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Advances in Nutrition, Dietary Supplements and Ergogenic Aids for Athletic Performance

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 October 2023) | Viewed by 56733

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Integrated Institute of Health, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul—UFMS, Campo Grande 79070-900, MS, Brazil
Interests: sports science; exercise performance; exercise physiology; sport physiology; exercise science; strength and conditioning; exercise testing; athletic performance; muscle physiology; sport biomechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Research Division, Dynamical Business & Science Society—DBSS International SAS, Bogota 110311, Colombia
Interests: signal transduction; allostasis; physiological stress response; sports medicine; nutrition and dietetics; nutritional biochemistry; nutritional supplements; quality of life; muscle strength; cardiorespiratory fitness; recovery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centre for Sport Studies, Rey Juan Carlos University, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Spain
Interests: muscle damage; exercise physiology; exercise testing; sports science; exercise performance; sport physiology; exercise biochemistry; muscle physiology; athletic injuries
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sports nutrition is an active and multidisciplinary field with a scientific publication output that grows through the years. Based on the allostasis model, for the efficient regulation of and optimal adaptive response to exercise, sports practitioners are required to anticipate athletes’ needs and be ready to satisfy most of them in the field. In this regard, several nutritional strategies have been developed to improve energy replenishment, fluid and electrolyte replacement, and the repair of musculoskeletal and connective tissues, as well as to boost the response of the immune system. All of these aspects have a tremendous influence on the allostatic load and, finally, on the acute and chronic exercise-induced adaptions for athletic performance enhancements. However, the amount, composition, and timing for the consumption of fluids, electrolytes, macronutrients, antioxidants, dietary supplements, and nutritional ergogenic aids depend on the type of sport, the level of the athlete, and the efficiency of the strategy, among other factors.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish evidence-based practices in the field of sports nutrition to assist, with “real world” solutions, sport and performance practitioners with the final aim of achieving any performance benefit while preventing nutrient deficiencies during training and competition. Studies in females, youth populations, precision nutrition, injury prevention, and artificial intelligence are warranted, alongside other more traditional topics. Thus, we invite colleagues from around the world to actively participate in this Special Issue to disseminate their latest research findings with original contributions, case studies, experimental mechanistic studies, epidemiological studies, narrative reviews, and systematic reviews as well as meta-analyses.

Dr. Daniel A. Boullosa
Dr. Diego A. Bonilla
Dr. Juan Del Coso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise biochemistry
  • sport and exercise physiology
  • sports nutrition
  • athletic performance
  • sports medicine
  • exercise nutritional physiological phenomena
  • relative energy deficiency in sport
  • performance-enhancing substances
  • dietary supplements
  • exercise recovery
  • physiological acute/chronic stress responses

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 753 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Nutrition, Dietary Supplements and Ergogenic Aids for Athletic Performance: Trends and Future Prospects
by Diego A. Bonilla, Daniel Boullosa and Juan Del Coso
Nutrients 2023, 15(10), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15102246 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3743
Abstract
Sports nutrition is a scientific discipline that explores the relationship between nutrients and physical exercise performance [...] Full article
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Research

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17 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
Diet, Supplementation and Nutritional Habits of Climbers in High Mountain Conditions
by Ewa Karpęcka-Gałka, Paulina Mazur-Kurach, Zbigniew Szyguła and Barbara Frączek
Nutrients 2023, 15(19), 4219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15194219 - 29 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
Appropriate nutritional preparation for a high-mountain expedition can contribute to the prevention of nutritional deficiencies affecting the deterioration of health and performance. The aim of the study was to analyze the dietary habits, supplementation and nutritional value of diets of high mountain climbers. [...] Read more.
Appropriate nutritional preparation for a high-mountain expedition can contribute to the prevention of nutritional deficiencies affecting the deterioration of health and performance. The aim of the study was to analyze the dietary habits, supplementation and nutritional value of diets of high mountain climbers. The study group consisted of 28 men (average age 33.12 ± 5.96 years), taking part in summer mountaineering expeditions at an altitude above 3000 m above sea level, lasting at least 3 weeks. Food groups consumed with low frequency during the expedition include vegetables, fruits, eggs, milk and milk products, butter and cream, fish and meat. The energy demand of the study participants was 4559.5 ± 425 kcal, and the energy supply was 2776.8 ± 878 kcal. The participants provided 79.6 ± 18.5 g of protein (1.1 ± 0.3 g protein/kg bw), 374.0 ± 164.5 g of carbohydrates (5.3 ± 2.5 g/kg bw) and 110.7 ± 31.7 g of fat (1.6 ± 0.5 g/kg bw) in the diet. The climbers’ diet was low in calories, the protein supply was too low, and the fat supply was too high. There is a need to develop nutritional and supplementation recommendations that would serve as guidelines for climbers, improving their well-being and exercise capacity in severe high-mountain conditions, which would take their individual taste preferences into account. Full article
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17 pages, 2404 KiB  
Article
Pre-Exercise Caffeine Intake Attenuates the Negative Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Several Aspects of High-Intensity Short-Term Maximal Performances in Adolescent Female Handball Players
by Houda Bougrine, Nidhal Nasser, Raouf Abdessalem, Achraf Ammar, Hamdi Chtourou and Nizar Souissi
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153432 - 03 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to determine whether, after Ramadan, pre-exercise caffeine intake can reduce any possible negative effects of this month on short-term maximal performances in young female handball players. A randomized study involved thirteen young female handball players. Participants performed [...] Read more.
The aim of this investigation was to determine whether, after Ramadan, pre-exercise caffeine intake can reduce any possible negative effects of this month on short-term maximal performances in young female handball players. A randomized study involved thirteen young female handball players. Participants performed a squat jump (SJ), Illinois agility test (AG), and 5 m run shuttles test (total (TD) and peak (PD) distances) at 08:00 AM and 06:00 PM on three different occasions: one week before Ramadan (Pre-R), the last week of Ramadan (R), and the week after Ramadan (Post-R). A placebo (Pla) or caffeine (Caff) (6 mg·kg−1) was administered 60 min before exercise test sessions at two distinct times of day (08:00 AM and 06:00 PM) during the two periods: Pre and Post-R. The PSQI and dietary intake were assessed during all testing periods. The results revealed that Pre-R, (SJ, AG, TD, and PD) test performances were greater in the evening (PM) than in the morning (AM) (all p < 0.001). However, compared with Pre-R, PM performances declined significantly during R (all p < 0.001) and Post-R (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). In addition, Pre-R, AM Caff produced moderate significant improvements compared with AM Pla, with small-to-no beneficial effects observed with PM Caff in SJ (4.8% vs. 1%), AG (1.8% vs. 0.8%), TD (2.8% vs. 0.3%), and PD (6% vs. 0.9%). Nevertheless, Caff produced moderate ergogenic effects during both AM and PM sessions during Post-R in SJ (4.4% vs. 2.4%), AG (1.7% vs. 1.5%), TD (2.9% vs. 1.3%), and PD (5.8% vs. 3%) with values approaching those of Pre-R Pla within the same time of day (p > 0.05, p > 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, pre-exercise Caff intake with a dose equivalent to 6 mg·kg−1 reduced the negative effects of Ramadan fasting in several aspects of short-term maximal performances in young female handball players at both times of the day. Full article
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11 pages, 1354 KiB  
Article
High Doses of Caffeine Increase Muscle Strength and Calcium Release in the Plasma of Recreationally Trained Men
by Luis H. B. Ferreira, Scott C. Forbes, Marcelo P. Barros, André C. Smolarek, Alysson Enes, Antonio H. Lancha-Junior, Gabriel L. Martins and Tacito P. Souza-Junior
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4921; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224921 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5764
Abstract
The effects of acute caffeine supplementation on muscular strength remain unclear. We examined the effects of two different doses of caffeine on muscle strength and calcium in plasma compared to placebo using a crossover, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty-one (n = 21) [...] Read more.
The effects of acute caffeine supplementation on muscular strength remain unclear. We examined the effects of two different doses of caffeine on muscle strength and calcium in plasma compared to placebo using a crossover, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Twenty-one (n = 21) recreationally resistance-trained participants were randomly assigned into three experimental conditions: 6 mg·kg bw−1 of caffeine (CF6); 8 mg·kg bw−1 of caffeine (CF8); or placebo (PLA), with a 7-day washout period between conditions. Muscular strength assessments were made for both upper (bench press) and lower body muscles (squat and deadlift). Calcium release in plasma was measured on five different occasions. Bench press (CF8: 100.1 ± 1.9 kg; PLA: 94.2 ± 2.5 kg), deadlift (CF8: 132.8 ± 3.5 kg; PLA: 120.7 ± 5.7 kg), and squat (CF8: 130.1 ± 4.9 kg; PLA 119.4 ± 5.4 kg) strength were all significantly (p < 0.001) improved in CF8 compared to PLA. Calcium release in plasma was significantly increased in CF8, whereas no changes were observed in CF6 or PLA. Overall, 8 mg·kg bw−1 of caffeine appears to be an effective dose to optimize upper and lower body muscular strength and calcium release in recreationally trained participants. Full article
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18 pages, 1498 KiB  
Article
Effects of Native Whey Protein and Carbohydrate Supplement on Physical Performance and Plasma Markers of Muscle Damage and Inflammation during a Simulated Rugby Sevens Tournament: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study
by Marina Fabre, Bertrand Mathieu, Eve Tiollier, Cédric Leduc, Matthieu Clauss, Alexandre Marchand, Julien Robineau, Julien Piscione, Tanguy Serenari, Jacqueline Brasy, Mathilde Guerville, Amandine Ligneul and Xavier Bigard
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224780 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
The importance of optimized recovery during a sport competition is undisputed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of recovery drinks comprising either carbohydrate only, or a mix of native whey proteins and carbohydrate to maintain physical performance and minimize [...] Read more.
The importance of optimized recovery during a sport competition is undisputed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of recovery drinks comprising either carbohydrate only, or a mix of native whey proteins and carbohydrate to maintain physical performance and minimize muscle damage during a simulated rugby sevens (rugby 7s) tournament. Twelve well-trained male rugby players participated in three simulated rugby 7s tournament days with a week’s interval in between. Each tournament comprised a sequence of three simulated matches, interspersed with 2 h of recovery. Three different recovery drinks were tested: a placebo (PLA, nonenergetic chocolate-flavored drink), a carbohydrate drink (CHO, 80 g of carbohydrate) or an isoenergetic carbohydrate–protein drink (P-CHO, 20 g of Pronativ®, native whey protein and 60 g of carbohydrate). A different recovery drink, consumed after each match, was tested during each simulated tournament. Physical performance, muscle damage and muscle pain were assessed before and after each simulated tournament. Regarding physical performance, both P-CHO and CHO drinks had a positive effect on the maintenance of 50 m sprint time compared to the PLA drink (effect sizes large and moderate, respectively). Regarding muscle damage, the P-CHO supplement attenuated the creatine phosphokinase increase at POST6 compared to PLA (effect size, moderate). Finally, P-CHO and CHO drinks reduced the exercise-induced DOMS (effect size, moderate), compared to the PLA condition (effect size, large), while P-CHO only reduced pain on muscle palpation and pain when descending stairs compared to PLA 24 h post-tournament (effect size, small). This study suggests that consuming a recovery drink containing native whey proteins and carbohydrate or carbohydrate only after each match of a rugby 7s tournament may attenuate the exercise-induced increase in markers of muscle damage and maintain physical performance. Full article
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16 pages, 1143 KiB  
Article
Anti-Doping Knowledge of Students Undertaking Bachelor’s Degrees in Sports Sciences in Spain
by Millán Aguilar-Navarro, José-Antonio Salas-Montoro, José Pino-Ortega, Juan José Salinero, Fernando González-Mohíno, Virginia Alcaraz-Rodríguez, Diego Moreno-Pérez, Nadia Lanza, Beatriz Lara, Víctor Moreno-Pérez, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Alberto Pérez-López, Carlos García-Martí and Juan Del Coso
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214523 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2812
Abstract
In Spain, students pursuing a career in athletic training, physical education, or scientific evaluation of sports enroll in a bachelor’s degree in sports sciences. This degree provides knowledge and skills in a broad array of sports settings and promotes research-based interdisciplinary knowledge. However, [...] Read more.
In Spain, students pursuing a career in athletic training, physical education, or scientific evaluation of sports enroll in a bachelor’s degree in sports sciences. This degree provides knowledge and skills in a broad array of sports settings and promotes research-based interdisciplinary knowledge. However, the student’s syllabus rarely includes specific academic training on anti-doping regulations or doping prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the anti-doping knowledge of the students undertaking a bachelor’s degree in sports sciences in Spanish universities. One thousand two hundred and thirty-three bachelor students in sport science (907 males, 322 females, and 4 participants with non-binary sex) from 26 Spanish universities completed a validated questionnaire about general anti-doping knowledge. The questionnaire is an adapted version of the Play True Quiz of the World Anti-Doping Agency and contains 37 multiple-choice questions. The score obtained in the questionnaire was transformed into a 0–100-point scale. The questionnaire was distributed among students within each university by a faculty member and it was filled out online. Students obtained a score of 65.8 ± 10.10 points (range = 32–92 points). There was an effect of the course in the score obtained (p < 0.001). Students of the first course (63.6 ± 9.5 points) had lower scores than the remaining courses (p < 0.037) while the students of the fourth course obtained the highest scores (68.7 ± 9.5 points; p < 0.019). The students with an itinerary on sports performance were the respondents with the highest anti-doping knowledge (67.2 ± 10.2) points, followed by the students with an itinerary on health (66.7 ± 9.5 points). The knowledge of basic anti-doping rules and doping prevention strategies of the bachelor students in sports sciences in Spain was suboptimal. Increasing doping prevention information in the syllabus of the bachelor’s degree in sports sciences is essential as these future professionals will directly work with populations at risk of doping. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 698 KiB  
Review
Effects of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Back Squat and Bench Press Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Rachel Tan, Adam Pennell, Sean T. Karl, Jordan K. Cass, Katherine Go, Tom Clifford, Stephen J. Bailey and Cooker Perkins Storm
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112493 - 27 May 2023
Viewed by 3330
Abstract
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on resistance exercise performance according to the PRISMA guidelines. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and SPORTDiscus databases up to April 2023. Inclusion criteria were adult resistance-trained males who [...] Read more.
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on resistance exercise performance according to the PRISMA guidelines. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and SPORTDiscus databases up to April 2023. Inclusion criteria were adult resistance-trained males who supplemented with a nitrate-rich supplement and nitrate-deficient placebo to assess repetitions-to-failure (RTF), peak power, mean power, peak velocity, and/or mean velocity during back squat and bench press exercise. A random effects model was performed on six studies and showed that nitrate supplementation improved RTF (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.43, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI]: 0.156 to 0.699, p = 0.002), mean power (SMD: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.127 to 0.678, p = 0.004), and mean velocity (SMD: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.07 to 1.061, p = 0.025) but had no effect on peak power (SMD: 0.204, 95% CI: −0.004 to 0.411, p = 0.054) or peak velocity (SMD: 0.00, 95% CI: −0.173 to 0.173, p = 1.000) when back squat and bench press were combined. Subgroup analyses revealed that back squats were more likely to be enhanced and that a dosing regimen may influence the efficacy of nitrate supplementation. Overall, nitrate supplementation had a small beneficial effect on some aspects of resistance exercise performance, but there were limited studies available and the variability was large. Additional studies that focus on upper and lower body resistance exercise and nitrate dosage are required to elucidate the efficacy of dietary nitrate supplementation on resistance exercise performance. Full article
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Other

13 pages, 1140 KiB  
Systematic Review
Does Co-Supplementation with Beetroot Juice and Other Nutritional Supplements Positively Impact Sports Performance?: A Systematic Review
by Elida Ferrada-Contreras, Romina Bonomini-Gnutzmann, Carlos Jorquera-Aguilera, Norman MacmiIlan Kuthe, Humberto Peña-Jorquera and Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4838; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224838 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
In the pursuit of enhanced athletic prowess in different disciplines, athletes constantly look for strategies to increase their physical performance, encompassing technical skills and dietary components, which inevitably, in most cases, include the incorporation of sports supplements. In recent years, there has been [...] Read more.
In the pursuit of enhanced athletic prowess in different disciplines, athletes constantly look for strategies to increase their physical performance, encompassing technical skills and dietary components, which inevitably, in most cases, include the incorporation of sports supplements. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of athletes using ergogenic aids. In this context, scientific evidence must play a prominent role in either endorsing or warning against the use of these products, ensuring the preservation of health while promoting the theoretically established positive benefits. In this vein, beetroot juice (BJ) stands out as a key supplement as an ergogenic aid to improve sports performance, given its demonstrated influence on both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. However, despite widespread global demand, there remains a lack of understanding regarding the potential synergistic effects of combining BJ with other supplements. Consequently, our study aims to determine whether the combination of BJ with another nutritional supplement can enhance its beneficial effects and, therefore, optimize physical performance in humans. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in two major databases—Web of Science and PubMed—from 1 January 2018 to 29 January 2023, using specific keywords. After the exclusion criteria, six articles were selected for analysis. Therefore, our study shows that the effectiveness of combining BJ with another supplement mainly depends on the duration of the chronic intervention, which is where the greatest benefits have been observed. Full article
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25 pages, 1227 KiB  
Systematic Review
Nutritional Strategies in the Rehabilitation of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Athletes: A Systematic Integrative Review
by John E. Giraldo-Vallejo, Miguel Á. Cardona-Guzmán, Ericka J. Rodríguez-Alcivar, Jana Kočí, Jorge L. Petro, Richard B. Kreider, Roberto Cannataro and Diego A. Bonilla
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040819 - 05 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 12190
Abstract
It is estimated that three to five million sports injuries occur worldwide each year. The highest incidence is reported during competition periods with mainly affectation of the musculoskeletal tissue. For appropriate nutritional management and correct use of nutritional supplements, it is important to [...] Read more.
It is estimated that three to five million sports injuries occur worldwide each year. The highest incidence is reported during competition periods with mainly affectation of the musculoskeletal tissue. For appropriate nutritional management and correct use of nutritional supplements, it is important to individualize based on clinical effects and know the adaptive response during the rehabilitation phase after a sports injury in athletes. Therefore, the aim of this PRISMA in Exercise, Rehabilitation, Sport Medicine and Sports Science PERSiST-based systematic integrative review was to perform an update on nutritional strategies during the rehabilitation phase of musculoskeletal injuries in elite athletes. After searching the following databases: PubMed/Medline, Scopus, PEDro, and Google Scholar, a total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria (Price Index: 66.6%). The risk of bias assessment for randomized controlled trials was performed using the RoB 2.0 tool while review articles were evaluated using the AMSTAR 2.0 items. Based on the main findings of the selected studies, nutritional strategies that benefit the rehabilitation process in injured athletes include balanced energy intake, and a high-protein and carbohydrate-rich diet. Supportive supervision should be provided to avoid low energy availability. The potential of supplementation with collagen, creatine monohydrate, omega-3 (fish oils), and vitamin D requires further research although the effects are quite promising. It is worth noting the lack of clinical research in injured athletes and the higher number of reviews in the last 10 years. After analyzing the current quantitative and non-quantitative evidence, we encourage researchers to conduct further clinical research studies evaluating doses of the discussed nutrients during the rehabilitation process to confirm findings, but also follow international guidelines at the time to review scientific literature. Full article
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19 pages, 1267 KiB  
Systematic Review
Does Beetroot Supplementation Improve Performance in Combat Sports Athletes? A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Slaheddine Delleli, Ibrahim Ouergui, Hamdi Messaoudi, Khaled Trabelsi, Jordan M. Glenn, Achraf Ammar and Hamdi Chtourou
Nutrients 2023, 15(2), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15020398 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4097
Abstract
While studies on dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation and its impact on combat sports performance are increasing, finite conclusions from currently available investigations remain unclear. Thus, the present systematic review examined the acute and chronic ergogenic effect(s) of dietary nitrate intake [...] Read more.
While studies on dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation and its impact on combat sports performance are increasing, finite conclusions from currently available investigations remain unclear. Thus, the present systematic review examined the acute and chronic ergogenic effect(s) of dietary nitrate intake from beetroot on different aspects of combat sports performance. A systematic search for randomized placebo-controlled studies investigating the effects of beetroot supplementation on combat sports outcomes was performed through Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scielo, Sport Discus, and Cochrane Library databases up to 2 January 2023. The different terms related to beetroot and to combat sports were connected in the search strategies using the Boolean operators ‘AND’ and ‘OR’. A total of nine studies with good methodological quality (based on the Cochrane risk of bias tool) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seven studies used an acute supplementation strategy, while the other two studies utilized chronic supplementation. Findings showed beetroot intake may be an effective tool to improve oxidative metabolism and muscle force production (i.e., isokinetic and isometric) in combat sports athletes. However, these effects may depend on the population, intake duration, muscle group activated, and exercise type. Future studies are required to (1) understand the effects on female athletes and (2) elucidate the impacts of dosing protocols and specific exercise modalities for enhancing combat sports performance. Full article
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18 pages, 2780 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Caffeine Intake on Endurance Running Performance and Time to Exhaustion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Ziyu Wang, Bopeng Qiu, Jie Gao and Juan Del Coso
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010148 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 8920
Abstract
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is one of the most widely consumed performance-enhancing substances in sport due to its well-established ergogenic effects. The use of caffeine is more common in aerobic-based sports due to the ample evidence endorsing the benefits of caffeine supplementation on endurance exercise. [...] Read more.
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is one of the most widely consumed performance-enhancing substances in sport due to its well-established ergogenic effects. The use of caffeine is more common in aerobic-based sports due to the ample evidence endorsing the benefits of caffeine supplementation on endurance exercise. However, most of this evidence was established with cycling trials in the laboratory, while the effects of the acute intake of caffeine on endurance running performance have not been properly reviewed and meta-analyzed. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature on the effects of caffeine intake on endurance running performance. A systematic review of published studies was performed in four different scientific databases (Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and SportDiscus) up until 5 October 2022 (with no year restriction applied to the search strategy). The selected studies were crossover experimental trials in which the ingestion of caffeine was compared to a placebo situation in a single- or double-blind randomized manner. The effect of caffeine on endurance running was measured by time to exhaustion or time trials. We assessed the methodological quality of each study using Cochrane’s risk-of-bias (RoB 2) tool. A subsequent meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model to calculate the standardized mean difference (SMD) estimated by Hedges’ g and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: A total of 21 randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis, with caffeine doses ranging between 3 and 9 mg/kg. A total of 21 studies were included in the systematic review, with a total sample of 254 participants (220 men, 19 women and 15 participants with no information about gender; 167 were categorized as recreational and 87 were categorized as trained runners.). The overall methodological quality of studies was rated as unclear-to-low risk of bias. The meta-analysis revealed that the time to exhaustion in running tests was improved with caffeine (g = 0.392; 95% CI = 0.214 to 0.571; p < 0.001, magnitude = medium). Subgroup analysis revealed that caffeine was ergogenic for time to exhaustion trials in both recreational runners (g = 0.469; 95% CI = 0.185 to 0.754; p = 0.001, magnitude = medium) and trained runners (g = 0.344; 95% CI = 0.122 to 0.566; p = 0.002, magnitude = medium). The meta-analysis also showed that the time to complete endurance running time trials was reduced with caffeine in comparison to placebo (g = −0.101; 95% CI = −0.190 to −0.012, p = 0.026, magnitude = small). In summary, caffeine intake showed a meaningful ergogenic effect in increasing the time to exhaustion in running trials and improving performance in running time trials. Hence, caffeine may have utility as an ergogenic aid for endurance running events. More evidence is needed to establish the ergogenic effect of caffeine on endurance running in women or the best dose to maximize the ergogenic benefits of caffeine supplementation. Full article
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37 pages, 6343 KiB  
Systematic Review
Acute Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physical Performance, Physiological Responses, Perceived Exertion, and Technical-Tactical Skills in Combat Sports: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Slaheddine Delleli, Ibrahim Ouergui, Hamdi Messaoudi, Khaled Trabelsi, Achraf Ammar, Jordan M. Glenn and Hamdi Chtourou
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142996 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5779
Abstract
Although the effects of caffeine supplementation on combat sports performance have been extensively investigated, there is currently no consensus regarding its ergogenic benefits.This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to summarize the studies investigating the effects of caffeine supplementation on different aspects of performance [...] Read more.
Although the effects of caffeine supplementation on combat sports performance have been extensively investigated, there is currently no consensus regarding its ergogenic benefits.This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to summarize the studies investigating the effects of caffeine supplementation on different aspects of performance in combat sports and to quantitatively analyze the results of these studies to better understand the ergogenic effect of caffeine on combat sports outcomes. A systematic search for randomized placebo-controlled studies investigating the effects of caffeine supplementation on combat sports’ performance was performed through Scopus, Pubmed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases up to 18 April 2022. Random-effects meta-analyses of standardized mean differences (Hedge’s g) were performed to analyze the data. Twenty-six studies of good and excellent methodological quality (based on the Pedro scale) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis results revealed caffeine has a small but evident effect size (ES) on handgrip strength (ES = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.52; p = 0.02), and total number of throws during the special judo fitness test (SJFT) (ES = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.78; p = 0.02). Regarding the physiological responses, caffeine increased blood lactate concentration ([La]) in anaerobic exercise (ES = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.29 to 2.18; p = 0.01) and simulated combat (ES = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.34 to 1.47; p = 0.002). For Heart Rate (HR), caffeine increased HR final (ES = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.52; p = 0.003), and HR 1min (ES = 0.20; 95% CI 0.004 to 0.40; p = 0.045). However, caffeine had no impact on the countermovement jump height, the SJFT index, the judogi strength-endurance test, the number and duration of offensive actions, HR at the end of the fight, and the rating of perceived exertion. Caffeine supplementation may be ergogenic for a range of combat sports aspects involving isometric strength, anaerobic power, reaction time, and anaerobic metabolism. However, supplementation effects might be ineffective under certain circumstances, indicating supplementation needs to take into account the performance metric in question prior to creating a dosing protocol. Full article
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