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Nutrients, Volume 16, Issue 9 (May-1 2024) – 150 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this review, we briefly examine the pathophysiology of CKD and discuss emerging mechanisms involving the physiological resolution of kidney injury by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and interleukin-11 (IL-11), as well as the pathological consequences of IL-11 overproduction, which misguides repair processes, ultimately culminating in CKD. Taking these mechanisms into account, we offer an overview of the efficacy of plant-dominant dietary patterns in preventing and managing CKD, while also addressing their limitations in terms of restoring kidney function or preventing kidney failure. In conclusion, this paper outlines novel regeneration strategies aimed at developing a reno-regenerative diet to inhibit IL-11 and promote repair mechanisms in kidneys affected by CKD. View this paper
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16 pages, 1431 KiB  
Review
Use of Digital Tools for the Assessment of Food Consumption in Brazil: A Scoping Review
by Adriane dos Santos da Silva, Flávia dos Santos Barbosa Brito, Debora Martins dos Santos and Amanda Rodrigues Amorim Adegboye
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091399 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 882
Abstract
This is a scoping review on mapping the use of digital tools to assess food consumption in Brazil. Searches were carried out in nine electronic databases (Medline, Lilacs, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid, Free Medical Journal and Crossref) to select [...] Read more.
This is a scoping review on mapping the use of digital tools to assess food consumption in Brazil. Searches were carried out in nine electronic databases (Medline, Lilacs, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid, Free Medical Journal and Crossref) to select studies published from October 2020 to December 2023. This review identified forty-eight digital tools in the 94 publications analyzed, the most frequent being web-based technologies (60%) and mobile devices (40%). Among these studies, 55% (n = 52) adopted a population-based approach, while 45% (n = 42) focused on specific regions. The predominant study design observed was cross-sectional (n = 63). A notable trend observed was the increasing frequency of validation studies in recent years. Although the use of digital tools in the assessment of food consumption in Brazil has grown in recent years, studies did not describe the process of creating and validating the tools, which would contribute to the improvement of data quality. Investments that allow the expansion of the use of the internet and mobile devices; the improvement of digital literacy; and the development of open-access tools, especially in the North and Northeast regions, are challenges that require a concerted effort towards providing equal opportunities, fostering encouragement, and delving deeper into the potential of digital tools within studies pertaining to food consumption in Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Transformations in Nutrition)
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26 pages, 929 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effect of Sustainably Sourced Protein Consumption on Nutrient Intake and Gut Health in Older Adults: A Systematic Review
by Debra Jones, Carlos Celis-Morales, Stuart R. Gray, Douglas J. Morrison, Susan E. Ozanne, Mahek Jain, Lewis R. Mattin and Sorrel Burden
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091398 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Diet is integral to the healthy ageing process and certain diets can mitigate prolonged and deleterious inflammation. This review aims to assess the impact of diets high in sustainably sourced proteins on nutrient intake, gut, and age-related health in older adults. A systematic [...] Read more.
Diet is integral to the healthy ageing process and certain diets can mitigate prolonged and deleterious inflammation. This review aims to assess the impact of diets high in sustainably sourced proteins on nutrient intake, gut, and age-related health in older adults. A systematic search of the literature was conducted on 5 September 2023 across multiple databases and sources. Studies assessing sustainably sourced protein consumption in community dwelling older adults (≥65 years) were included. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using ‘RoB 2.0′ and ‘ROBINS-E’. Narrative synthesis was performed due to heterogeneity of studies. Twelve studies involving 12,166 older adults were included. Nine studies (n = 10,391) assessed habitual dietary intake and had some RoB concerns, whilst three studies (n = 1812), two with low and one with high RoB, conducted plant-based dietary interventions. Increased adherence to sustainably sourced diets was associated with improved gut microbial factors (n = 4640), healthier food group intake (n = 2142), and increased fibre and vegetable protein intake (n = 1078). Sustainably sourced diets positively impacted on gut microbiota and healthier intake of food groups, although effects on inflammatory outcomes and health status were inconclusive. Future research should focus on dietary interventions combining sustainable proteins and fibre to evaluate gut barrier function and consider inflammatory and body composition outcomes in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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20 pages, 1652 KiB  
Systematic Review
Deuterium-Depleted Water in Cancer Therapy: A Systematic Review of Clinical and Experimental Trials
by Yutong Lu and Hongping Chen
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091397 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 1298
Abstract
Chemotherapy exhibits numerous side effects in anti-tumour therapy. The clinical experiments indicated that deuterium-depleted water (DDW) monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy was beneficial in inhibiting cancer development. To further understand the potential mechanism of DDW in cancer therapy, we performed a systematic [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy exhibits numerous side effects in anti-tumour therapy. The clinical experiments indicated that deuterium-depleted water (DDW) monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy was beneficial in inhibiting cancer development. To further understand the potential mechanism of DDW in cancer therapy, we performed a systematic review. The data from experiments published over the past 15 years were included. PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science (January 2008 to November 2023) were systemically searched. Fifteen studies qualified for review, including fourteen in vivo and in vitro trials and one interventional trial. The results showed that DDW alone or in combination with chemotherapy effectively inhibited cancer progression in most experiments. The combination treatment enhances the therapeutic effect on cancer compared with chemotherapeutic monotherapy. The inhibitory role of DDW in tumours is through regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes in Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap 1) and Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathways, further controlling ROS production. An abnormal amount of ROS can inhibit the tumour progression. More extensive randomized controlled trials should be conducted to evaluate the accurate effect of DDW in Keap1-Nrf2 signalling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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25 pages, 3261 KiB  
Review
Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities of Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.: An Updated Review
by Nguyen Minh Trang, Le Ba Vinh, Nguyen Viet Phong and Seo Young Yang
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091396 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. is a perennial herbaceous plant found mainly in tropical areas, particularly in Southeast Asia, South America, and India. Various parts of V. cinerea have traditionally been used in folk medicine to treat several diseases, such as malaria, fever, and [...] Read more.
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. is a perennial herbaceous plant found mainly in tropical areas, particularly in Southeast Asia, South America, and India. Various parts of V. cinerea have traditionally been used in folk medicine to treat several diseases, such as malaria, fever, and liver diseases. V. cinerea has so far yielded about 92 secondary metabolites. The majority of these are sesquiterpene lactones, but triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, phenolics, and other compounds are present as well. V. cinerea crude extracts reportedly exhibit anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal, antidiabetic, anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and renoprotective activities. This study aims to provide the latest up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activity of V. cinerea. Information on V. cinerea was thoroughly reviewed. The literature published between 1950 and 2024 was compiled through online bibliographic databases, including SciFinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer Link, Wiley, and the MDPI online library. The keywords used for the literature search included Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. and the synonyms Cyanthillium cinereum (L.) H.Rob., Conyza cinerea L., and various others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Natural Products for Disease Treatments)
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14 pages, 5718 KiB  
Article
Yogurt Alleviates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice through D-Lactate
by Xinru Du, Yongheng Yan, Yufeng Dai and Ruijie Xu
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091395 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Numerous studies have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of yogurt, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the alleviating properties of yogurt on immunosuppression and proposed the underlying mechanism was related to the metabolite D-lactate. In the healthy mice, we [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of yogurt, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the alleviating properties of yogurt on immunosuppression and proposed the underlying mechanism was related to the metabolite D-lactate. In the healthy mice, we validated the safety of daily yogurt consumption (600 μL) or D-lactate (300 mg/kg). In immunosuppressed mice induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX), we evaluated the immune regulation of yogurt and D-lactate. The result showed that yogurt restored body weight, boosted immune organ index, repaired splenic tissue, recovered the severity of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and increased serum cytokines (IgA, IgG, IL-6, IFN-γ). Additionally, yogurt enhanced intestinal immune function by restoring the intestinal barrier and upregulating the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Further studies showed that D-lactate alleviated immunosuppression in mice mainly by promoting cellular immunity. D-lactate recovered body weight and organ development, elevated serum cytokines (IgA, IgG, IL-6, IFN-γ), enhanced splenic lymphocyte proliferation and increased the mRNA level of T-bet in splenic lymphocyte to bolster Th1 differentiation. Finally, CTX is a chemotherapeutic drug, thus, the application of yogurt and D-lactate in the tumor-bearing mouse model was initially explored. The results showed that both yogurt (600 μL) and D-lactate (300 mg/kg) reduced cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression without promoting tumor growth. Overall, this study evaluated the safety, immune efficacy and applicability of yogurt and D-lactate in regulating immunosuppression. It emphasized the potential of yogurt as a functional food for immune regulation, with D-lactate playing a crucial role in its immunomodulatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Habits and Metabolic Health)
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10 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Novel Enteral Phosphorus Therapy with Enteral Nutrition during a National Intravenous Sodium Phosphate Shortage
by Tinia D. Harris, Julie E. Farrar, Saskya Byerly, Dina M. Filiberto and Roland N. Dickerson
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091394 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intragastric administration of small volumes of sodium enema solution containing phosphorus as phosphorus replacement therapy in critically ill patients with traumatic injuries who required continuous enteral nutrition. Adult patients (>17 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intragastric administration of small volumes of sodium enema solution containing phosphorus as phosphorus replacement therapy in critically ill patients with traumatic injuries who required continuous enteral nutrition. Adult patients (>17 years of age) who had a serum phosphorus concentration <3 mg/dL (0.97 mmol/L) were evaluated. Patients with a serum creatinine concentration >1.4 mg/dL (124 µmol/L) were excluded. Patients were given 20 mL of saline enema solution intragastrically, containing 34 mmol of phosphorus and mixed in 240 mL water. A total of 55% and 73% of patients who received one (n = 22) or two doses (n = 11) had an improvement in the serum phosphorus concentration, respectively. The serum phosphorus concentration increased from 2.5 [2.1, 2.8] mg/dL (0.81 [0.69, 0.90] mmol/L) to 2.9 [2.2, 3.0] mg/dL (0.94 [0.71, 0.97 mmol/L) for those who received two doses (p = 0.222). Excluding two patients with a marked decline in serum phosphorus by 1.3 mg/dL (0.32 mmol/L) resulted in an increase in the serum phosphorus concentration from 2.3 [2.0, 2.8] mg/dL (0.74 [0.65, 0.90] mmol/L) to 2.9 [2.5, 3.2] mg/dL (0.94 [0.81, 1.03] mmol/L; n = 9; p = 0.012). No significant adverse effects were noted. Our data indicated that intragastric phosphate administration using a small volume of saline enema solution improved the serum phosphorus concentrations in most patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapies in Clinical Practice, Management and Care)
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20 pages, 2347 KiB  
Review
Effect of High-Sucrose Diet on the Occurrence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy and Dietary Modification Strategies
by Chen Yang, Yifei Yu and Jianhong An
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091393 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
As the most serious of the many worse new pathological changes caused by diabetes, there are many risk factors for the occurrence and development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). They mainly include hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and so on. Among them, hyperglycemia is the most [...] Read more.
As the most serious of the many worse new pathological changes caused by diabetes, there are many risk factors for the occurrence and development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). They mainly include hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and so on. Among them, hyperglycemia is the most critical cause, and plays a vital role in the pathological changes of DR. High-sucrose diets (HSDs) lead to elevated blood glucose levels in vivo, which, through oxidative stress, inflammation, the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cause plenty of pathological damages to the retina and ultimately bring about loss of vision. The existing therapies for DR primarily target the terminal stage of the disease, when irreversible visual impairment has appeared. Therefore, early prevention is particularly critical. The early prevention of DR-related vision loss requires adjustments to dietary habits, mainly by reducing sugar intake. This article primarily discusses the risk factors, pathophysiological processes and molecular mechanisms associated with the development of DR caused by HSDs. It aims to raise awareness of the crucial role of diet in the occurrence and progression of DR, promote timely changes in dietary habits, prevent vision loss and improve the quality of life. The aim is to make people aware of the importance of diet in the occurrence and progression of DR. According to the dietary modification strategies that we give, patients can change their poor eating habits in a timely manner to avoid theoretically avoidable retinopathy and obtain an excellent prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Manipulations: Advances in Metabolism Disease)
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17 pages, 876 KiB  
Review
Vitamins in Gynecologic Malignancies
by Natalia Wierzbowska, Tomasz Olszowski, Dariusz Chlubek, Mateusz Kozłowski and Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091392 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 973
Abstract
The combination of vitamin A and D derivatives with classical chemotherapeutic treatments results in more satisfactory outcomes. The use of drug combinations, such as 9cUAB130 with carboplatin and cisplatin with TAC-101, shows enhanced cytotoxic effects and reductions in ovarian tumor volume compared to [...] Read more.
The combination of vitamin A and D derivatives with classical chemotherapeutic treatments results in more satisfactory outcomes. The use of drug combinations, such as 9cUAB130 with carboplatin and cisplatin with TAC-101, shows enhanced cytotoxic effects and reductions in ovarian tumor volume compared to single-drug treatments. Combining cisplatin with calcitriol and progesterone increases VDR expression, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of anticancer therapy in ovarian cancer. The effectiveness of vitamin derivatives in anticancer treatment may vary depending on the characteristics of the tumor and the cell line from which it originated. An increase in thiamine intake of one unit is associated with an 18% decrease in HPV infection. Higher intake of vitamin C by 50 mg/day is linked to a lower risk of cervical neoplasia. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E are associated with risk reductions of 12%, 15%, and 9% in endometrial cancer, respectively. A balanced daily intake of vitamins is important, as both deficiency and excess can influence cancer development. It has been observed that there is a U-shaped relationship between group B vitamins and metabolic markers and clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micronutrients in Women’s Health and Disease)
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22 pages, 332 KiB  
Article
Social Determinants of Health and College Food Insecurity
by Catherine Mobley, Ye Luo, Mariela Fernandez and Leslie Hossfeld
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091391 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 717
Abstract
In recent years, many students have faced economic hardship and experienced food insecurity, even as universities strive to create more equitable pathways to college. There is a need for a more holistic perspective that addresses the complexity of food insecurity amongst college students. [...] Read more.
In recent years, many students have faced economic hardship and experienced food insecurity, even as universities strive to create more equitable pathways to college. There is a need for a more holistic perspective that addresses the complexity of food insecurity amongst college students. To this end, we examined the relationship between the social determinants of health, including college food insecurity (CoFI) and childhood food insecurity (ChFI), and their relationship with well-being measures. The study sample was a convenience sample that included 372 students at a public university who responded to an online survey in fall 2021. Students were asked to report their food security status in the previous 30 days. We used the following analytical strategies: chi-square tests to determine differences between food secure (FS) and food insecure (FI) students; binary logistic regression of CoFI on student demographics and ChFI; and ordinal or binary logistic regression for well-being measures. Black students, off-campus students, first-generation students, in-state students, and humanities/behavioral/social/health sciences majors were more likely to report CoFI. FI students were more likely to have experienced ChFI and to have lower scores on all well-being measures. ChFI was associated with four well-being measures and its effects were mediated by CoFI. College student health initiatives would benefit from accounting for SDOH, including ChFI experiences and its subsequent cumulative disadvantages experienced during college. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
12 pages, 2689 KiB  
Article
Electron Microscopy for the Stability Assessment of Parenteral Nutrition Admixtures: Focus on Precipitation
by Luis Otero-Millán, Brais Bea-Mascato, Jose Luis Legido Soto, Noemi Martínez-López-De-Castro and Natividad Lago Rivero
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091390 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 714
Abstract
(1) Background: parenteral nutrition (PN) is indispensable for patients unable to receive oral or enteral feeding. However, the complexity of PN solutions presents challenges regarding stability and compatibility. Precipitation reactions may occur. The most frequent is the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P). The [...] Read more.
(1) Background: parenteral nutrition (PN) is indispensable for patients unable to receive oral or enteral feeding. However, the complexity of PN solutions presents challenges regarding stability and compatibility. Precipitation reactions may occur. The most frequent is the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P). The different factors influencing these reactions must be considered to ensure patient safety. (2) Methods: eight paediatric PN solutions were prepared, following standard protocols. Samples were stored at room temperature and in a refrigerator. Electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), was employed. Precipitates were analysed for composition and morphology. (3) Results: precipitates were observed in all samples, even at day 0. Crystalline structures, predominantly composed of calcium or magnesium, sometimes associated with chlorine or phosphorus, were detected. Additionally, amorphous precipitates, contained heterogeneous compositions, including unexpected elements, were identified. (4) Conclusions: various precipitates, primarily calcium- or magnesium-based, can form in PN solutions, although it is not expected that they can form under the real conditions of use. Calcium oxalate precipitation has been characterised, but the use of organic calcium and phosphate salts appears to mitigate calcium phosphate precipitation. Electron microscopy provides interesting results on NP precipitation, but sample preparation may present technical limitations that affect the interpretation of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimizing Nutrition for Preterm Newborns)
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21 pages, 2438 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Status Influences Probiotic Efficacy for Depression—PRO-DEMET Randomized Clinical Trial Results
by Oliwia Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Aleksandra Margulska, Kacper Płeska, Anna Skowrońska and Dominik Strzelecki
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091389 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Probiotics may represent a safe and easy-to-use treatment option for depression or its metabolic comorbidities. However, it is not known whether metabolic features can influence the efficacy of probiotics treatments for depression. This trial involved a parallel-group, prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled design. In [...] Read more.
Probiotics may represent a safe and easy-to-use treatment option for depression or its metabolic comorbidities. However, it is not known whether metabolic features can influence the efficacy of probiotics treatments for depression. This trial involved a parallel-group, prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled design. In total, 116 participants with depression received a probiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell®-52 and Bifidobacterium longum Rosell®-175 or placebo over 60 days. The psychometric data were assessed longitudinally at five time-points. Data for blood pressure, body weight, waist circumference, complete blood count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose were measured at the beginning of the intervention period. There was no advantage of probiotics usage over placebo in the depression score overall (PRO vs. PLC: F(1.92) = 0.58; p = 0.45). However, we found a higher rate of minimum clinically important differences in patients supplemented with probiotics than those allocated to placebo generally (74.5 vs. 53.5%; X2(1,n = 94) = 4.53; p = 0.03; NNT = 4.03), as well as in the antidepressant-treated subgroup. Moreover, we found that the more advanced the pre-intervention metabolic abnormalities (such as overweight, excessive central adipose tissue, and liver steatosis), the lower the improvements in psychometric scores. A higher baseline stress level was correlated with better improvements. The current probiotic formulations may only be used as complementary treatments for depressive disorders. Metabolic abnormalities may require more complex treatments. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04756544. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Gut Microbiota with Chronic Disease)
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17 pages, 1574 KiB  
Review
Impact of Transgenerational Nutrition on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Development: Interplay between Gut Microbiota, Epigenetics and Immunity
by Hong-Tai Tzeng and Wei-Chia Lee
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091388 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most prevalent pediatric liver disorder, primarily attributed to dietary shifts in recent years. NAFLD is characterized by the accumulation of lipid species in hepatocytes, leading to liver inflammation that can progress to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most prevalent pediatric liver disorder, primarily attributed to dietary shifts in recent years. NAFLD is characterized by the accumulation of lipid species in hepatocytes, leading to liver inflammation that can progress to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Risk factors contributing to NAFLD encompass genetic variations and metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Moreover, transgenerational influences, resulting in an imbalance of gut microbial composition, epigenetic modifications, and dysregulated hepatic immune responses in offspring, play a pivotal role in pediatric NAFLD development. Maternal nutrition shapes the profile of microbiota-derived metabolites in offspring, exerting significant influence on immune system regulation and the development of metabolic syndrome in offspring. In this review, we summarize recent evidence elucidating the intricate interplay between gut microbiota, epigenetics, and immunity in fetuses exposed to maternal nutrition, and its impact on the onset of NAFLD in offspring. Furthermore, potential therapeutic strategies targeting this network are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutritional Intake and Child Health)
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12 pages, 2464 KiB  
Article
Obesity Is Associated with Fatty Liver and Fat Changes in the Kidneys in Humans as Assessed by MRI
by Hadar Raphael, Eyal Klang, Eli Konen, Yael Inbar, Avshalom Leibowitz, Yael Frenkel-Nir, Sara Apter and Ehud Grossman
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091387 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Background: Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and fat accumulation in various organs such as the liver and the kidneys. Our goal was to assess, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Dual-Echo phase sequencing, the association between liver and kidney fat deposition and their [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and fat accumulation in various organs such as the liver and the kidneys. Our goal was to assess, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Dual-Echo phase sequencing, the association between liver and kidney fat deposition and their relation to obesity. Methods: We analyzed MRI scans of individuals who were referred to the Chaim Sheba Medical Center between December 2017 and May 2020 to perform a study for any indication. For each individual, we retrieved from the computerized charts data on sex, and age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), and comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia). Results: We screened MRI studies of 399 subjects with a median age of 51 years, 52.4% of whom were women, and a median BMI 24.6 kg/m2. We diagnosed 18% of the participants with fatty liver and 18.6% with fat accumulation in the kidneys (fatty kidneys). Out of the 67 patients with fatty livers, 23 (34.3%) also had fatty kidneys, whereas among the 315 patients without fatty livers, only 48 patients (15.2%) had fatty kidneys (p < 0.01). In comparison to the patients who did not have a fatty liver or fatty kidneys (n = 267), those who had both (n = 23) were more obese, had higher systolic BP, and were more likely to have diabetes mellitus. In comparison to the patients without a fatty liver, those with fatty livers had an adjusted odds ratio of 2.91 (97.5% CI; 1.61–5.25) to have fatty kidneys. In total, 19.6% of the individuals were obese (BMI ≥ 30), and 26.1% had overweight (25 < BMI < 30). The obese and overweight individuals were older and more likely to have diabetes mellitus and hypertension and had higher rates of fatty livers and fatty kidneys. Fat deposition in both the liver and the kidneys was observed in 15.9% of the obese patients, in 8.3% of the overweight patients, and in none of those with normal weight. Obesity was the only risk factor for fatty kidneys and fatty livers, with an adjusted OR of 6.3 (97.5% CI 2.1–18.6). Conclusions: Obesity is a major risk factor for developing a fatty liver and fatty kidneys. Individuals with a fatty liver are more likely to have fatty kidneys. MRI is an accurate modality for diagnosing fatty kidneys. Reviewing MRI scans of any indication should include assessment of fat fractions in the kidneys in addition to that of the liver. Full article
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15 pages, 613 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Personalized Diet on Nutritional Status and Renal Function Outcome in Nephrectomized Patients with Renal Cancer
by Francesco Trevisani, Fabiana Laurenti, Francesco Fiorio, Matteo Paccagnella, Matteo Floris, Umberto Capitanio, Michele Ghidini, Ornella Garrone, Andrea Abbona, Andrea Salonia, Francesco Montorsi and Arianna Bettiga
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091386 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Nutritional therapy (NT) based on a controlled protein intake represents a cornerstone in managing chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, if a CKD patient is at the same time affected by cancer, oncologists and nutritionists tend to suggest a dietary regimen based on high [...] Read more.
Nutritional therapy (NT) based on a controlled protein intake represents a cornerstone in managing chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, if a CKD patient is at the same time affected by cancer, oncologists and nutritionists tend to suggest a dietary regimen based on high protein intake to avoid catabolism and malnutrition. International guidelines are not clear when we consider onco-nephrological patients and, as a consequence, no clinical shared strategy is currently applied in clinical practice. In particular, no precise nutritional management is established in nephrectomized patients for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a specific oncological cohort of patients whose sudden kidney removal forces the remnant one to start a compensatory mechanism of adaptive hyperfiltration. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a low–normal-protein high-calorie (LNPHC) diet based on a Mediterranean model in a consecutive cohort of nephrectomized RCC patients using an integrated nephrologist and nutritionist approach. A consecutive cohort of 40 nephrectomized RCC adult (age > 18) patients who were screened for malnutrition (malnutrition screening tool, MST < 2) were enrolled in a tertiary institution between 2020 and 2022 after signing a specific informed consent form. Each patient underwent an initial nephrological and nutritional evaluation and was subsequently subjected to a conventional CKD LNPHC diet integrated with aproteic foods (0.8 g/Kg/die: calories: 30–35 kcal per kg body weight/die) for a period of 6 months (±2 months). The diet was structured after considering eGFR (CKD-EPI 2021 creatinine formula), comorbidities, and nutritional status. MST, body mass index (BMI), phase angle (PA), fat mass percentage (FM%), fat-free mass index (FFMI), body cell mass index (BCMI), extracellular/intracellular water ratio (ECW/ICW), extracellular matrix/body cell mass ratio (ECM/BCM), waist/hip circumference ratio (WHC), lab test exams, and clinical variables were examined at baseline and after the study period. Our results clearly highlighted that the LNPHC diet was able to significantly improve several nutritional parameters, avoiding malnutrition and catabolism. In particular, the LNPHC diet preserved the BCM index (delta on median, ΔM + 0.3 kg/m2) and reduced the ECM/BCM ratio (ΔM − 0.03 *), with a significant reduction in the ECW/ICW ratio (ΔM − 0.02 *), all while increasing TBW (ΔM + 2.3% *). The LNPHC diet was able to preserve FFM while simultaneously depleting FM and, moreover, it led to a significant reduction in urea (ΔM − 11 mg/dL **). In conclusion, the LNPHC diet represents a new important therapeutic strategy that should be considered when treating onco-nephrological patients with solitary kidney due to renal cancer. Full article
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14 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
High Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Is Inversely Associated with Systemic Inflammation in Older but Not in Younger Brazilian Adults
by Amália Almeida Bastos, Paula Victória Félix, João Valentini Neto, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Regina Mara Fisberg, Mary Yannakoulia and Sandra Maria Lima Ribeiro
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091385 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 981
Abstract
The Mediterranean dietary pattern (MPD) has shown promise in preventing low-grade systemic inflammation (LGSI). This study tested if a high adherence to the MDP by younger and older Brazilian adults is associated with lower LGSI and investigated which Mediterranean food components may contribute [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean dietary pattern (MPD) has shown promise in preventing low-grade systemic inflammation (LGSI). This study tested if a high adherence to the MDP by younger and older Brazilian adults is associated with lower LGSI and investigated which Mediterranean food components may contribute to these associations. We performed a secondary study on 2015 ISA-Nutrition (290 younger adults (20–59 years old) and 293 older adults (≥60 years old)), a cross-sectional population-based study in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The adherence to the MDP was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Score (MedDietScore), obtained from two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs). The LGSI score (from plasma CRP, TNF-α, and adiponectin) identified the inflammatory status. Linear regression models assessed the association between LGSI and the MedDietScore. In older adults only, a high adherence to the MDP signified an 11.5% lower LGSI score. Older adults, classified with high adherence to the MDP, differed by consuming lower meat intake and full-fat dairy. Between older adults, the intake of vegetables and olive oil was inversely associated with the levels of LGSI. Thus, among older adults, the intake of some specific Mediterranean food determined high adherence to the MDP and was associated with decreased LGSI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutritional Status in Older Persons)
20 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Parenting Style and Parental Mealtime Actions on the Eating Behavior of Children with Epilepsy
by Tutku Balcı, Nihan Çakır Biçer, Hande Gazeteci Tekin and Pınar Edem
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091384 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Background: Research on the interaction of parenting style, parents’ mealtime behaviors, and children’s eating behavior in the presence of chronic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the impact of parenting style and parental mealtime actions on the eating behavior of children [...] Read more.
Background: Research on the interaction of parenting style, parents’ mealtime behaviors, and children’s eating behavior in the presence of chronic disease is limited. This study aimed to investigate the impact of parenting style and parental mealtime actions on the eating behavior of children with epilepsy. Methods: Thirty-one children with epilepsy, thirty-one healthy children (aged 4–9 years), and their parents were included. The Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Scale (MAPS), Parent Mealtime Action Scale, Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 were applied. The MAPS, HEI-2015 scores, and body mass index for age Z scores were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). In the epilepsy group, the food approach behavior score was higher, and positive correlations were noted between broadband negative parenting and food approach behavior, and the HEI-2015 score and broadband positive parenting (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that broadband negative parenting and snack modeling increased the food approach behavior in the epilepsy group. Owing to the chronic disease, the effects of parent–child interaction on the child’s eating behavior in the epilepsy group differed from those of healthy children reported in the literature. Full article
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13 pages, 430 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Concentration and Glycemic Index on Blood Glucose Variability and Free Fatty Acids in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes
by Selda Seckiner, Murat Bas, Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Su Ozgur, Yasemin Akcay, Cigdem Gozde Aslan, Ozge Kucukerdonmez and Sevki Cetinkalp
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091383 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Monitoring glycemic control status is the cornerstone of diabetes management. This study aimed to reveal whether moderate-carbohydrate (CHO) diets increase the risk of free fatty acid (FFA) levels, and it presents the short-term effects of four different diet models on blood sugar, glycemic [...] Read more.
Monitoring glycemic control status is the cornerstone of diabetes management. This study aimed to reveal whether moderate-carbohydrate (CHO) diets increase the risk of free fatty acid (FFA) levels, and it presents the short-term effects of four different diet models on blood sugar, glycemic variability (GV), and FFA levels. This crossover study included 17 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus to identify the effects of four diets with different CHO contents and glycemic index (GI) on GV and plasma FFA levels. Diet 1 (D1) contained 40% CHO with a low GI, diet 2 (D2) contained 40% CHO with a high GI, diet 3 (D3) contained 60% CHO with a low GI, and diet 4 (D4) contained 60% CHO with a high GI. Interventions were performed with sensor monitoring in four-day periods and completed in four weeks. No statistical difference was observed among the groups in terms of blood glucose area under the curve (p = 0.78), mean blood glucose levels (p = 0.28), GV (p = 0.59), and time in range (p = 0.567). FFA and total triglyceride levels were higher in the D1 group (p < 0.014 and p = 0.002, respectively). Different diets may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases by affecting GI, FFA, and blood glucose levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes: Diet and Health Conditions)
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35 pages, 4192 KiB  
Review
Ecdysterone and Turkesterone—Compounds with Prominent Potential in Sport and Healthy Nutrition
by Velislava Todorova, Stanislava Ivanova, Dzhevdet Chakarov, Krasimir Kraev and Kalin Ivanov
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091382 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 1352
Abstract
The naturally occurring compounds ecdysterone and turkesterone, which are present in plants, including Rhaponticum carthamoides Willd. (Iljin), Spinacia oleracea L., Chenopodium quinoa Willd., and Ajuga turkestanica (Regel) Briq, are widely recognized due to their possible advantages for both general health and athletic performance. [...] Read more.
The naturally occurring compounds ecdysterone and turkesterone, which are present in plants, including Rhaponticum carthamoides Willd. (Iljin), Spinacia oleracea L., Chenopodium quinoa Willd., and Ajuga turkestanica (Regel) Briq, are widely recognized due to their possible advantages for both general health and athletic performance. The current review investigates the beneficial biological effects of ecdysterone and turkesterone in nutrition, highlighting their roles not only in enhancing athletic performance but also in the management of various health problems. Plant-based diets, associated with various health benefits and environmental sustainability, often include sources rich in phytoecdysteroids. However, the therapeutic potential of phytoecdysteroid-rich extracts extends beyond sports nutrition, with promising applications in treating chronic fatigue, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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17 pages, 1365 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Diagnostic Utility of Selected Serum Adipokines and Cytokines in Subjects with MASLD—A Pilot Study
by Beata Zyśk, Lucyna Ostrowska, Joanna Smarkusz-Zarzecka, Karolina Orywal, Barbara Mroczko and Urszula Cwalina
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091381 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Excess adipose tissue, particularly of the visceral type, triggering chronic low-grade inflammation and altering its secretory profile, is a contributing factor to the initiation and progression of metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD). This study aimed to compare the levels of selected adipokines [...] Read more.
Excess adipose tissue, particularly of the visceral type, triggering chronic low-grade inflammation and altering its secretory profile, is a contributing factor to the initiation and progression of metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD). This study aimed to compare the levels of selected adipokines and cytokines in individuals with normal weight and obesity, assessing their potential for diagnosing MASLD and establishing a cutoff point for body fat content associated with hepatic steatosis development. The research involved 99 participants categorized by body mass index and MASLD presence, undergoing body composition analysis, liver elastography, biochemical tests, and evaluation of adipokines and cytokines in serum. The results indicated elevated IL-6 (interleukin 6) serum levels in individuals with obesity with MASLD compared to the normal-weight group without MASLD. The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated a connection between hepatic steatosis and total adipose tissue content, VAT (visceral adipose tissue), VAT/SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue) ratio, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), IL-6, Il-1β (interleukin 1β), and MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase 2). Among the adipokines and cytokines examined in this study, interleukin 6 was the strongest predictor of MASLD regardless of gender. In addition, an association between the development of hepatic steatosis and higher serum IL-1β levels and higher adipose tissue was observed in women. However, further studies on a larger group of patients are needed to consider the use of these cytokines as markers of MASLD. The HOMA-IR index demonstrated potential diagnostic utility in identifying hepatic steatosis. Full article
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19 pages, 654 KiB  
Article
Protein Intake and Physical Activity Levels as Determinants of Sarcopenia Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
by Isobel L. Stoodley, Bronwyn S. Berthon, Hayley A. Scott, Evan J. Williams, Penelope J. Baines, Hannah Knox, Sophie Wood, Beauty Paradzayi, David Cameron-Smith and Lisa G. Wood
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091380 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Community screening for sarcopenia is complex, with barriers including access to specialized equipment and trained staff to conduct body composition, strength and function assessment. In the current study, self-reported dietary protein intake and physical activity (PA) in adults ≥65 years was assessed relative [...] Read more.
Community screening for sarcopenia is complex, with barriers including access to specialized equipment and trained staff to conduct body composition, strength and function assessment. In the current study, self-reported dietary protein intake and physical activity (PA) in adults ≥65 years was assessed relative to sarcopenia risk, as determined by body composition, strength and physical function assessments, consistent with the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition. Of those screened (n = 632), 92 participants (77% female) were assessed as being at high risk of developing sarcopenia on the basis of dietary protein intake ≤1 g∙kg−1∙day−1 [0.9 (0.7–0.9) g∙kg−1∙day−1] and moderate intensity physical activity <150 min.week−1. A further 31 participants (65% female) were defined as being at low risk, with both protein intake [1.2 (1.1–1.5) g∙kg−1∙day−1] and PA greater than the cut-off values. High-risk participants had reduced % lean mass [53.5 (7.8)% versus 54.8 (6.1)%, p < 0.001] and impaired strength and physical function. Notably, high-risk females exhibited greater deficits in lean mass and strength, with minimal differences between groups for males. In community-dwelling older adults, self-reported low protein intake and low weekly PA is associated with heightened risk for sarcopenia, particularly in older women. Future research should determine whether early intervention in older adults with low protein intake and PA attenuates functional decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Health Status in Older Adults)
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11 pages, 640 KiB  
Article
Effects of Bioactive Dietary Components on Changes in Lipid and Liver Parameters in Women after Bariatric Surgery and Procedures
by Edyta Barbara Balejko, Anna Bogacka, Jarosław Lichota and Jan Pawlus
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091379 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Excess adipose tissue, as well as its distribution, correlates strongly with disorders of lipid and liver parameters and chronic inflammation. The pathophysiology of metabolic diseases caused by obesity is associated with the dysfunction of visceral adipose tissue. Effective and alternative interventions such as [...] Read more.
Excess adipose tissue, as well as its distribution, correlates strongly with disorders of lipid and liver parameters and chronic inflammation. The pathophysiology of metabolic diseases caused by obesity is associated with the dysfunction of visceral adipose tissue. Effective and alternative interventions such as the Bioenteric Intragastric Balloon and bariatric surgeries such as the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of modifying the recommended standard weight loss diet after bariatric surgery and procedures on reducing chronic inflammation in overweight patients. In the study, bioactive anti-inflammatory dietary components were used supportively. Changes in the concentrations of lipid parameters, liver parameters, antioxidant enzymes, cytokines, and chemokines were demonstrated. The enrichment of the diet, after bariatric surgery, with the addition of n-3 EFAs(Essential Fatty Acids), bioflavonoids, vitamins, and synbiotics resulted in higher weight losses in the patients in the study with a simultaneous reduction in parameters indicating liver dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in the Liver Damage)
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41 pages, 8014 KiB  
Article
The Impact of a Nutritional Intervention on Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Type 2 Diabetes
by Tatiana Palotta Minari, Carolina Freitas Manzano, Lúcia Helena Bonalume Tácito, Louise Buonalumi Tácito Yugar, Luis Gustavo Sedenho-Prado, Tatiane de Azevedo Rubio, Antônio Carlos Pires, José Fernando Vilela-Martin, Luciana Neves Cosenso-Martin, Heitor Moreno and Juan Carlos Yugar-Toledo
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091378 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Introduction: Nutritional management plays a crucial role in treating patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), working to prevent and control the progression of chronic non-communicable diseases. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of individualized nutritional interventions on weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference [...] Read more.
Introduction: Nutritional management plays a crucial role in treating patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), working to prevent and control the progression of chronic non-communicable diseases. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of individualized nutritional interventions on weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR)} over 12 months and subsequently at follow-up (15 months). Methods: This longitudinal experimental study (without randomization and blinding) enrolled 84 sedentary participants with T2D (both sexes, aged 18–80 years). They were divided into a control group of 40 participants who received only medical consultations, and an intervention group of 44 participants who received the same medical care along with a nutritional assessment. Consultations occurred quarterly from August 2020 to November 2022 (first–twelfth month), with six to nine patients per session. Subsequently, a follow-up was conducted from December 2022 to November 2023, during which the intervention group had only medical care (during the 12th–15th months). Personalized dietary planning was inspired by the Mediterranean/DASH diets adapted to Brazilian foods and socioeconomic cultures. Statistical Analysis: Normal variables were compared between groups for each time point and also within each group across different time points using a two-way ANOVA (repeated measures for intragroup) followed by the Šídák post hoc test. Non-normal variables were compared between groups for each time point using Kruskal–Wallis followed by the Dunn post hoc test, and within each group across different time points using Friedman followed by the Dunn post hoc test. Data with a Gaussian distribution were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD), and data with a non-Gaussian distribution were presented as median ± interquartile range (IQR). For all cases, α < 0.05 and p < 0.05 were adopted. Results: In the intervention group, significant reductions were observed between the first and twelfth month for all parameters (p < 0.05), (except for TC), along with an increase in HDL-C (p = 0.0105). Conversely, in the control group, there was a significant increase in HbA1c, weight, BMI, FBG, and WHR (p < 0.05) between the first and twelfth months. Regarding the comparison between groups, there was a significant difference for all analyzed parameters (p < 0.05) from the first to the twelfth month. In the follow-up, differences were also observed (p < 0.05), except for BMI (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The individualized nutritional intervention improved eating habits, anthropometric, biochemical, and cardiovascular markers in T2D over 12 months, with sustained results during follow-up. The dietary plan inspired by the Mediterranean and DASH diets demonstrated good adaptation to the Brazilian food culture and the patients’ socioeconomic contexts. Consistent monitoring and personalized nutritional management are essential for optimizing long-term outcomes. However, more clinical trials are necessary in order to optimize the level of evidence for longitudinal interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes)
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16 pages, 1457 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Improvement in Cardiorespiratory Fitness Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity beyond Changes in Visceral/Ectopic Fat among Men with Visceral Obesity
by Adrien Murphy-Després, Dominic J. Chartrand, Isabelle Lemieux, Angelo Tremblay, Jean Bergeron, Paul Poirier, Natalie Alméras and Jean-Pierre Després
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091377 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 717
Abstract
The SYNERGIE study documented the effects on cardiometabolic risk (CMR) indices of a 1-year lifestyle intervention targeting physical activity (PA) and diet followed by a 2-year maintenance period in men with visceral obesity. Improvements in CMR markers and a decrease in low-attenuation muscle [...] Read more.
The SYNERGIE study documented the effects on cardiometabolic risk (CMR) indices of a 1-year lifestyle intervention targeting physical activity (PA) and diet followed by a 2-year maintenance period in men with visceral obesity. Improvements in CMR markers and a decrease in low-attenuation muscle (LAM) area were observed after 1 year. Despite a rebound in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) during the maintenance period, insulin resistance (IR) improved. We tested the hypothesis that variations in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and LAM could explain the long-term improvement in IR. A health (n = 88; mean age 49.0 ± 8.2 years) and fitness (n = 72) evaluation was performed at 0, 1, and 3 years. Participants were classified into two groups based on their CRF response over the maintenance period (worsening: CRF− vs. maintenance/improvement: CRF+). During the maintenance period, changes in the psoas and core LAM areas correlated with changes in IR (r = 0.27; p < 0.05 and r = 0.34; p < 0.005) and changes in CRF (r = −0.31; p < 0.01 and r = −0.30; p < 0.05). IR improved in the CRF+ group (p < 0.05) but remained stable in the CRF− group. Men in the CRF+ group regained half of the changes in VAT volume and LAM at the psoas and mid-thigh compared to the CRF− group (p < 0.05). These results support the importance of targeting VAT and CRF/PA for the long-term management of CMR in men with visceral obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Exercise and Diabetes)
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20 pages, 6713 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Protective Effects of Rosa roxburghii-Fermented Juice on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through Network Pharmacology and Metabolomics
by Zhiyu Chen, Shuo Zhang, Xiaodong Sun, Duo Meng, Chencen Lai, Min Zhang, Pengjiao Wang, Xuncai Huang and Xiuli Gao
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091376 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 937
Abstract
Acute lung injury, a fatal condition characterized by a high mortality rate, necessitates urgent exploration of treatment modalities. Utilizing UHPLS-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS, our study scrutinized the active constituents present in Rosa roxburghii-fermented juice (RRFJ) while also assessing its protective efficacy against LPS-induced ALI [...] Read more.
Acute lung injury, a fatal condition characterized by a high mortality rate, necessitates urgent exploration of treatment modalities. Utilizing UHPLS-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS, our study scrutinized the active constituents present in Rosa roxburghii-fermented juice (RRFJ) while also assessing its protective efficacy against LPS-induced ALI in mice through lung histopathological analysis, cytokine profiling, and oxidative stress assessment. The protective mechanism of RRFJ against ALI in mice was elucidated utilizing metabolomics, network pharmacology, and molecular docking methodologies. Our experimental findings demonstrate that RRFJ markedly ameliorates pathological injuries in ALI-afflicted mice, mitigates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, enhances energy metabolism, and restores dysregulated amino acid and arachidonic acid metabolic pathways. This study indicates that RRFJ can serve as a functional food for adjuvant treatment of ALI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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15 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Impact of Maternal Micronutrient Intake on Gestational Diabetes Risk: Results from Greece’s BORN2020 Prospective Cohort Study
by Antigoni Tranidou, Emmanuella Magriplis, Aikaterini Apostolopoulou, Ioannis Tsakiridis, Violeta Chroni, Eirini Tsekitsidi, Ioustini Kalaitzopoulou, Nikolaos Pazaras, Michail Chourdakis and Themistoklis Dagklis
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091375 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Understanding how maternal micronutrient intake and dietary habits impact gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is crucial. Data from 797 pregnant women were prospectively analyzed to assess GDM status with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Nutritional intake was evaluated using a validated food frequency [...] Read more.
Understanding how maternal micronutrient intake and dietary habits impact gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is crucial. Data from 797 pregnant women were prospectively analyzed to assess GDM status with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Nutritional intake was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) across two periods: Period A, covering 6 months before pregnancy, and Period B, from pregnancy onset to mid-gestation (24 weeks). Micronutrient intakes were compared against the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) dietary reference values (DRVs) and were used to estimate the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) to assess dietary adequacy. GDM was diagnosed in 14.7% (n = 117) of women with the characteristics of a higher mean maternal age (MA) and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Out of the 13 vitamins assessed, biotin, folate, niacin, and pantothenic acid were found significantly higher in the GDM group, as did iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc from the 10 minerals. The results were influenced by the timing of the assessment. Importantly, MAR was higher during pregnancy and was found to increase the risk of GDM by 1% (95%CI: 1, 1.02). A sensitivity analysis revealed that reducing MAR significantly raised the GDM risk by 68% (95%CI: 1.02, 2.79). No association was revealed between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and GDM risk. These findings highlight areas for further investigation into whether dietary modifications involving these specific micronutrients could effectively influence GDM outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of the Mediterranean Diet on Metabolic Diseases)
10 pages, 214 KiB  
Article
The Knowledge of Malnutrition—Geriatric (KoM-G) 2.0 Questionnaire for Health Care Institutions: Cross-Cultural Adaptation into German, Czech, Dutch and Turkish
by Silvia Bauer, Jan Pospichal, Viviënne Huppertz, Vit Blanar, Bulent Saka and Doris Eglseer
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091374 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 568
Abstract
It is necessary for nursing staff to have adequate knowledge of malnutrition in older people in order to provide high quality care. This study was conducted to update the Knowledge of Malnutrition—Geriatric (KoM-G) questionnaire to fit different settings and to cross-culturally adapt it [...] Read more.
It is necessary for nursing staff to have adequate knowledge of malnutrition in older people in order to provide high quality care. This study was conducted to update the Knowledge of Malnutrition—Geriatric (KoM-G) questionnaire to fit different settings and to cross-culturally adapt it to the German, Czech, Dutch and Turkish languages. In Part 1 of the study, the KoM-G questionnaire was updated and adapted for use in different settings. Content validation of the KoM-G 2.0 was carried out in a Delphi study with 16 experts. The final KoM-G 2.0 questionnaire consists of 16 items with a Scale Content Validity Index/Average of 94.5%. In Part 2, the English KoM-G 2.0 was cross-culturally adapted into the German, Czech, Dutch and Turkish languages. In the pilot test, between 96.9% (The Netherlands) and 97.8% (Austria) of the nursing staff rated the items as understandable. The KoM-G 2.0 is an up-to-date questionnaire with a highly satisfactory Content Validity Index. It was cross-culturally adapted into the German, Czech, Dutch, and Turkish languages, and the understandability was high. At the moment, the necessary comprehensive psychometric testing of the KoM-G 2.0 is in process. Afterwards it can be used to compare nurses’ knowledge between various countries and settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
24 pages, 1669 KiB  
Review
Insights into the Anti-Adipogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Potentialities of Probiotics against Obesity
by A. K. M. Humayun Kober, Sudeb Saha, Mutamed Ayyash, Fu Namai, Keita Nishiyama, Kazutoyo Yoda, Julio Villena and Haruki Kitazawa
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091373 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Functional foods with probiotics are safe and effective dietary supplements to improve overweight and obesity. Thus, altering the intestinal microflora may be an effective approach for controlling or preventing obesity. This review aims to summarize the experimental method used to study probiotics and [...] Read more.
Functional foods with probiotics are safe and effective dietary supplements to improve overweight and obesity. Thus, altering the intestinal microflora may be an effective approach for controlling or preventing obesity. This review aims to summarize the experimental method used to study probiotics and obesity, and recent advances in probiotics against obesity. In particular, we focused on studies (in vitro and in vivo) that used probiotics to treat obesity and its associated comorbidities. Several in vitro and in vivo (animal and human clinical) studies conducted with different bacterial species/strains have reported that probiotics promote anti-obesity effects by suppressing the differentiation of pre-adipocytes through immune cell activation, maintaining the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, altering the intestinal microbiota composition, reducing the lipid profile, and regulating energy metabolism. Most studies on probiotics and obesity have shown that probiotics are responsible for a notable reduction in weight gain and body mass index. It also increases the levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines and decreases those of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the blood, which are responsible for the regulation of glucose and fatty acid breakdown. Furthermore, probiotics effectively increase insulin sensitivity and decrease systemic inflammation. Taken together, the intestinal microbiota profile found in overweight individuals can be modified by probiotic supplementation which can create a promising environment for weight loss along enhancing levels of adiponectin and decreasing leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention of Obesity in the Lifecycle: Risks and Determinants)
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21 pages, 6094 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Inhibition of Synbiotic Cultures among Lactobacilli and Plant Extracts against Vaginal Discharge Causing Candida albicans
by Siriwoot Sookkhee, Phadungkiat Khamnoi, Thanapat Sastraruji, Sathian Boonkum, Nitwara Wikan and Wutigri Nimlamool
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091372 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge among women. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic anticandidal effect of lactobacillus cultures supplemented with plant extracts. Among 600 isolates of lactic acid bacteria, 41 isolates exhibited inhibitory activity against [...] Read more.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge among women. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic anticandidal effect of lactobacillus cultures supplemented with plant extracts. Among 600 isolates of lactic acid bacteria, 41 isolates exhibited inhibitory activity against Candida albicans ATCC10231. Six out of 41 cell-free supernatants demonstrated the most potent antibacterial and anticandidal activities. They also inhibited the clinical isolates of C. albicans, causing VVC and non-C. albicans. The synergistic effect between Lactobacillus crispatus 84/7 and Limosilactobacillus reuteri 89/4 was demonstrated by the lowest fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI = 0.5). The synbiotic culture of bacterial combination, cultured with Jerusalem artichoke (H. tuberosus) extract, also exhibited the strongest inhibition against the tested C. albicans. Biofilm formation decreased after 12 h of incubation in the selected cell-free supernatants of this synbiotic culture. The anticandidal activity of crude extracts was lost after treatment with proteinase K and trypsin but not with heating conditions, suggesting that it may be a heat-stable substance. In conclusion, the combination of L. crispatus 84/7 and L. reuteri 89/4 with H. tuberosus may be a promising candidate for inhibiting Candida infection and biofilm formation, with the potential use as ingredients in vaginal biotherapeutic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Microecological Health in Humans)
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10 pages, 894 KiB  
Article
Cholesterol and Its Oxidation Derivatives Content in Market Dairy Products
by Małgorzata Czerwonka, Anna Gielecińska, Agnieszka Białek, Małgorzata Białek and Barbara Bobrowska-Korczak
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091371 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) are contaminants of food of animal origin. Increased levels of these compounds in the human body are associated with an increased risk of many non-communicable diseases. Dairy products are mentioned among the main sources of these compounds in the [...] Read more.
Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) are contaminants of food of animal origin. Increased levels of these compounds in the human body are associated with an increased risk of many non-communicable diseases. Dairy products are mentioned among the main sources of these compounds in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of cholesterol and its oxidized derivatives in eleven groups of dairy products, willingly consumed in European countries. The levels of COPs were determined by applying the GC-TOF/MS method. In the tested products, cholesterol and its oxidation derivatives, such as 7-ketocholesterol, 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol and 5,6α-epoxycholesterol, were determined. The studied dairy products differed in their contents and profiles of oxysterols. The highest contents of COPs were found in cheese with internal mold (13.8 ± 2.5 mg kg−1) and Cheddar (11.7 ± 3.5 mg kg−1), while the lowest levels were detected in yoghurt (0.94 ± 0.30 mg kg−1) and kefir (0.57 ± 0.11 mg kg−1). 7-ketocholesterol and 5,6β-epoxycholesterol were the dominant oxysterols. The ratio of oxidized derivatives to total cholesterol was on average 1.7%. Our results confirmed that dairy products are an important dietary source of COPs. Their levels should be monitored in dairy products to provide the best health quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids in Health and Disease Prevention)
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9 pages, 939 KiB  
Communication
Blood Lead Level as Marker of Increased Risk of Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 Carriers
by Adam Kiljańczyk, Milena Matuszczak, Wojciech Marciniak, Róża Derkacz, Klaudia Stempa, Piotr Baszuk, Marta Bryśkiewicz, Krzysztof Lubiński, Cezary Cybulski, Tadeusz Dębniak, Jacek Gronwald, Tomasz Huzarski, Marcin R. Lener, Anna Jakubowska, Marek Szwiec, Małgorzata Stawicka-Niełacna, Dariusz Godlewski, Artur Prusaczyk, Andrzej Jasiewicz, Tomasz Kluz, Joanna Tomiczek-Szwiec, Ewa Kilar-Kobierzycka, Monika Siołek, Rafał Wiśniowski, Renata Posmyk, Joanna Jarkiewicz-Tretyn, Ping Sun, Rodney J. Scott, Steven A. Narod and Jan Lubińskiadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091370 - 30 Apr 2024
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Abstract
BRCA1 mutations substantially elevate the risks of breast and ovarian cancer. Various modifiers, including environmental factors, can influence cancer risk. Lead, a known carcinogen, has been associated with various cancers, but its impact on BRCA1 carriers remains unexplored. A cohort of 989 BRCA1 [...] Read more.
BRCA1 mutations substantially elevate the risks of breast and ovarian cancer. Various modifiers, including environmental factors, can influence cancer risk. Lead, a known carcinogen, has been associated with various cancers, but its impact on BRCA1 carriers remains unexplored. A cohort of 989 BRCA1 mutation carriers underwent genetic testing at the Pomeranian Medical University, Poland. Blood lead levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each subject was assigned to a category based on their tertile of blood lead. Cox regression analysis was used to assess cancer risk associations. Elevated blood lead levels (>13.6 μg/L) were associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer (univariable: HR = 3.33; 95% CI: 1.23–9.00; p = 0.02; multivariable: HR = 2.10; 95% CI: 0.73–6.01; p = 0.17). No significant correlation was found with breast cancer risk. High blood lead levels are associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 carriers, suggesting priority for preventive salpingo-oophorectomy. Potential risk reduction strategies include detoxification. Validation in diverse populations and exploration of detoxification methods for lowering lead levels are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics: Implications for Whole Life)
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