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Cells, Volume 13, Issue 8 (April-2 2024) – 72 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study examines the temporal changes of the blood–brain barrier in response to neonatal hypoxia ischemia. Neuronal injury occurs as early as 6 h post-HI insult, concomitant with the breakdown of the integrity of the BBB—with peripheral blood extravasating into the tissue in the ipsilateral hemisphere, cortex, and white matter. Microglia begin to transition to an intermediate phenotype at 6–12 hours post-insult, as an early driver of neuroinflammation that coincides with the peak presence of microbleeds indicative of exacerbated BBB breakdown. These findings will be used to best implement therapeutics that target these specific pathways—such as the emergence of intermediate microglia or micro-vessel breakdown—to improve the effectiveness of therapeutics that reduce neonatal brain injury. View this paper
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15 pages, 2223 KiB  
Article
High Level of CD8+PD-1+ Cells in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Who Experienced Loss of MMR after Imatinib Discontinuation
by Paulina Kwaśnik, Joanna Zaleska, Dorota Link-Lenczowska, Magdalena Zawada, Hubert Wysogląd, Bogdan Ochrem, Grażyna Bober, Ewa Wasilewska, Iwona Hus, Monika Szarejko, Witold Prejzner, Olga Grzybowska-Izydorczyk, Agnieszka Klonowska-Szymczyk, Ewa Mędraś, Michał Kiełbus, Tomasz Sacha and Krzysztof Giannopoulos
Cells 2024, 13(8), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080723 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Treatment-free remission (TFR) is achieved in approximately half of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The mechanisms responsible for TFR maintenance remain elusive. This study aimed to identify immune markers responsible for the control of residual CML cells early [...] Read more.
Treatment-free remission (TFR) is achieved in approximately half of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The mechanisms responsible for TFR maintenance remain elusive. This study aimed to identify immune markers responsible for the control of residual CML cells early in the TFR (at 3 months), which may be the key to achieving long-term TFR and relapse-free survival (RFS) after discontinuation of imatinib. Our study included 63 CML patients after imatinib discontinuation, in whom comprehensive analysis of changes in the immune system was performed by flow cytometry, and changes in the BCR::ABL1 transcript levels were assessed by RQ-PCR and ddPCR. We demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+PD-1+ cells in patients losing TFR. The level of CD8+PD-1+ cells is inversely related to the duration of treatment and incidence of deep molecular response (DMR) before discontinuation. Analysis of the ROC curve showed that the percentage of CD8+PD-1+ cells may be a significant factor in early molecular recurrence. Interestingly, at 3 months of TFR, patients with the e13a2 transcript had a significantly higher proportion of the PD-1-expressing immune cells compared to patients with the e14a2. Our results suggest the important involvement of CD8+PD-1+ cells in the success of TFR and may help in identifying a group of patients who could successfully discontinue imatinib. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Trends and Advances in Tumor Immunology)
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5 pages, 1415 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Dastghaib et al. Simvastatin Induces Unfolded Protein Response and Enhances Temozolomide-Induced Cell Death in Glioblastoma Cells. Cells 2020, 9, 2339
by Sanaz Dastghaib, Shahla Shojaei, Zohreh Mostafavi-Pour, Pawan Sharma, John B. Patterson, Afshin Samali, Pooneh Mokarram and Saeid Ghavami
Cells 2024, 13(8), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080722 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 414
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
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21 pages, 2210 KiB  
Review
Drosophila Contributions towards Understanding Neurofibromatosis 1
by Kalliopi Atsoniou, Eleni Giannopoulou, Eirini-Maria Georganta and Efthimios M. C. Skoulakis
Cells 2024, 13(8), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080721 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a multisymptomatic disorder with highly variable presentations, which include short stature, susceptibility to formation of the characteristic benign tumors known as neurofibromas, intense freckling and skin discoloration, and cognitive deficits, which characterize most children with the condition. Attention deficits [...] Read more.
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a multisymptomatic disorder with highly variable presentations, which include short stature, susceptibility to formation of the characteristic benign tumors known as neurofibromas, intense freckling and skin discoloration, and cognitive deficits, which characterize most children with the condition. Attention deficits and Autism Spectrum manifestations augment the compromised learning presented by most patients, leading to behavioral problems and school failure, while fragmented sleep contributes to chronic fatigue and poor quality of life. Neurofibromin (Nf1) is present ubiquitously during human development and postnatally in most neuronal, oligodendrocyte, and Schwann cells. Evidence largely from animal models including Drosophila suggests that the symptomatic variability may reflect distinct cell-type-specific functions of the protein, which emerge upon its loss, or mutations affecting the different functional domains of the protein. This review summarizes the contributions of Drosophila in modeling multiple NF1 manifestations, addressing hypotheses regarding the cell-type-specific functions of the protein and exploring the molecular pathways affected upon loss of the highly conserved fly homolog dNf1. Collectively, work in this model not only has efficiently and expediently modelled multiple aspects of the condition and increased understanding of its behavioral manifestations, but also has led to pharmaceutical strategies towards their amelioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drosophila Models of Development and Disease)
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12 pages, 3126 KiB  
Article
Expression of PDLIM5 Spliceosomes and Regulatory Functions on Myogenesis in Pigs
by Yu Fu, Shixin Li, Jingru Nie, Dawei Yan, Bo Zhang, Xin Hao and Hao Zhang
Cells 2024, 13(8), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080720 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Meat yield, determined by muscle growth and development, is an important economic trait for the swine industry and a focus of research in animal genetics and breeding. PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5) are cytoskeleton-related proteins that play key roles in various tissues [...] Read more.
Meat yield, determined by muscle growth and development, is an important economic trait for the swine industry and a focus of research in animal genetics and breeding. PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5) are cytoskeleton-related proteins that play key roles in various tissues and cells. These proteins have multiple isoforms, primarily categorized as short (PDLIM5-short) and long (PDLIM5-long) types, distinguished by the absence and presence of an LIM domain, respectively. However, the expression patterns of swine PDLIM5 isoforms and their regulation during porcine skeletal muscle development remain largely unexplored. We observed that PDLIM5-long was expressed at very low levels in pig muscles and that PDLIM5-short and total PDLIM5 were highly expressed in the muscles of slow-growing pigs, suggesting that PDLIM5-short, the dominant transcript in pigs, is associated with a slow rate of muscle growth. PDLIM5-short suppressed myoblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation in vitro. We also identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (−258 A > T and −191 T > G) in the 5′ flanking region of PDLIM5, which influenced the activity of the promoter and were associated with muscle growth rate in pigs. In summary, we demonstrated that PDLIM5-short negatively regulates myoblast proliferation and differentiation, providing a theoretical basis for improving pig breeding programs. Full article
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17 pages, 655 KiB  
Review
Epigenetic Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease: DNA Methylation and Histone Modification
by Laura Maria De Plano, Alessandra Saitta, Salvatore Oddo and Antonella Caccamo
Cells 2024, 13(8), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080719 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss, imposing a significant burden on affected individuals and their families. Despite the recent promising progress in therapeutic approaches, more needs to be done to understand the intricate [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss, imposing a significant burden on affected individuals and their families. Despite the recent promising progress in therapeutic approaches, more needs to be done to understand the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of AD. Growing evidence points to epigenetic changes as playing a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental factors influences the epigenetic landscape in AD, altering gene expression patterns associated with key pathological events associated with disease pathogenesis. To this end, epigenetic alterations not only impact the expression of genes implicated in AD pathogenesis but also contribute to the dysregulation of crucial cellular processes, including synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Understanding the complex epigenetic mechanisms in AD provides new avenues for therapeutic interventions. This review comprehensively examines the role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in the context of AD. It aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of AD pathogenesis and facilitate the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. Full article
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21 pages, 4072 KiB  
Article
AAV-Mediated Restoration of Dystrophin-Dp71 in the Brain of Dp71-Null Mice: Molecular, Cellular and Behavioral Outcomes
by Ophélie Vacca, Faouzi Zarrouki, Charlotte Izabelle, Mehdi Belmaati Cherkaoui, Alvaro Rendon, Deniz Dalkara and Cyrille Vaillend
Cells 2024, 13(8), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080718 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 986
Abstract
A deficiency in the shortest dystrophin-gene product, Dp71, is a pivotal aggravating factor for intellectual disabilities in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recent advances in preclinical research have achieved some success in compensating both muscle and brain dysfunctions associated with DMD, notably using exon [...] Read more.
A deficiency in the shortest dystrophin-gene product, Dp71, is a pivotal aggravating factor for intellectual disabilities in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recent advances in preclinical research have achieved some success in compensating both muscle and brain dysfunctions associated with DMD, notably using exon skipping strategies. However, this has not been studied for distal mutations in the DMD gene leading to Dp71 loss. In this study, we aimed to restore brain Dp71 expression in the Dp71-null transgenic mouse using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) administrated either by intracardiac injections at P4 (ICP4) or by bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections in adults. ICP4 delivery of the AAV9-Dp71 vector enabled the expression of 2 to 14% of brain Dp71, while ICV delivery enabled the overexpression of Dp71 in the hippocampus and cortex of adult mice, with anecdotal expression in the cerebellum. The restoration of Dp71 was mostly located in the glial endfeet that surround capillaries, and it was associated with partial localization of Dp71-associated proteins, α1-syntrophin and AQP4 water channels, suggesting proper restoration of a scaffold of proteins involved in blood–brain barrier function and water homeostasis. However, this did not result in significant improvements in behavioral disturbances displayed by Dp71-null mice. The potential and limitations of this AAV-mediated strategy are discussed. This proof-of-concept study identifies key molecular markers to estimate the efficiencies of Dp71 rescue strategies and opens new avenues for enhancing gene therapy targeting cognitive disorders associated with a subgroup of severely affected DMD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Models of Human Disease 2.0)
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35 pages, 7957 KiB  
Review
Fusobacterium nucleatum: An Overview of Evidence, Demi-Decadal Trends, and Its Role in Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Various Gynecological Diseases, including Cancers
by Arunita Ghosh, Ken Jaaback, Angela Boulton, Michelle Wong-Brown, Steve Raymond, Partha Dutta, Nikola A. Bowden and Arnab Ghosh
Cells 2024, 13(8), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080717 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1233
Abstract
Gynecological and obstetric infectious diseases are crucial to women’s health. There is growing evidence that links the presence of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), an anaerobic oral commensal and potential periodontal pathogen, to the development and progression of various human diseases, including [...] Read more.
Gynecological and obstetric infectious diseases are crucial to women’s health. There is growing evidence that links the presence of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), an anaerobic oral commensal and potential periodontal pathogen, to the development and progression of various human diseases, including cancers. While the role of this opportunistic oral pathogen has been extensively studied in colorectal cancer in recent years, research on its epidemiological evidence and mechanistic link to gynecological diseases (GDs) is still ongoing. Thus, the present review, which is the first of its kind, aims to undertake a comprehensive and critical reappraisal of F. nucleatum, including the genetics and mechanistic role in promoting adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) and various GDs, including cancers. Additionally, this review discusses new conceptual advances that link the immunomodulatory role of F. nucleatum to the development and progression of breast, ovarian, endometrial, and cervical carcinomas through the activation of various direct and indirect signaling pathways. However, further studies are needed to explore and elucidate the highly dynamic process of host–F. nucleatum interactions and discover new pathways, which will pave the way for the development of better preventive and therapeutic strategies against this pathobiont. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Pathology)
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14 pages, 2583 KiB  
Article
The Expression and Secretion Profile of TRAP5 Isoforms in Gaucher Disease
by Margarita M. Ivanova, Julia Dao, Neala Loynab, Sohailla Noor, Neil Kasaci, Andrew Friedman and Ozlem Goker-Alpan
Cells 2024, 13(8), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080716 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Background: Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by glucocerebrosidase (GCase) enzyme deficiency, leading to glycosylceramide (Gb-1) and glucosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb-1) accumulation. The pathological hallmark for GD is an accumulation of large macrophages called Gaucher cells (GCs) in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, which are [...] Read more.
Background: Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by glucocerebrosidase (GCase) enzyme deficiency, leading to glycosylceramide (Gb-1) and glucosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb-1) accumulation. The pathological hallmark for GD is an accumulation of large macrophages called Gaucher cells (GCs) in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, which are associated with chronic organ enlargement, bone manifestations, and inflammation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5 (TRAP5 protein, ACP5 gene) has long been a nonspecific biomarker of macrophage/GCs activation; however, the discovery of two isoforms of TRAP5 has expanded its significance. The discovery of TRAP5′s two isoforms revealed that it is more than just a biomarker of macrophage activity. While TRAP5a is highly expressed in macrophages, TRAP5b is secreted by osteoclasts. Recently, we have shown that the elevation of TRAP5b in plasma is associated with osteoporosis in GD. However, the role of TRAP isoforms in GD and how the accumulation of Gb-1 and Lyso-Gb-1 affects TRAP expression is unknown. Methods: 39 patients with GD were categorized into cohorts based on bone mineral density (BMD). TRAP5a and TRAP5b plasma levels were quantified by ELISA. ACP5 mRNA was estimated using RT-PCR. Results: An increase in TRAP5b was associated with reduced BMD and correlated with Lyso-Gb-1 and immune activator chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18). In contrast, the elevation of TRAP5a correlated with chitotriosidase activity in GD. Lyso-Gb-1 and plasma seemed to influence the expression of ACP5 in macrophages. Conclusions: As an early indicator of BMD alteration, measurement of circulating TRAP5b is a valuable tool for assessing osteopenia–osteoporosis in GD, while TRAP5a serves as a biomarker of macrophage activation in GD. Understanding the distinct expression pattern of TRAP5 isoforms offers valuable insight into both bone disease and the broader implications for immune system activation in GD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Osteoimmunology and Bone Biology)
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15 pages, 1214 KiB  
Article
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Cell-Free DNA Predicts Immunotherapy Response in Lung Cancer
by Jianming Shao, Yitian Xu, Randall J. Olsen, Saro Kasparian, Kai Sun, Sunil Mathur, Jun Zhang, Chuan He, Shu-Hsia Chen, Eric H. Bernicker and Zejuan Li
Cells 2024, 13(8), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080715 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) drastically improve therapeutic outcomes for lung cancer, but accurately predicting individual patient responses to ICIs remains a challenge. We performed the genome-wide profiling of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in 85 plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples from lung cancer patients and developed [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) drastically improve therapeutic outcomes for lung cancer, but accurately predicting individual patient responses to ICIs remains a challenge. We performed the genome-wide profiling of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in 85 plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples from lung cancer patients and developed a 5hmC signature that was significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS). We built a 5hmC predictive model to quantify the 5hmC level and validated the model in the validation, test, and control sets. Low weighted predictive scores (wp-scores) were significantly associated with a longer PFS compared to high wp-scores in the validation [median 7.6 versus 1.8 months; p = 0.0012; hazard ratio (HR) 0.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.03–0.54] and test (median 14.9 versus 3.3 months; p = 0.00074; HR 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02–0.50) sets. Objective response rates in patients with a low or high wp-score were 75.0% (95% CI, 42.8–94.5%) versus 0.0% (95% CI, 0.0–60.2%) in the validation set (p = 0.019) and 80.0% (95% CI, 44.4–97.5%) versus 0.0% (95% CI, 0.0–36.9%) in the test set (p = 0.0011). The wp-scores were also significantly associated with PFS in patients receiving single-agent ICI treatment (p < 0.05). In addition, the 5hmC predictive signature demonstrated superior predictive capability to tumor programmed death-ligand 1 and specificity to ICI treatment response prediction. Moreover, we identified novel 5hmC-associated genes and signaling pathways integral to ICI treatment response in lung cancer. This study provides proof-of-concept evidence that the cfDNA 5hmC signature is a robust biomarker for predicting ICI treatment response in lung cancer. Full article
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1 pages, 146 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Won et al. Ex Vivo Perfusion Using a Mathematical Modeled, Controlled Gas Exchange Self-Contained Bioreactor Can Maintain a Mouse Kidney for Seven Days. Cells 2022, 11, 1822
by Natalie Won, Jorge Castillo-Prado, Xinzhu Tan, John Ford, David Heath, Laura Ioana Mazilescu, Markus Selzner and Ian M. Rogers
Cells 2024, 13(8), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080714 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 380
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
14 pages, 1702 KiB  
Review
Nuclear Phospholipids and Signaling: An Update of the Story
by Irene Casalin, Eleonora Ceneri, Stefano Ratti, Lucia Manzoli, Lucio Cocco and Matilde Y. Follo
Cells 2024, 13(8), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080713 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 582
Abstract
In the last three decades, the presence of phospholipids in the nucleus has been shown and thoroughly investigated. A considerable amount of interest has been raised about nuclear inositol lipids, mainly because of their role in signaling acting. Here, we review the main [...] Read more.
In the last three decades, the presence of phospholipids in the nucleus has been shown and thoroughly investigated. A considerable amount of interest has been raised about nuclear inositol lipids, mainly because of their role in signaling acting. Here, we review the main issues of nuclear phospholipid localization and the role of nuclear inositol lipids and their related enzymes in cellular signaling, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Full article
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22 pages, 1151 KiB  
Review
Hematopoietic Stem Cells as an Integrative Hub Linking Lifestyle to Cardiovascular Health
by Xinliang Chen, Chaonan Liu, Junping Wang and Changhong Du
Cells 2024, 13(8), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080712 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Despite breakthroughs in modern medical care, the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is even more prevalent globally. Increasing epidemiologic evidence indicates that emerging cardiovascular risk factors arising from the modern lifestyle, including psychosocial stress, sleep problems, unhealthy diet patterns, physical inactivity/sedentary behavior, alcohol [...] Read more.
Despite breakthroughs in modern medical care, the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is even more prevalent globally. Increasing epidemiologic evidence indicates that emerging cardiovascular risk factors arising from the modern lifestyle, including psychosocial stress, sleep problems, unhealthy diet patterns, physical inactivity/sedentary behavior, alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking, contribute significantly to this worldwide epidemic, while its underpinning mechanisms are enigmatic. Hematological and immune systems were recently demonstrated to play integrative roles in linking lifestyle to cardiovascular health. In particular, alterations in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis, which is usually characterized by proliferation, expansion, mobilization, megakaryocyte/myeloid-biased differentiation, and/or the pro-inflammatory priming of HSCs, have been shown to be involved in the persistent overproduction of pro-inflammatory myeloid leukocytes and platelets, the cellular protagonists of cardiovascular inflammation and thrombosis, respectively. Furthermore, certain lifestyle factors, such as a healthy diet pattern and physical exercise, have been documented to exert cardiovascular protective effects through promoting quiescence, bone marrow retention, balanced differentiation, and/or the anti-inflammatory priming of HSCs. Here, we review the current understanding of and progression in research on the mechanistic interrelationships among lifestyle, HSC homeostasis, and cardiovascular health. Given that adhering to a healthy lifestyle has become a mainstream primary preventative approach to lowering the cardiovascular burden, unmasking the causal links between lifestyle and cardiovascular health from the perspective of hematopoiesis would open new opportunities to prevent and treat CVD in the present age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell, Differentiation, Regeneration and Diseases)
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17 pages, 14628 KiB  
Article
Involvement of Mast Cells in the Pathology of COVID-19: Clinical and Laboratory Parallels
by Andrey V. Budnevsky, Sergey N. Avdeev, Djuro Kosanovic, Evgeniy S. Ovsyannikov, Inessa A. Savushkina, Nadezhda G. Alekseeva, Sofia N. Feigelman, Viktoria V. Shishkina, Andrey A. Filin, Dmitry I. Esaulenko and Inna M. Perveeva
Cells 2024, 13(8), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080711 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Recent studies suggested the potential role of mast cells (MCs) in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the precise description of the MCs’ activation and the engagement of their proteases is still missing. The objective of this study was to further [...] Read more.
Recent studies suggested the potential role of mast cells (MCs) in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the precise description of the MCs’ activation and the engagement of their proteases is still missing. The objective of this study was to further reveal the importance of MCs and their proteases (chymase, tryptase, and carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3)) in the development of lung damage in patients with COVID-19. This study included 55 patients who died from COVID-19 and 30 controls who died from external causes. A histological analysis of the lung parenchyma was carried out to assess the protease profiles and degranulation activity of MCs. In addition, we have analyzed the general blood test, coagulogram, and C-reactive protein. The content of tryptase-positive MCs (Try-MCs) in the lungs of patients with COVID-19 was higher than in controls, but their degranulation activity was lower. The indicators of chymase-positive MCs (Chy-MCs) were significantly lower than in the controls, while the content of CPA3-positive MCs (CPA3-MCs) and their degranulation activity were higher in patients with COVID-19. In addition, we have demonstrated the existence of correlations (positive/negative) between the content of Try-MCs, Chy-MCs, and CPA3-MCs at different states of their degranulation and presence (co-adjacent/single) and the levels of various immune cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes) and other important markers (blood hemoglobin, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international normalized ratio (INR), and fibrinogen). Thus, the identified patterns suggest the numerous and diverse mechanisms of the participation of MCs and their proteases in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and their impact on the inflammatory process and coagulation status. At the same time, the issue requires further study in larger cohorts of patients, which will open up the possibility of using drugs acting on this link of pathogenesis to treat lung damage in patients with COVID-19. Full article
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25 pages, 3128 KiB  
Article
Genomic Engineering of Oral Keratinocytes to Establish In Vitro Oral Potentially Malignant Disease Models as a Platform for Treatment Investigation
by Leon J. Wils, Marijke Buijze, Marijke Stigter-van Walsum, Arjen Brink, Britt E. van Kempen, Laura Peferoen, Elisabeth R. Brouns, Jan G. A. M. de Visscher, Erik H. van der Meij, Elisabeth Bloemena, Jos B. Poell and Ruud H. Brakenhoff
Cells 2024, 13(8), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080710 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 670
Abstract
Precancerous cells in the oral cavity may appear as oral potentially malignant disorders, but they may also present as dysplasia without visual manifestation in tumor-adjacent tissue. As it is currently not possible to prevent the malignant transformation of these oral precancers, new treatments [...] Read more.
Precancerous cells in the oral cavity may appear as oral potentially malignant disorders, but they may also present as dysplasia without visual manifestation in tumor-adjacent tissue. As it is currently not possible to prevent the malignant transformation of these oral precancers, new treatments are urgently awaited. Here, we generated precancer culture models using a previously established method for the generation of oral keratinocyte cultures and incorporated CRISPR/Cas9 editing. The generated cell lines were used to investigate the efficacy of a set of small molecule inhibitors. Tumor-adjacent mucosa and oral leukoplakia biopsies were cultured and genetically characterized. Mutations were introduced in CDKN2A and TP53 using CRISPR/Cas9 and combined with the ectopic activation of telomerase to generate cell lines with prolonged proliferation. The method was tested in normal oral keratinocytes and tumor-adjacent biopsies and subsequently applied to a large set of oral leukoplakia biopsies. Finally, a subset of the immortalized cell lines was used to assess the efficacy of a set of small molecule inhibitors. Culturing and genomic engineering was highly efficient for normal and tumor-adjacent oral keratinocytes, but success rates in oral leukoplakia were remarkably low. Knock-out of CDKN2A in combination with either the activation of telomerase or knock-out of TP53 seemed a prerequisite for immortalization. Prolonged culturing was accompanied by additional genetic aberrations in these cultures. The generated cell lines were more sensitive than normal keratinocytes to small molecule inhibitors of previously identified targets. In conclusion, while very effective for normal keratinocytes and tumor-adjacent biopsies, the success rate of oral leukoplakia cell culturing methods was very low. Genomic engineering enabled the prolonged culturing of OL-derived keratinocytes but was associated with acquired genetic changes. Further studies are required to assess to what extent the immortalized cultures faithfully represent characteristics of the cells in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Diseases: Biological and Molecular Pathogenesis)
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16 pages, 6770 KiB  
Article
The Role of β3-Adrenergic Receptors in Cold-Induced Beige Adipocyte Production in Pigs
by Shuo Yang, Hong Ma, Liang Wang, Fang Wang, Jiqiao Xia, Dongyu Liu, Linlin Mu, Xiuqin Yang and Di Liu
Cells 2024, 13(8), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080709 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
After exposure to cold stress, animals enhance the production of beige adipocytes and expedite thermogenesis, leading to improved metabolic health. Although brown adipose tissue in rodents is primarily induced by β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) stimulation, the activation of major β-adrenergic [...] Read more.
After exposure to cold stress, animals enhance the production of beige adipocytes and expedite thermogenesis, leading to improved metabolic health. Although brown adipose tissue in rodents is primarily induced by β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) stimulation, the activation of major β-adrenergic receptors (ADRBs) in pigs has been a topic of debate. To address this, we developed overexpression vectors for ADRB1, ADRB2, and ADRB3 and silenced the expression of these receptors to observe their effects on the adipogenic differentiation stages of porcine preadipocytes. Our investigation revealed that cold stress triggers the transformation of subcutaneous white adipose tissue to beige adipose tissue in pigs by modulating adrenergic receptor levels. Meanwhile, we found that ADRB3 promotes the transformation of white adipocytes into beige adipocytes. Notably, ADRB3 enhances the expression of beige adipose tissue marker genes, consequently influencing cellular respiration and metabolism by regulating lipolysis and mitochondrial expression. Therefore, ADRB3 may serve as a pivotal gene in animal husbandry and contribute to the improvement of cold intolerance in piglets. Full article
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21 pages, 7404 KiB  
Article
GW501516-Mediated Targeting of Tetraspanin 15 Regulates ADAM10-Dependent N-Cadherin Cleavage in Invasive Bladder Cancer Cells
by Alexandre Barbaud, Isabelle Lascombe, Adeline Péchery, Sergen Arslan, François Kleinclauss and Sylvie Fauconnet
Cells 2024, 13(8), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080708 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Bladder cancer aggressiveness is correlated with abnormal N-cadherin transmembrane glycoprotein expression. This protein is cleaved by the metalloprotease ADAM10 and the γ-secretase complex releasing a pro-angiogenic N-terminal fragment (NTF) and a proliferation-activating soluble C-terminal fragment (CTF2). Tetraspanin 15 (Tspan15) is identified as an [...] Read more.
Bladder cancer aggressiveness is correlated with abnormal N-cadherin transmembrane glycoprotein expression. This protein is cleaved by the metalloprotease ADAM10 and the γ-secretase complex releasing a pro-angiogenic N-terminal fragment (NTF) and a proliferation-activating soluble C-terminal fragment (CTF2). Tetraspanin 15 (Tspan15) is identified as an ADAM10-interacting protein to induce selective N-cadherin cleavage. We first demonstrated, in invasive T24 bladder cancer cells, that N-cadherin was cleaved by ADAM10 generating NTF in the extracellular environment and leaving a membrane-anchored CTF1 fragment and that Tspan15 is required for ADAM10 to induce the selective N-cadherin cleavage. Targeting N-cadherin function in cancer is relevant to preventing tumor progression and metastases. For antitumor molecules to inhibit N-cadherin function, they should be complete and not cleaved. We first showed that the GW501516, an agonist of the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ, decreased Tspan15 and prevented N-cadherin cleavage thus decreasing NTF. Interestingly, the drug did not modify ADAM10 expression, which was important because it could limit side effects since ADAM10 cleaves numerous substrates. By targeting Tspan15 to block ADAM10 activity on N-cadherin, GW501516 could prevent NTF pro-tumoral effects and be a promising molecule to treat bladder cancer. More interestingly, it could optimize the effects of the N-cadherin antagonists those such as ADH-1 that target the N-cadherin ectodomain. Full article
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21 pages, 1772 KiB  
Review
Lineage Reprogramming: Genetic, Chemical, and Physical Cues for Cell Fate Conversion with a Focus on Neuronal Direct Reprogramming and Pluripotency Reprogramming
by Taichi Umeyama, Taito Matsuda and Kinichi Nakashima
Cells 2024, 13(8), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080707 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Although lineage reprogramming from one cell type to another is becoming a breakthrough technology for cell-based therapy, several limitations remain to be overcome, including the low conversion efficiency and subtype specificity. To address these, many studies have been conducted using genetics, chemistry, physics, [...] Read more.
Although lineage reprogramming from one cell type to another is becoming a breakthrough technology for cell-based therapy, several limitations remain to be overcome, including the low conversion efficiency and subtype specificity. To address these, many studies have been conducted using genetics, chemistry, physics, and cell biology to control transcriptional networks, signaling cascades, and epigenetic modifications during reprogramming. Here, we summarize recent advances in cellular reprogramming and discuss future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Signaling Pathways in Cell Generation and Reprogramming)
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10 pages, 3996 KiB  
Article
Flow Cytometry-Based Assay to Detect Alpha Galactosidase Enzymatic Activity at the Cellular Level
by Nóra Fekete, Luca Kamilla Li, Gergely Tibor Kozma, György Fekete, Éva Pállinger and Árpád Ferenc Kovács
Cells 2024, 13(8), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080706 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 779
Abstract
Background: Fabry disease is a progressive, X chromosome-linked lysosomal storage disorder with multiple organ dysfunction. Due to the absence or reduced activity of alpha-galactosidase A (AGAL), glycosphingolipids, primarily globotriaosyl-ceramide (Gb3), concentrate in cells. In heterozygous women, symptomatology is heterogenous and currently routinely used [...] Read more.
Background: Fabry disease is a progressive, X chromosome-linked lysosomal storage disorder with multiple organ dysfunction. Due to the absence or reduced activity of alpha-galactosidase A (AGAL), glycosphingolipids, primarily globotriaosyl-ceramide (Gb3), concentrate in cells. In heterozygous women, symptomatology is heterogenous and currently routinely used fluorometry-based assays measuring mean activity mostly fail to uncover AGAL dysfunction. The aim was the development of a flow cytometry assay to measure AGAL activity in individual cells. Methods: Conventional and multispectral imaging flow cytometry was used to detect AGAL activity. Specificity was validated using the GLA knockout (KO) Jurkat cell line and AGAL inhibitor 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin. The GLA KO cell line was generated via CRISPR-Cas9-based transfection, validated with exome sequencing, gene expression and substrate accumulation. Results: Flow cytometric detection of specific AGAL activity is feasible with fluorescently labelled Gb3. In the case of Jurkat cells, a substrate concentration of 2.83 nmol/mL and 6 h of incubation are required. Quenching of the aspecific exofacial binding of Gb3 with 20% trypan blue solution is necessary for the specific detection of lysosomal substrate accumulation. Conclusion: A flow cytometry-based assay was developed for the quantitative detection of AGAL activity at the single-cell level, which may contribute to the diagnosis of Fabry patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Metabolism)
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19 pages, 2941 KiB  
Article
Chemogenetic Manipulation of Amygdala Kappa Opioid Receptor Neurons Modulates Amygdala Neuronal Activity and Neuropathic Pain Behaviors
by Guangchen Ji, Peyton Presto, Takaki Kiritoshi, Yong Chen, Edita Navratilova, Frank Porreca and Volker Neugebauer
Cells 2024, 13(8), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080705 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Neuroplasticity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays a key role in the modulation of pain and its aversive component. The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system in the amygdala is critical for averse-affective behaviors in pain conditions, but its mechanisms are [...] Read more.
Neuroplasticity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays a key role in the modulation of pain and its aversive component. The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system in the amygdala is critical for averse-affective behaviors in pain conditions, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used chemogenetic manipulations of amygdala KOR-expressing neurons to analyze the behavioral consequences in a chronic neuropathic pain model. For the chemogenetic inhibition or activation of KOR neurons in the CeA, a Cre-inducible viral vector encoding Gi-DREADD (hM4Di) or Gq-DREADD (hM3Dq) was injected stereotaxically into the right CeA of transgenic KOR-Cre mice. The chemogenetic inhibition of KOR neurons expressing hM4Di with a selective DREADD actuator (deschloroclozapine, DCZ) in sham control mice significantly decreased inhibitory transmission, resulting in a shift of inhibition/excitation balance to promote excitation and induced pain behaviors. The chemogenetic activation of KOR neurons expressing hM3Dq with DCZ in neuropathic mice significantly increased inhibitory transmission, decreased excitability, and decreased neuropathic pain behaviors. These data suggest that amygdala KOR neurons modulate pain behaviors by exerting an inhibitory tone on downstream CeA neurons. Therefore, activation of these interneurons or blockade of inhibitory KOR signaling in these neurons could restore control of amygdala output and mitigate pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Chronic Pain)
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19 pages, 2125 KiB  
Review
From Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Platelets: Unifying Differentiation Pathways Identified by Lineage Tracing Mouse Models
by Bryce A. Manso, Alessandra Rodriguez y Baena and E. Camilla Forsberg
Cells 2024, 13(8), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080704 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Platelets are the terminal progeny of megakaryocytes, primarily produced in the bone marrow, and play critical roles in blood homeostasis, clotting, and wound healing. Traditionally, megakaryocytes and platelets are thought to arise from multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) via multiple discrete progenitor populations [...] Read more.
Platelets are the terminal progeny of megakaryocytes, primarily produced in the bone marrow, and play critical roles in blood homeostasis, clotting, and wound healing. Traditionally, megakaryocytes and platelets are thought to arise from multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) via multiple discrete progenitor populations with successive, lineage-restricting differentiation steps. However, this view has recently been challenged by studies suggesting that (1) some HSC clones are biased and/or restricted to the platelet lineage, (2) not all platelet generation follows the “canonical” megakaryocytic differentiation path of hematopoiesis, and (3) platelet output is the default program of steady-state hematopoiesis. Here, we specifically investigate the evidence that in vivo lineage tracing studies provide for the route(s) of platelet generation and investigate the involvement of various intermediate progenitor cell populations. We further identify the challenges that need to be overcome that are required to determine the presence, role, and kinetics of these possible alternate pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Stem Cells)
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15 pages, 73643 KiB  
Article
Establishment and Characterization of SV40 T-Antigen Immortalized Porcine Muscle Satellite Cell
by Mengru Ni, Jingqing He, Tao Li, Gan Zhao, Zhengyu Ji, Fada Ren, Jianxin Leng, Mengyan Wu, Ruihua Huang, Pinghua Li and Liming Hou
Cells 2024, 13(8), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080703 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) are crucial for muscle development and regeneration. The primary pig MuSCs (pMuSCs) is an ideal in vitro cell model for studying the pig’s muscle development and differentiation. However, the long-term in vitro culture of pMuSCs results in the gradual [...] Read more.
Muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) are crucial for muscle development and regeneration. The primary pig MuSCs (pMuSCs) is an ideal in vitro cell model for studying the pig’s muscle development and differentiation. However, the long-term in vitro culture of pMuSCs results in the gradual loss of their stemness, thereby limiting their application. To address this conundrum and maintain the normal function of pMuSCs during in vitro passaging, we generated an immortalized pMuSCs (SV40 T-pMuSCs) by stably expressing SV40 T-antigen (SV40 T) using a lentiviral-based vector system. The SV40 T-pMuSCs can be stably sub-cultured for over 40 generations in vitro. An evaluation of SV40 T-pMuSCs was conducted through immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time PCR, EdU assay, and SA-β-gal activity. Their proliferation capacity was similar to that of primary pMuSCs at passage 1, and while their differentiation potential was slightly decreased. SiRNA-mediated interference of SV40 T-antigen expression restored the differentiation capability of SV40 T-pMuSCs. Taken together, our results provide a valuable tool for studying pig skeletal muscle development and differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell, Differentiation, Regeneration and Diseases)
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22 pages, 6410 KiB  
Article
Lipidomic Analysis of Plasma Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Alzheimer’s Disease Patients
by Marios G. Krokidis, Krishna A. Pucha, Maja Mustapic, Themis P. Exarchos, Panagiotis Vlamos and Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Cells 2024, 13(8), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080702 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Analysis of blood-based indicators of brain health could provide an understanding of early disease mechanisms and pinpoint possible intervention strategies. By examining lipid profiles in extracellular vesicles (EVs), secreted particles from all cells, including astrocytes and neurons, and circulating in clinical samples, important [...] Read more.
Analysis of blood-based indicators of brain health could provide an understanding of early disease mechanisms and pinpoint possible intervention strategies. By examining lipid profiles in extracellular vesicles (EVs), secreted particles from all cells, including astrocytes and neurons, and circulating in clinical samples, important insights regarding the brain’s composition can be gained. Herein, a targeted lipidomic analysis was carried out in EVs derived from plasma samples after removal of lipoproteins from individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy controls. Differences were observed for selected lipid species of glycerolipids (GLs), glycerophospholipids (GPLs), lysophospholipids (LPLs) and sphingolipids (SLs) across three distinct EV subpopulations (all-cell origin, derived by immunocapture of CD9, CD81 and CD63; neuronal origin, derived by immunocapture of L1CAM; and astrocytic origin, derived by immunocapture of GLAST). The findings provide new insights into the lipid composition of EVs isolated from plasma samples regarding specific lipid families (MG, DG, Cer, PA, PC, PE, PI, LPI, LPE, LPC), as well as differences between AD and control individuals. This study emphasizes the crucial role of plasma EV lipidomics analysis as a comprehensive approach for identifying biomarkers and biological targets in AD and related disorders, facilitating early diagnosis and potentially informing novel interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cells of the Nervous System)
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19 pages, 2653 KiB  
Review
miRNA-Mediated Fine Regulation of TLR-Induced M1 Polarization
by Noah Rumpel, Georg Riechert and Julia Schumann
Cells 2024, 13(8), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080701 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Macrophage polarization to the M1 spectrum is induced by bacterial cell wall components through stimulation of Toll-like family (TLR) receptors. By orchestrating the expression of relevant mediators of the TLR cascade, as well as associated pathways and feedback loops, macrophage polarization is coordinated [...] Read more.
Macrophage polarization to the M1 spectrum is induced by bacterial cell wall components through stimulation of Toll-like family (TLR) receptors. By orchestrating the expression of relevant mediators of the TLR cascade, as well as associated pathways and feedback loops, macrophage polarization is coordinated to ensure an appropriate immune response. This is central to the successful control of pathogens and the maintenance of health. Macrophage polarization is known to be modulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In recent years, the miRNA-based post-transcriptional regulation of M1 polarization has received increasing attention from the scientific community. Comparative studies have shown that TLR stimulation alters the miRNA profile of macrophages and that macrophages from the M1 or the M2 spectrum differ in terms of miRNAs expressed. Simultaneously, miRNAs are considered critical post-transcriptional regulators of macrophage polarization. In particular, miRNAs are thought to play a regulatory role in the switch between the early proinflammatory response and the resolution phase. In this review, we will discuss the current state of knowledge on the complex interaction of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that ultimately determine the functionality of macrophages. Full article
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19 pages, 8656 KiB  
Article
Probing the Effects of Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 6 (RBBP6) Knockdown on the Sensitivity of Cisplatin in Cervical Cancer Cells
by Harshini Mehta, Melvin Anyasi Ambele, Ntlotlang Mokgautsi and Pontsho Moela
Cells 2024, 13(8), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080700 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in women despite the advancement of current treatment modalities. The conventional therapeutic agent, cisplatin (CCDP), is the standard treatment for CC; however, resistance often develops due to the cancer’s heterogeneity. Therefore, a detailed elucidation of [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in women despite the advancement of current treatment modalities. The conventional therapeutic agent, cisplatin (CCDP), is the standard treatment for CC; however, resistance often develops due to the cancer’s heterogeneity. Therefore, a detailed elucidation of the specific molecular mechanisms driving CC is crucial for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. Retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6) is a potential biomarker associated with cell proliferation and is upregulated in cervical cancer sites, exhibiting apoptosis and dysregulated p53 expression. Furthermore, RBBP6 has been demonstrated to sensitize cancer cells to radiation and certain chemotherapeutic agents by regulating the Bcl-2 gene, thus suggesting a crosstalk among RBBP6/p53/BCL-2 oncogenic signatures. The present study, therefore, investigated the relationship between cisplatin and RBBP6 expression in CC cells. Herein, we first explored bioinformatics simulations and identified that the RBBP6/p53/BCL-2 signaling pathway is overexpressed and correlated with CC. For further analysis, we explored the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) and found that most of the CC cell lines are sensitive to CCDP. To validate these findings, RBBP6 was silenced in HeLa and Vero cells using RNAi technology, followed by measurement of wild-type p53 and Bcl-2 at the mRNA level using qPCR. Cells co-treated with cisplatin and siRBBP6 were subsequently analyzed for apoptosis induction and real-time growth monitoring using flow cytometry and the xCELLigence system, respectively. Cancer cells in the co-treatment group showed a reduction in apoptosis compared to the cisplatin-treated group. Moreover, the real-time growth monitoring revealed a reduced growth rate in RBBP6 knockdown cells treated with cisplatin. Although wild-type p53 remained unchanged in the co-treatment group of cancer cells, Bcl-2 was completely repressed, suggesting that RBBP6 is necessary for sensitizing cervical cancer cells to cisplatin treatment by downregulating Bcl-2. The Vero cell population, which served as a non-cancerous control cell line in this study, remained viable following treatment with both siRBBP6 and cisplatin. Findings from this study suggest that RBBP6 expression promotes cisplatin sensitivity in HeLa cells through Bcl-2 downregulation. Knockdown of RBBP6 limits apoptosis induction and delays cell growth inhibition in response to cisplatin. The knowledge obtained here has the potential to help improve cisplatin efficacy through personalized administration based on the expression profile of RBBP6 among individual patients. Full article
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17 pages, 1099 KiB  
Review
Breaking Barriers: Modulation of Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Bacillus Calmette–Guérin Immunotherapy of Bladder Cancer
by Omar M. Ibrahim and Pawel Kalinski
Cells 2024, 13(8), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080699 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 911
Abstract
The clinical management of bladder cancer continues to present significant challenges. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy remains the gold standard of treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), but many patients develop recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive disease (MIBC), which is resistant to BCG. [...] Read more.
The clinical management of bladder cancer continues to present significant challenges. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy remains the gold standard of treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), but many patients develop recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive disease (MIBC), which is resistant to BCG. This review focuses on the immune mechanisms mobilized by BCG in bladder cancer tumor microenvironments (TME), mechanisms of BCG resistance, the dual role of the BCG-triggered NFkB/TNFα/PGE2 axis in the regulation of anti-tumor and tumor-promoting aspects of inflammation, and emerging strategies to modulate their balance. A better understanding of BCG resistance will help develop new treatments and predictive biomarkers, paving the way for improved clinical outcomes in bladder cancer patients. Full article
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13 pages, 2656 KiB  
Article
Further Characterization of the Antiviral Transmembrane Protein MARCH8
by Takuya Tada, Yanzhao Zhang, Dechuan Kong, Michiko Tanaka, Weitong Yao, Masanori Kameoka, Takamasa Ueno, Hideaki Fujita and Kenzo Tokunaga
Cells 2024, 13(8), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080698 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
The cellular transmembrane protein MARCH8 impedes the incorporation of various viral envelope glycoproteins, such as the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein (VSV-G), into virions by downregulating them from the surface of virus-producing cells. This downregulation significantly reduces the efficiency [...] Read more.
The cellular transmembrane protein MARCH8 impedes the incorporation of various viral envelope glycoproteins, such as the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein (VSV-G), into virions by downregulating them from the surface of virus-producing cells. This downregulation significantly reduces the efficiency of virus infection. In this study, we aimed to further characterize this host protein by investigating its species specificity and the domains responsible for its antiviral activity, as well as its ability to inhibit cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. We found that the antiviral function of MARCH8 is well conserved in the rhesus macaque, mouse, and bovine versions. The RING-CH domains of these versions are functionally important for inhibiting HIV-1 Env and VSV-G-pseudovirus infection, whereas tyrosine motifs are crucial for the former only, consistent with findings in human MARCH8. Through analysis of chimeric proteins between MARCH8 and non-antiviral MARCH3, we determined that both the N-terminal and C-terminal cytoplasmic tails, as well as presumably the N-terminal transmembrane domain, of MARCH8 are critical for its antiviral activity. Notably, we found that MARCH8 is unable to block cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection, likely due to its insufficient downregulation of Env. These findings offer further insights into understanding the biology of this antiviral transmembrane protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Untangling the Cross-Talk between Immune Responses and Infection)
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19 pages, 4088 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Phase Imaging as Sensitive Screening Method for Nanoparticle-Induced Cytotoxicity Assessment
by Anne Marzi, Kai Moritz Eder, Álvaro Barroso, Björn Kemper and Jürgen Schnekenburger
Cells 2024, 13(8), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080697 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
The assessment of nanoparticle cytotoxicity is challenging due to the lack of customized and standardized guidelines for nanoparticle testing. Nanoparticles, with their unique properties, can interfere with biochemical test methods, so multiple tests are required to fully assess their cellular effects. For a [...] Read more.
The assessment of nanoparticle cytotoxicity is challenging due to the lack of customized and standardized guidelines for nanoparticle testing. Nanoparticles, with their unique properties, can interfere with biochemical test methods, so multiple tests are required to fully assess their cellular effects. For a more reliable and comprehensive assessment, it is therefore imperative to include methods in nanoparticle testing routines that are not affected by particles and allow for the efficient integration of additional molecular techniques into the workflow. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM), an interferometric variant of quantitative phase imaging (QPI), has been demonstrated as a promising method for the label-free assessment of the cytotoxic potential of nanoparticles. Due to minimal interactions with the sample, DHM allows for further downstream analyses. In this study, we investigated the capabilities of DHM in a multimodal approach to assess cytotoxicity by directly comparing DHM-detected effects on the same cell population with two downstream biochemical assays. Therefore, the dry mass increase in RAW 264.7 macrophages and NIH-3T3 fibroblast populations measured by quantitative DHM phase contrast after incubation with poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles for 24 h was compared to the cytotoxic control digitonin, and cell culture medium control. Viability was then determined using a metabolic activity assay (WST-8). Moreover, to determine cell death, supernatants were analyzed for the release of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay). In a comparative analysis, in which the average half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the nanocarriers on the cells was determined, DHM was more sensitive to the effect of the nanoparticles on the used cell lines compared to the biochemical assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Cell Methods)
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15 pages, 2664 KiB  
Article
A Novel Interaction of Slug (SNAI2) and Nuclear Actin
by Ling Zhuo, Jan B. Stöckl, Thomas Fröhlich, Simone Moser, Angelika M. Vollmar and Stefan Zahler
Cells 2024, 13(8), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080696 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Actin is a protein of central importance to many cellular functions. Its localization and activity are regulated by interactions with a high number of actin-binding proteins. In a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening system, snail family transcriptional repressor 2 (SNAI2 or slug) was identified [...] Read more.
Actin is a protein of central importance to many cellular functions. Its localization and activity are regulated by interactions with a high number of actin-binding proteins. In a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening system, snail family transcriptional repressor 2 (SNAI2 or slug) was identified as a yet unknown potential actin-binding protein. We validated this interaction using immunoprecipitation and analyzed the functional relation between slug and actin. Since both proteins have been reported to be involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, we focused on their interaction during this process after treatment with doxorubicin or UV irradiation. Confocal microscopy elicits that the overexpression of actin fused to an NLS stabilizes complexes of slug and γH2AX, an early marker of DNA damage repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoskeletal Remodeling in Health and Disease)
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22 pages, 2666 KiB  
Review
Three-Dimensional Cultivation a Valuable Tool for Modelling Canine Mammary Gland Tumour Behaviour In Vitro
by Mykhailo Huniadi, Natália Nosálová, Viera Almášiová, Ľubica Horňáková, Alexandra Valenčáková, Nikola Hudáková and Dasa Cizkova
Cells 2024, 13(8), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080695 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Cell cultivation has been one of the most popular methods in research for decades. Currently, scientists routinely use two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures of commercially available cell lines and primary cultures to study cellular behaviour, responses to stimuli, and interactions with [...] Read more.
Cell cultivation has been one of the most popular methods in research for decades. Currently, scientists routinely use two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures of commercially available cell lines and primary cultures to study cellular behaviour, responses to stimuli, and interactions with their environment in a controlled laboratory setting. In recent years, 3D cultivation has gained more attention in modern biomedical research, mainly due to its numerous advantages compared to 2D cultures. One of the main goals where 3D culture models are used is the investigation of tumour diseases, in both animals and humans. The ability to simulate the tumour microenvironment and design 3D masses allows us to monitor all the processes that take place in tumour tissue created not only from cell lines but directly from the patient’s tumour cells. One of the tumour types for which 3D culture methods are often used in research is the canine mammary gland tumour (CMT). The clinically similar profile of the CMT and breast tumours in humans makes the CMT a suitable model for studying the issue not only in animals but also in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Methods)
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12 pages, 3261 KiB  
Article
Unraveling the Pathogenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Association between Specific Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and Parkinson’s Disease
by Min-Yu Lan, Tsu-Kung Lin, Baiba Lace, Algirdas Utkus, Birute Burnyte, Kristina Grigalioniene, Yu-Han Lin, Inna Inashkina and Chia-Wei Liou
Cells 2024, 13(8), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080694 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 620
Abstract
Variants of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been identified as risk factors for the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. Cybrid models carrying various genotypes of mtDNA variants were tested for resistance to PD-simulating MPP+ treatment. The [...] Read more.
Variants of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been identified as risk factors for the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. Cybrid models carrying various genotypes of mtDNA variants were tested for resistance to PD-simulating MPP+ treatment. The most resistant line was selected for transcriptome profiling, revealing specific genes potentially influencing the resistant characteristic. We then conducted protein validation and molecular biological studies to validate the related pathways as the influential factor. Cybrids carrying the W3 mtDNA haplogroup demonstrated the most resistance to the MPP+ treatment. In the transcriptome study, PPP1R15A was identified, while further study noted elevated expressions of the coding protein GADD34 across all cybrids. In the study of GADD34-related mitochondrial unfolding protein response (mtUPR), we found that canonical mtUPR, launched by the phosphate eIF2a, is involved in the resistant characteristic of specific mtDNA to MPP+ treatment. Our study suggests that a lower expression of GADD34 in the late phase of mtUPR may prolong the mtUPR process, thereby benefitting protein homeostasis and facilitating cellular resistance to PD development. We herein demonstrate that GADD34 plays an important role in PD development and should be further investigated as a target for the development of therapies for PD. Full article
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