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Pharmacological Study on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extract

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 25307

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to submit original articles to the Special Issue entitled "Pharmacological Study on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extract".

The goal of this Special Issue is to explore potential applications of herbal extracts in the management of neural and inflammatory pathways that are altered in metabolic and degenerative diseases (Please note that it is necessary to clarify the exact functional ingredient in the research paper, paper only on mixed extraction is not fit for our journal). Review articles and clinical/preclinical studies conducted with validated in vivo and in vitro models are welcome. Considering the complex nature of the plant extract, the dose/concentration range employed during the study should be accurately substantiated through validated toxicological tests. Emphasis will be also given to the phytochemical characterization of the plant extract, as an essential requirement for an accurate evaluation of the mechanism of action.

Prof. Luigi Brunetti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • neuropeptides
  • neurotransmitters
  • oxidative stress
  • inflammation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Pharmacological Studies on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extracts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 10653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241310653 - 26 Jun 2023
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Central nervous system (CNS) disorders represent a public health priority and demand significant scientific efforts for the development and study of new drugs and their possible beneficial effects [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological Study on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extract)

Research

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11 pages, 1886 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cannabidiol and Beta-Caryophyllene Alone or in Combination in a Mouse Model of Permanent Ischemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062866 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
Current treatments for stroke, which account for 6.5 million global deaths annually, remain insufficient for treatment of disability and mortality. One targetable hallmark of stroke is the inflammatory response following infarct, which leads to significant damage post-infarct. Cannabinoids and their endogenous targets within [...] Read more.
Current treatments for stroke, which account for 6.5 million global deaths annually, remain insufficient for treatment of disability and mortality. One targetable hallmark of stroke is the inflammatory response following infarct, which leads to significant damage post-infarct. Cannabinoids and their endogenous targets within the CNS have emerged as potential treatments for neuroinflammatory indications. We and others have previously shown that synthetic agonists of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor reduce infarct size and microglial activation in rodent models of stroke. The non-cannabinoid receptor mediated effects of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) have also shown effectiveness in these models. The present aim was to determine the single and combined effects of the cannabis-derived sesquiterpene and putative CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (BCP) and CBD on permanent ischemia without reperfusion using a mouse model of photothrombosis. Because BCP and CBD likely work through different sites of action but share common mechanisms of action, we sought to determine whether combinations of BCP and CBD were more potent than either compound alone. Therefore we determined the effect of BCP (3–30 mg/kg IP) and CBD (3–30 mg/kg IP), given alone or in combination (30:3, 30:10, and 30:30 BCP:CBD), on infarct size, microglial activation, and motor performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological Study on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extract)
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12 pages, 1245 KiB  
Article
Hop Bitter Acids Increase Hippocampal Dopaminergic Activity in a Mouse Model of Social Defeat Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249612 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2196
Abstract
As daily lifestyle is closely associated with mental illnesses, diet-based preventive approaches are receiving attention. Supplementation with hop bitter acids such as iso-α-acids (IAA) and mature hop bitter acids (MHBA) improves mood states in healthy older adults. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. [...] Read more.
As daily lifestyle is closely associated with mental illnesses, diet-based preventive approaches are receiving attention. Supplementation with hop bitter acids such as iso-α-acids (IAA) and mature hop bitter acids (MHBA) improves mood states in healthy older adults. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Since acute oral consumption with IAA increases dopamine levels in hippocampus and improves memory impairment via vagal nerve activation, here we investigated the effects of chronic administration of hop bitter acids on the dopaminergic activity associated with emotional disturbance in a mouse model of repeated social defeat stress (R-SDS). Chronic administration of IAA and MHBA significantly increased dopaminergic activity based on the dopamine metabolite to dopamine ratio in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex following R-SDS. Hippocampal dopaminergic activity was inversely correlated with the level of R-SDS-induced social avoidance with or without IAA administration. Therefore, chronic treatment with hop bitter acids enhances stress resilience-related hippocampal dopaminergic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological Study on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extract)
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24 pages, 4990 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat CTX-TNA2 Astrocytes and Isolated Cortexes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103575 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 5230
Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are Cannabis sativa terpenophenols. Although CBD’s effectiveness against neurological diseases has already been demonstrated, nothing is known about CBG. Therefore, a comparison of the effects of these compounds was performed in two experimental models mimicking the oxidative stress [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are Cannabis sativa terpenophenols. Although CBD’s effectiveness against neurological diseases has already been demonstrated, nothing is known about CBG. Therefore, a comparison of the effects of these compounds was performed in two experimental models mimicking the oxidative stress and neurotoxicity occurring in neurological diseases. Rat astrocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide and cell viability, reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis occurrence were investigated. Cortexes were exposed to K+ 60 mM depolarizing stimulus and serotonin (5-HT) turnover, 3-hydroxykinurenine and kynurenic acid levels were measured. A proteomic analysis and bioinformatics and docking studies were performed. Both compounds exerted antioxidant effects in astrocytes and restored the cortex level of 5-HT depleted by neurotoxic stimuli, whereas sole CBD restored the basal levels of 3-hydroxykinurenine and kynurenic acid. CBG was less effective than CBD in restoring the levels of proteins involved in neurotransmitter exocytosis. Docking analyses predicted the inhibitory effects of these compounds towards the neurokinin B receptor. Conclusion: The results in the in vitro system suggest brain non-neuronal cells as a target in the treatment of oxidative conditions, whereas findings in the ex vivo system and docking analyses imply the potential roles of CBD and CBG as neuroprotective agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological Study on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extract)
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Review

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15 pages, 549 KiB  
Review
Ursolic and Oleanolic Acids: Plant Metabolites with Neuroprotective Potential
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094599 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 4881
Abstract
Ursolic and oleanolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that are known to be involved in the plant defence system against water loss and pathogens. Nowadays these triterpenoids are also regarded as potential pharmaceutical compounds and there is mounting experimental data that either purified [...] Read more.
Ursolic and oleanolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that are known to be involved in the plant defence system against water loss and pathogens. Nowadays these triterpenoids are also regarded as potential pharmaceutical compounds and there is mounting experimental data that either purified compounds or triterpenoid-enriched plant extracts exert various beneficial effects, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anticancer, on model systems of both human or animal origin. Some of those effects have been linked to the ability of ursolic and oleanolic acids to modulate intracellular antioxidant systems and also inflammation and cell death-related pathways. Therefore, our aim was to review current studies on the distribution of ursolic and oleanolic acids in plants, bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of these triterpenoids and their derivatives, and to discuss their neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological Study on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extract)
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19 pages, 1471 KiB  
Review
Beneficial Impacts of Alpha-Eleostearic Acid from Wild Bitter Melon and Curcumin on Promotion of CDGSH Iron-Sulfur Domain 2: Therapeutic Roles in CNS Injuries and Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073289 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2543
Abstract
Neuroinflammation and abnormal mitochondrial function are related to the cause of aging, neurodegeneration, and neurotrauma. The activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), exaggerating these two pathologies, underlies the pathogenesis for the aforementioned injuries and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). CDGSH iron-sulfur [...] Read more.
Neuroinflammation and abnormal mitochondrial function are related to the cause of aging, neurodegeneration, and neurotrauma. The activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), exaggerating these two pathologies, underlies the pathogenesis for the aforementioned injuries and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). CDGSH iron-sulfur domain 2 (CISD2) belongs to the human NEET protein family with the [2Fe-2S] cluster. CISD2 has been verified as an NFκB antagonist through the association with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β (PPAR-β). This protective protein can be attenuated under circumstances of CNS injuries and diseases, thereby causing NFκB activation and exaggerating NFκB-provoked neuroinflammation and abnormal mitochondrial function. Consequently, CISD2-elevating plans of action provide pathways in the management of various disease categories. Various bioactive molecules derived from plants exert protective anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and serve as natural antioxidants, such as conjugated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. Herein, we have summarized pharmacological characters of the two phytochemicals, namely, alpha-eleostearic acid (α-ESA), an isomer of conjugated linolenic acids derived from wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. var. abbreviata Ser.), and curcumin, a polyphenol derived from rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. In this review, the unique function of the CISD2-elevating effect of α-ESA and curcumin are particularly emphasized, and these natural compounds are expected to serve as a potential therapeutic target for CNS injuries and diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological Study on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extract)
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16 pages, 778 KiB  
Review
Pre-Clinical Neuroprotective Evidences and Plausible Mechanisms of Sulforaphane in Alzheimer’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062929 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 6110
Abstract
Sulforaphane, a potent dietary bioactive agent obtainable from cruciferous vegetables, has been extensively studied for its effects in disease prevention and therapy. Sulforaphane potently induces transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated expression of detoxification, anti-oxidation, and immune system-modulating enzymes, and [...] Read more.
Sulforaphane, a potent dietary bioactive agent obtainable from cruciferous vegetables, has been extensively studied for its effects in disease prevention and therapy. Sulforaphane potently induces transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated expression of detoxification, anti-oxidation, and immune system-modulating enzymes, and possibly acts as an anti-carcinogenic agent. Several clinical trials are in progress to study the effect of diverse types of cruciferous vegetables and sulforaphane on prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, atopic asthmatics, skin aging, dermatitis, obesity, etc. Recently, the protective effects of sulforaphane on brain health were also considerably studied, where the studies have further extended to several neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia. Animal and cell studies that employ sulforaphane against memory impairment and AD-related pre-clinical biomarkers on amyloid-β, tau, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration are summarized, and plausible neuroprotective mechanisms of sulforaphane to help prevent AD are discussed. The increase in pre-clinical evidences consistently suggests that sulforaphane has a multi-faceted neuroprotective effect on AD pathophysiology. The anti-AD-like evidence of sulforaphane seen in cells and animals indicates the need to pursue sulforaphane research for relevant biomarkers in AD pre-symptomatic populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological Study on Neuromodulatory Effects of Plant Extract)
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