Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 43295

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Special Issue Editors

Department of Pharmacy, “G. d'Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, 66013 Chieti, Italy
Interests: pharma-toxicological evaluation of herbal extracts and natural compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to expand our knowledge around the rational use of foods and natural antioxidant compounds, also extracted from high-quality byproducts, in the management and prevention of chronic inflammatory and metabolic diseases.

In this regard, the papers submitted should include robust biological data underlying the protective role of foods and their ingredients, alongside a detailed description of the chemical composition.

Specifically, biological and pharmacological investigations may include an evaluation of the protective effects through in vitro models (i.e., cell cultures, pathogen microbiological strains, isolated tissue), including preclinical and clinical data based on validated and reproducible models.

Regarding the chemical composition of the investigated products, the authors are strongly invited to submit papers reporting the identification and quantification of food components, through chromatographic and/or spectroscopic data.

The description of the mechanism of action will be much appreciated, which could also include a bioinformatics approach based on targets–components analysis, in particular for bioactive extracts from foods.

Prof. Dr. Luigi Brunetti
Dr. Annalisa Chiavaroli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • bioactive extracts
  • oxidative stress
  • inflammation
  • metabolic diseases

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 209 KiB  
Editorial
Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4401; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244401 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 572
Abstract
In recent years, more plant-based sources of functional foods have been shown to be effective in preventing, reducing, and treating chronic inflammatory and metabolic diseases, and promoting health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

16 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory and Vasorelaxant Effects Induced by an Aqueous Aged Black Garlic Extract Supplemented with Vitamins D, C, and B12 on Cardiovascular System
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071558 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
Multiple studies demonstrated biological activities of aged black garlic, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardioprotective effects. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of an aged black garlic water extract (ABGE) alone or in association with multivitamins consisting of combined Vitamins D, C, and [...] Read more.
Multiple studies demonstrated biological activities of aged black garlic, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardioprotective effects. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of an aged black garlic water extract (ABGE) alone or in association with multivitamins consisting of combined Vitamins D, C, and B12, on mouse heart specimens exposed to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we studied the hydrogen sulphide (H2S) releasing properties and the membrane hyperpolarization effect of the Formulation composed by ABGE and multivitamins, using Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells (HASMCs). ABGE, vitamins D and C, and the Formulation suppressed LPS-induced gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on mouse heart specimens. The beneficial effects induced by the extract could be related to the pattern of polyphenolic composition, with particular regard to gallic acid and catechin. The Formulation also increased fluorescence values compared to the vehicle, and it caused a significant membrane hyperpolarization of HASMCs compared to ABGE. To conclude, our present findings showed that ABGE, alone and in association with multivitamins, exhibited protective effects on mouse heart. Moreover, the Formulation increased intracellular H2S formation, further suggesting its potential use on cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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13 pages, 1703 KiB  
Article
Impact on Glycemic Variation Caused by a Change in the Dietary Intake Sequence
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051055 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1973
Abstract
This work presents an analysis of the effect on glycemic variation caused by modifying the macronutrient intake sequence in a person without a diagnosis of diabetes. In this work, three types of nutritional studies were developed: (1) glucose variation under conditions of daily [...] Read more.
This work presents an analysis of the effect on glycemic variation caused by modifying the macronutrient intake sequence in a person without a diagnosis of diabetes. In this work, three types of nutritional studies were developed: (1) glucose variation under conditions of daily intake (food mixture); (2) glucose variation under conditions of daily intake modifying the macronutrient intake sequence; (3) glucose variation after a modification in the diet and macronutrient intake sequence. The focus of this research is to obtain preliminary results on the effectiveness of a nutritional intervention based on the modification of the sequence of macronutrient intake in a healthy person during 14-day periods. The results obtained corroborate the positive effect on the glucose of consuming vegetables, fiber, or proteins before carbohydrates, decreasing the peaks in the postprandial glucose curves (vegetables: 113–117 mg/dL; proteins: 107–112 mg/dL; carbohydrates: 115–125 mg/dL) and reducing the average levels of blood glucose concentrations (vegetables: 87–95 mg/dL; proteins: 82–99 mg/dL; carbohydrates: 90–98 mg/dL). The present work demonstrates the preliminary potential of the sequence in the macronutrient intake for the generation of alternatives of prevention and solution of chronic degenerative diseases, improving the management of glucose in the organism and permeating in the reduction of weight and the state of health of the individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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11 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Street Food in Malaysia: What Are the Sodium Levels?
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3791; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233791 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
Street food is a major source of food in middle- and low-income countries as it is highly accessible and inexpensive. However, it is usually perceived as unhealthy due to the high levels of sodium, sugar, and fat content. However, there is little analytical [...] Read more.
Street food is a major source of food in middle- and low-income countries as it is highly accessible and inexpensive. However, it is usually perceived as unhealthy due to the high levels of sodium, sugar, and fat content. However, there is little analytical data on the sodium levels in the street foods of Malaysia. This study started with a survey to determine the most frequently available street foods in every state in Malaysia, followed by food sampling and the analysis of sodium (reported mg/100 g sample). Street food in the snack category contained the highest amount of sodium (433 mg), followed by main meals (336.5 mg) and desserts (168 mg). Approximately 30% of the local street food in this study was deep-fried. Snacks from processed food (8%) contained high sodium content (500–815 mg). Fried noodles and noodle soup contained the highest amount of sodium (>2000 mg sodium) based on per serving. Most main dishes that use a variety of sauces contained high amounts of sodium. These findings were recorded in the Malaysian Food Composition Database. Moreover, this study could raise awareness and serve as baseline data for future interventions on the sodium content in the street foods of Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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20 pages, 2888 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects Induced by Allium sativum L. Extracts on an Ex Vivo Experimental Model of Ulcerative Colitis
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223559 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4444
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic and multifactorial inflammatory conditions of the colonic mucosa (ulcerative colitis), characterized by increased and unbalanced immune response to external stimuli. Garlic and its bioactive constituents were reported to exert various biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic and multifactorial inflammatory conditions of the colonic mucosa (ulcerative colitis), characterized by increased and unbalanced immune response to external stimuli. Garlic and its bioactive constituents were reported to exert various biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of a hydroalcoholic (GHE) and a water (GWE) extract from a Sicilian variety of garlic, known as Nubia red garlic, on an ex vivo experimental model of ulcerative colitis, involving isolated LPS-treated mouse colon specimens. Both extracts were able to counteract LPS-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), and interleukin (IL)-6 gene expression in mouse colon. Moreover, the same extracts inhibited prostaglandin (PG)E2, 8-iso-PGF, and increased the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/serotonin ratio following treatment with LPS. In particular, GHE showed a better anti-inflammatory profile. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects induced by both extracts could be related, at least partially, to their polyphenolic composition, with particular regards to catechin. Concluding, our results showed that GHE and GWE exhibited protective effects in colon, thus suggesting their potential use in the prevention and management of ulcerative colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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9 pages, 1531 KiB  
Article
Can Bioactive Compounds in Beetroot/Carrot Juice Have a Neuroprotective Effect? Morphological Studies of Neurons Immunoreactive to Calretinin of the Rat Hippocampus after Exposure to Cadmium
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182794 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Cadmium ions (Cd2+) penetrate the blood–brain barrier and can, among other effects, influence intracellular calcium metabolism, leading to neurodegeneration. In the presented work, we estimated the effect of Cd2+ on the expression of calretinin in the neurons of the rat [...] Read more.
Cadmium ions (Cd2+) penetrate the blood–brain barrier and can, among other effects, influence intracellular calcium metabolism, leading to neurodegeneration. In the presented work, we estimated the effect of Cd2+ on the expression of calretinin in the neurons of the rat hippocampus and analyzed the reverse effect of freshly pressed beetroot/carrot juice in this context. In the 12-week lasting experiment, 32 8-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 8): the control group (C) received pure tap water; the Cd group (Cd)—received Cd2+ dissolved in tap water (5 mg Cd2+/kg b.w.); and two groups received beetroot/carrot juice: the BCJ group was administered only juice, and the Cd + BCJ group received juice with the addition of Cd2+ (5 mg Cd2+/kg b.w.). The exposition to low doses of Cd2+ caused a significant decrease in calretinin-immunoreactive (Cr-IR) neurons compared to the non-exposed groups. Moreover, the addition of Cd2+ to tap water reduced the numbers and length of Cr-IR nerve fibers. The negative effect of Cd2+ was significantly attenuated by the simultaneous supplementation of beetroot/carrot juice (Cd + BCJ). The study showed that the bioactive compounds in the beetroot/carrot juice can modulate Ca2+ levels in neurons, and thus, potentially act as a neuroprotective factor against neuronal damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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15 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Is Better Knowledge about Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber Related to Food Labels Reading Habits? A Croatian Overview
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152347 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between health dietary patterns, knowledge, and consumption of dietary fiber (DF) with frequency of food label reading on food products with special reference to DF. The study was conducted in 2536 Croatian [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between health dietary patterns, knowledge, and consumption of dietary fiber (DF) with frequency of food label reading on food products with special reference to DF. The study was conducted in 2536 Croatian adults using an original questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations between food label reading habits and predictor variables. Our study confirms the association between habits regarding the reading of labels on food products, especially in relation to information about DF with the sociodemographic factors of respondents, dietary food patterns and DF consumption, as well as knowledge and sources of information about DF. Women, individuals with a university-level education, and those living in an urban environment had more frequent labels used. Food habits as well as eating outside of the home were positive predictors while eating fast food was a negative predictor of food label reading. Knowledge about DF, especially about its health benefits, was also associated with food label reading. The interpretation of associations could help with the design of effective public health programs. Targeted education campaigns to educate and sensitize the population about food labeling and monitoring may improve general knowledge about healthy food and its benefits, which include indirect effects on the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
14 pages, 3097 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Acid Profiling of Lactarius hatsudake Extracts, Anti-Cancer Function and Its Molecular Mechanisms
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131839 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Cancer is still the leading cause of death across the world, and there is a lack of efficient therapies. Lactarius hatsudake is a mushroom with a food and medicine homology that contains numerous biologically active substances. This study aimed to investigate the composition [...] Read more.
Cancer is still the leading cause of death across the world, and there is a lack of efficient therapies. Lactarius hatsudake is a mushroom with a food and medicine homology that contains numerous biologically active substances. This study aimed to investigate the composition of extracts from Lactarius hatsudake (L. hatsudake) and their anti-cancer function and molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that the total phenolic content of L. hatsudake extracts was 139.46 ± 5.42 mg/g. The following six phenolic compounds were identified from L. hatsudake extracts by HPLC and UPLC-QTOF/MS: gallic acid, pyrogallol, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, myricetin, and cinnamic acid. Colorectal cancer cell HCT116 and hepatic cancer cell HepG2 were used to evaluate the anti-cancer function of the L. hatsudake extracts. Compared with HepG2 cells, the L. hatsudake extracts showed stronger anti-cancer activity against HCT116 cells and these were used to study molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that the L. hatsudake extracts could arrest the cancer cell cycle and inhibit cancer cell proliferation, which may be mediated by the MAPK/NFκB/AP-1 signalling pathway; the L. hatsudake extracts also promoted cancer cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that L. hatsudake ethanol extracts contain six main phenolics and illustrate the remarkable potentiality of L. hatsudake as a source of natural phenolics for cancer prevention and as an adjuvant in the treatment of functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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13 pages, 1057 KiB  
Article
Aronia melanocarpa Fruit Juice Modulates ACE2 Immunoexpression and Diminishes Age-Related Remodeling of Coronary Arteries in Rats
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091220 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMJ) supplementation on age-related coronary arteries remodeled in aged rat hearts. Male Wistar rats (n = 24) were divided into three groups: (1) young controls (CY), aged 2 [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMJ) supplementation on age-related coronary arteries remodeled in aged rat hearts. Male Wistar rats (n = 24) were divided into three groups: (1) young controls (CY), aged 2 months, without AMJ supplementation; (2) old controls (CO), aged 27 months, without AMJ supplementation; and (3) the AMJ group (A), which used 27-month old animals, supplemented orally with AMJ for 105 days. AMJ supplementation did not influence the wall-to-diameter parameter (Kernohan index) of the coronary arteries of test animals. Aged rats supplemented with AMJ showed a significant decrease in the amount of collagen fibers in their coronary tunica media, as compared with the old controls. The intensity of the immunoreaction for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) in the coronary tunica media was significantly lower in the supplemented group than in the old controls. The intensity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) immunoreaction in the coronary tunica media of the supplemented group was significantly higher than the one observed in the old controls. These results indicate the positive effects of AMJ supplementation on the age-dependent remodeling of coronary arteries and support for the preventive potential of antioxidant-rich functional food supplementation in age-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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15 pages, 4727 KiB  
Article
Fermented Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Extract Cures and Prevents Prednisolone-Induced Bone Resorption by Activating Osteoblast Differentiation
Foods 2022, 11(5), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050678 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Osteoporosis is a bone resorptive disease characterized by the loss of bone density, causing an increase in bone fragility. In our previous study, we demonstrated that gamma aminobutyric acid-enriched fermented oyster (Crassostrea gigas) extract (FO) stimulated osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is a bone resorptive disease characterized by the loss of bone density, causing an increase in bone fragility. In our previous study, we demonstrated that gamma aminobutyric acid-enriched fermented oyster (Crassostrea gigas) extract (FO) stimulated osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and vertebral formation in zebrafish. However, the efficacy of FO in prednisolone (PDS)-induced bone resorption remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the osteogenic potential of FO in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and zebrafish larvae under both PDS-pretreated and PDS-post-treated conditions. We found that FO recovered osteogenic activity by upregulating osteoblast markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2, and osterix, in both PDS-pretreated and post-treated MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells and zebrafish larvae. In both conditions, PDS-induced decrease in calcification and ALP activity was recovered in the presence of FO. Furthermore, vertebral resorption in zebrafish larvae induced by pretreatment and post-treatment with PDS was restored by treatment with FO, along with the recovery of osteogenic markers and downregulation of osteoclastogenic markers. Finally, whether FO disturbs the endocrine system was confirmed according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guideline 455. We found that FO did not stimulate estrogen response element-luciferase activity or proliferation in MCF7 cells. Additionally, in ovariectomized mice, no change in uterine weight was observed during FO feeding. These results indicate that FO effectively prevents and treats PDS-induced osteoporosis without endocrine disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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11 pages, 1135 KiB  
Article
Comparative Assessment of the Antibacterial Efficacies and Mechanisms of Different Tea Extracts
Foods 2022, 11(4), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040620 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5066
Abstract
Tea is a popular beverage known for its unique taste and vast health benefits. The main components in tea change greatly during different processing methods, which makes teas capable of having different biological activities. We compared the antibacterial activity of four varieties of [...] Read more.
Tea is a popular beverage known for its unique taste and vast health benefits. The main components in tea change greatly during different processing methods, which makes teas capable of having different biological activities. We compared the antibacterial activity of four varieties of tea, including green, oolong, black, and Fuzhuan tea. All tea extracts showed antibacterial activity and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus) were more susceptible to tea extracts than Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). Green tea extracts inhibited bacterial pathogens much more effectively in all four varieties of tea with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values at 20 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, 35 mg/mL, and 16 mg/mL for E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, and S. typhimurium, respectively. Catechins should be considered as the main antibiotic components of the four tea extracts. Total catechins were extracted from green tea and evaluated their antibacterial activity. Additional studies showed that the catechins damaged the cell membrane and increased cell membrane permeability, leading to changes in the relative electrical conductivity and the release of certain components into the cytoplasm. Tea extracts, especially green tea extracts, should be considered as safe antibacterial food additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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Review

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41 pages, 862 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Ellagitannins and Their Metabolites through Gut Microbiome on the Gut Health and Brain Wellness within the Gut–Brain Axis
Foods 2023, 12(2), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020270 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5700
Abstract
Ellagitannins (ETs) are a large group of bioactive compounds found in plant-source foods, such as pomegranates, berries, and nuts. The consumption of ETs has often been associated with positive effects on many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative syndromes, and cancer. Although multiple biological [...] Read more.
Ellagitannins (ETs) are a large group of bioactive compounds found in plant-source foods, such as pomegranates, berries, and nuts. The consumption of ETs has often been associated with positive effects on many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative syndromes, and cancer. Although multiple biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive) have been discussed for ETs, their limited bioavailability prevents reaching significant concentrations in systemic circulation. Instead, urolithins, ET gut microbiota-derived metabolites, are better absorbed and could be the bioactive molecules responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities or anti-tumor cell progression. In this review, we examined the dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of ETs, and analyzed the last recent findings on ETs, ellagic acid, and urolithins, their intestinal and brain activities, the potential mechanisms of action, and the connection between the ET microbiota metabolism and the consequences detected on the gut–brain axis. The current in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies indicate that ET-rich foods, individual gut microbiomes, or urolithin types could modulate signaling pathways and promote beneficial health effects. A better understanding of the role of these metabolites in disease pathogenesis may assist in the prevention or treatment of pathologies targeting the gut–brain axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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17 pages, 3452 KiB  
Review
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale L.) as a Source of Biologically Active Compounds Supporting the Therapy of Co-Existing Diseases in Metabolic Syndrome
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2858; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182858 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7421
Abstract
Nowadays, many people are struggling with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis, which are called the scourge of the 21st century. These illnesses coexist in metabolic syndrome, which is not a separate disease entity because it includes several clinical conditions such as central [...] Read more.
Nowadays, many people are struggling with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis, which are called the scourge of the 21st century. These illnesses coexist in metabolic syndrome, which is not a separate disease entity because it includes several clinical conditions such as central (abdominal) obesity, elevated blood pressure, and disorders of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Lifestyle is considered to have an impact on the development of metabolic syndrome. An unbalanced diet, the lack of sufficient physical activity, and genetic factors result in the development of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis, which significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is aimed primarily at reducing the risk of the development of coexisting diseases, and the appropriate diet is the key factor in the treatment. Plant raw materials containing compounds that regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in the human body are investigated. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.) is a plant, the consumption of which affects the regulation of lipid and sugar metabolism. The growth of this plant is widely spread in Eurasia, both Americas, Africa, New Zealand, and Australia. The use and potential of this plant that is easily accessible in the world in contributing to the treatment of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis have been proved by many studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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27 pages, 1164 KiB  
Review
An Exploratory Critical Review on TNF-α as a Potential Inflammatory Biomarker Responsive to Dietary Intervention with Bioactive Foods and Derived Products
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162524 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3284
Abstract
This review collects and critically examines data on the levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in lean, overweight and obese subjects, and the effects of intervention with different foods and food products containing bioactive constituents in overweight/obese individuals. We additionally explore the influence [...] Read more.
This review collects and critically examines data on the levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in lean, overweight and obese subjects, and the effects of intervention with different foods and food products containing bioactive constituents in overweight/obese individuals. We additionally explore the influence of different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on TNF-α levels and compare the response to food products with that to some anti-obesity drugs. Our aim was to provide an overview of the variability, consistency, and magnitude of the reported effects of dietary factors on TNF-α, and to envisage the reliability of measuring changes in the levels of this cytokine as a biomarker responsive to food intervention in association with the reduction in body weight. Regarding the circulating levels of TNF-α, we report: (i) a large intra-group variability, with most coefficients of variation (CV%) values being ≥30% and, in many cases, >100%; (ii) a large between-studies variability, with baseline TNF-α values ranging from <1.0 up to several hundred pg/mL; (iii) highly variable effects of the different dietary approaches with both statistically significant and not significant decreases or increases of the protein, and the absolute effect size varying from <0.1 pg/mL up to ≈50 pg/mL. Within this scenario of variability, it was not possible to discern clear differentiating limits in TNF-α between lean, overweight, and obese individuals or a distinct downregulatory effect on this cytokine by any of the different dietary approaches reviewed, i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), Vitamin-D (VitD), mixed (micro)nutrients, (poly)phenols or other phytochemicals. Further, there was not a clear relationship between the TNF-α responses and body weight changes. We found similarities between dietary and pharmacological treatments in terms of variability and limited evidence of the TNF-α response. Different factors that contribute to this variability are discussed and some specific recommendations are proposed to reinforce the need to improve future studies looking at this cytokine as a potential biomarker of response to dietary approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Components in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention)
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