Metabolomics and Proteomics in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 May 2024 | Viewed by 1389
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is mainly characterized by chronic airflow obstruction but shows very heterogeneous clinical presentations (called phenotypes or treatable traits). These phenotypes are believed to correspond to partially differentiated biological mechanisms (endotypes). This constitutes a difficulty for the practice of a more personalized medicine since it is necessary to obtain specific clinical and/or biological markers. The latter is linked to the above-mentioned phenotypes, whose search can be performed by either following specific hypotheses using conventional techniques or by using a broader approach such as that of omic sciences. Metabolomics and proteomics stand out among these as it allows the identification and quantification of metabolites and peptides/proteins, respectively, with subsequent deduction of the biological processes where these molecules are involved. To date, many metabolomic and proteomic studies have been carried out aimed at defining those changes typical when considering COPD as a whole entity and the more specific ones that are characteristic of its different phenotypes. Most of these studies have been done on blood samples due to the easy obtention and potential future clinical applicability. Some studies have also been carried out on samples from the respiratory system, and even in urine. In general, the different authors agree on the relevance of the changes observed in the metabolism of peptides/proteins and some lipids (mainly fatty acids and phospholipids) in patients with COPD, with direct implications in the pathways linked to inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as protein catabolism and energy production. Regarding the main COPD phenotypes, it seems that patients with emphysema exhibit an overproduction of free radicals, with abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, protein catabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. In turn, patients who suffer frequent exacerbations show dysregulation of the phospholipid, purine, amino acid, and ATP-binding cassette carrier (ABC) metabolism, while those patients characterized by showing a high number of blood eosinophils mostly exhibit changes in the metabolism of eicosanoids and certain cytokines, as well as a strong energy consumption. Moreover, specific metabolic changes linked to the age or the sex of COPD patients have also been described. However, the profiles and models that have already been proposed are not clearly defined and most still lack validation. For this reason, more studies should be carried out to allow the translation of the metabolomic results to the clinical management of COPD patients.
In this Special Issue, we aim to include studies that cover cell biology and physiology, molecular biology, and biophysics of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Prof. Dr. Joaquim Gea Guiral
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- energy production
- protein catabolism