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Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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28 pages, 28736 KiB  
Review
Magnesium and the Hallmarks of Aging
by Ligia J. Dominguez, Nicola Veronese and Mario Barbagallo
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040496 - 9 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 10223
Abstract
Magnesium is an essential ion in the human body that regulates numerous physiological and pathological processes. Magnesium deficiency is very common in old age. Age-related chronic diseases and the aging process itself are frequently associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, called ‘inflammaging’. Because chronic [...] Read more.
Magnesium is an essential ion in the human body that regulates numerous physiological and pathological processes. Magnesium deficiency is very common in old age. Age-related chronic diseases and the aging process itself are frequently associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, called ‘inflammaging’. Because chronic magnesium insufficiency has been linked to excessive generation of inflammatory markers and free radicals, inducing a chronic inflammatory state, we formerly hypothesized that magnesium inadequacy may be considered among the intermediaries helping us explain the link between inflammaging and aging-associated diseases. We show in this review evidence of the relationship of magnesium with all the hallmarks of aging (genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, altered intercellular communication, disabled autophagy, dysbiosis, and chronic inflammation), which may positively affect the human healthspan. It is feasible to hypothesize that maintaining an optimal balance of magnesium during one’s life course may turn out to be a safe and economical strategy contributing to the promotion of healthy aging. Future well-designed studies are necessary to further explore this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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22 pages, 1745 KiB  
Article
Twelve Weeks of Daily Lentil Consumption Improves Fasting Cholesterol and Postprandial Glucose and Inflammatory Responses—A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Morgan L. Chamberlin, Stephanie M.G. Wilson, Marcy E. Gaston, Wan-Yuan Kuo and Mary P. Miles
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030419 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 4335
Abstract
Lentils have potential to improve metabolic health but there are limited randomized clinical trials evaluating their comprehensive impact on metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of lentil-based vs. meat-based meals on fasting and postprandial measures of glucose and [...] Read more.
Lentils have potential to improve metabolic health but there are limited randomized clinical trials evaluating their comprehensive impact on metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of lentil-based vs. meat-based meals on fasting and postprandial measures of glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Thirty-eight adults with an increased waist circumference (male ≥ 40 inches and female ≥ 35 inches) participated in a 12-week dietary intervention that included seven prepared midday meals totaling either 980 g (LEN) or 0 g (CON) of cooked green lentils per week. Linear models were used to assess changes in fasting and postprandial markers from pre- to post-intervention by meal group. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were assessed through a survey randomly delivered once per week during the intervention. We found that regular consumption of lentils lowered fasting LDL (F = 5.53, p = 0.02) and total cholesterol levels (F = 8.64, p < 0.01) as well as postprandial glucose (β = −0.99, p = 0.01), IL-17 (β = −0.68, p = 0.04), and IL-1β (β = −0.70, p = 0.03) responses. GI symptoms were not different by meal group and all symptoms were reported as “none” or “mild” for the duration of the intervention. Our results suggest that daily lentil consumption may be helpful in lowering cholesterol and postprandial glycemic and inflammatory responses without causing GI stress. This information further informs the development of pulse-based dietary strategies to lower disease risk and to slow or reverse metabolic disease progression in at-risk populations. Full article
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12 pages, 2149 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D and Aging: Central Role of Immunocompetence
by Carsten Carlberg and Eunike Velleuer
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030398 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 3697
Abstract
The pro-hormone vitamin D3 is an important modulator of both innate and adaptive immunity since its biologically active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates via the transcription factor VDR (vitamin D receptor) the epigenome and transcriptome of human [...] Read more.
The pro-hormone vitamin D3 is an important modulator of both innate and adaptive immunity since its biologically active metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates via the transcription factor VDR (vitamin D receptor) the epigenome and transcriptome of human immune cells and controls in this way the expression of hundreds of vitamin D target genes. Since the myeloid linage of hematopoiesis is epigenetically programmed by VDR in concert with the pioneer factors PU.1 (purine-rich box 1) and CEBPα (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α), monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells are the most vitamin D-sensitive immune cell types. The central role of the immune system in various aging-related diseases suggests that immunocompetence describes not only the ability of an individual to resist pathogens and parasites but also to contest non-communicative diseases and the process of aging itself. In this review, we argue that the individual-specific responsiveness to vitamin D relates to a person’s immunocompetence via the epigenetic programming function of VDR and its ligand 1,25(OH)2D3 during hematopoiesis as well as in the periphery. This may provide a mechanism explaining how vitamin D protects against major common diseases and, in parallel, promotes healthy aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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25 pages, 1712 KiB  
Review
The Role of the FODMAP Diet in IBS
by Luisa Bertin, Miriana Zanconato, Martina Crepaldi, Giovanni Marasco, Cesare Cremon, Giovanni Barbara, Brigida Barberio, Fabiana Zingone and Edoardo Vincenzo Savarino
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030370 - 26 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4463
Abstract
The low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol) diet is a beneficial therapeutic approach for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, how the low FODMAP diet works is still not completely understood. These mechanisms encompass not only traditionally known factors such [...] Read more.
The low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol) diet is a beneficial therapeutic approach for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, how the low FODMAP diet works is still not completely understood. These mechanisms encompass not only traditionally known factors such as luminal distension induced by gas and water but also recent evidence on the role of FOMAPs in the modulation of visceral hypersensitivity, increases in intestinal permeability, the induction of microbiota changes, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as metabolomics and alterations in motility. Although most of the supporting evidence is of low quality, recent trials have confirmed its effectiveness, even though the majority of the evidence pertains only to the restriction phase and its effectiveness in relieving abdominal bloating and pain. This review examines potential pathophysiological mechanisms and provides an overview of the existing evidence on the effectiveness of the low FODMAP diet across various IBS subtypes. Key considerations for its use include the challenges and disadvantages associated with its practical implementation, including the need for professional guidance, variations in individual responses, concerns related to microbiota, nutritional deficiencies, the development of constipation, the necessity of excluding an eating disorder before commencing the diet, and the scarcity of long-term data. Despite its recognized efficacy in symptom management, acknowledging these limitations becomes imperative for a nuanced comprehension of the role of a low FODMAP diet in managing IBS. By investigating its potential mechanisms and evidence across IBS subtypes and addressing emerging modulations alongside limitations, this review aims to serve as a valuable resource for healthcare practitioners, researchers, and patients navigating the intricate landscape of IBS. Full article
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19 pages, 1156 KiB  
Review
Adverse Food Reactions in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: State of the Art and Future Perspectives
by Ivan Capobianco, Federica Di Vincenzo, Pierluigi Puca, Guia Becherucci, Maria Chiara Mentella, Valentina Petito and Franco Scaldaferri
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030351 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2732
Abstract
Limited knowledge is available about the relationship between food allergies or intolerances and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinicians frequently encounter patients who report food allergies or intolerances, and gastroenterologists struggle distinguishing between patients with organic disorders and those with functional disorders, which the [...] Read more.
Limited knowledge is available about the relationship between food allergies or intolerances and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinicians frequently encounter patients who report food allergies or intolerances, and gastroenterologists struggle distinguishing between patients with organic disorders and those with functional disorders, which the patients themselves may associate with specific dietary components. This task becomes even more arduous when managing patients with significant underlying organic conditions, like IBD. The aim of this review is to summarize and emphasize any actual associations between food allergies and intolerances and inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Through a narrative disceptation of the current literature, we highlight the increased prevalence of various food intolerances, including lactose, fructose, histamine, nickel, and non-celiac gluten sensitivity, in individuals with IBD. Additionally, we explore the association between increased epithelial barrier permeability in IBD and the development of food sensitization. By doing so, we aim to enhance clinicians’ awareness of the nutritional management of patients with IBD when facing complaints or evidence of food allergies or intolerances. Full article
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12 pages, 964 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Mushroom Intake and Cognitive Performance: An Epidemiological Study in the European Investigation of Cancer—Norfolk Cohort (EPIC-Norfolk)
by Sara Cha, Lynne Bell and Claire M. Williams
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030353 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
The previous literature suggests that regular consumption of edible mushrooms may confer neuroprotective cognitive health benefits. To further investigate the possible association between mushrooms and brain function during ageing, data from a population-based study of diet and chronic disease (EPIC-Norfolk cohort) were analysed. [...] Read more.
The previous literature suggests that regular consumption of edible mushrooms may confer neuroprotective cognitive health benefits. To further investigate the possible association between mushrooms and brain function during ageing, data from a population-based study of diet and chronic disease (EPIC-Norfolk cohort) were analysed. Changes in mushroom intake were measured using a food frequency questionnaire at three health check (HC) points over an 18-year period, with participants categorised based on their consumption frequency. Cognitive performance was assessed at the final health check (3HC) via a battery of validated tests assessing a range of different cognitive domains. The findings revealed a significant reduction in mushroom intake over time, with 4.12% of the cohort giving up mushrooms after previously consuming them. At 3HC, mushroom consumers displayed better cognitive performance than non-consumers across multiple cognitive domains. This relationship was observed to be dose-dependent, with those consuming 1 or more portions per week showing the highest cognitive scores. These findings suggest that regular mushroom consumption may be beneficial for cognitive function during aging. Further randomised controlled trials will be needed to confirm any potential benefits of mushrooms on long-term cognitive health, alongside public health initiatives to promote mushroom consumption in this older-adult demographic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Plant-Based Nutrition on Ageing)
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25 pages, 2150 KiB  
Review
Cow’s Milk: A Benefit for Human Health? Omics Tools and Precision Nutrition for Lactose Intolerance Management
by Giovanni Pratelli, Bartolo Tamburini, Giusto Davide Badami, Marianna Lo Pizzo, Anna De Blasio, Daniela Carlisi and Diana Di Liberto
Nutrients 2024, 16(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020320 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4671
Abstract
Cow’s milk (CM) is a healthy food consumed worldwide by individuals of all ages. Unfortunately, “lactase-deficient” individuals cannot digest milk’s main carbohydrate, lactose, depriving themselves of highly beneficial milk proteins like casein, lactoalbumin, and lactoglobulin due to lactose intolerance (LI), while other individuals [...] Read more.
Cow’s milk (CM) is a healthy food consumed worldwide by individuals of all ages. Unfortunately, “lactase-deficient” individuals cannot digest milk’s main carbohydrate, lactose, depriving themselves of highly beneficial milk proteins like casein, lactoalbumin, and lactoglobulin due to lactose intolerance (LI), while other individuals develop allergies specifically against these proteins (CMPA). The management of these conditions differs, and an inappropriate diagnosis or treatment may have significant implications for the patients, especially if they are infants or very young children, resulting in unnecessary dietary restrictions or avoidable adverse reactions. Omics technologies play a pivotal role in elucidating the intricate interactions between nutrients and the human body, spanning from genetic factors to the microbiota profile and metabolites. This comprehensive approach enables the precise delineation and identification of distinct cohorts of individuals with specific dietary requirements, so that tailored nutrition strategies can be developed. This is what is called personalized nutrition or precision nutrition (PN), the area of nutrition that focuses on the effects of nutrients on the genome, proteome, and metabolome, promoting well-being and health, preventing diseases, reducing chronic disease incidence, and increasing life expectancy. Here, we report the opinion of the scientific community proposing to replace the “one size fits all” approach with tailor-made nutrition programs, designed by integrating nutrigenomic data together with clinical parameters and microbiota profiles, taking into account the individual lactose tolerance threshold and needs in terms of specific nutrients intake. This customized approach could help LI patients to improve their quality of life, overcoming depression or anxiety often resulting from the individual perception of this condition as different from a normal state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerance and Food Allergy: Novel Aspects in a Changing World)
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0 pages, 511 KiB  
Systematic Review
Impact of Intermittent Fasting and/or Caloric Restriction on Aging-Related Outcomes in Adults: A Scoping Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Dara L. James, Nanako A. Hawley, Alex E. Mohr, Janice Hermer, Edward Ofori, Fang Yu and Dorothy D. Sears
Nutrients 2024, 16(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020316 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 5732
Abstract
Intermittent fasting (IF) and caloric restriction (CR) are dietary strategies to prevent and attenuate obesity associated with conditions and aging-related outcomes. This scoping review examined the cardiometabolic, cancer, and neurocognitive outcome differences between IF and CR interventions among adults. We applied a systematic [...] Read more.
Intermittent fasting (IF) and caloric restriction (CR) are dietary strategies to prevent and attenuate obesity associated with conditions and aging-related outcomes. This scoping review examined the cardiometabolic, cancer, and neurocognitive outcome differences between IF and CR interventions among adults. We applied a systematic approach to scope published randomized controlled trials (databases: PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Google Scholar) from inception through August 2023. The initial search provided 389 unique articles which were critically appraised. Thirty articles met the eligibility criteria for inclusion: 12 were IF, 10 were CR, and 8 were combined IF and CR interventions. IF and CR were associated with weight loss; however, IF studies tended to report greater adherence compared with CR. Overall, IF and CR were equivalently effective across cardiometabolic, cancer, and neurocognitive outcomes. Our findings suggest that IF has health benefits in a variety of conditions and may be better accepted and tolerated than CR, but more comparative research is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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14 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Consumption of the Non-Nutritive Sweetener Stevia for 12 Weeks Does Not Alter the Composition of the Human Gut Microbiota
by Gurdeep Singh, Andrew J. McBain, John T. McLaughlin and Nikoleta S. Stamataki
Nutrients 2024, 16(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020296 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 5100
Abstract
The use of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) as an alternative to caloric sugars has increased in recent years. Stevia is an NNS that has demonstrated beneficial effects on appetite and energy intake. However, the impact on the gut microbiota is not well understood. Therefore, [...] Read more.
The use of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) as an alternative to caloric sugars has increased in recent years. Stevia is an NNS that has demonstrated beneficial effects on appetite and energy intake. However, the impact on the gut microbiota is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated how regular consumption of stevia, for up to 12 weeks, impacts the human gut microbiota. Healthy subjects with a normal body mass index participated in our study; the stevia group (n = 14) was asked to consume five drops of stevia twice daily, compared to control participants (n = 13). Faecal samples collected before and after treatment were analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Stevia did not cause significant changes in the alpha or beta diversity when compared to the control groups. When the relative abundances of taxa were investigated, no clear differences were detected. Conversely, a random forest analysis correctly associated the gut microbiome with the control and stevia groups with an average of 75% accuracy, suggesting that there are intrinsic patterns that could discriminate between control and stevia use. However, large-scale changes in the gut microbiota were not apparent in this study, and, therefore, our data suggest that stevia does not significantly impact the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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14 pages, 1045 KiB  
Article
Effect of 100% Orange Juice and a Volume-Matched Sugar-Sweetened Drink on Subjective Appetite, Food Intake, and Glycemic Response in Adults
by Stephanie Robayo, Michaela Kucab, Sarah E. Walker, Katherine Suitor, Katherine D’Aversa, Olivia Morello and Nick Bellissimo
Nutrients 2024, 16(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020242 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 3808
Abstract
Dietary recommendations to reduce the consumption of free sugars often group 100% fruit juice with other sugar-containing beverages. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of consuming 100% orange juice compared to an orange drink on next-meal food intake (FI), [...] Read more.
Dietary recommendations to reduce the consumption of free sugars often group 100% fruit juice with other sugar-containing beverages. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of consuming 100% orange juice compared to an orange drink on next-meal food intake (FI), glycemic response, average appetite, emotions, and sensory characteristics in normal-weight adults. Thirty-six normal-weight adults (age: 26.8 ± 0.9 years) consumed, in random order and at least 5 days apart, three 240 mL test beverages as follows: (a) 100% orange juice, (b) orange drink, or (c) water. Subjective sweetness and pleasantness were determined immediately after test beverage consumption. Glycemic response, average appetite, and subjective emotions were measured every 15 min for 60 min. Food intake was determined at a pizza lunch 60 min later. Rest-of-day glycemic response and energy intake (EI) were determined using a continuous glucose monitor and food record, respectively. Lunch FI (p = 0.054) and total EI (p = 0.01) were both lower after 100% orange juice compared with the orange drink. Caloric compensation was 84% after 100% orange juice and −25% after the orange drink (p = 0.047). Average appetite was not significantly different between the test beverages (p > 0.05). Blood glucose iAUC adjusted for available carbohydrate was lower after 100% orange juice compared with the orange drink (p < 0.001). Rest-of-day blood glucose concentrations were lower after 100% orange juice compared with the orange drink (p = 0.03) and water control (p < 0.001). In conclusion, consumption of 100% orange juice as a preload resulted in higher caloric compensation, lower total daily EI, and lower blood glucose concentrations compared to the orange drink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
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16 pages, 1173 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D and Its Role on the Fatigue Mitigation: A Narrative Review
by Ippolita Valentina Di Molfetta, Laura Bordoni, Rosita Gabbianelli, Gianni Sagratini and Laura Alessandroni
Nutrients 2024, 16(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020221 - 10 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 19413
Abstract
Vitamin D has historically been associated with bone metabolism. However, over the years, a growing body of evidence has emerged indicating its involvement in various physiological processes that may influence the onset of numerous pathologies (cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, rheumatological diseases, fertility, cancer, [...] Read more.
Vitamin D has historically been associated with bone metabolism. However, over the years, a growing body of evidence has emerged indicating its involvement in various physiological processes that may influence the onset of numerous pathologies (cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, rheumatological diseases, fertility, cancer, diabetes, or a condition of fatigue). This narrative review investigates the current knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying fatigue and the ways in which vitamin D is implicated in these processes. Scientific studies in the databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were reviewed with a focus on factors that play a role in the genesis of fatigue, where the influence of vitamin D has been clearly demonstrated. The pathogenic factors of fatigue influenced by vitamin D are related to biochemical factors connected to oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. A role in the control of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin has also been demonstrated: an imbalance in the relationship between these two neurotransmitters is linked to the genesis of fatigue. Furthermore, vitamin D is implicated in the control of voltage-gated calcium and chloride channels. Although it has been demonstrated that hypovitaminosis D is associated with numerous pathological conditions, current data on the outcomes of correcting hypovitaminosis D are conflicting. This suggests that, despite the significant involvement of vitamin D in regulating mechanisms governing fatigue, other factors could also play a role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Perspectives on Vitamin D)
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17 pages, 2247 KiB  
Systematic Review
Sex and Gender Differences on the Impact of Metabolism-Disrupting Chemicals on Obesity: A Systematic Review
by Massimo D’Archivio, Lucia Coppola, Roberta Masella, Alessia Tammaro and Cinzia La Rocca
Nutrients 2024, 16(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020181 - 5 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
Obesity represents an important public health concern, being one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is a multifactorial disease with many underlying intertwined causes, including genetic, environmental and behavioral factors. Notably, metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) can alter the set point control of [...] Read more.
Obesity represents an important public health concern, being one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is a multifactorial disease with many underlying intertwined causes, including genetic, environmental and behavioral factors. Notably, metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) can alter the set point control of metabolism, affecting the development and function of the adipose tissue. Epidemiological studies have reported associations between human exposure to MDCs and several altered metabolic endpoints. It is also noteworthy that sex and gender represent important risk factors in the development of obesity. Different sex-related biological and physiological characteristics influence individual susceptibility, whereas gender represents a critical component in determining the different exposure scenarios. Although some advancements in the treatment of obesity have been achieved in preclinical and clinical studies, the obesity pandemic continues to increase worldwide. The present study performed a systematic review of recent studies considering the effects of MDCs on obesity, with a specific focus on sex- and gender-related responses. This review highlighted that MDCs could differently affect men and women at different stages of life even though the number of studies evaluating the association between obesity and MDC exposure in relation to sex and gender is still limited. This evidence should urge researchers to carry out studies considering sex and gender differences. This is essential for developing sex-/gender-tailored prevention strategies to improve public health policies and reduce exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Differences in Metabolism and Cardiometabolic Diseases)
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14 pages, 625 KiB  
Review
Intermittent Fasting: Does It Affect Sports Performance? A Systematic Review
by Javier Conde-Pipó, Agustín Mora-Fernandez, Manuel Martinez-Bebia, Nuria Gimenez-Blasi, Alejandro Lopez-Moro, José Antonio Latorre, Antonio Almendros-Ruiz, Bernardo Requena and Miguel Mariscal-Arcas
Nutrients 2024, 16(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16010168 - 4 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6611
Abstract
Intermittent fasting is one of the most popular types of diet at the moment because it is an effective nutritional strategy in terms of weight loss. The main objective of this review is to analyze the effects that intermittent fasting has on sports [...] Read more.
Intermittent fasting is one of the most popular types of diet at the moment because it is an effective nutritional strategy in terms of weight loss. The main objective of this review is to analyze the effects that intermittent fasting has on sports performance. We analyzed physical capacities: aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, strength, and power, as well as their effect on body composition. For this, a bibliographic search was carried out in several databases where 25 research articles were analyzed to clarify these objectives. Inclusion criteria: dates between 2013 and present, free full texts, studies conducted in adult human athletes, English and/or Spanish languages, and if it has been considered that intermittent fasting is mainly linked to sports practice and that this obtains a result in terms of performance or physical capacities. This review was registered in PROSPERO with code ref. 407024, and an evaluation of the quality or risk of bias was performed. After this analysis, results were obtained regarding the improvement of body composition and the maintenance of muscle mass. An influence of intermittent fasting on sports performance and body composition is observed. It can be concluded that intermittent fasting provides benefits in terms of body composition without reducing physical performance, maintenance of lean mass, and improvements in maximum power. But despite this, it is necessary to carry out new studies focusing on the sports field since the samples have been very varied. Additionally, the difference in hours of intermittent fasting should be studied, especially in the case of overnight fasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet Pattern on Exercise Performance and Metabolism)
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24 pages, 3522 KiB  
Systematic Review
Dietary Macronutrient Intake and Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
by Yibin Ma, Zekun Zheng, Litao Zhuang, Huiting Wang, Anni Li, Liangkai Chen and Liegang Liu
Nutrients 2024, 16(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16010152 - 2 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4330
Abstract
Many epidemiological studies have evaluated the intake of macronutrients and the risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, current evidence is conflicting and warrants further investigation. Therefore, we carried out an umbrella review to examine and quantify the potential dose-response association of [...] Read more.
Many epidemiological studies have evaluated the intake of macronutrients and the risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, current evidence is conflicting and warrants further investigation. Therefore, we carried out an umbrella review to examine and quantify the potential dose-response association of dietary macronutrient intake with CVD morbidity and mortality. Prospective cohort studies from PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL were reviewed, which reported associations of macronutrients (protein, fat, and carbohydrate) with all-cause, CVD, cancer mortality, or CVD events. Multivariable relative risks (RR) were pooled, and heterogeneity was assessed. The results of 124 prospective cohort studies were included in the systematic review and 101 in the meta-analysis. During the follow-up period from 2.2 to 30 years, 506,086 deaths and 79,585 CVD events occurred among 5,107,821 participants. High total protein intake was associated with low CVD morbidity (RR 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.82–0.94), while high total carbohydrate intake was associated with high CVD morbidity (1.08, 1.02–1.13). For fats, a high intake of total fat was associated with a decreased all-cause mortality risk (0.92, 0.85–0.99). Saturated fatty acid intake was only associated with cancer mortality (1.10, 1.06–1.14); Both monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake was associated with all-cause mortality (MUFA: 0.92, 0.86–0.98; PUFA: 0.91, 0.86–0.96). This meta-analysis supports that protein intake is associated with a decreased risk of CVD morbidity, while carbohydrate intake is associated with an increased risk of CVD morbidity. High total fat intake is associated with a low risk of all-cause mortality, and this effect was different in an analysis stratified by the type of fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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34 pages, 2056 KiB  
Review
Polyphenols and Their Impact on the Prevention of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Development
by Izabela Grabska-Kobyłecka, Piotr Szpakowski, Aleksandra Król, Dominika Książek-Winiarek, Andrzej Kobyłecki, Andrzej Głąbiński and Dariusz Nowak
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153454 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4838
Abstract
It is well known that neurodegenerative diseases’ development and progression are accelerated due to oxidative stress and inflammation, which result in impairment of mitochondrial function, cellular damage, and dysfunction of DNA repair systems. The increased consumption of antioxidants can postpone the development of [...] Read more.
It is well known that neurodegenerative diseases’ development and progression are accelerated due to oxidative stress and inflammation, which result in impairment of mitochondrial function, cellular damage, and dysfunction of DNA repair systems. The increased consumption of antioxidants can postpone the development of these disorders and improve the quality of patients’ lives who have already been diagnosed with neurodegenerative diseases. Prolonging life span in developed countries contributes to an increase in the incidence ratio of chronic age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD (Parkinson’s disease), AD (Alzheimer’s disease), or numerous forms of age-related dementias. Dietary supplementation with neuroprotective plant-derived polyphenols might be considered an important element of healthy aging. Some polyphenols improve cognition, mood, visual functions, language, and verbal memory functions. Polyphenols bioavailability differs greatly from one compound to another and is determined by solubility, degree of polymerization, conjugation, or glycosylation resulting from chemical structure. It is still unclear which polyphenols are beneficial because their potential depends on efficient transport across the BBB (blood-brain barrier), bioavailability, and stability in the CNS (central nervous system). Polyphenols improve brain functions by having a direct impact on cells and processes in the CNS. For a direct effect, polyphenolic compounds must be able to overcome the BBB and accumulate in brain tissue. In this review, the latest achievements in studies (animal models and clinical trials) on the effect of polyphenols on brain activity and function are described. The beneficial impact of plant polyphenols on the brain may be summarized by their role in increasing brain plasticity and related cognition improvement. As reversible MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitors, polyphenols are mood modulators and improve neuronal self-being through an increase in dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline amounts in the brain tissue. After analyzing the prohealth effects of various eating patterns, it was postulated that their beneficial effects result from synergistic interactions between individual dietary components. Polyphenols act on the brain endothelial cells and improve the BBB’s integrity and reduce inflammation, thus protecting the brain from additional injury during stroke or autoimmune diseases. Polyphenolic compounds are capable of lowering blood pressure and improving cerebral blood flow. Many studies have revealed that a nutritional model based on increased consumption of antioxidants has the potential to ameliorate the cognitive impairment associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Randomized clinical trials have also shown that the improvement of cognitive functions resulting from the consumption of foods rich in flavonoids is independent of age and health conditions. For therapeutic use, sufficient quantities of polyphenols must cross the BBB and reach the brain tissue in active form. An important issue in the direct action of polyphenols on the CNS is not only their penetration through the BBB, but also their brain metabolism and localization. The bioavailability of polyphenols is low. The most usual oral administration also conflicts with bioavailability. The main factors that limit this process and have an effect on therapeutic efficacy are: selective permeability across BBB, gastrointestinal transformations, poor absorption, rapid hepatic and colonic metabolism, and systemic elimination. Thus, phenolic compounds have inadequate bioavailability for human applications to have any beneficial effects. In recent years, new strategies have been attempted in order to exert cognitive benefits and neuroprotective effects. Converting polyphenols into nanostructures is one of the theories proposed to enhance their bioavailability. The following nanoscale delivery systems can be used to encapsulate polyphenols: nanocapsules, nanospheres, micelles, cyclodextrins, solid lipid nanoparticles, and liposomes. It results in great expectations for the wide-scale and effective use of polyphenols in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus far, only natural polyphenols have been studied as neuroprotectors. Perhaps some modification of the chemical structure of a given polyphenol may increase its neuroprotective activity and transportation through the BBB. However, numerous questions should be answered before developing neuroprotective medications based on plant polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotection with Bioactive Compounds)
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13 pages, 1587 KiB  
Systematic Review
Adherence to the DASH Diet and Risk of Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Xenophon Theodoridis, Michail Chourdakis, Lydia Chrysoula, Violeta Chroni, Ilias Tirodimos, Konstantina Dipla, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi and Areti Triantafyllou
Nutrients 2023, 15(14), 3261; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15143261 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6090
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the level of adherence to the DASH diet on hypertension risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was performed. Two independent investigators performed the study selection, data [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the level of adherence to the DASH diet on hypertension risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was performed. Two independent investigators performed the study selection, data abstraction, and assessment of the included studies. The meta-analysis was performed separately with the adjusted hazard (HR) or incident rate ratios (IRR) and the odds ratios (OR) of the highest compared to the lowest DASH diet adherence scores using a random effects model. A total of 12 studies were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. When cohort studies reporting HR were pooled together, high adherence to the DASH diet was associated with a lower risk of hypertension (HR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.73–0.90, I2 = 69%, PI 0.61–1.08) compared to the low adherence. When cross-sectional studies reporting OR were combined, high adherence to the DASH diet was also related to a lower risk of hypertension (OR: 0.80, 95% CI 0.70–0.91, I2 = 81%, PI 0.46–1.39). The findings suggest that high adherence to the DASH diet has a positive effect on reducing hypertension risk compared to low adherence. These data strengthen and are in line with all hypertension guidelines, indicating that lifestyle changes should start early even in populations with normal blood pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Risk of Cardiometabolic and Diabetes)
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20 pages, 2283 KiB  
Review
The Role of Probiotics in Skin Health and Related Gut–Skin Axis: A Review
by Ting Gao, Xiaoyu Wang, Yixuan Li and Fazheng Ren
Nutrients 2023, 15(14), 3123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15143123 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 11909
Abstract
Aging skin, wrinkles, pigmentation, and dryness are problems that plague people, and researchers are working to solve them. Recent studies have shown that intestinal microbiota homeostasis can influence skin health, demonstrating the existence of a gut–skin axis. Recently, improving skin health through probiotic [...] Read more.
Aging skin, wrinkles, pigmentation, and dryness are problems that plague people, and researchers are working to solve them. Recent studies have shown that intestinal microbiota homeostasis can influence skin health, demonstrating the existence of a gut–skin axis. Recently, improving skin health through probiotic interventions has been proposed, and micro-ecological skin care is becoming a popular concept. By regulating skin health and gut–skin axis interactions, probiotics can be used as potential management tools to suppress and improve skin diseases in multiple ways, including decreasing oxidative stress, suppressing inflammatory responses, and keeping immune effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the application and mechanisms of probiotic-mediated gut microbiota homeostasis in skin care and to offer a theoretical basis for the application of probiotics in skin care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Nutrition: Metabolic Diseases)
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25 pages, 1994 KiB  
Review
Food Anthocyanins: Malvidin and Its Glycosides as Promising Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agents with Potential Health Benefits
by Anna Merecz-Sadowska, Przemysław Sitarek, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Karolina Zajdel, Mariusz Jęcek, Paweł Nowak and Radosław Zajdel
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3016; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133016 - 1 Jul 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3321
Abstract
Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds that are abundantly present in fruits and vegetables. These compounds contribute to the color of these foods and offer various health benefits to consumers due to their biological properties. There are more than 1000 types of anthocyanins in nature, [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds that are abundantly present in fruits and vegetables. These compounds contribute to the color of these foods and offer various health benefits to consumers due to their biological properties. There are more than 1000 types of anthocyanins in nature, all derived from 27 anthocyanidin aglycones that have different glycosylations and acylations. Malvidin is one of the most well-known anthocyanidins. Several studies, including those conducted on cell lines, animals, and humans, have suggested that malvidin and its glycosides possess anti-carcinogenic, diabetes-control, cardiovascular-disease-prevention, and brain-function-improvement properties. These health benefits are primarily attributed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which are influenced by the molecular mechanisms related to the expression and modulation of critical genes. In this article, we review the available information on the biological activity of malvidin and its glycosides concerning their health-promoting effects. Full article
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43 pages, 2593 KiB  
Review
Global Impacts of Western Diet and Its Effects on Metabolism and Health: A Narrative Review
by Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Ana Isabel Beltrán-Velasco, Laura Redondo-Flórez, Alexandra Martín-Rodríguez and José Francisco Tornero-Aguilera
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2749; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122749 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 20743
Abstract
The Western diet is a modern dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of pre-packaged foods, refined grains, red meat, processed meat, high-sugar drinks, candy, sweets, fried foods, conventionally raised animal products, high-fat dairy products, and high-fructose products. The present review aims to describe [...] Read more.
The Western diet is a modern dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of pre-packaged foods, refined grains, red meat, processed meat, high-sugar drinks, candy, sweets, fried foods, conventionally raised animal products, high-fat dairy products, and high-fructose products. The present review aims to describe the effect of the Western pattern diet on the metabolism, inflammation, and antioxidant status; the impact on gut microbiota and mitochondrial fitness; the effect of on cardiovascular health, mental health, and cancer; and the sanitary cost of the Western diet. To achieve this goal, a consensus critical review was conducted using primary sources, such as scientific articles, and secondary sources, including bibliographic indexes, databases, and web pages. Scopus, Embase, Science Direct, Sports Discuss, ResearchGate, and the Web of Science were used to complete the assignment. MeSH-compliant keywords such “Western diet”, “inflammation”, “metabolic health”, “metabolic fitness”, “heart disease”, “cancer”, “oxidative stress”, “mental health”, and “metabolism” were used. The following exclusion criteria were applied: (i) studies with inappropriate or irrelevant topics, not germane to the review’s primary focus; (ii) Ph.D. dissertations, proceedings of conferences, and unpublished studies. This information will allow for a better comprehension of this nutritional behavior and its effect on an individual’s metabolism and health, as well as the impact on national sanitary systems. Finally, practical applications derived from this information are made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Dietary Fat on Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Health)
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18 pages, 1985 KiB  
Systematic Review
Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Incidence of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adults: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies
by Sara Paola Mambrini, Francesca Menichetti, Simone Ravella, Marta Pellizzari, Ramona De Amicis, Andrea Foppiani, Alberto Battezzati, Simona Bertoli and Alessandro Leone
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2583; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112583 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4421
Abstract
Ultra-processed foods (UPF) are energy-dense, nutritionally unbalanced products, low in fiber but high in saturated fat, salt, and sugar. Recently, UPF consumption has increased likewise the incidence of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. To highlight a possible relationship, we conducted a systematic review of [...] Read more.
Ultra-processed foods (UPF) are energy-dense, nutritionally unbalanced products, low in fiber but high in saturated fat, salt, and sugar. Recently, UPF consumption has increased likewise the incidence of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases. To highlight a possible relationship, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies from PubMed and Web of Science investigating the association between UPF consumption and the incidence of obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Seventeen studies were selected. Eight evaluated the incidence of general and abdominal obesity, one the incidence of impaired fasting blood glucose, four the incidence of diabetes, two the incidence of dyslipidemia, and only one the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Studies’ quality was assessed according to the Critical Appraisal Checklist for cohort studies proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Substantial agreement emerged among the studies in defining UPF consumption as being associated with the incident risk of general and abdominal obesity. More limited was the evidence on cardiometabolic risk. Nevertheless, most studies reported that UPF consumption as being associated with an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. In conclusion, evidence supports the existence of a relationship between UPF consumption and the incidence of obesity and cardiometabolic risk. However, further longitudinal studies considering diet quality and changes over time are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Processed Foods, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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17 pages, 5605 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbial Metabolite Butyrate and Its Therapeutic Role in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Literature Review
by Neeraja Recharla, Ramasatyaveni Geesala and Xuan-Zheng Shi
Nutrients 2023, 15(10), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15102275 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7606
Abstract
Background and objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by aberrant immune responses and compromised barrier function in the gastrointestinal tract. IBD is associated with altered gut microbiota and their metabolites in [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by aberrant immune responses and compromised barrier function in the gastrointestinal tract. IBD is associated with altered gut microbiota and their metabolites in the colon. Butyrate, a gut microbial metabolite, plays a crucial role in regulating immune function, epithelial barrier function, and intestinal homeostasis. In this review, we aim to present an overview of butyrate synthesis and metabolism and the mechanism of action of butyrate in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and to discuss the therapeutic implications of butyrate in IBD. Methods: We searched the literature up to March 2023 through PubMed, Web of Science, and other sources using search terms such as butyrate, inflammation, IBD, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Clinical studies in patients and preclinical studies in rodent models of IBD were included in the summary of the therapeutic implications of butyrate. Results: Research in the last two decades has shown the beneficial effects of butyrate on gut immune function and epithelial barrier function. Most of the preclinical and clinical studies have shown the positive effect of butyrate oral supplements in reducing inflammation and maintaining remission in colitis animal models and IBD patients. However, butyrate enema showed mixed effects. Butyrogenic diets, including germinated barley foodstuff and oat bran, are found to increase fecal butyrate concentrations and reduce the disease activity index in both animal models and IBD patients. Conclusions: The current literature suggests that butyrate is a potential add-on therapy to reduce inflammation and maintain IBD remission. Further clinical studies are needed to determine if butyrate administration alone is an effective therapeutic treatment for IBD. Full article
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17 pages, 1470 KiB  
Review
Dietary Fibers in Healthy Children and in Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Practical Guide
by Silvia Salvatore, Maria Serena Battigaglia, Elena Murone, Eugenia Dozio, Licia Pensabene and Massimo Agosti
Nutrients 2023, 15(9), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15092208 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3908
Abstract
Dietary fibers include non-digestible plant carbohydrates, lignin and resistant starch. Dietary fibers provide immune, cardiovascular, metabolic and intestinal beneficial effects in humans. Fibers naturally present in foods (fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals) or used as supplements have different physical, chemical and functional profiles. This [...] Read more.
Dietary fibers include non-digestible plant carbohydrates, lignin and resistant starch. Dietary fibers provide immune, cardiovascular, metabolic and intestinal beneficial effects in humans. Fibers naturally present in foods (fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals) or used as supplements have different physical, chemical and functional profiles. This narrative review provides an update to the knowledge on the effects of dietary fibers in healthy subjects and in children with gastrointestinal disorders. Soluble fibers are digested by gut bacteria, producing short-chain fatty acids and energy for colonocytes, and may exert prebiotic effects that promote the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Non-soluble fibers are bulking agents and may improve intestinal transit. The exact amount and characteristics of the fiber requirement in infants and children need to be further established. There are limited data evaluating fibers in children with gastrointestinal disorders. The low intake of fibers has been associated with constipation, but the intake of excessive fibers is not recommended as it may cause flatulence and abdominal discomfort. Certain fibers (particularly psyllium in irritable bowel syndrome) have shown beneficial effects in children with gastrointestinal disorders, but the limited and heterogenous data do not currently allow a specific recommendation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management of Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children)
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22 pages, 1196 KiB  
Review
Short-Chain Fatty-Acid-Producing Bacteria: Key Components of the Human Gut Microbiota
by William Fusco, Manuel Bernabeu Lorenzo, Marco Cintoni, Serena Porcari, Emanuele Rinninella, Francesco Kaitsas, Elena Lener, Maria Cristina Mele, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maria Carmen Collado, Giovanni Cammarota and Gianluca Ianiro
Nutrients 2023, 15(9), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15092211 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 10098
Abstract
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in health and disease, as they regulate gut homeostasis and their deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of several disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, and cardiometabolic disorders. SCFAs are metabolites of specific bacterial [...] Read more.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in health and disease, as they regulate gut homeostasis and their deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of several disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, and cardiometabolic disorders. SCFAs are metabolites of specific bacterial taxa of the human gut microbiota, and their production is influenced by specific foods or food supplements, mainly prebiotics, by the direct fostering of these taxa. This Review provides an overview of SCFAs’ roles and functions, and of SCFA-producing bacteria, from their microbiological characteristics and taxonomy to the biochemical process that lead to the release of SCFAs. Moreover, we will describe the potential therapeutic approaches to boost the levels of SCFAs in the human gut and treat different related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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23 pages, 2738 KiB  
Review
Antioxidant Compounds from Edible Mushrooms as Potential Candidates for Treating Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases
by Grazia Maria Liuzzi, Tania Petraglia, Tiziana Latronico, Aniello Crescenzi and Rocco Rossano
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081913 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4845
Abstract
The last century has seen an increase in our life expectancy. As a result, various age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), have emerged, representing new challenges to society. Oxidative stress (OS), a condition of redox imbalance resulting from excessive production of reactive [...] Read more.
The last century has seen an increase in our life expectancy. As a result, various age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), have emerged, representing new challenges to society. Oxidative stress (OS), a condition of redox imbalance resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species, represents a common feature that characterizes the brains of elderly people, thus contributing to NDs. Consequently, antioxidant supplementation or dietary intake of antioxidant-containing foods could represent an effective preventive and therapeutic intervention to maintain the integrity and survival of neurons and to counteract the neurodegenerative pathologies associated with aging. Food contains numerous bioactive molecules with beneficial actions for human health. To this purpose, a wide range of edible mushrooms have been reported to produce different antioxidant compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids, ergothioneine, and others, which might be used for dietary supplementation to enhance antioxidant defenses and, consequently, the prevention of age-related neurological diseases. In this review, we summarized the role of oxidative stress in age-related NDs, focusing on the current knowledge of the antioxidant compounds present in edible mushrooms, and highlighting their potential to preserve healthy aging by counteracting age-associated NDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Healthy Aging)
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28 pages, 1446 KiB  
Review
Prebiotic and Probiotic Modulation of the Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis in Depression
by Daniel E. Radford-Smith and Daniel C. Anthony
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081880 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5200
Abstract
Emerging evidence demonstrates that alterations to the gut microbiota can affect mood, suggesting that the microbiota–gut–brain (MGB) axis contributes to the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these pathways overlap with the way in which the gut microbiota are thought to contribute to metabolic [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence demonstrates that alterations to the gut microbiota can affect mood, suggesting that the microbiota–gut–brain (MGB) axis contributes to the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these pathways overlap with the way in which the gut microbiota are thought to contribute to metabolic disease progression and obesity. In rodents, prebiotics and probiotics have been shown to modulate the composition and function of the gut microbiota. Together with germ-free rodent models, probiotics have provided compelling evidence for a causal relationship between microbes, microbial metabolites, and altered neurochemical signalling and inflammatory pathways in the brain. In humans, probiotic supplementation has demonstrated modest antidepressant effects in individuals with depressive symptoms, though more studies in clinically relevant populations are needed. This review critically discusses the role of the MGB axis in depression pathophysiology, integrating preclinical and clinical evidence, as well as the putative routes of communication between the microbiota–gut interface and the brain. A critical overview of the current approaches to investigating microbiome changes in depression is provided. To effectively translate preclinical breakthroughs in MGB axis research into novel therapies, rigorous placebo-controlled trials alongside a mechanistic and biochemical understanding of prebiotic and probiotic action are required from future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews on Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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25 pages, 842 KiB  
Review
Role of Akkermansia in Human Diseases: From Causation to Therapeutic Properties
by Antonio Pellegrino, Gaetano Coppola, Francesco Santopaolo, Antonio Gasbarrini and Francesca Romana Ponziani
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081815 - 8 Apr 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4456
Abstract
The gut microbiota plays a critical role in the modulation of host metabolism and immune response, and its impairment has been implicated in many gastrointestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Current evidence shows the well-documented role of A. muciniphila in maintaining the integrity of the [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota plays a critical role in the modulation of host metabolism and immune response, and its impairment has been implicated in many gastrointestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Current evidence shows the well-documented role of A. muciniphila in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier, modulating the host immune response, and improving several metabolic pathways, making it a key element in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. In this scenario, A. muciniphila is the most promising next-generation probiotic and one of the first microbial species suitable for specific clinical use when compared with traditional probiotics. Further studies are needed to provide more accurate insight into its mechanisms of action and to better elucidate its properties in several major areas, paving the way for a more integrated and personalized therapeutic approach that finally makes the most of our knowledge of the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Probiotics on the Human Metabolome)
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31 pages, 2118 KiB  
Review
An Integrated Approach to Skeletal Muscle Health in Aging
by Deborah Agostini, Marco Gervasi, Fabio Ferrini, Alessia Bartolacci, Alessandro Stranieri, Giovanni Piccoli, Elena Barbieri, Piero Sestili, Antonino Patti, Vilberto Stocchi and Sabrina Donati Zeppa
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081802 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5259
Abstract
A decline in muscle mass and function represents one of the most problematic changes associated with aging, and has dramatic effects on autonomy and quality of life. Several factors contribute to the inexorable process of sarcopenia, such as mitochondrial and autophagy dysfunction, and [...] Read more.
A decline in muscle mass and function represents one of the most problematic changes associated with aging, and has dramatic effects on autonomy and quality of life. Several factors contribute to the inexorable process of sarcopenia, such as mitochondrial and autophagy dysfunction, and the lack of regeneration capacity of satellite cells. The physiologic decline in muscle mass and in motoneuron functionality associated with aging is exacerbated by the sedentary lifestyle that accompanies elderly people. Regular physical activity is beneficial to most people, but the elderly need well-designed and carefully administered training programs that improve muscle mass and, consequently, both functional ability and quality of life. Aging also causes alteration in the gut microbiota composition associated with sarcopenia, and some advances in research have elucidated that interventions via the gut microbiota–muscle axis have the potential to ameliorate the sarcopenic phenotype. Several mechanisms are involved in vitamin D muscle atrophy protection, as demonstrated by the decreased muscular function related to vitamin D deficiency. Malnutrition, chronic inflammation, vitamin deficiencies, and an imbalance in the muscle–gut axis are just a few of the factors that can lead to sarcopenia. Supplementing the diet with antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, proteins, kefir, and short-chain fatty acids could be potential nutritional therapies against sarcopenia. Finally, a personalized integrated strategy to counteract sarcopenia and maintain the health of skeletal muscles is suggested in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
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15 pages, 620 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Obesity Paradox and Mortality in Older Adults: A Systematic Review
by Moustapha Dramé and Lidvine Godaert
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071780 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4141
Abstract
“Obesity paradox” describes the counterintuitive finding that aged overweight and obese people with a particular disease may have better outcomes than their normal weight or underweight counterparts. This systematic review was performed to summarize the publications related to the obesity paradox in older [...] Read more.
“Obesity paradox” describes the counterintuitive finding that aged overweight and obese people with a particular disease may have better outcomes than their normal weight or underweight counterparts. This systematic review was performed to summarize the publications related to the obesity paradox in older adults, to gain an in-depth understanding of this phenomenon. PubMed©, Embase©, and Scopus© were used to perform literature search for all publications up to 20 March 2022. Studies were included if they reported data from older adults on the relation between BMI and mortality. The following article types were excluded from the study: reviews, editorials, correspondence, and case reports and case series. Publication year, study setting, medical condition, study design, sample size, age, and outcome(s) were extracted. This review has been registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42021289015). Overall, 2226 studies were identified, of which 58 were included in this systematic review. In all, 20 of the 58 studies included in this review did not find any evidence of an obesity paradox. Of these 20 studies, 16 involved patients with no specific medical condition, 1 involved patients with chronic diseases, and 2 involved patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seven out of the nine studies that looked at short-term mortality found evidence of the obesity paradox. Of the 28 studies that examined longer-term mortality, 15 found evidence of the obesity paradox. In the studies that were conducted in people with a particular medical condition (n = 24), the obesity paradox appeared in 18 cases. Our work supports the existence of an obesity paradox, especially when comorbidities or acute medical problems are present. These findings should help guide strategies for nutritional counselling in older populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Interventions for Healthy Ageing)
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17 pages, 350 KiB  
Review
Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-C): Effects of Different Nutritional Patterns on Intestinal Dysbiosis and Symptoms
by Claudia Di Rosa, Annamaria Altomare, Vittoria Terrigno, Florencia Carbone, Jan Tack, Michele Cicala and Michele Pier Luca Guarino
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071647 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5597
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation or a change in bowel habits. The pathogenesis of IBS is not completely clear, but it is known to be multifactorial and complex. Endogenous and exogenous [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation or a change in bowel habits. The pathogenesis of IBS is not completely clear, but it is known to be multifactorial and complex. Endogenous and exogenous factors such as abnormal GI motility, low-grade inflammation, increased epithelial permeability and visceral hypersensitivity, but diet and psychosocial aspects are also recognized as important actors. Furthermore, the interaction between diet and gut microbiota has gained interest as a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of IBS. To date, there is no specific diet for IBS with constipation (IBS-C); however, many studies show that fiber intake, especially soluble fiber such as inulin, could have a positive effect on symptoms. This review aims to evaluate the effects of some nutritional components such as fibers but also functional foods, prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics on symptoms and microbiota in IBS-C subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
14 pages, 1081 KiB  
Review
Low-Grade Inflammation and Ultra-Processed Foods Consumption: A Review
by Marta Tristan Asensi, Antonia Napoletano, Francesco Sofi and Monica Dinu
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061546 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 14127
Abstract
Low-grade inflammation alters the homeostasis of the organism and favors the onset of many chronic diseases. The global growth in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF). Known to [...] Read more.
Low-grade inflammation alters the homeostasis of the organism and favors the onset of many chronic diseases. The global growth in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF). Known to be hyperpalatable, economic and ready-to-eat, increased consumption of UPF has already been recognized as a risk factor for several chronic diseases. Different research groups have tried to investigate whether UPF consumption could promote low-grade inflammation and thus favor the development of noncommunicable diseases. Current evidence highlights the adverse health effects of UPF characteristics, not only due to the nutrients provided by a diet rich in UPF, but also due to the non-nutritive components present in UPF and the effect they may have on gut health. This review aims to summarize the available evidence on the possible relationship between excessive UPF consumption and modulation of low-grade inflammation, as potential promoters of chronic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Processed Foods, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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27 pages, 961 KiB  
Review
The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis: Psychoneuroimmunological Insights
by Giuseppe Marano, Marianna Mazza, Francesco Maria Lisci, Michele Ciliberto, Gianandrea Traversi, Georgios Demetrios Kotzalidis, Domenico De Berardis, Lucrezia Laterza, Gabriele Sani, Antonio Gasbarrini and Eleonora Gaetani
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061496 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6726
Abstract
There is growing interest in the role that the intestinal microbiota and the related autoimmune processes may have in the genesis and presentation of some psychiatric diseases. An alteration in the communication of the microbiota–gut–brain axis, which constitutes a communicative model between the [...] Read more.
There is growing interest in the role that the intestinal microbiota and the related autoimmune processes may have in the genesis and presentation of some psychiatric diseases. An alteration in the communication of the microbiota–gut–brain axis, which constitutes a communicative model between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastro-enteric tract, has been identified as one of the possible causes of some psychiatric diseases. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe evidence supporting a role of the gut microbiota in psychiatric diseases and the impact of diet on microbiota and mental health. Change in the composition of the gut microbiota could determine an increase in the permeability of the intestinal barrier, leading to a cytokine storm. This could trigger a systemic inflammatory activation and immune response: this series of events could have repercussions on the release of some neurotransmitters, altering the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, and reducing the presence of trophic brain factors. Although gut microbiota and psychiatric disorders seem to be connected, more effort is needed to understand the potential causative mechanisms underlying the interactions between these systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Topics in Clinical Nutrition)
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28 pages, 2240 KiB  
Review
Green Tea and Benign Gynecologic Disorders: A New Trick for An Old Beverage?
by Dana Hazimeh, Gaelle Massoud, Maclaine Parish, Bhuchitra Singh, James Segars and Md Soriful Islam
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061439 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 8281
Abstract
Green tea is harvested from the tea plant Camellia sinensis and is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. It is richer in antioxidants than other forms of tea and has a uniquely high content of polyphenolic compounds known as catechins. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate [...] Read more.
Green tea is harvested from the tea plant Camellia sinensis and is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. It is richer in antioxidants than other forms of tea and has a uniquely high content of polyphenolic compounds known as catechins. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major green tea catechin, has been studied for its potential therapeutic role in many disease contexts, including pathologies of the female reproductive system. As both a prooxidant and antioxidant, EGCG can modulate many cellular pathways important to disease pathogenesis and thus has clinical benefits. This review provides a synopsis of the current knowledge on the beneficial effects of green tea in benign gynecological disorders. Green tea alleviates symptom severity in uterine fibroids and improves endometriosis through anti-fibrotic, anti-angiogenic, and pro-apoptotic mechanisms. Additionally, it can reduce uterine contractility and improve the generalized hyperalgesia associated with dysmenorrhea and adenomyosis. Although its role in infertility is controversial, EGCG can be used as a symptomatic treatment for menopause, where it decreases weight gain and osteoporosis, as well as for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals for Women’s Reproductive Health and Disorders)
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33 pages, 502 KiB  
Review
The Role of Diet as a Modulator of the Inflammatory Process in the Neurological Diseases
by Antonina Kurowska, Wojciech Ziemichód, Mariola Herbet and Iwona Piątkowska-Chmiel
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061436 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 8501
Abstract
Neurological diseases are recognized as major causes of disability and mortality worldwide. Due to the dynamic progress of diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Schizophrenia, Depression, and Multiple Sclerosis (MD), scientists are mobilized to look for new and more effective [...] Read more.
Neurological diseases are recognized as major causes of disability and mortality worldwide. Due to the dynamic progress of diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Schizophrenia, Depression, and Multiple Sclerosis (MD), scientists are mobilized to look for new and more effective methods of interventions. A growing body of evidence suggests that inflammatory processes and an imbalance in the composition and function of the gut microbiome, which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases and dietary interventions, such as the Mediterranean diet the DASH diet, or the ketogenic diet can have beneficial effects on their course. The aim of this review was to take a closer look at the role of diet and its ingredients in modulating inflammation associated with the development and/or progression of central nervous system diseases. Presented data shows that consuming a diet abundant in fruits, vegetables, nuts, herbs, spices, and legumes that are sources of anti-inflammatory elements such as omega-3 fatty acids, polyphenols, vitamins, essential minerals, and probiotics while avoiding foods that promote inflammation, create a positive brain environment and is associated with a reduced risk of neurological diseases. Personalized nutritional interventions may constitute a non-invasive and effective strategy in combating neurological disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
31 pages, 6062 KiB  
Review
Systematic Review on the Metabolic Interest of Glucosinolates and Their Bioactive Derivatives for Human Health
by Antonio Costa-Pérez, Vanesa Núñez-Gómez, Nieves Baenas, Giuseppe Di Pede, Mariem Achour, Claudine Manach, Pedro Mena, Daniele Del Rio, Cristina García-Viguera, Diego A. Moreno and Raúl Domínguez-Perles
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061424 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3371
Abstract
In the last decade, most of the evidence on the clinical benefits of including cruciferous foods in the diet has been focused on the content of glucosinolates (GSL) and their corresponding isothiocyanates (ITC), and mercapturic acid pathway metabolites, based on their capacity to [...] Read more.
In the last decade, most of the evidence on the clinical benefits of including cruciferous foods in the diet has been focused on the content of glucosinolates (GSL) and their corresponding isothiocyanates (ITC), and mercapturic acid pathway metabolites, based on their capacity to modulate clinical, biochemical, and molecular parameters. The present systematic review summarizes findings of human studies regarding the metabolism and bioavailability of GSL and ITC, providing a comprehensive analysis that will help guide future research studies and facilitate the consultation of the latest advances in this booming and less profusely researched area of GSL for food and health. The literature search was carried out in Scopus, PubMed and the Web of Science, under the criteria of including publications centered on human subjects and the use of Brassicaceae foods in different formulations (including extracts, beverages, and tablets), as significant sources of bioactive compounds, in different types of subjects, and against certain diseases. Twenty-eight human intervention studies met inclusion criteria, which were classified into three groups depending on the dietary source. This review summarizes recent studies that provided interesting contributions, but also uncovered the many potential venues for future research on the benefits of consuming cruciferous foods in our health and well-being. The research will continue to support the inclusion of GSL-rich foods and products for multiple preventive and active programs in nutrition and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Reviews on Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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35 pages, 719 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Genetic Basis of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review
by Aikaterini Vourdoumpa, George Paltoglou and Evangelia Charmandari
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061416 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5398
Abstract
Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence represents one of the most challenging public health problems of our century owing to its epidemic proportions and the associated significant morbidity, mortality, and increase in public health costs. The pathogenesis of polygenic obesity is multifactorial [...] Read more.
Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence represents one of the most challenging public health problems of our century owing to its epidemic proportions and the associated significant morbidity, mortality, and increase in public health costs. The pathogenesis of polygenic obesity is multifactorial and is due to the interaction among genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. More than 1100 independent genetic loci associated with obesity traits have been currently identified, and there is great interest in the decoding of their biological functions and the gene–environment interaction. The present study aimed to systematically review the scientific evidence and to explore the relation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) with changes in body mass index (BMI) and other measures of body composition in children and adolescents with obesity, as well as their response to lifestyle interventions. Twenty-seven studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, which consisted of 7928 overweight/obese children and adolescents at different stages of pubertal development who underwent multidisciplinary management. The effect of polymorphisms in 92 different genes was assessed and revealed SNPs in 24 genetic loci significantly associated with BMI and/or body composition change, which contribute to the complex metabolic imbalance of obesity, including the regulation of appetite and energy balance, the homeostasis of glucose, lipid, and adipose tissue, as well as their interactions. The decoding of the genetic and molecular/cellular pathophysiology of obesity and the gene–environment interactions, alongside with the individual genotype, will enable us to design targeted and personalized preventive and management interventions for obesity early in life. Full article
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11 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Assessment of Plant-Based Meat Alternatives: A Comparison of Nutritional Information of Plant-Based Meat Alternatives in Spanish Supermarkets
by Lucía Rizzolo-Brime, Alicia Orta-Ramirez, Yael Puyol Martin and Paula Jakszyn
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061325 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4616
Abstract
Since the classification of processed meat as carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2015, an increase in consumption of plant-based meat alternatives (PBMAs) has been observed worldwide. This occurs in a context characterized by concern for health, animal [...] Read more.
Since the classification of processed meat as carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2015, an increase in consumption of plant-based meat alternatives (PBMAs) has been observed worldwide. This occurs in a context characterized by concern for health, animal welfare, and sustainability; however, evidence of their nutritional quality is still limited. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the nutritional profile and processing degree of PBMAs available in Spain. In 2020, products from seven Spanish supermarkets were analyzed for their nutritional content and ingredients. Of the 148 products, the majority were low in sugars but moderate in carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, and high in salt. The main vegetable protein sources were soy (91/148) and wheat gluten (42/148). Comparatively, 43/148 contained animal protein, the most common being egg. Overall, PBMAs had a long list of ingredients and additives, and they were classified as ultra-processed foods (UPFs) according to the NOVA system. This study shows that the PBMAs available in Spanish supermarkets have a variable nutritional composition within and between categories. Further research is needed to determine if replacing meat with these UPFs could be a good alternative towards healthier and more sustainable dietary patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Dietary Patterns, Health and Sustainability)
25 pages, 467 KiB  
Review
The Influence of Metabolic Factors and Diet on Fertility
by Klaudia Łakoma, Olha Kukharuk and Daniel Śliż
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051180 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 9163
Abstract
Infertility is a disease globally affecting 20–30% of the reproductive age female population. However, in up to 50% on recorded cases, problems with infertility are ascribed to men; therefore, it is important to popularize healthy eating also in this group. During the last [...] Read more.
Infertility is a disease globally affecting 20–30% of the reproductive age female population. However, in up to 50% on recorded cases, problems with infertility are ascribed to men; therefore, it is important to popularize healthy eating also in this group. During the last decade, it has been observed that society’s lifestyle changed drastically: reduced energy expenditure in physical activity per day, increased consumption of hypercaloric and high-glycemic-index foods with high content of trans fats, and reduced consumption of dietary fiber, which negatively affects fertility. Increasing evidence points to a link between diet and fertility. It is becoming clear that well-planned nutrition can also contribute to the effectiveness of ART. The low-GI plant-based diet appears to have a positive effect, especially when it is based on Mediterranean dietary patterns: rich in antioxidants, vegetable protein, fiber, MUFA fatty acids, omega-3, vitamins, and minerals. Importantly, this diet has been shown to protect against chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress, which also translates into pregnancy success. As lifestyle and nutrition seem to be important factors affecting fertility, it is worth expanding knowledge in this regard among couples trying to conceive a child. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Therapy: Personal Diet and Lifestyle and Human Health)
18 pages, 337 KiB  
Review
The Association of Emotional Eating with Overweight/Obesity, Depression, Anxiety/Stress, and Dietary Patterns: A Review of the Current Clinical Evidence
by Antonios Dakanalis, Maria Mentzelou, Souzana K. Papadopoulou, Dimitrios Papandreou, Maria Spanoudaki, Georgios K. Vasios, Eleni Pavlidou, Maria Mantzorou and Constantinos Giaginis
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051173 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 10768
Abstract
(1) Background: Emotional eating is considered as the propensity to eat in response to emotions. It is considered as a critical risk factor for recurrent weight gain. Such overeating is able to affect general health due to excess energy intake and mental health. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Emotional eating is considered as the propensity to eat in response to emotions. It is considered as a critical risk factor for recurrent weight gain. Such overeating is able to affect general health due to excess energy intake and mental health. So far, there is still considerable controversy on the effect of the emotional eating concept. The objective of this study is to summarize and evaluate the interconnections among emotional eating and overweight/obesity, depression, anxiety/stress, and dietary patterns; (2) Methods: This is a thorough review of the reported associations among emotional eating and overweight/obesity, depression, anxiety/stress, and dietary patterns. We compressively searched the most precise scientific online databases, e.g., PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar to obtain the most up-to-date data from clinical studies in humans from the last ten years (2013–2023) using critical and representative keywords. Several inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied for scrutinizing only longitudinal, cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective clinical studies in Caucasian populations; (3) Results: The currently available findings suggest that overeating/obesity and unhealthy eating behaviors (e.g., fast food consumption) are associated with emotional eating. Moreover, the increase in depressive symptoms seems to be related with more emotional eating. Psychological distress is also related with a greater risk for emotional eating. However, the most common limitations are the small sample size and their lack of diversity. In addition, a cross-sectional study was performed in the majority of them; (4) Conclusions: Finding coping mechanisms for the negative emotions and nutrition education can prevent the prevalence of emotional eating. Future studies should further explain the underlying mechanisms of the interconnections among emotional eating and overweight/obesity, depression, anxiety/stress, and dietary patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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16 pages, 1032 KiB  
Review
Inflammation and Nutrition: Friend or Foe?
by Franziska Stumpf, Bettina Keller, Carla Gressies and Philipp Schuetz
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051159 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5464
Abstract
The importance of the interplay between inflammation and nutrition has generated much interest in recent times. Inflammation has been identified as a key driver for disease-related malnutrition, leading to anorexia, reduced food intake, muscle catabolism, and insulin resistance, which are stimulating a catabolic [...] Read more.
The importance of the interplay between inflammation and nutrition has generated much interest in recent times. Inflammation has been identified as a key driver for disease-related malnutrition, leading to anorexia, reduced food intake, muscle catabolism, and insulin resistance, which are stimulating a catabolic state. Interesting recent data suggest that inflammation also modulates the response to nutritional treatment. Studies have demonstrated that patients with high inflammation show no response to nutritional interventions, while patients with lower levels of inflammation do. This may explain the contradictory results of nutritional trials to date. Several studies of heterogeneous patient populations, or in the critically ill or advanced cancer patients, have not found significant benefits on clinical outcome. Vice versa, several dietary patterns and nutrients with pro- or anti-inflammatory properties have been identified, demonstrating that nutrition influences inflammation. Within this review, we summarize and discuss recent advances in both the role of inflammation in malnutrition and the effect of nutrition on inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hot Topics in Clinical Nutrition)
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29 pages, 3327 KiB  
Review
Body Composition of Male Professional Soccer Players Using Different Measurement Methods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Jaime Sebastiá-Rico, Jose M. Soriano, Noelia González-Gálvez and José Miguel Martínez-Sanz
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051160 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6761
Abstract
The performance of male soccer players (MSP) depends on multiple factors such as body composition. The physical demands of modern soccer have changed, so the ideal body composition (BC) requirements must be adapted to the present. The aim of this systematic review and [...] Read more.
The performance of male soccer players (MSP) depends on multiple factors such as body composition. The physical demands of modern soccer have changed, so the ideal body composition (BC) requirements must be adapted to the present. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to describe the anthropometric, BC, and somatotype characteristics of professional MSP and to compare the values reported according to the methods and equations used. We systematically searched Embase, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science following the PRISMA statement. Random-effects meta-analysis, a pooled summary of means, and 95% CI (method or equation) were calculated. Random models were used with the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. Seventy-four articles were included in the systematic review and seventy-three in the meta-analysis. After comparing the groups according to the assessment method (kinanthropometry, bioimpedance, and densitometry), significant differences were found in height, fat mass in kilograms, fat mass percentage, and fat-free mass in kilograms (p = 0.001; p < 0.0001). Taking into account the equation used to calculate the fat mass percentage and ∑skinfolds, significant differences were observed in the data reported according to groups (p < 0.001). Despite the limitations, this study provides useful information that could help medical technical staff to properly assess the BC of professional MSP, providing a range of guidance values for the different BC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Nutritional Strategies on Muscle Health)
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18 pages, 2511 KiB  
Review
Disentangling the Complexity of Nutrition, Frailty and Gut Microbial Pathways during Aging: A Focus on Hippuric Acid
by Andrea Ticinesi, Angela Guerra, Antonio Nouvenne, Tiziana Meschi and Stefania Maggi
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051138 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3664
Abstract
Hippuric acid (HA) is a metabolite resulting from the hepatic glycine conjugation of benzoic acid (BA) or from the gut bacterial metabolism of phenylalanine. BA is generally produced by gut microbial metabolic pathways after the ingestion of foods of vegetal origin rich in [...] Read more.
Hippuric acid (HA) is a metabolite resulting from the hepatic glycine conjugation of benzoic acid (BA) or from the gut bacterial metabolism of phenylalanine. BA is generally produced by gut microbial metabolic pathways after the ingestion of foods of vegetal origin rich in polyphenolic compounds, namely, chlorogenic acids or epicatechins. It can also be present in foods, either naturally or artificially added as a preservative. The plasma and urine HA levels have been used in nutritional research for estimating the habitual fruit and vegetable intake, especially in children and in patients with metabolic diseases. HA has also been proposed as a biomarker of aging, since its levels in the plasma and urine can be influenced by the presence of several age-related conditions, including frailty, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment. Subjects with physical frailty generally exhibit reduced plasma and urine levels of HA, despite the fact that HA excretion tends to increase with aging. Conversely, subjects with chronic kidney disease exhibit reduced HA clearance, with HA retention that may exert toxic effects on the circulation, brain and kidneys. With regard to older patients with frailty and multimorbidity, interpreting the HA levels in the plasma and urine may result particularly challenging because HA is at the crossroads between diet, gut microbiota, liver and kidney function. Although these considerations may not make HA the ideal biomarker of aging trajectories, the study of its metabolism and clearance in older subjects may provide valuable information for disentangling the complex interaction between diet, gut microbiota, frailty and multimorbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging - Featured Perspectives on Health and Metabolism)
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17 pages, 640 KiB  
Systematic Review
Mediterranean Diet and Sarcopenia Features in Apparently Healthy Adults over 65 Years: A Systematic Review
by Sousana K. Papadopoulou, Paraskevi Detopoulou, Gavriela Voulgaridou, Despoina Tsoumana, Maria Spanoudaki, Faviola Sadikou, Vasiliki G. Papadopoulou, Christiana Zidrou, Ioanna P. Chatziprodromidou, Constantinos Giaginis and Pantelis Nikolaidis
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051104 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Low muscle mass combined with changes in physical function and muscle quality is defined as sarcopenia. In people > 60 years, sarcopenia reaches 10% and tends to increase with age. Individual nutrients, such as protein, may have a protective role against sarcopenia, but [...] Read more.
Low muscle mass combined with changes in physical function and muscle quality is defined as sarcopenia. In people > 60 years, sarcopenia reaches 10% and tends to increase with age. Individual nutrients, such as protein, may have a protective role against sarcopenia, but recent evidence suggests that protein alone has been ineffective in increasing muscle strength. Dietary patterns, instead, with a high “anti-inflammatory” potential, such as the Mediterranean dietary pattern, have been considered as an emerging dietary remedy against sarcopenia. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence of the role of Mediterranean diet in sarcopenia prevention and/or improvement, including recent data, in healthy elders. We searched published studies about sarcopenia and the Mediterranean diet until December 2022 in Pubmed, Cochrane, Scopus search engine and grey literature. In total, ten articles were identified as relevant: four cross-sectional studies and six prospective. No clinical trial was identified. Only three studies assessed sarcopenia presence and four measured muscle mass, which is an essential criterion in sarcopenia diagnosis. Mediterranean diet adherence had, in general, a positive role in muscle mass and muscle function, while the results were less clear with regard to muscle strength. Additionally, there was no evidence of a positive effect of the Mediterranean diet on sarcopenia. There is a need for conduction of clinical trials in order to reach cause–effects conclusions regarding the importance of the Mediterranean diet in sarcopenia prevention and management in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
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12 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Nutraceutical Properties of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Extract by Olive Leaf Enrichment
by Doretta Cuffaro, Simone Bertini, Marco Macchia and Maria Digiacomo
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051073 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3177
Abstract
(1) Background: Nowadays, the health-promoting properties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), including the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, are well recognized and mainly attributed to the different polyphenols, such as oleocanthal and oleacein. In EVOO production, olive leaves represent a high value by-product, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Nowadays, the health-promoting properties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), including the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, are well recognized and mainly attributed to the different polyphenols, such as oleocanthal and oleacein. In EVOO production, olive leaves represent a high value by-product, showing a wide spectrum of beneficial effects due to the presence of polyphenols, especially oleuropein. Here we report the study of olive leaf extract (OLE)-enriched EVOO extracts, obtained by adding different percentages of OLE to EVOO in order to ameliorate their nutraceutical activities. (2) Methods: The polyphenolic content of the EVOO/OLE extracts was analyzed by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. For further biological testing, an 8% OLE-enriched EVOO extract was chosen. Therefore, antioxidant effects were evaluated by three different methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP), and the anti-inflammatory properties were assessed in terms of cyclooxygenase activity inhibition. (3) Results: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profiles of the new EVOO/OLE extract are significantly improved compared to those of EVOO extract; (4) Conclusions: The combination of OLE and EVOO extract can lead to an extract enriched in terms of bioactive polyphenols and endowed with better biological properties than the singular EVOO extract. Therefore, it may represent a new complement in the nutraceutical field. Full article
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13 pages, 1378 KiB  
Systematic Review
Food Insecurity and Micronutrient Deficiency in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Sílvia Oliveira Lopes, Lívia Carvalho Sette Abrantes, Francilene Maria Azevedo, Núbia de Souza de Morais, Dayane de Castro Morais, Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno Fontes, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini and Silvia Eloiza Priore
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051074 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4551
Abstract
Food insecurity is a public health problem as it affects a wide array of individuals in the population. It can be characterized by food deprivation, lack of essential nutrition, lack of dietary education, lack of adequate storage conditions, poor absorption, and poor overall [...] Read more.
Food insecurity is a public health problem as it affects a wide array of individuals in the population. It can be characterized by food deprivation, lack of essential nutrition, lack of dietary education, lack of adequate storage conditions, poor absorption, and poor overall nutrition. The relationship between food insecurity and micronutrient deficiency requires more effort to deepen and discuss the relationship. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between food insecurity and micronutrient deficiency in adults. The research was conducted according to PRISMA using the Medline/Pubmed, Lilacs/BVS, Embase, Web of Science, and Cinahl databases. Studies carried out with male and female adults were included, which investigated the correlation or association between food insecurity and the nutritional status of micronutrients. There were no publication year, country, or language restrictions. A total of 1148 articles were found, and 18 of these were included, carried out mainly on the American continent and with women. The most evaluated micronutrients were iron and vitamin A. Food insecurity was associated with nutrient deficiency in 89% (n = 16) of the studies. As a result of the meta-analysis, it was observed that there is a greater chance of anemia and low levels of ferritin among food insecure individuals. It is concluded that food insecurity is associated with micronutrient deficiency. Understanding these problems allows the creation of public policies capable of contributing to changes. Protocol registration: This review was registered on the PROSPERO-International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews database—CRD42021257443. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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23 pages, 3189 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Non-Nutritive Sweetened Beverages on Postprandial Glycemic and Endocrine Responses: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
by Roselyn Zhang, Jarvis C. Noronha, Tauseef A. Khan, Néma McGlynn, Songhee Back, Shannan M. Grant, Cyril W. C. Kendall and John L. Sievenpiper
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041050 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 13993
Abstract
Background: There has been an emerging concern that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) can increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Much of the attention has focused on acute metabolic and endocrine responses to NNS. To examine whether these mechanisms are operational under real-world scenarios, we [...] Read more.
Background: There has been an emerging concern that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) can increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Much of the attention has focused on acute metabolic and endocrine responses to NNS. To examine whether these mechanisms are operational under real-world scenarios, we conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis of acute trials comparing the effects of non-nutritive sweetened beverages (NNS beverages) with water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in humans. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched through to January 15, 2022. We included acute, single-exposure, randomized, and non-randomized, clinical trials in humans, regardless of health status. Three patterns of intake were examined: (1) uncoupling interventions, where NNS beverages were consumed alone without added energy or nutrients; (2) coupling interventions, where NNS beverages were consumed together with added energy and nutrients as carbohydrates; and (3) delayed coupling interventions, where NNS beverages were consumed as a preload prior to added energy and nutrients as carbohydrates. The primary outcome was a 2 h incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for blood glucose concentration. Secondary outcomes included 2 h iAUC for insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, leptin, and glucagon concentrations. Network meta-analysis and confidence in the network meta-analysis (CINeMA) were conducted in R-studio and CINeMA, respectively. Results: Thirty-six trials involving 472 predominantly healthy participants were included. Trials examined a variety of single NNS (acesulfame potassium, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose) and NNS blends (acesulfame potassium + aspartame, acesulfame potassium + sucralose, acesulfame potassium + aspartame + cyclamate, and acesulfame potassium + aspartame + sucralose), along with matched water/unsweetened controls and SSBs sweetened with various caloric sugars (glucose, sucrose, and fructose). In uncoupling interventions, NNS beverages (single or blends) had no effect on postprandial glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GIP, PYY, ghrelin, and glucagon responses similar to water controls (generally, low to moderate confidence), whereas SSBs sweetened with caloric sugars (glucose and sucrose) increased postprandial glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP responses with no differences in postprandial ghrelin and glucagon responses (generally, low to moderate confidence). In coupling and delayed coupling interventions, NNS beverages had no postprandial glucose and endocrine effects similar to controls (generally, low to moderate confidence). Conclusions: The available evidence suggests that NNS beverages sweetened with single or blends of NNS have no acute metabolic and endocrine effects, similar to water. These findings provide support for NNS beverages as an alternative replacement strategy for SSBs in the acute postprandial setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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13 pages, 1773 KiB  
Article
Low Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with Probable Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Longevity Check-Up (Lookup) 7+ Project
by Stefano Cacciatore, Riccardo Calvani, Emanuele Marzetti, Anna Picca, Hélio José Coelho-Júnior, Anna Maria Martone, Claudia Massaro, Matteo Tosato and Francesco Landi
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041026 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4346
Abstract
Muscle strength is a relevant metric of aging. Greater adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with better health outcomes across all life stages; however, evidence on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and muscle strength in older adults is inconclusive. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Muscle strength is a relevant metric of aging. Greater adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with better health outcomes across all life stages; however, evidence on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and muscle strength in older adults is inconclusive. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between adherence to Mediterranean diet and handgrip strength in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Longevity Check-up 7+ project. A total of 2963 participants (mean age 72.8 ± 5.7 years; 54.4% women) were analyzed. Mediterranean diet adherence was evaluated using a modified Medi-Lite score and categorized as low (≤8), good (9 to 11), or high (≥12). Handgrip strength was categorized as normal or low according to cut-points by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2. Older adults with lower Mediterranean diet adherence had a significantly higher prevalence of probable sarcopenia (25.9%) than those with good (19.1%) or high (15.5%) adherence. The proportion of participants with probable sarcopenia increased with age, but it remained lower in the good and high adherence groups. Logistic regression showed that greater Mediterranean diet adherence was associated with a lower risk of probable sarcopenia. Older age, female sex, and physical inactivity were associated with a greater risk of probable sarcopenia. Our findings emphasize the positive association between healthy lifestyles, including adherence to Mediterranean diet, and physical function in old age. Full article
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12 pages, 985 KiB  
Review
Plant-Dominant Low Protein Diet: A Potential Alternative Dietary Practice for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
by Yusuke Sakaguchi, Jun-Ya Kaimori and Yoshitaka Isaka
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041002 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5459
Abstract
Dietary protein restriction has long been a cornerstone of nutritional therapy for patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the recommended amount of dietary protein intake is different across guidelines. This is partly because previous randomized controlled trials have reported conflicting results regarding [...] Read more.
Dietary protein restriction has long been a cornerstone of nutritional therapy for patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the recommended amount of dietary protein intake is different across guidelines. This is partly because previous randomized controlled trials have reported conflicting results regarding the efficacy of protein restriction in terms of kidney outcomes. Interestingly, a vegetarian, very low protein diet has been shown to reduce the risk of kidney failure among patients with advanced CKD, without increasing the incidence of hyperkalemia. This finding suggests that the source of protein may also influence the kidney outcomes. Furthermore, a plant-dominant low-protein diet (PLADO) has recently been proposed as an alternative dietary therapy for patients with CKD. There are several potential mechanisms by which plant-based diets would benefit patients with CKD. For example, plant-based diets may reduce the production of gut-derived uremic toxins by increasing the intake of fiber, and are useful for correcting metabolic acidosis and hyperphosphatemia. Plant proteins are less likely to induce glomerular hyperfiltration than animal proteins. Furthermore, plant-based diets increase magnesium intake, which may prevent vascular calcification. More evidence is needed to establish the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of PLADO as a new adjunct therapy in real-world patients with CKD. Full article
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17 pages, 1686 KiB  
Review
The Potential of Spent Coffee Grounds in Functional Food Development
by Elza Bevilacqua, Vinicius Cruzat, Indu Singh, Roselyn B. Rose’Meyer, Sunil K. Panchal and Lindsay Brown
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040994 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 9416
Abstract
Coffee is a popular and widely consumed beverage worldwide, with epidemiological studies showing reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancers and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, few studies have investigated the health effects of the post-brewing coffee product, spent coffee grounds (SCG), from either [...] Read more.
Coffee is a popular and widely consumed beverage worldwide, with epidemiological studies showing reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancers and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, few studies have investigated the health effects of the post-brewing coffee product, spent coffee grounds (SCG), from either hot- or cold-brew coffee. SCG from hot-brew coffee improved metabolic parameters in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome and improved gut microbiome in these rats and in humans; further, SCG reduced energy consumption in humans. SCG contains similar bioactive compounds as the beverage including caffeine, chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, polyphenols and melanoidins, with established health benefits and safety for human consumption. Further, SCG utilisation could reduce the estimated 6–8 million tonnes of waste each year worldwide from production of coffee as a beverage. In this article, we explore SCG as a major by-product of coffee production and consumption, together with the potential economic impacts of health and non-health applications of SCG. The known bioactive compounds present in hot- and cold-brew coffee and SCG show potential effects in cardiovascular disease, cancer, liver disease and metabolic disorders. Based on these potential health benefits of SCG, it is expected that foods including SCG may moderate chronic human disease while reducing the environmental impact of waste otherwise dumped in landfill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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16 pages, 2566 KiB  
Review
Gut-Microbiota, and Multiple Sclerosis: Background, Evidence, and Perspectives
by Clelia Altieri, Barbara Speranza, Maria Rosaria Corbo, Milena Sinigaglia and Antonio Bevilacqua
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040942 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3361
Abstract
Many scientific studies reveal a significant connection between human intestinal microbiota, eating habits, and the development of chronic-degenerative diseases; therefore, alterations in the composition and function of the microbiota may be accompanied by different chronic inflammatory mechanisms. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory [...] Read more.
Many scientific studies reveal a significant connection between human intestinal microbiota, eating habits, and the development of chronic-degenerative diseases; therefore, alterations in the composition and function of the microbiota may be accompanied by different chronic inflammatory mechanisms. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in which autoreactive immune cells attack the myelin sheaths of the neurons. The purpose of this paper was to describe the main changes that occur in the gut microbiota of MS patients, with a focus on both microbiota and its implications for health and disease, as well as the variables that influence it. Another point stressed by this paper is the role of microbiota as a triggering factor to modulate the responses of the innate and adaptive immune systems, both in the intestine and in the brain. In addition, a comprehensive overview of the taxa modified by the disease is presented, with some points on microbiota modulation as a therapeutic approach for MS. Finally, the significance of gastro-intestinal pains (indirectly related to dysbiosis) was assessed using a case study (questionnaire for MS patients), as was the willingness of MS patients to modulate gut microbiota with probiotics. Full article
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11 pages, 610 KiB  
Review
Does Aging Have an Impact on Vitamin C Status and Requirements? A Scoping Review of Comparative Studies of Aging and Institutionalisation
by Anitra C. Carr and Masuma Zawari
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040915 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
The global healthcare burden of an aging population continues to increase, with nearly a quarter of the total global burden of disease attributable to people aged ≥60 years. Older people are at greater risk of micronutrient deficiencies, including immune-supportive vitamin C, which is [...] Read more.
The global healthcare burden of an aging population continues to increase, with nearly a quarter of the total global burden of disease attributable to people aged ≥60 years. Older people are at greater risk of micronutrient deficiencies, including immune-supportive vitamin C, which is both a contributor to and a consequence of acute and chronic illnesses. However, whether healthy aging, per se, is associated with depleted vitamin C status and increased requirements for the vitamin is less certain. A systematic scoping review was carried out to assess comparative studies that reported the vitamin C status and prevalence of deficiency in older versus younger people and in older people relative to residential status. Furthermore, vitamin C requirements were assessed through comparative studies reporting vitamin C status and pharmacokinetics in older people relative to younger people. Overall, there was limited evidence to suggest that healthy aging, per se, is related to lower vitamin C status or higher requirements for the vitamin. However, institutionalised elderly had lower vitamin C status and enhanced vitamin C requirements, primarily as a result of low intakes and/or chronic illnesses, which were not being met by hospital or residential diets. Because institutionalised elderly are vulnerable to malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, it is imperative that appropriate nutritional interventions are instigated to provide optimal micronutrient intake to support healthy aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Aging - Featured Perspectives on Health and Metabolism)
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