofibroblasts through a lymphatic EndMT (Ly-EndMT) process. Skin sections from patients with SSc and healthy donors were immunostained for the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific marker lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) in combination with α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) as the main marker of myofibroblasts. Commercial human adult dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HdLy-MVECs) were challenged with recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) or serum from SSc patients and healthy donors. The expression of lymphatic endothelial cell/myofibroblast markers was measured by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Collagen gel contraction assay was performed to assess myofibroblast-like cell contractile ability. Lymphatic endothelial cells in intermediate stages of the Ly-EndMT process (i.e., coexpressing LYVE-1 and α-SMA) were found exclusively in the fibrotic skin of SSc patients. The culturing of HdLy-MVECs with SSc serum or profibrotic TGFβ1 led to the acquisition of a myofibroblast-like morphofunctional phenotype, as well as the downregulation of lymphatic endothelial cell-specific markers and the parallel upregulation of myofibroblast markers. In SSc, the Ly-EndMT might represent a previously overlooked pathogenetic process bridging peripheral microlymphatic dysfunction and skin fibrosis development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Epithelial Cells in Scleroderma)
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24 pages, 12072 KiB  
Article
ODF2 Negatively Regulates CP110 Levels at the Centrioles/Basal Bodies to Control the Biogenesis of Primary Cilia
by Madeline Otto and Sigrid Hoyer-Fender
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2194; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172194 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
Primary cilia are essential sensory organelles that develop when an inhibitory cap consisting of CP110 and other proteins is eliminated. The degradation of CP110 by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway mediated by NEURL4 and HYLS1 removes the inhibitory cap. Here, we investigated the suitability [...] Read more.
Primary cilia are essential sensory organelles that develop when an inhibitory cap consisting of CP110 and other proteins is eliminated. The degradation of CP110 by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway mediated by NEURL4 and HYLS1 removes the inhibitory cap. Here, we investigated the suitability of rapamycin-mediated dimerization for centriolar recruitment and asked whether the induced recruitment of NEURL4 or HYLS1 to the centriole promotes primary cilia development and CP110 degradation. We used rapamycin-mediated dimerization with ODF2 to induce their targeted recruitment to the centriole. We found decreased CP110 levels in the transfected cells, but independent of rapamycin-mediated dimerization. By knocking down ODF2, we showed that ODF2 controls CP110 levels. The overexpression of ODF2 is not sufficient to promote the formation of primary cilia, but the overexpression of NEURL4 or HYLS1 is. The co-expression of ODF2 and HYLS1 resulted in the formation of tube-like structures, indicating an interaction. Thus, ODF2 controls primary cilia formation by negatively regulating the concentration of CP110 levels. Our data suggest that ODF2 most likely acts as a scaffold for the binding of proteins such as NEURL4 or HYLS1 to mediate CP110 degradation. Full article
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24 pages, 2552 KiB  
Review
Macrophage Implication in IPF: Updates on Immune, Epigenetic, and Metabolic Pathways
by Deepak Pokhreal, Bruno Crestani and Doumet Georges Helou
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172193 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology with a poor prognosis. It is a chronic and progressive disease that has a distinct radiological and pathological pattern from common interstitial pneumonia. The use of immunosuppressive medication was shown [...] Read more.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology with a poor prognosis. It is a chronic and progressive disease that has a distinct radiological and pathological pattern from common interstitial pneumonia. The use of immunosuppressive medication was shown to be completely ineffective in clinical trials, resulting in years of neglect of the immune component. However, recent developments in fundamental and translational science demonstrate that immune cells play a significant regulatory role in IPF, and macrophages appear to be among the most crucial. These highly plastic cells generate multiple growth factors and mediators that highly affect the initiation and progression of IPF. In this review, we will provide an update on the role of macrophages in IPF through a systemic discussion of various regulatory mechanisms involving immune receptors, cytokines, metabolism, and epigenetics. Full article
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25 pages, 1413 KiB  
Review
Systemic Inflammatory Disorders, Immunosuppressive Treatment and Increase Risk of Head and Neck Cancers—A Narrative Review of Potential Physiopathological and Biological Mechanisms
by Nuno Vale, Mariana Pereira and Rui Amaral Mendes
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2192; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172192 - 01 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are known to present multiple factors likely to influence their development. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current scientific literature on the interplay between systemic inflammatory disorders, immunosuppressive treatments and their synergistic effect on [...] Read more.
Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are known to present multiple factors likely to influence their development. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current scientific literature on the interplay between systemic inflammatory disorders, immunosuppressive treatments and their synergistic effect on HNC risk. Both cell-mediated and humoral-mediated systemic inflammatory disorders involve dysregulated immune responses and chronic inflammation and these inflammatory conditions have been associated with an increased risk of HNC development, primarily in the head and neck region. Likewise, the interaction between systemic inflammatory disorders and immunosuppressive treatments appears to amplify the risk of HNC development, as chronic inflammation fosters a tumor-promoting microenvironment, while immunosuppressive therapies further compromise immune surveillance and anti-tumor immune responses. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this interaction is crucial for developing targeted prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. Additionally, the emerging field of immunotherapy provides potential avenues for managing HNCs associated with systemic inflammatory disorders, but further research is needed to determine its efficacy and safety in this specific context. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and optimize preventive strategies and therapeutic interventions. Full article
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26 pages, 6636 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Proteome of Platelets from Patients with Critical Progression of COVID-19
by Monika Wolny, Svitlana Rozanova, Cornelius Knabbe, Kathy Pfeiffer, Katalin Barkovits, Katrin Marcus and Ingvild Birschmann
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2191; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172191 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Platelets, the smallest cells in human blood, known for their role in primary hemostasis, are also able to interact with pathogens and play a crucial role in the immune response. In severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, platelets become overactivated, resulting in the [...] Read more.
Platelets, the smallest cells in human blood, known for their role in primary hemostasis, are also able to interact with pathogens and play a crucial role in the immune response. In severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, platelets become overactivated, resulting in the release of granules, exacerbating inflammation and contributing to the cytokine storm. This study aims to further elucidate the role of platelets in COVID-19 progression and to identify predictive biomarkers for disease outcomes. A comparative proteome analysis of highly purified platelets from critically diseased COVID-19 patients with different outcomes (survivors and non-survivors) and age- and sex-matched controls was performed. Platelets from critically diseased COVID-19 patients exhibited significant changes in the levels of proteins associated with protein folding. In addition, a number of proteins with isomerase activity were found to be more highly abundant in patient samples, apparently exerting an influence on platelet activity via the non-genomic properties of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). Moreover, carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA-1) was found to be a candidate biomarker in platelets, showing a significant increase in COVID-19 patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Platelet Biology and Functions)
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17 pages, 6144 KiB  
Article
Attenuation of Oxidative Damage via Upregulating Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway by Protease SH21 with Exerting Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Properties In Vitro
by Hasan Tarek, Seung Sik Cho, Md. Selim Hossain and Jin Cheol Yoo
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2190; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172190 - 01 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
Oxidative damage and inflammation are among the very significant aspects interrelated with cancer and other degenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the biological activities of a 25 kDa protease (SH21) that was purified from Bacillus siamensis. SH21 exhibited very powerful antioxidant [...] Read more.
Oxidative damage and inflammation are among the very significant aspects interrelated with cancer and other degenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the biological activities of a 25 kDa protease (SH21) that was purified from Bacillus siamensis. SH21 exhibited very powerful antioxidant and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation inhibition activity in a dose-dependent approach. The mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) were enhanced in the SH21-treated sample. SH21 also increased the transcriptional and translational activities of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) with the subsequent development of detoxifying enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In addition, SH21 showed potential anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. At concentrations of 60, 80, and 100 μg/mL, SH21 potentially suppressed nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokine gene expressions. Furthermore, SH21 significantly released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme in cancer cell supernatant in a concentration-dependent manner and showed strong activity against three tested cancer cell lines, including HL-60, A549, and Hela. Our results suggest that SH21 has effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects and could be an excellent therapeutic agent against inflammation-related diseases. Full article
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26 pages, 1146 KiB  
Review
Current Advances in Cellular Approaches for Pathophysiology and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
by Yi-Ru Tsai, Yen-Nung Liao and Hong-Yo Kang
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2189; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172189 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2044
Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent gynecological and endocrine disorder that results in irregular menstruation, incomplete follicular development, disrupted ovulation, and reduced fertility rates among affected women of reproductive age. While these symptoms can be managed through appropriate medication and lifestyle interventions, [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent gynecological and endocrine disorder that results in irregular menstruation, incomplete follicular development, disrupted ovulation, and reduced fertility rates among affected women of reproductive age. While these symptoms can be managed through appropriate medication and lifestyle interventions, both etiology and treatment options remain limited. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advancements in cellular approaches utilized for investigating the pathophysiology of PCOS through in vitro cell models, to avoid the confounding systemic effects such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy. The primary objective is to enhance the understanding of abnormalities in PCOS-associated folliculogenesis, particularly focusing on the aberrant roles of granulosa cells and other relevant cell types. Furthermore, this article encompasses analyses of the mechanisms and signaling pathways, microRNA expression and target genes altered in PCOS, and explores the pharmacological approaches considered as potential treatments. By summarizing the aforementioned key findings, this article not only allows us to appreciate the value of using in vitro cell models, but also provides guidance for selecting suitable research models to facilitate the identification of potential treatments and understand the pathophysiology of PCOS at the cellular level. Full article
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13 pages, 3756 KiB  
Article
A Protocol for Organoids from the Urine of Bladder Cancer Patients
by Simon Walz, Paul Pollehne, Ruizhi Geng, Johannes Schneider, Moritz Maas, Wilhelm K. Aicher, Arnulf Stenzl, Bastian Amend and Niklas Harland
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2188; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172188 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
This study investigates the feasibility of establishing urine-derived tumor organoids from bladder cancer (BC) patients as an alternative to tissue-derived organoids. BC is one of the most common cancers worldwide and current diagnostic methods involve invasive procedures. Here, we investigated the potential of [...] Read more.
This study investigates the feasibility of establishing urine-derived tumor organoids from bladder cancer (BC) patients as an alternative to tissue-derived organoids. BC is one of the most common cancers worldwide and current diagnostic methods involve invasive procedures. Here, we investigated the potential of using urine samples, which contain exfoliated tumor cells, to generate urine-derived BC organoids (uBCOs). Urine samples from 29 BC patients were collected and cells were isolated and cultured in a three-dimensional matrix. The establishment and primary expansion of uBCOs were successful in 83% of the specimens investigated. The culturing efficiency of uBCOs was comparable to cancer tissue-derived organoids. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to characterize the uBCOs exhibited similar expressions of BC markers compared to the parental tumor. These findings suggest that urine-derived BC organoids hold promise as a non-invasive tool for studying BC and evaluating therapeutic responses. This approach could potentially minimize the need for invasive procedures and provide a platform for personalized drug screening. Further research in this area may lead to improved diagnostic and treatment strategies for BC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in 3D Cell Culture)
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16 pages, 951 KiB  
Review
MT1-MMP as a Key Regulator of Metastasis
by Noritaka Tanaka and Takeharu Sakamoto
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172187 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Membrane type1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a member of metalloproteinases that is tethered to the transmembrane. Its major function in cancer progression is to directly degrade the extracellular matrix components, which are mainly type I–III collagen or indirectly type IV collagen through the activation [...] Read more.
Membrane type1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a member of metalloproteinases that is tethered to the transmembrane. Its major function in cancer progression is to directly degrade the extracellular matrix components, which are mainly type I–III collagen or indirectly type IV collagen through the activation of MMP-2 with a cooperative function of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). MT1-MMP is expressed as an inactive form (zymogen) within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and receives truncation processing via furin for its activation. Upon the appropriate trafficking of MT1-MMP from the ER, the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface membrane, MT1-MMP exhibits proteolytic activities to the surrounding molecules such as extracellular matrix components and cell surface molecules. MT1-MMP also retains a non-proteolytic ability to activate hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1A) via factors inhibiting the HIF-1 (FIH-1)-Mint3-HIF-1 axis, resulting in the upregulation of glucose metabolism and oxygen-independent ATP production. Through various functions of MT1-MMP, cancer cells gain motility on migration/invasion, thus causing metastasis. Despite the long-time efforts spent on the development of MT1-MMP interventions, none have been accomplished yet due to the side effects caused by off-target effects. Recently, MT1-MMP-specific small molecule inhibitors or an antibody have been reported and these inhibitors could potentially be novel agents for cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Invasion and Metastasis)
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5 pages, 785 KiB  
Comment
βIV-Spectrin in Cardiac Fibroblasts: Implications for Fibrosis and Therapeutic Targeting in Cardiac Diseases. Comment on Nassal et al. Spectrin-Based Regulation of Cardiac Fibroblast Cell-Cell Communication. Cells 2023, 12, 748
by Wenjing Xiang, Ning Zhou, Lei Li, Faming Chen, Lei Li and Ying Wang
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172186 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Fibroblasts in the heart, traditionally recognized as interstitial cells, have long been overlooked in the study of cardiac physiology and pathology [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances Related to Cardiovascular System)
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12 pages, 1894 KiB  
Article
Aquaglyceroporins in Human Breast Cancer
by Teresa Kirkegaard, Andreas Riishede, Trine Tramm and Lene N. Nejsum
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2185; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172185 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Aquaporins are water channels that facilitate passive water transport across cellular membranes following an osmotic gradient and are essential in the regulation of body water homeostasis. Several aquaporins are overexpressed in breast cancer, and AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 have been linked to spread [...] Read more.
Aquaporins are water channels that facilitate passive water transport across cellular membranes following an osmotic gradient and are essential in the regulation of body water homeostasis. Several aquaporins are overexpressed in breast cancer, and AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 have been linked to spread to lymph nodes and poor prognosis. The subgroup aquaglyceroporins also facilitate the transport of glycerol and are thus involved in cellular metabolism. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the three aquaglyceroporins, AQP3, AQP7 and AQP9, but not AQP10, are overexpressed in human breast cancer. It is, however, unknown if they are all expressed in the same cells or have a heterogeneous expression pattern. To investigate this, we employed immunohistochemical analysis of serial sections from human invasive ductal and lobular breast cancers. We found that AQP3, AQP7 and AQP9 are homogeneously expressed in almost all cells in both premalignant in situ lesions and invasive lesions. Thus, potential intervention strategies targeting cellular metabolism via the aquaglyceroporins should consider all three expressed aquaglyceroporins, namely AQP3, AQP7 and AQP9. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Aquaporins II)
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16 pages, 6947 KiB  
Article
miR-369-3p Modulates Intestinal Inflammatory Response via BRCC3/NLRP3 Inflammasome Axis
by Viviana Scalavino, Emanuele Piccinno, Anna Maria Valentini, Nicolò Schena, Raffaele Armentano, Gianluigi Giannelli and Grazia Serino
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172184 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes expressed by immune cells in response to distinct stimuli that trigger inflammatory responses and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Evidence suggests a different role of inflammasome NLRP3 in IBD. NLRP3 inflammasome activation can be controlled by post-translational modifications such [...] Read more.
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes expressed by immune cells in response to distinct stimuli that trigger inflammatory responses and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Evidence suggests a different role of inflammasome NLRP3 in IBD. NLRP3 inflammasome activation can be controlled by post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination through BRCC3. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-369-3p on the expression and activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes via BRCC3 regulation. After bioinformatics prediction of Brcc3 as a gene target of miR-369-3p, in vitro, we validated its modulation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). The increase in miR-369-3p significantly reduced BRCC3 gene and protein expression. This modulation, in turn, reduced the expression of NLRP3 and blocked the recruitment of ASC adaptor protein by NLRP3. As a result, miR-369-3p reduced the activity of Caspase-1 by the inflammasome, decreasing the cleavage of pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18. These results support a novel mechanism that seems to act on post-translational modification of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by BRCC3. This may be an interesting new target in the personalized treatment of inflammatory disorders, including IBD. Full article
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38 pages, 821 KiB  
Review
Mitochondrial Properties in Skeletal Muscle Fiber
by Han Dong and Shih-Yin Tsai
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172183 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6310
Abstract
Mitochondria are the primary source of energy production and are implicated in a wide range of biological processes in most eukaryotic cells. Skeletal muscle heavily relies on mitochondria for energy supplements. In addition to being a powerhouse, mitochondria evoke many functions in skeletal [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are the primary source of energy production and are implicated in a wide range of biological processes in most eukaryotic cells. Skeletal muscle heavily relies on mitochondria for energy supplements. In addition to being a powerhouse, mitochondria evoke many functions in skeletal muscle, including regulating calcium and reactive oxygen species levels. A healthy mitochondria population is necessary for the preservation of skeletal muscle homeostasis, while mitochondria dysregulation is linked to numerous myopathies. In this review, we summarize the recent studies on mitochondria function and quality control in skeletal muscle, focusing mainly on in vivo studies of rodents and human subjects. With an emphasis on the interplay between mitochondrial functions concerning the muscle fiber type-specific phenotypes, we also discuss the effect of aging and exercise on the remodeling of skeletal muscle and mitochondria properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria: New Findings from Single Cells to Organs)
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13 pages, 634 KiB  
Perspective
Metformin: A New Inhibitor of the Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer
by Domenico Conza, Paola Mirra, Francesca Fiory, Luigi Insabato, Antonella Nicolò, Francesco Beguinot and Luca Ulianich
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172182 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
The biguanide drug metformin is widely used in type 2 diabetes mellitus therapy, due to its ability to decrease serum glucose levels, mainly by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. A considerable number of studies have shown that metformin, besides its antidiabetic action, can [...] Read more.
The biguanide drug metformin is widely used in type 2 diabetes mellitus therapy, due to its ability to decrease serum glucose levels, mainly by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. A considerable number of studies have shown that metformin, besides its antidiabetic action, can improve other disease states, such as polycystic ovary disease, acute kidney injury, neurological disorders, cognitive impairment and renal damage. In addition, metformin is well known to suppress the growth and progression of different types of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, several epidemiological studies suggest that metformin is capable of lowering cancer risk and reducing the rate of cancer deaths among diabetic patients. The antitumoral effects of metformin have been proposed to be mainly mediated by the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, a number of signaling pathways, both dependent and independent of AMPK activation, have been reported to be involved in metformin antitumoral action. Among these, the Wingless and Int signaling pathway have recently been included. Here, we will focus our attention on the main molecular mechanisms involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Mechanisms to Therapeutics: Wnt Signaling in Cancer)
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21 pages, 1551 KiB  
Review
New Views of the DNA Repair Protein Ataxia–Telangiectasia Mutated in Central Neurons: Contribution in Synaptic Dysfunctions of Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Diseases
by Sabrina Briguglio, Clara Cambria, Elena Albizzati, Elena Marcello, Giovanni Provenzano, Angelisa Frasca and Flavia Antonucci
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2181; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172181 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Ataxia–Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase principally known to orchestrate DNA repair processes upon DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mutations in the Atm gene lead to Ataxia–Telangiectasia (AT), a recessive disorder characterized by ataxic movements consequent to cerebellar atrophy or dysfunction, along [...] Read more.
Ataxia–Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase principally known to orchestrate DNA repair processes upon DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mutations in the Atm gene lead to Ataxia–Telangiectasia (AT), a recessive disorder characterized by ataxic movements consequent to cerebellar atrophy or dysfunction, along with immune alterations, genomic instability, and predisposition to cancer. AT patients show variable phenotypes ranging from neurologic abnormalities and cognitive impairments to more recently described neuropsychiatric features pointing to symptoms hardly ascribable to the canonical functions of ATM in DNA damage response (DDR). Indeed, evidence suggests that cognitive abilities rely on the proper functioning of DSB machinery and specific synaptic changes in central neurons of ATM-deficient mice unveiled unexpected roles of ATM at the synapse. Thus, in the present review, upon a brief recall of DNA damage responses, we focus our attention on the role of ATM in neuronal physiology and pathology and we discuss recent findings showing structural and functional changes in hippocampal and cortical synapses of AT mouse models. Collectively, a deeper knowledge of ATM-dependent mechanisms in neurons is necessary not only for a better comprehension of AT neurological phenotypes, but also for a higher understanding of the pathological mechanisms in neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorders involving ATM dysfunctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Models of Human Disease)
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25 pages, 16017 KiB  
Systematic Review
Arginine, Transsulfuration, and Folic Acid Pathway Metabolomics in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Angelo Zinellu and Arduino A. Mangoni
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172180 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
There is an increasing interest in biomarkers of nitric oxide dysregulation and oxidative stress to guide management and identify new therapeutic targets in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between circulating metabolites [...] Read more.
There is an increasing interest in biomarkers of nitric oxide dysregulation and oxidative stress to guide management and identify new therapeutic targets in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between circulating metabolites within the arginine (arginine, citrulline, ornithine, asymmetric, ADMA, and symmetric, SDMA dimethylarginine), transsulfuration (methionine, homocysteine, and cysteine) and folic acid (folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12) metabolic pathways and COPD. We searched electronic databases from inception to 30 June 2023 and assessed the risk of bias and the certainty of evidence. In 21 eligible studies, compared to healthy controls, patients with stable COPD had significantly lower methionine (standardized mean difference, SMD = −0.50, 95% CI −0.95 to −0.05, p = 0.029) and folic acid (SMD = −0.37, 95% CI −0.65 to −0.09, p = 0.009), and higher homocysteine (SMD = 0.78, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.07, p < 0.001) and cysteine concentrations (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.66, p = 0.038). Additionally, COPD was associated with significantly higher ADMA (SMD = 1.27, 95% CI 0.08 to 2.46, p = 0.037), SDMA (SMD = 3.94, 95% CI 0.79 to 7.08, p = 0.014), and ornithine concentrations (SMD = 0.67, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.22, p = 0.015). In subgroup analysis, the SMD of homocysteine was significantly associated with the biological matrix assessed and the forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity ratio, but not with age, study location, or analytical method used. Our study suggests that the presence of significant alterations in metabolites within the arginine, transsulfuration, and folic acid pathways can be useful for assessing nitric oxide dysregulation and oxidative stress and identifying novel treatment targets in COPD. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42023448036.) Full article
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13 pages, 3147 KiB  
Article
Comparative Shotgun Proteomics Reveals the Characteristic Protein Signature of Osteosarcoma Subtypes
by Maram Alaa, Nouran Al-Shehaby, Ali Mostafa Anwar, Nesma Farid, Mustafa Shaban Shawky, Manal Zamzam, Iman Zaky, Ahmed Elghounimy, Shahenda El-Naggar and Sameh Magdeldin
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172179 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Osteosarcoma is a primary malignant bone tumor affecting adolescents and young adults. This study aimed to identify proteomic signatures that distinguish between different osteosarcoma subtypes, providing insights into their molecular heterogeneity and potential implications for personalized treatment approaches. Using advanced proteomic techniques, we [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma is a primary malignant bone tumor affecting adolescents and young adults. This study aimed to identify proteomic signatures that distinguish between different osteosarcoma subtypes, providing insights into their molecular heterogeneity and potential implications for personalized treatment approaches. Using advanced proteomic techniques, we analyzed FFPE tumor samples from a cohort of pediatric osteosarcoma patients representing four various subtypes. Differential expression analysis revealed a significant proteomic signature that discriminated between these subtypes, highlighting distinct molecular profiles associated with different tumor characteristics. In contrast, clinical determinants did not correlate with the proteome signature of pediatric osteosarcoma. The identified proteomics signature encompassed a diverse array of proteins involved in focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, PI3K-Akt signaling pathways, and proteoglycans in cancer, among the top enriched pathways. These findings underscore the importance of considering the molecular heterogeneity of osteosarcoma during diagnosis or even when developing personalized treatment strategies. By identifying subtype-specific proteomics signatures, clinicians may be able to tailor therapy regimens to individual patients, optimizing treatment efficacy and minimizing adverse effects. Full article
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18 pages, 4427 KiB  
Article
The Preventive Effect of Melatonin on Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis
by Reiko Tokuyama-Toda, Hirochika Umeki, Mitsuru Okubo, Chika Terada-Ito, Toshio Yudo, Shinji Ide, Susumu Tadokoro, Masashi Shimozuma and Kazuhito Satomura
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2178; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172178 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Melatonin exerts various physiological effects through melatonin receptors and their ability to scavenge free radicals. Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck tumors, but stomatitis, a side effect affecting irradiated oral mucosa, can impact treatment outcomes. This study investigated the preventive [...] Read more.
Melatonin exerts various physiological effects through melatonin receptors and their ability to scavenge free radicals. Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck tumors, but stomatitis, a side effect affecting irradiated oral mucosa, can impact treatment outcomes. This study investigated the preventive effect of melatonin, a potent free radical scavenger, on radiation-induced oral mucositis. Mice were irradiated with 15 Gy of X-ray radiation to the head and neck, and the oral mucosa was histologically compared between a melatonin-administered group and a control group. The results showed that radiation-induced oral mucositis was suppressed in mice administered melatonin before and after irradiation. It was suggested that the mechanism involved the inhibition of apoptosis and the inhibition of DNA damage. From these findings, we confirmed that melatonin has a protective effect against radiation-induced oral mucositis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Biology of Melatonin)
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24 pages, 12458 KiB  
Article
Human Mast Cells Upregulate Cathepsin B, a Novel Marker of Itch in Psoriasis
by Peter W. West, Chiara Tontini, Haris Atmoko, Orsolya Kiss, Terence Garner, Rajia Bahri, Richard B. Warren, Christopher E. M. Griffiths, Adam Stevens and Silvia Bulfone-Paus
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172177 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Mast cells (MCs) contribute to skin inflammation. In psoriasis, the activation of cutaneous neuroimmune networks commonly leads to itch. To dissect the unique contribution of MCs to the cutaneous neuroinflammatory response in psoriasis, we examined their density, distribution, relation to nerve fibres and [...] Read more.
Mast cells (MCs) contribute to skin inflammation. In psoriasis, the activation of cutaneous neuroimmune networks commonly leads to itch. To dissect the unique contribution of MCs to the cutaneous neuroinflammatory response in psoriasis, we examined their density, distribution, relation to nerve fibres and disease severity, and molecular signature by comparing RNA-seq analysis of MCs isolated from the skin of psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers. In involved psoriasis skin, MCs and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP)-positive nerve fibres were spatially associated, and the increase of both MC and nerve fibre density correlated with disease severity. Gene set enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes in involved psoriasis skin showed significant representation of neuron-related pathways (i.e., regulation of neuron projection along with dendrite and dendritic spine morphogenesis), indicating MC engagement in neuronal development and supporting the evidence of close MC–nerve fibre interaction. Furthermore, the analysis of 208 identified itch-associated genes revealed that CTSB, TLR4, and TACR1 were upregulated in MCs in involved skin. In both whole-skin published datasets and isolated MCs, CTSB was found to be a reliable indicator of the psoriasis condition. Furthermore, cathepsin B+ cells were increased in psoriasis skin and cathepsin B+ MC density correlated with disease severity. Therefore, our study provides evidence that cathepsin B could serve as a common indicator of the MC-dependent itch signature in psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mast Cells in Immunity and Inflammation)
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23 pages, 8513 KiB  
Article
Adverse Crosstalk between Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Ferroptosis in Basal Breast Cancer
by Christophe Desterke, Emma Cosialls, Yao Xiang, Rima Elhage, Clémence Duruel, Yunhua Chang and Ahmed Hamaï
Cells 2023, 12(17), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12172176 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1475
Abstract
(1) Background: Breast cancer is a frequent heterogeneous disorder diagnosed in women and causes a high number of mortality among this population due to rapid metastasis and disease recurrence. Ferroptosis can inhibit breast cancer cell growth, improve the sensitivity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Breast cancer is a frequent heterogeneous disorder diagnosed in women and causes a high number of mortality among this population due to rapid metastasis and disease recurrence. Ferroptosis can inhibit breast cancer cell growth, improve the sensitivity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and inhibit distant metastases, potentially impacting the tumor microenvironment. (2) Methods: Through data mining, the ferroptosis/extracellular matrix remodeling literature text-mining results were integrated into the breast cancer transcriptome cohort, taking into account patients with distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) under adjuvant therapy (anthracyclin + taxanes) with validation in an independent METABRIC cohort, along with the MDA-MB-231 and HCC338 transcriptome functional experiments with ferroptosis activations (GSE173905). (3) Results: Ferroptosis/extracellular matrix remodeling text-mining identified 910 associated genes. Univariate Cox analyses focused on breast cancer (GSE25066) selected 252 individual significant genes, of which 170 were found to have an adverse expression. Functional enrichment of these 170 adverse genes predicted basal breast cancer signatures. Through text-mining, some ferroptosis-significant adverse-selected genes shared citations in the domain of ECM remodeling, such as TNF, IL6, SET, CDKN2A, EGFR, HMGB1, KRAS, MET, LCN2, HIF1A, and TLR4. A molecular score based on the expression of the eleven genes was found predictive of the worst prognosis breast cancer at the univariate level: basal subtype, short DRFS, high-grade values 3 and 4, and estrogen and progesterone receptor negative and nodal stages 2 and 3. This eleven-gene signature was validated as regulated by ferroptosis inductors (erastin and RSL3) in the triple-negative breast cancer cellular model MDA-MB-231. (4) Conclusions: The crosstalk between ECM remodeling-ferroptosis functionalities allowed for defining a molecular score, which has been characterized as an independent adverse parameter in the prognosis of breast cancer patients. The gene signature of this molecular score has been validated to be regulated by erastin/RSL3 ferroptosis activators. This molecular score could be promising to evaluate the ECM-related impact of ferroptosis target therapies in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities of Ferroptosis)
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