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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 22 (November-2 2022) – 236 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is easily complicated by nutrition-related problems such as cachexia and protein-energy wasting (PEW) owing to disease background- and treatment-related factors, which can further worsen the prognosis. Rehabilitation nutrition that combines nutritional and exercise therapy is a proposed intervention strategy to improve nutritional status and physical function. However, rehabilitation nutrition for cachexia and PEW in patients with CKD has not been fully clarified. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize the current evidence and interventions related to rehabilitation nutrition in this field. Rehabilitation nutrition for cachexia and PEW in patients with CKD may be effective for improving outcomes such as exercise tolerance, physical function, and quality of life. View this paper
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9 pages, 1114 KiB  
Article
Use of Head and Chest Circumference Ratio as an Index of Fetal Growth Retardation in Preterm Infants
by Hiromichi Shoji, Yayoi Murano, Yukika Saitoh, Naho Ikeda, Natsuki Ohkawa, Naoto Nishizaki, Ken Hisata, Masato Kantake, Kaoru Obinata, Daisuke Yoneoka and Toshiaki Shimizu
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4942; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224942 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
We evaluated the relationship between fetal growth in preterm babies using the head circumference (HC)/chest circumference (CC) ratio and other anthropometric parameters at birth and at school age. Data were collected from 187 very low birth weight (VLBW) children born at less than [...] Read more.
We evaluated the relationship between fetal growth in preterm babies using the head circumference (HC)/chest circumference (CC) ratio and other anthropometric parameters at birth and at school age. Data were collected from 187 very low birth weight (VLBW) children born at less than 30 weeks of gestational age (GA) at birth and at 6 years. We assessed the correlation between the HC/CC ratio and body weight (BW), body length (BL), and HC z-scores at birth, and BW, body height (BH), and body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 6 years. Multiple regression analysis showed that BW z-score, BL z-score, and HC z-score at birth were significantly associated with HC/CC at birth. The BMI z-score at 6 years was also significantly associated with HC/CC at birth. The HC/CC ratio at birth is a reliable parameter for evaluating fetal growth restriction and a possible predictor of physical growth in VLBW children. Full article
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12 pages, 759 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity, Dietary Behavior, and Body Weight Changes during the COVID-19 Nationwide Level 3 Alert in Taiwan: Results of a Taiwanese Online Survey
by Hao-Ting Ke, Chi-Lin Hsieh and Wei-Jen Cheng
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224941 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity (PA) and dietary habits, and their impact on body weight changes during the Level 3 alert period that resulted in the lockdown in Taiwan. The study was conducted [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity (PA) and dietary habits, and their impact on body weight changes during the Level 3 alert period that resulted in the lockdown in Taiwan. The study was conducted between 1 July 2021 and 15 July 2021, using a Google Forms online survey platform. Personal data, anthropometric information, PA information, and dietary habit information were collected before and during the alert period. Exactly 374 respondents, aged between 20 and 66, were included in the study. The results indicate that the lockdown during the alert period negatively impacted all levels of PA, including vigorous and moderate activities and walking. Additionally, respondents showed a sedentary lifestyle, with an increased daily sitting time of 22%. However, body weight and dietary behavior were not significantly affected, and some dietary questions achieved significant differences, including eating three meals less regularly, among others. During the pandemic, exercise was still one of the most important ways to maintain health; therefore, we hope to bring more attention to the prevention of sedentary lifestyles and dietary abnormalities in Taiwan during a pandemic. Full article
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15 pages, 3889 KiB  
Article
Indole-3-Carbinol Inhibits the Growth of Endometriotic Lesions by Suppression of Microvascular Network Formation
by Jeannette Rudzitis-Auth, Madeleine Becker, Claudia Scheuer, Michael D. Menger and Matthias W. Laschke
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224940 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Endometriosis represents an estrogen-dependent disorder with a complex pathophysiology. Phytochemicals are promising candidates for endometriosis therapy, because they simultaneously target different cellular processes involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Herein, we analyzed whether indole-3-carbinol (I3C) suppresses the development of endometriotic lesions, which were [...] Read more.
Endometriosis represents an estrogen-dependent disorder with a complex pathophysiology. Phytochemicals are promising candidates for endometriosis therapy, because they simultaneously target different cellular processes involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Herein, we analyzed whether indole-3-carbinol (I3C) suppresses the development of endometriotic lesions, which were surgically induced by fixation of uterine tissue samples (diameter: 2 mm) from female BALB/c donor mice to the peritoneum of recipient animals. The mice received either I3C or vehicle (control) by peroral administration once per day. Growth, cyst formation, cell proliferation, microvascularization and protein expression of the lesions were assessed by high-resolution ultrasound imaging, caliper measurements, histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. I3C inhibited the vascularization and growth of endometriotic lesions without inducing anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative side effects on reproductive organs. This was associated with a significantly reduced number of proliferating stromal and endothelial cells and a lower expression of the pro-angiogenic signaling molecules vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) within I3C-treated lesions when compared to controls. These findings indicate that I3C effectively inhibits endometriotic lesion formation in mice. Thus, further studies should clarify whether I3C may be also beneficial for the prevention and therapy of the human disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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15 pages, 1160 KiB  
Article
Serum Antioxidant Vitamins Mediate the Association between Periodontitis and Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight/Obesity
by An Li, Zhi Tang, Peijun Zhu, Florien van den Bosch, Yuntao Chen, Shulan Xu and Geerten-Has E. Tjakkes
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4939; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224939 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
Background: Periodontal disease is associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether serum antioxidant vitamins could mediate the association between periodontitis and a metabolically unhealthy phenotype in the overweight and obese population; Methods: We included 6158 Americans (body [...] Read more.
Background: Periodontal disease is associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether serum antioxidant vitamins could mediate the association between periodontitis and a metabolically unhealthy phenotype in the overweight and obese population; Methods: We included 6158 Americans (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Periodontitis was defined using a half-reduced CDC/AAP (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology) definition. Having two or more metabolic abnormalities was defined as a metabolically unhealthy overweight and obese (MUO) phenotype. Mediation analysis of four oxidative stress biomarkers (serum antioxidant vitamins A, C, D, and E) was conducted; Results: Of participants with overweight and obesity, 2052 (33.3%) Americans were categorized as having periodontitis. Periodontitis increased dyslipidemia risk and systemic inflammation in the overweight and obese population. In the multivariable logistic regression model, periodontitis was positively associated with MUO (adjusted odds ratio = 1.238; 95% confidence interval: 1.091 to 1.406). These findings were validated in an independent cohort. Serum vitamins C and D were estimated to mediate 19.3% and 8.4% of the periodontitis–MUO association. Conclusions: Periodontitis might decrease serum vitamins C and D and induce a metabolically unhealthy state among adults with overweight and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Anti-inflammatory Adipokines in Obesity-Related Diseases)
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11 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
Temporal Association of Total Serum Cholesterol and Pancreatic Cancer Incidence
by Qiao-Li Wang, Jaewon Khil, SungEun Hong, Dong Hoon Lee, Kyoung Hwa Ha, NaNa Keum, Hyeon Chang Kim and Edward L. Giovannucci
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4938; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224938 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested a “cholesterol-lowering effect” of preclinical pancreatic cancer, suggesting lower total cholesterol as a potential diagnostic marker. Leveraging repeated measurements of total cholesterol, this study aims to examine the temporal association of total cholesterol and pancreatic cancer incidence. We conducted [...] Read more.
Previous studies have suggested a “cholesterol-lowering effect” of preclinical pancreatic cancer, suggesting lower total cholesterol as a potential diagnostic marker. Leveraging repeated measurements of total cholesterol, this study aims to examine the temporal association of total cholesterol and pancreatic cancer incidence. We conducted a nested case-control study based on a Korean National Health Insurance Service–Health Screening Cohort, including 215 pancreatic cancer cases and 645 controls matched on age and sex. Conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the associations of pancreatic cancer incidence with total cholesterol levels across different time windows over 11 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis (recent, mid, distant). We found that, compared to participants with total cholesterol < 200 mg/dL in the recent 3 years prior to diagnosis, those having total cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL showed a significantly lower pancreatic cancer incidence (OR = 0.50 (0.27–0.93)). No significant association was found in relation to total cholesterol measured in the mid and distant past. When changes in total cholesterol over the three time periods were analyzed, compared with those with total cholesterol levels consistently below 240 mg/dL over the entire period, the OR of pancreatic cancer was 0.45 (0.20–1.03) for participants with recent-onset hypercholesterolemia, 1.89 (0.95–3.75) for recent-resolved hypercholesterolemia, and 0.71 (0.30–1.66) for consistent hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, while high total cholesterol in the recent past may indicate a lower pancreatic cancer incidence, a recent decrease in total cholesterol may suggest an elevated incidence of pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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13 pages, 1011 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Impact of Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Supplements and Yogurt Consumption on the Risk of Colorectal Neoplasia among Adults: A Systematic Review
by Claire E. Kim, Lara S. Yoon, Karin B. Michels, Wynn Tranfield, Jonathan P. Jacobs and Folasade P. May
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4937; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224937 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4145
Abstract
Prebiotic and probiotic supplementation and yogurt consumption (a probiotic food) alter gut microbial diversity, which may influence colorectal carcinogenesis. This systematic review evaluates the existing literature on the effect of these nutritional supplements and yogurt consumption on colorectal neoplasia incidence among adults. We [...] Read more.
Prebiotic and probiotic supplementation and yogurt consumption (a probiotic food) alter gut microbial diversity, which may influence colorectal carcinogenesis. This systematic review evaluates the existing literature on the effect of these nutritional supplements and yogurt consumption on colorectal neoplasia incidence among adults. We systematically identified ten randomized controlled trials and observational studies in adults age ≥ 18 without baseline gastrointestinal disease. Prebiotics included inulin, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, isomaltooligosaccharides, and β-glucans. Probiotics included bacterial strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Escherichia coli. Synbiotic supplements, a mixture of both prebiotic and probiotic supplements, and yogurt, a commonly consumed dietary source of live microbes, were also included. We defined colorectal neoplasia as colorectal adenomas, sessile serrated polyps, and colorectal cancer (CRC). Overall, findings suggest a moderate decrease in risk of adenoma and CRC for high levels of yogurt consumption compared to low or no consumption. Prebiotic supplementation was not associated with colorectal neoplasia risk. There was some evidence that probiotic supplementation may be associated with lower risk of adenomas but not with CRC incidence. Higher yogurt consumption may be associated with lower incidence of colorectal neoplasia. We found little evidence to suggest that prebiotic or probiotic supplements are associated with significant decreases in CRC occurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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15 pages, 3095 KiB  
Article
A Systems Analysis of Phenotype Heterogeneity in APOE*3Leiden.CETP Mice Induced by Long-Term High-Fat High-Cholesterol Diet Feeding
by Yared Paalvast, Enchen Zhou, Yvonne J. W. Rozendaal, Yanan Wang, Albert Gerding, Theo H. van Dijk, Jan Freark de Boer, Patrick C. N. Rensen, Ko Willems van Dijk, Jan A. Kuivenhoven, Barbara M. Bakker, Natal A. W. van Riel and Albert K. Groen
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4936; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224936 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Within the human population, considerable variability exists between individuals in their susceptibility to develop obesity and dyslipidemia. In humans, this is thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental variation. APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, as part of an inbred mouse model in which mice [...] Read more.
Within the human population, considerable variability exists between individuals in their susceptibility to develop obesity and dyslipidemia. In humans, this is thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental variation. APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, as part of an inbred mouse model in which mice develop the metabolic syndrome upon being fed a high-fat high-cholesterol diet, show large inter-individual variation in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, despite a lack of genetic and environmental variation. In the present study, we set out to resolve what mechanisms could underlie this variation. We used measurements of glucose and lipid metabolism from a six-month longitudinal study on the development of the metabolic syndrome. Mice were classified as mice with either high plasma triglyceride (responders) or low plasma triglyceride (non-responders) at the baseline. Subsequently, we fitted the data to a dynamic computational model of whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism (MINGLeD) by making use of a hybrid modelling method called Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT). ADAPT integrates longitudinal data, and predicts how the parameters of the model must change through time in order to comply with the data and model constraints. To explain the phenotypic variation in plasma triglycerides, the ADAPT analysis suggested a decreased cholesterol absorption, higher energy expenditure and increased fecal fatty acid excretion in non-responders. While decreased cholesterol absorption and higher energy expenditure could not be confirmed, the experimental validation demonstrated that the non-responders were indeed characterized by increased fecal fatty acid excretion. Furthermore, the amount of fatty acids excreted strongly correlated with bile acid excretion, in particular deoxycholate. Since bile acids play an important role in the solubilization of lipids in the intestine, these results suggest that variation in bile acid homeostasis may in part drive the phenotypic variation in the APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Dietary Cholesterol to Blood Cholesterol)
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22 pages, 6707 KiB  
Article
1,25(OH)2D3 Promotes Macrophage Efferocytosis Partly by Upregulating ASAP2 Transcription via the VDR-Bound Enhancer Region and ASAP2 May Affect Antiviral Immunity
by Hui Shi, Jiangling Duan, Jiayu Wang, Haohao Li, Zhiheng Wu, Shuaideng Wang, Xueyan Wu and Ming Lu
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224935 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
The active form of vitamin D3, i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3, exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on the immune system, especially macrophage-mediated innate immunity. In a previous study, we identified 1,25(OH)2D3-responsive and vitamin D receptor (VDR)-bound super-enhancer [...] Read more.
The active form of vitamin D3, i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3, exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on the immune system, especially macrophage-mediated innate immunity. In a previous study, we identified 1,25(OH)2D3-responsive and vitamin D receptor (VDR)-bound super-enhancer regions in THP-1 cells. Herein, we examined the transcriptional regulation of ArfGAP with SH3 Domain, Ankyrin Repeat and PH Domain 2 (ASAP2) (encoding a GTPase-activating protein) by 1,25(OH)2D3 through the top-ranked VDR-bound super-enhancer region in the first intron of ASAP2 and potential functions of ASAP2 in macrophages. First, we validated the upregulation of ASAP2 by 1,25(OH)2D3 in both THP-1 cells and macrophages. Subsequently, we identified three regulatory regions (i.e., the core, 1,25(OH)2D3-responsive, and inhibitory regions) in the VDR bound-enhancer of ASAP2. ASAP2 promoted RAC1-activity and macrophage efferocytosis in vitro. Next, we assessed the functions of ASAP2 by mass spectrometry and RNA sequencing analyses. ASAP2 upregulated the expressions of antiviral-associated genes and interacted with SAM and HD domain-containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 (SAMHD1). In vivo, vitamin D reduced the number of apoptotic cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and promoted macrophage efferocytosis in peritonitis without changing the mRNA level of ASAP2. Thus, we could better understand the regulatory mechanism underlying ASAP2 transcription and the function of ASAP2, which may serve as a potential treatment target against inflammatory diseases and virus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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12 pages, 907 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D and Calcium as Key Potential Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Treatment: A Systematic Review
by Stephanie Marie Cruz-Pierard, Teresa Nestares and Francisco J. Amaro-Gahete
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224934 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3236
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently considered one of the most common and lethal types of tumors. Nutrition is of notorious relevance, given its influence in CRC prevention and treatment. This systematic review aimed to revise and update the state of knowledge regarding the [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently considered one of the most common and lethal types of tumors. Nutrition is of notorious relevance, given its influence in CRC prevention and treatment. This systematic review aimed to revise and update the state of knowledge regarding the potential role of vitamin D and calcium as key factors involved in the prevention and treatment of CRC. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science. A total of eight studies were finally included in the present review. Vitamin D showed a protective role by promoting transcriptomic changes associated with antitumor effects. However, no significant effects of vitamin D were noted in the relapse-free survival of patients at 5 years. On the other hand, previous scientific evidence demonstrated that calcium regulates the expression of colonic proteins that decrease cell proliferation and increase cell differentiation. Nevertheless, an increased risk of associated serrated adenomas was found in response to calcium and calcium + vitamin D supplementation. Moreover, supplementation with both nutrients showed positive changes on relevant CRC biomarkers including TGFα, TGFβ1, APC, β-catenin and E-cadherin. In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation seems to have a protective effect in the prevention and treatment of CRC, while calcium intake showed contradictory effects as a prevention or treatment tool; therefore, further studies are necessary to well understand its relevance in patients with CRC. Full article
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19 pages, 5901 KiB  
Review
Potential Benefits of Selenium Supplementation in Reducing Insulin Resistance in Patients with Cardiometabolic Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Jiahui Ouyang, Yajie Cai, Yewen Song, Zhuye Gao, Ruina Bai and Anlu Wang
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4933; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224933 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3181
Abstract
Background: Selenium is a trace element that has been reported to be effective in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. However, there is conflicting evidence from different clinical trials of selenium supplementation in treating cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to identify the [...] Read more.
Background: Selenium is a trace element that has been reported to be effective in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. However, there is conflicting evidence from different clinical trials of selenium supplementation in treating cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to identify the effects of selenium supplementation on insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profiles in patients with CMDs. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of selenium supplementation for treating CMDs were screened in five electronic databases. Insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) were defined as the primary outcome markers, and lipid profiles were considered the secondary outcome markers. Results: Ten studies involving 526 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggested that selenium supplementation significantly reduced serum insulin levels (standardized men difference [SMD]: −0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] [−0.84, −0.21], p = 0.001, I2 = 68%) and HOMA-IR (SMD: −0.50, 95% CI [−0.86, −0.14], p = 0.006, I2 = 75%) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (SMD: 0.97; 95% CI [0.26, 1.68], p = 0.007, I2 = 92%), but had no significant effect on FPG, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). Conclusion: Current evidence supports the beneficial effects of selenium supplementation on reducing insulin levels, HOMA-IR, and increasing HDL-C levels. Selenium supplementation may be an effective strategy for reducing insulin resistance in patients with CMDs. However, more high-quality clinical studies are needed to improve the certainty of our estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Risk of Cardiometabolic and Diabetes)
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21 pages, 2381 KiB  
Review
Molecular Mechanisms for Ketone Body Metabolism, Signaling Functions, and Therapeutic Potential in Cancer
by Chi Yeon Hwang, Wonchae Choe, Kyung-Sik Yoon, Joohun Ha, Sung Soo Kim, Eui-Ju Yeo and Insug Kang
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224932 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7686
Abstract
The ketone bodies (KBs) β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate are important alternative energy sources for glucose during nutrient deprivation. KBs synthesized by hepatic ketogenesis are catabolized to acetyl-CoA through ketolysis in extrahepatic tissues, followed by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport chain for ATP [...] Read more.
The ketone bodies (KBs) β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate are important alternative energy sources for glucose during nutrient deprivation. KBs synthesized by hepatic ketogenesis are catabolized to acetyl-CoA through ketolysis in extrahepatic tissues, followed by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport chain for ATP production. Ketogenesis and ketolysis are regulated by the key rate-limiting enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 and succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid-CoA transferase, respectively. KBs participate in various cellular processes as signaling molecules. KBs bind to G protein-coupled receptors. The most abundant KB, β-hydroxybutyrate, regulates gene expression and other cellular functions by inducing post-translational modifications. KBs protect tissues by regulating inflammation and oxidative stress. Recently, interest in KBs has been increasing due to their potential for treatment of various diseases such as neurological and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to maintain rapid cell growth and proliferation. Dysregulation of KB metabolism also plays a role in tumorigenesis in various types of cancer. Targeting metabolic changes through dietary interventions, including fasting and ketogenic diets, has shown beneficial effects in cancer therapy. Here, we review current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of KB metabolism and cellular signaling functions, and the therapeutic potential of KBs and ketogenic diets in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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8 pages, 481 KiB  
Article
Relationship of Early Anemia with Neurodevelopment and Brain Injury in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants—A Prospective Cohort Study
by Xiaotong Wang, Jiajia Jing, Saijun Huang, Xiaoying He, Pingming Gao, Hailin Li, Zongyu Lin, Per Torp Sangild and Yanna Zhu
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224931 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Anemia is associated with neurodevelopmental delays and brain injury in infants and toddlers, but whether early anemia has a similar effect in neonatal preterm infants is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine the relationship of early anemia with neurodevelopment and brain [...] Read more.
Anemia is associated with neurodevelopmental delays and brain injury in infants and toddlers, but whether early anemia has a similar effect in neonatal preterm infants is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine the relationship of early anemia with neurodevelopment and brain injury in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants within the neonatal period. A prospective cohort study including 110 VLBW preterm infants was conducted in Southern China from 2016 to 2018. All participants were followed from birth to 1 month corrected age. Early anemia is defined as hemoglobin of ≤145 g/L within the first week after birth. The non-anemic group (control group, N = 55) was 1:1 matched with the early anemia group (N = 55) according to birth weight and gestational age. Neurodevelopment at 1 month corrected age and brain injury within 1 month corrected age were measured by neonatal behavioral neurological assessments (NBNA) and cranial ultrasound, respectively. Compared to the control group, the early anemia group had a lower score in behavioral ability in the NBNA test [11 (10–12) vs. 10 (9.5–11), p = 0.033]. Early anemia was negatively associated with the NBNA total score (β= −0.680, 95% CI: −1.300, −0.059), especially with the behavioral ability score (β= −0.504, 95% CI: −0.941, −0.067) after adjusting for the confounders. However, no association between early anemia and brain injury was observed. In conclusion, in VLBW preterm infants, early anemia is negatively correlated with neurodevelopment, especially with behavioral ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early-Life Nutrition and Child Brain Development)
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17 pages, 2810 KiB  
Article
Polyphenol-Rich Liupao Tea Extract Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced MAFLD by Modulating the Gut Microbiota
by Waijiao Tang, Mengfei Yuan, Zewen Li, Qi Lin, Yan Zhen, Zhuang Li, Hongwei Zhou and Fangbo Xia
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4930; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224930 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
The modulation of gut microbiota dysbiosis might regulate the progression of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Here, we found that polyphenol-rich Liupao tea extract (PLE) prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MAFLD in ApoE−/− male mice accompanied by protection of the intestinal barrier and [...] Read more.
The modulation of gut microbiota dysbiosis might regulate the progression of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Here, we found that polyphenol-rich Liupao tea extract (PLE) prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MAFLD in ApoE−/− male mice accompanied by protection of the intestinal barrier and downregulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-related Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling in the liver. Fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) from PLE-and-HFD-treated mice delayed MAFLD development significantly compared with FMT from HFD-treated mice. In this case, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that Rikenellaceae and Odoribacter were significantly enriched and that Helicobacter was significantly decreased in not only the HFD+PLE group but also the HFD+PLE-FMT group. Furthermore, the level of 3-sulfodeoxycholic acid was significantly decreased in the HFD+PLE-FMT group compared with the HFD-FMT group. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that PLE could modulate the MAFLD phenotype in mice and that this effect is partly mediated through modulation of the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Gut Permeability, and Inflammation)
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14 pages, 344 KiB  
Article
Association of α-Dicarbonyls and Advanced Glycation End Products with Insulin Resistance in Non-Diabetic Young Subjects: A Case-Control Study
by Melinda Csongová, Jean L. J. M. Scheijen, Marjo P. H. van de Waarenburg, Radana Gurecká, Ivana Koborová, Tamás Tábi, Éva Szökö, Casper G. Schalkwijk and Katarína Šebeková
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4929; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224929 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
α-Dicarbonyls and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance by a variety of mechanisms. To investigate whether young insulin-resistant subjects present markers of increased dicarbonyl stress, we determined serum α-dicarbonyls-methylglyoxal, glyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosone; their derived free- and protein-bound, [...] Read more.
α-Dicarbonyls and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance by a variety of mechanisms. To investigate whether young insulin-resistant subjects present markers of increased dicarbonyl stress, we determined serum α-dicarbonyls-methylglyoxal, glyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosone; their derived free- and protein-bound, and urinary AGEs using the UPLC/MS-MS method; soluble receptors for AGEs (sRAGE), and cardiometabolic risk markers in 142 (49% females) insulin resistant (Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) ≤ 0.319) and 167 (47% females) age-, and waist-to-height ratio-matched insulin-sensitive controls aged 16-to-22 years. The between-group comparison was performed using the two-factor (sex, presence/absence of insulin resistance) analysis of variance; multiple regression via the orthogonal projection to latent structures model. In comparison with their insulin-sensitive peers, young healthy insulin-resistant individuals without diabetes manifest alterations throughout the α-dicarbonyls-AGEs-sRAGE axis, dominated by higher 3-deoxyglucosone levels. Variables of α-dicarbonyls-AGEs-sRAGE axis were associated with insulin sensitivity independently from cardiometabolic risk markers, and sex-specifically. Cleaved RAGE associates with QUICKI only in males; while multiple α-dicarbonyls and AGEs independently associate with QUICKI particularly in females, who displayed a more advantageous cardiometabolic profile compared with males. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether interventions alleviating dicarbonyl stress ameliorate insulin resistance. Full article
11 pages, 1167 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D Status for Chinese Children and Adolescents in CNNHS 2016–2017
by Yichun Hu, Shan Jiang, Jiaxi Lu, Zhenyu Yang, Xiaoguang Yang and Lichen Yang
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224928 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Vitamin D is very important in maintaining children’s bone health because of its regulatory role in calcium and phosphate metabolism. To better understand vitamin D status and related risk factors of children and adolescents in China, this study analyzed the 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentration [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is very important in maintaining children’s bone health because of its regulatory role in calcium and phosphate metabolism. To better understand vitamin D status and related risk factors of children and adolescents in China, this study analyzed the 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentration of children and adolescents aged 6–17 years in China and assessed the risk factors of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. We analyzed the data of 25(OH)D concentration collected from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey of Children and Lactating Mothers in 2016–2017 (CNNHS 2016–2017). The age, sex, region type, ethnicities, season, weight and height were recorded, measured by unified questionnaire, equipment and standards. The concentration of 25(OH)D was detected by LC-MS/MS. A total of 64,391 participants from the cross-sectional study of CNNHS in 2016–2017 were included in this study. The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 17.70 (13.20–22.68) ng/mL, 18.70 (14.10–23.80) ng/mL in boys and 16.60 (12.40–21.40) ng/mL in girls. The total prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was 65.98% when the cut-off was 20 ng/mL, 60.42% for boys and 71.99% for girls. According to the results of logistic regression analysis, girls aged above 12 y, living in midlands and northern regions, in spring and winter seasons and with abdominal obesity will have a significantly increased risk of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among Chinese children and adolescents. The results showed that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are very common among children and adolescents aged 6–17 y in China. They should be encouraged to have more effective sunlight exposure, increased intake of vitamin D from food or supplements in their diet, especially for those aged above 12 y, living in the northern or midlands areas, in spring and winter, and abdominally obese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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54 pages, 18820 KiB  
Review
The Centennial Collection of VDR Ligands: Metabolites, Analogs, Hybrids and Non-Secosteroidal Ligands
by Miguel A. Maestro and Samuel Seoane
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224927 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Since the discovery of vitamin D a century ago, a great number of metabolites, analogs, hybrids and nonsteroidal VDR ligands have been developed. An enormous effort has been made to synthesize compounds which present beneficial properties while attaining lower calcium serum levels than [...] Read more.
Since the discovery of vitamin D a century ago, a great number of metabolites, analogs, hybrids and nonsteroidal VDR ligands have been developed. An enormous effort has been made to synthesize compounds which present beneficial properties while attaining lower calcium serum levels than calcitriol. This structural review covers VDR ligands published to date. Full article
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12 pages, 1189 KiB  
Article
Body Weight, Central Adiposity, and Fasting Hyperglycemia Are Associated with Tumor Characteristics in a Brazilian Cohort of Women with Breast Cancer
by Clara Gioseffi, Patricia de Carvalho Padilha, Gabriela Villaça Chaves, Livia Costa de Oliveira and Wilza Arantes Ferreira Peres
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4926; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224926 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of overweight, obesity, excess central adiposity, hyperglycemia, and diabetes mellitus with tumor characteristics in breast cancer. In this retrospective cohort study that enrolled 2127 women with breast cancer, the independent variables collected were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of overweight, obesity, excess central adiposity, hyperglycemia, and diabetes mellitus with tumor characteristics in breast cancer. In this retrospective cohort study that enrolled 2127 women with breast cancer, the independent variables collected were fasting blood glucose, body mass index, central adiposity (waist circumference and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR)), and waist-to-height ratio. The tumor characteristics (infiltrating, ductal grade, hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor, triple negative, size, lymph node involvement, and clinical stage) were the dependent variables. Most of the women were postmenopausal (73.5%), with an infiltrating tumor (83.0%), HR+ (82.0%), and overweight or obese (71.0%). For the premenopausal women, obesity was associated with grade 3 ductal tumor (odds ratio (OR): 1.70; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.09–2.66), triple negative (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08–3.24), and size ≥ 2 cm (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.36–3.56). For the postmenopausal women, obesity was associated with WHR, infiltrating tumor (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.56–1.95), size ≥ 2 cm (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.11–1.71), lymph node involvement (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.02–1.56), and stages III–IV (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.30–2.65). Excess body weight and central adiposity were associated with tumor aggressiveness characteristics in women with breast cancer, confirming the importance of nutritional status. Full article
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27 pages, 7513 KiB  
Systematic Review
Differential Gene Expression of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue among Lean, Obese, and after RYGB (Different Timepoints): Systematic Review and Analysis
by Elena Marisol Cruz-García, María E. Frigolet, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros and Ruth Gutiérrez-Aguilar
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4925; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224925 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
The main roles of adipose tissue include triglycerides storage and adipokine secretion, which regulate energy balance and inflammation status. In obesity, adipocyte dysfunction leads to proinflammatory cytokine production and insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity, the gold-standard technique [...] Read more.
The main roles of adipose tissue include triglycerides storage and adipokine secretion, which regulate energy balance and inflammation status. In obesity, adipocyte dysfunction leads to proinflammatory cytokine production and insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity, the gold-standard technique being Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Since metabolic improvements after RYGB are clear, a better understanding of adipose tissue molecular modifications could be derived from this study. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to find differentially expressed genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lean, obese and post-RYGB (distinct timepoints). To address this objective, publications from 2015–2022 reporting gene expression (candidate genes or transcriptomic approach) of subcutaneous adipose tissue from lean and obese individuals before and after RGYB were searched in PubMed, Elsevier, and Springer Link. Excluded publications were reviews, studies analyzing serum, other types of tissues, or bariatric procedures. A risk-of-bias summary was created for each paper using Robvis, to finally include 17 studies. Differentially expressed genes in post-RYGB vs. obese and lean vs. obese were obtained and the intersection among these groups was used for analysis and gene classification by metabolic pathway. Results showed that the lean state as well as the post-RYGB is similar in terms of increased expression of insulin-sensitizing molecules, inducing lipogenesis over lipolysis and downregulating leukocyte activation, cytokine production and other factors that promote inflammation. Thus, massive weight loss and metabolic improvements after RYGB are accompanied by gene expression modifications reverting the “adipocyte dysfunction” phenomenon observed in obesity conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Articles on Obesity and Weight Loss Treatments)
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17 pages, 8410 KiB  
Article
Effect of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Associated with High-Fat Diet on the Intestinal Health of Wistar Rats
by Marcella Duarte Villas Mishima, Bárbara Pereira Da Silva, Mariana Juste Contin Gomes, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Vinícius Parzanini Brilhante de São José, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Elad Tako and Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4924; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224924 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
A direct correlation has been reported between excessive fat intake and the development and progression of various enteropathies. Plant foods may contain bioactive compounds and non-digestible dietary fiber, with potential to improve intestinal health. Chia is a good source of dietary fiber and [...] Read more.
A direct correlation has been reported between excessive fat intake and the development and progression of various enteropathies. Plant foods may contain bioactive compounds and non-digestible dietary fiber, with potential to improve intestinal health. Chia is a good source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. Our study evaluated the role of chia flour associated with a high-fat diet (HFD) on colon histomorphometry, intestinal functionality and intestinal microbiome composition and function in Wistar rats. The study used 32 young male rats separated into four groups to receive a standard diet (SD) or HFD, with or without chia, for 35 days. At the end of the study, the cecum, cecal content and duodenum were collected. The consumption of chia increased the production of short-chain fatty acids and improved fecal moisture. Chia consumption improved the circular muscle layer in the SD group. The diversity and abundance of intestinal bacteria were not affected, but increased richness was observed in the microbiome of the SD+chia group. Moreover, chia consumption decreased the expression of proteins involved in intestinal functionality. Chia consumption improved intestinal morphology and functionality in young Wistar rats but was insufficient to promote significant changes in the intestinal microbiome in a short term of 35 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Dietary Bioactives in Health and Disease)
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13 pages, 317 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Acute Malnutrition Treatment at Health Center and Community Levels with a Simplified, Combined Protocol in Mali: An Observational Cohort Study
by Suvi T. Kangas, Bethany Marron, Zachary Tausanovitch, Elizabeth Radin, Josiane Andrianarisoa, Salimou Dembele, Césaire T. Ouédraogo, Issa Niamanto Coulibaly, Marie Biotteau, Bareye Ouologuem, Soumaila Daou, Fatoumata Traoré, Issiaka Traoré, Marc Nene and Jeanette Bailey
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224923 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3642
Abstract
A simplified, combined protocol was created that admits children with a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) of <125 mm or edema to malnutrition treatment with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) that involves prescribing two daily RUTF sachets to children with MUAC < 115 mm or edema [...] Read more.
A simplified, combined protocol was created that admits children with a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) of <125 mm or edema to malnutrition treatment with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) that involves prescribing two daily RUTF sachets to children with MUAC < 115 mm or edema and one daily sachet to those with 115 mm ≤ MUAC < 125 mm. This treatment was previously shown to result in non-inferior programmatic outcomes compared with standard treatment. We aimed at observing its effectiveness in a routine setting at scale, including via delivery by community health workers (CHWs). A total of 27,800 children were admitted to the simplified, combined treatment. Treatment resulted in a 92% overall recovery, with a mean length of stay of 40 days and a mean RUTF consumption of 62 sachets per child treated. Among children admitted with MUAC < 115 mm or edema, 87% recovered with a mean length of stay of 55 days and consuming an average of 96 RUTF sachets. The recovery in all sub-groups studied exceeded 85%. Treatment by CHWs resulted in a similar (94%) recovery to treatment by formal healthcare workers (92%). The simplified, combined protocol resulted in high recovery and low RUTF consumption per child treated and can safely be adopted by CHWs to provide treatment at the community level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2023 Collection: Dietary, Lifestyle and Children Health)
16 pages, 738 KiB  
Article
Association between Quality of Maternal Prenatal Food Source and Preparation and Breastfeeding Duration in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcome (ECHO) Program
by Emily Zimmerman, Kennedy K. Gachigi, Rachel F. Rodgers, Deborah J. Watkins, Megan Woodbury, José F. Cordero, Akram Alshawabkeh, John D. Meeker, Gredia Huerta-Montañez, Zaira Rosario Pabon, Morgan Hines, Carmen M. Velez-Vega, Carlos A. Camargo, Jr., Yeyi Zhu, Sara S. Nozadi, Sarah S. Comstock, Christine Hockett, Patrick M. Tarwater and on behalf of program collaborators for Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4922; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224922 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between maternal food source and preparation during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding among 751 mother–child dyads in the United States. The data collected from the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program included twelve cohorts of [...] Read more.
This study examined the relationship between maternal food source and preparation during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding among 751 mother–child dyads in the United States. The data collected from the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program included twelve cohorts of mothers (age ≥ 18) who delivered infant(s). Three categories of maternal food source and preparation including, High, Moderate, or Low Food Source Quality were derived from the mother report. The mean duration of breastfeeding differed strongly across the three categories. The High Food Source Quality group breastfed an average of 41 weeks, while shorter durations were observed for the Moderate (26 weeks) and Low (16 weeks) Food Source Quality groups. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative hazard of time to breastfeeding cessation for each participant characteristic. The full model adjusted for clustering/cohort effect for all participant characteristics, while the final model adjusted for the subset of characteristics identified from variable reduction modeling. The hazard of breastfeeding cessation for those in the High Food Source Quality group was 24% less than the Moderate group (RH = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63–0.92). Pregnant women in the High Food Source Quality group breastfed longer than the Moderate and Low groups. We encourage more detailed studies in the future to examine this relationship longitudinally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
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11 pages, 1354 KiB  
Article
High Doses of Caffeine Increase Muscle Strength and Calcium Release in the Plasma of Recreationally Trained Men
by Luis H. B. Ferreira, Scott C. Forbes, Marcelo P. Barros, André C. Smolarek, Alysson Enes, Antonio H. Lancha-Junior, Gabriel L. Martins and Tacito P. Souza-Junior
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4921; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224921 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5702
Abstract
The effects of acute caffeine supplementation on muscular strength remain unclear. We examined the effects of two different doses of caffeine on muscle strength and calcium in plasma compared to placebo using a crossover, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty-one (n = 21) [...] Read more.
The effects of acute caffeine supplementation on muscular strength remain unclear. We examined the effects of two different doses of caffeine on muscle strength and calcium in plasma compared to placebo using a crossover, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty-one (n = 21) recreationally resistance-trained participants were randomly assigned into three experimental conditions: 6 mg·kg bw−1 of caffeine (CF6); 8 mg·kg bw−1 of caffeine (CF8); or placebo (PLA), with a 7-day washout period between conditions. Muscular strength assessments were made for both upper (bench press) and lower body muscles (squat and deadlift). Calcium release in plasma was measured on five different occasions. Bench press (CF8: 100.1 ± 1.9 kg; PLA: 94.2 ± 2.5 kg), deadlift (CF8: 132.8 ± 3.5 kg; PLA: 120.7 ± 5.7 kg), and squat (CF8: 130.1 ± 4.9 kg; PLA 119.4 ± 5.4 kg) strength were all significantly (p < 0.001) improved in CF8 compared to PLA. Calcium release in plasma was significantly increased in CF8, whereas no changes were observed in CF6 or PLA. Overall, 8 mg·kg bw−1 of caffeine appears to be an effective dose to optimize upper and lower body muscular strength and calcium release in recreationally trained participants. Full article
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8 pages, 235 KiB  
Communication
Appearance and Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Supplements, Eating Disorders Symptoms, Drive for Muscularity, and Sexual Orientation in a Sample of Young Men
by Ata Ghaderi and Elisabeth Welch
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4920; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224920 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
In an anonymous online study (N = 824), we investigated the frequency of use of appearance and performance-enhancing drugs and supplements (APEDS) in a sample of young men (15–30 years) in Sweden, along with their self-reported eating disorder (ED) symptoms, drive for [...] Read more.
In an anonymous online study (N = 824), we investigated the frequency of use of appearance and performance-enhancing drugs and supplements (APEDS) in a sample of young men (15–30 years) in Sweden, along with their self-reported eating disorder (ED) symptoms, drive for muscularity and sexual orientation. A total of 129 participants (16.1%) reported regular use of supplements (at least once a week), including one individual using anabolic steroids (0.1%), while a lifetime use of APEDS was reported by 32.3%. The overlap between those using protein supplements and creatine was large (83.6%). Some symptoms of ED (e.g., dietary restraint, objective binge eating, self-induced vomiting, and excessive exercise) significantly predicted the use of APEDS. In addition, the use of APEDS was significantly predicted by the drive for muscularity. The prediction was stronger for the behavioral component of drive for muscularity (Exponential B = 8.50, B = 2.14, SE = 0.16, p < 0.001, Negelkerke R2 = 0.517) than for its attitudinal component (Exponential B = 1.52, B = 0.42, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001, Negelkerke R2 = 0.088). A significantly larger proportion of those identifying as heterosexual reported using APEDS (34.4%) compared to those identifying themselves as homosexual (25.0%), bisexual (19.2%) or other (23.7%). Overall, our results suggest that the use of APEDS might be more related to the drive for muscularity and sexual orientation than symptoms of ED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, and Nutritional Beliefs, Trends or Practices)
5 pages, 377 KiB  
Communication
Schools’ Participation in the Community Eligibility Provision Affects Students’ Receipt of Emergency Benefits during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Francesco Acciai, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati and Michael J. Yedidia
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4919; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224919 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Pandemic Electronic Benefits Transfer (P-EBT) benefits were intended for families of school children who lost access to free or reduced-price school meals (FRPMs) during the COVID-19 pandemic-related school closures. In high-poverty communities, all students from schools participating in the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) [...] Read more.
Pandemic Electronic Benefits Transfer (P-EBT) benefits were intended for families of school children who lost access to free or reduced-price school meals (FRPMs) during the COVID-19 pandemic-related school closures. In high-poverty communities, all students from schools participating in the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) were automatically eligible for P-EBT benefits; in non-CEP schools, only students already participating in FRPMs—for which their parents submitted an individual application—were eligible for P-EBT benefits. Using publicly available data from 105 K-12 public schools located in 4 sizeable low-income New Jersey (NJ) cities, this study investigated the association between school CEP participation status and the reach of P-EBT benefits for eligible students. A generalized linear model with a logit link, a binomial family, and robust standard errors was used. Across all levels of FRPM eligibility based on students’ household income, as expected, almost all students from CEP schools received P-EBT benefits; significantly fewer received P-EBT benefits if they attended non-CEP schools, even when they were eligible for FRPMs. Our findings show that without changes to the qualification process for CEP, large numbers of eligible children will not receive the intended health benefits of federal meals programs or similar emergency relief initiatives. Expanding CEP eligibility and simplifying the process through which schools qualify would likely improve the uptake of federal meals programs and emergency interventions, and more effectively achieve their intent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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18 pages, 680 KiB  
Review
Association of Zinc with Anemia
by Sen-Shyong Jeng and Yen-Hua Chen
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4918; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224918 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 7477
Abstract
Zinc is an essential trace element, and anemia is the most common blood disorder. The association of zinc with anemia may be divided into three major forms: (1) zinc deficiency contributing to anemia, (2) excess intake of zinc leading to anemia, and (3) [...] Read more.
Zinc is an essential trace element, and anemia is the most common blood disorder. The association of zinc with anemia may be divided into three major forms: (1) zinc deficiency contributing to anemia, (2) excess intake of zinc leading to anemia, and (3) anemia leading to abnormal blood–zinc levels in the body. In most cases, zinc deficiency coexists with iron deficiency, especially in pregnant women and preschool-age children. To a lesser extent, zinc deficiency may cooperate with other factors to lead to anemia. It seems that zinc deficiency alone does not result in anemia and that it may need to cooperate with other factors to lead to anemia. Excess intake of zinc is rare. However, excess intake of zinc interferes with the uptake of copper and results in copper deficiency that leads to anemia. Animal model studies indicate that in anemia, zinc is redistributed from plasma and bones to the bone marrow to produce new red blood cells. Inadequate zinc status (zinc deficiency or excess) could have effects on anemia; at the same time, anemia could render abnormal zinc status in the body. In handling anemia, zinc status needs to be observed carefully, and supplementation with zinc may have preventive and curative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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11 pages, 447 KiB  
Article
The Frequency of Daily Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Reduced Muscle Mass Index in Adolescents
by Maylla Luanna Barbosa Martins Bragança, Carla Cristine Nascimento da Silva Coelho, Bianca Rodrigues de Oliveira, Eduarda Gomes Bogea, Susana Cararo Confortin and Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224917 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2554
Abstract
The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased in recent years and has become a cause of concern because these beverages pose a risk to human health. Thus, we evaluated the association between SSBs consumption and muscle mass index (MMI) in adolescents. This [...] Read more.
The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased in recent years and has become a cause of concern because these beverages pose a risk to human health. Thus, we evaluated the association between SSBs consumption and muscle mass index (MMI) in adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated 2393 adolescents (18/19-years-old). Consumption of SSBs was analyzed based on the frequency of daily consumption and energy contribution categorized into tertiles. MMI was examined using the ratio of muscle mass (kilograms) to height (meters squared). The highest tertile of the frequency of daily SSB intake was associated with a reduced MMI in men (β = −0.31; 95%CI: −0.60, −0.01) and women (β = −0.24; 95%CI: −0.45, −0.02). However, these associations were not observed after adjusting for sugar contained in SSBs in men (β = −0.26; 95%CI: −0.69, 0.17) and for carbohydrate, lipid, and protein intake in women (β = −0.19; 95%CI: −0.42, 0.04). The highest energy contribution tertile of SSBs was associated with a reduced MMI in male adolescents (β = −0.34; 95%CI: −0.64, −0.04). This association was not observed after adjusting for intake of sugar in SSBs (β = −0.38; 95%CI: −0.75, 0.01). The frequency of daily consumption of SSBs was considered a risk factor for decreased MMI in both sexes, and the energy contribution of these drinks was a risk factor for MMI reduced only in male adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
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11 pages, 1291 KiB  
Article
NAPRT, but Not NAMPT, Provides Additional Support for NAD Synthesis in Esophageal Precancerous Lesions
by Niannian Wang, Da Pan, Xuemei Wang, Ming Su, Xin Wang, Qingyang Yan, Guiju Sun and Shaokang Wang
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224916 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
It is hypothesized that esophageal precancerous lesions (EPLs) have a surge requirement for coenzyme I (NAD). The purpose of this study is to clarify the key control points of NAD synthesis in developing EPL by detecting related markers and the gene polymorphism of [...] Read more.
It is hypothesized that esophageal precancerous lesions (EPLs) have a surge requirement for coenzyme I (NAD). The purpose of this study is to clarify the key control points of NAD synthesis in developing EPL by detecting related markers and the gene polymorphism of NAD synthesis and metabolism. This case–control study was conducted in Huai’an, China. In total, 100 healthy controls and 100 EPL cases matched by villages, gender, and age (±2 years) were included. The levels of plasma niacin and nicotinamide, and the protein concentration of NAMPT, NAPRT, and PARP-1 were quantitatively analyzed. PARP-1 gene polymorphism was detected to determine if the cases differed genetically in NAD synthesis. The levels of plasma niacin and nicotinamide and the concentrations of NAMPT were not related to the risk of EPL, but the over-expressions of NAPRT (p = 0.014, 0.001, and 0.016, respectively) and PARP-1 (p for trend = 0.021) were associated with the increased EPL risk. The frequency distribution of APRP-1 genotypes was found to not differ between the two groups, while the EPL group showed an increased frequency of the variant C allele. NAPRT, but not NAMPT, was found to be responsible for the stress of excess NAD synthesis in EPL. Focusing on the development of NAPRT inhibitors may be beneficial to prevent and control ESCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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14 pages, 1879 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Human Motor Cortical Excitability and Plasticity by Opuntia Ficus Indica Fruit Consumption: Evidence from a Preliminary Study through Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation
by Giuditta Gambino, Filippo Brighina, Mario Allegra, Maurizio Marrale, Giorgio Collura, Cesare Gagliardo, Alessandro Attanzio, Luisa Tesoriere, Danila Di Majo, Giuseppe Ferraro, Pierangelo Sardo and Giuseppe Giglia
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4915; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224915 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Indicaxanthin (IX) from Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI) has been shown to exert numerous biological effects both in vitro and in vivo, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuro-modulatory activity in rodent models. Our goal was to investigate the eventual neuro-active role of orally assumed fruits [...] Read more.
Indicaxanthin (IX) from Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI) has been shown to exert numerous biological effects both in vitro and in vivo, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuro-modulatory activity in rodent models. Our goal was to investigate the eventual neuro-active role of orally assumed fruits containing high levels of IX at nutritionally-relevant amounts in healthy subjects, exploring cortical excitability and plasticity in the human motor cortex (M1). To this purpose, we applied paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) in basal conditions and followed the consumption of yellow cactus pear fruits containing IX or white cactus pear fruits devoid of IX (placebo). Furthermore, resting state-functional MRI (rs-fMRI) preliminary acquisitions were performed before and after consumption of the same number of yellow fruits. Our data revealed that the consumption of IX-containing fruits could specifically activate intracortical excitatory circuits, differently from the placebo-controlled group. Furthermore, we found that following the ingestion of IX-containing fruits, elevated network activity of glutamatergic intracortical circuits can homeostatically be restored to baseline levels following a-tDCS stimulation. No significant differences were observed through rs-fMRI acquisitions. These outcomes suggest that IX from OFI increases intracortical excitability of M1 and leads to homeostatic cortical plasticity responses. Full article
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10 pages, 939 KiB  
Article
The Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for Brazilians, NLit-Br: An Exploratory Cross-Cultural Validity Study
by Lívia Botelho da Silva Sarkis, Juliana Teruel-Camargo, Heather D. Gibbs, Eduardo Y. Nakano, Verônica Cortez Ginani, Aline Silva de Aguiar, Camila dos Santos Chaves, Renata Puppin Zandonadi and Marcus Gomes Bastos
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4914; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224914 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
This study aimed to test the validity of the cross-cultural adapted Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for Brazilians (NLit-Br). An observational cross-sectional study was performed in chronic disease clinics from the Brazilian Public Health System in two phases: (1) linguistic and cultural adaptation and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to test the validity of the cross-cultural adapted Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for Brazilians (NLit-Br). An observational cross-sectional study was performed in chronic disease clinics from the Brazilian Public Health System in two phases: (1) linguistic and cultural adaptation and (2) validity testing. Six registered dietitians and thirty adult patients diagnosed with at least one chronic disease participated in the study using the nutrition literacy assessment instrument (NLit-Br) and the short assessment of health literacy for Portuguese-speaking adults (SAHLPA-18). Sample descriptive variables: age, sex, race, income, education, and occupation. To adapt the instrument to the Brazilian Portuguese and Brazilian culture, we tested cognitive interviewing and the Scale Content Validity Index (S-CVI) with a group of dietitians and patients. To test the tool’s validity, health literacy (SAHLPA-18) was used as a construct that presents similarities and differences with nutrition literacy (NLit-Br). The correlation of NLit-Br and the SAHLPA-18 was tested (Spearman’s Rho). Internal consistency was measured by Kuder–Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20). The NLit-Br content validity (S-CVI = 0.85) and internal consistency (KR-20 = 0.868) were confirmed. Additionally, NLit-Br presented a significant and robust correlation with SAHLPA-18 (r = 0.665, p < 0.001). Therefore, the NLit-Br was considered a linguistic, cultural, and valid instrument to measure Brazilian’s nutrition literacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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26 pages, 2993 KiB  
Article
Exposure to (Poly)phenol Metabolites after a Fruit and Vegetable Supplement Intake: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over, Randomized Trial
by Cindy Romain, Letizia Bresciani, Jananee Muralidharan, Pedro Mena, Linda H. Chung, Pedro E. Alcaraz, Daniele Del Rio and Julien Cases
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224913 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
Dietary (poly)phenol intake derived from the daily consumption of five portions of fruits and vegetables could protect against the development of non-communicable diseases. However, the general population does not meet the recommended intake. Supplementation with (poly)phenol-rich ingredients, within a varied and balanced diet, [...] Read more.
Dietary (poly)phenol intake derived from the daily consumption of five portions of fruits and vegetables could protect against the development of non-communicable diseases. However, the general population does not meet the recommended intake. Supplementation with (poly)phenol-rich ingredients, within a varied and balanced diet, could help in filling this nutritional gap. This study aimed to validate the proof-of-concept of a (poly)phenolic supplementation developed to enhance the daily consumption of potentially bioactive compounds. Oxxynea® is a (poly)phenol-rich ingredient developed to provide the quantity and the variety corresponding to five-a-day fruit and vegetable consumption. In this double-blind, randomized cross-over study, 10 participants were supplemented with 450 mg of a (poly)phenol-based supplement or a placebo. Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion profiles were measured for 24 and 48 h, respectively, using UPHLC-MS/MS analysis. The pharmacokinetic profile displayed a triphasic absorption, indicating peaks of circulating metabolites at 1.75 ± 0.25 h, 4.50 ± 0.34 h, 9.50 ± 0.33 h and an average Tmax (time of maximal plasma concentration) of 6.90 ± 0.96 h. Similarly, the urinary profile showed maximum metabolite excretion at 3–6 h, 6–10 h and 14–24 h after supplement consumption. Compared to individual metabolites belonging to different (poly)phenolic subfamilies, the total circulating and excreted metabolites showed a reduced coefficient of variation (CV 38%). The overall bioavailability estimated was 27.4 ± 3.4%. Oxxynea® supplementation may provide a sustained exposure to several (poly)phenolic metabolites and catabolites and reduces the inter-individual variation that could arise from supplementing only one class of (poly)phenol. Full article
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