Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

Order results
Result details
Results per page
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
21 pages, 3351 KiB  
Article
A FtsZ Inhibitor That Can Utilize Siderophore-Ferric Iron Uptake Transporter Systems for Activity against Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens
by Eric J. Bryan, Qi Qiao, Yuxuan Wang, Jacques Y. Roberge, Edmond J. LaVoie and Daniel S. Pilch
Antibiotics 2024, 13(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13030209 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 927
Abstract
The global threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens necessitates the development of new and effective antibiotics. FtsZ is an essential and highly conserved cytoskeletal protein that is an appealing antibacterial target for new antimicrobial therapeutics. However, the effectiveness of FtsZ inhibitors against Gram-negative [...] Read more.
The global threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens necessitates the development of new and effective antibiotics. FtsZ is an essential and highly conserved cytoskeletal protein that is an appealing antibacterial target for new antimicrobial therapeutics. However, the effectiveness of FtsZ inhibitors against Gram-negative species has been limited due in part to poor intracellular accumulation. To address this limitation, we have designed a FtsZ inhibitor (RUP4) that incorporates a chlorocatechol siderophore functionality that can chelate ferric iron (Fe3+) and utilizes endogenous siderophore uptake pathways to facilitate entry into Gram-negative pathogens. We show that RUP4 is active against both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, with this activity being dependent on direct Fe3+ chelation and enhanced under Fe3+-limiting conditions. Genetic deletion studies in K. pneumoniae reveal that RUP4 gains entry through the FepA and CirA outer membrane transporters and the FhuBC inner membrane transporter. We also show that RUP4 exhibits bactericidal synergy against K. pneumoniae when combined with select antibiotics, with the strongest synergy observed with PBP2-targeting β-lactams or MreB inhibitors. In the aggregate, our studies indicate that incorporation of Fe3+-chelating moieties into FtsZ inhibitors is an appealing design strategy for enhancing activity against Gram-negative pathogens of global clinical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Synthesis of Novel Antibiotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1570 KiB  
Article
Diverse Role of blaCTX-M and Porins in Mediating Ertapenem Resistance among Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales
by Cody A. Black, Raymond Benavides, Sarah M. Bandy, Steven D. Dallas, Gerard Gawrys, Wonhee So, Alvaro G. Moreira, Samantha Aguilar, Kevin Quidilla, Dan F. Smelter, Kelly R. Reveles, Christopher R. Frei, Jim M. Koeller and Grace C. Lee
Antibiotics 2024, 13(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13020185 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are diverse mechanisms, including those that are resistant to meropenem but susceptible to ertapenem, adding further complexity to the clinical landscape. This study investigates the emergence of ertapenem-resistant, meropenem-susceptible (ErMs) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae CRE across five hospitals [...] Read more.
Among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are diverse mechanisms, including those that are resistant to meropenem but susceptible to ertapenem, adding further complexity to the clinical landscape. This study investigates the emergence of ertapenem-resistant, meropenem-susceptible (ErMs) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae CRE across five hospitals in San Antonio, Texas, USA, from 2012 to 2018. The majority of the CRE isolates were non-carbapenemase producers (NCP; 54%; 41/76); 56% of all NCP isolates had an ErMs phenotype. Among ErMs strains, E. coli comprised the majority (72%). ErMs strains carrying blaCTX-M had, on average, 9-fold higher copies of blaCTX-M than CP-ErMs strains as well as approximately 4-fold more copies than blaCTX-M-positive but ertapenem- and meropenem-susceptible (EsMs) strains (3.7 vs. 0.9, p < 0.001). Notably, carbapenem hydrolysis was observed to be mediated by strains harboring blaCTX-M with and without a carbapenemase(s). ErMs also carried more mobile genetic elements, particularly IS26 composite transposons, than EsMs (37 vs. 0.2, p < 0.0001). MGE- ISVsa5 was uniquely more abundant in ErMs than either EsMs or ErMr strains, with over 30 more average ISVsa5 counts than both phenotype groups (p < 0.0001). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the absence of OmpC expression in NCP-ErMs E. coli, with 92% of strains lacking full contig coverage of ompC. Overall, our findings characterize both collaborative and independent efforts between blaCTX-M and OmpC in ErMs strains, indicating the need to reappraise the term “non-carbapenemase (NCP)”, particularly for strains highly expressing blaCTX-M. To improve outcomes for CRE-infected patients, future efforts should focus on mechanisms underlying the emerging ErMs subphenotype of CRE strains to develop technologies for its rapid detection and provide targeted therapeutic strategies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
Trends in Antibiotic Use in a Large Children’s Hospital in London (United Kingdom): 5 Years of Point Prevalence Surveys
by Kevin Meesters, Faye Chappell and Alicia Demirjian
Antibiotics 2024, 13(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13020172 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Background: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in paediatrics. As their excessive use contributes to adverse drug events, increased healthcare costs, and antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial stewardship initiatives are essential to optimising medical care. These single-centre point prevalence surveys aimed to provide insights into antibiotic [...] Read more.
Background: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in paediatrics. As their excessive use contributes to adverse drug events, increased healthcare costs, and antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial stewardship initiatives are essential to optimising medical care. These single-centre point prevalence surveys aimed to provide insights into antibiotic prescribing trends and identify targets for paediatric AMS activities. Methods: 14 point prevalence surveys were conducted from March 2016–April 2021, collecting data on antibiotic prescriptions, indication, adherence to guidelines, and route of administration. The UK adapted the World Health Organisation’s AWaRe classification-guided antibiotic categorization. Results: 32.5% of all inpatients were on at least one antimicrobial; this remained stable during all surveys (range: 20–44%, p = 0.448). Of all prescriptions, 67.2% had an end- or review-date, and the majority was for agents in the Watch category (46.8–70.5%). Amoxicillin and clavulanate were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics (20.8%), followed by gentamicin (15.3%). Approximately 28.8% of all prescriptions were for prophylactic indications, while 7.6% of the prescriptions were not adherent to the hospital guidelines. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of ongoing monitoring and robust AMS initiatives to ensure prudent antibiotic prescribing in paediatric healthcare. It underscores the need for tailored guidelines, educational efforts, and targeted interventions to enhance the quality of antibiotic usage, ultimately benefiting both individual patients and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship and Use in Healthcare Setting)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1445 KiB  
Review
Novel Antimicrobial Approaches to Combat Bacterial Biofilms Associated with Urinary Tract Infections
by Giuseppe Mancuso, Marilena Trinchera, Angelina Midiri, Sebastiana Zummo, Giulia Vitale and Carmelo Biondo
Antibiotics 2024, 13(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13020154 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1597
Abstract
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are prevalent bacterial infections in both community and healthcare settings. They account for approximately 40% of all bacterial infections and require around 15% of all antibiotic prescriptions. Although antibiotics have traditionally been used to treat UTIs for several decades, [...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are prevalent bacterial infections in both community and healthcare settings. They account for approximately 40% of all bacterial infections and require around 15% of all antibiotic prescriptions. Although antibiotics have traditionally been used to treat UTIs for several decades, the significant increase in antibiotic resistance in recent years has made many previously effective treatments ineffective. Biofilm on medical equipment in healthcare settings creates a reservoir of pathogens that can easily be transmitted to patients. Urinary catheter infections are frequently observed in hospitals and are caused by microbes that form a biofilm after a catheter is inserted into the bladder. Managing infections caused by biofilms is challenging due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Biofilms enable pathogens to evade the host’s innate immune defences, resulting in long-term persistence. The incidence of sepsis caused by UTIs that have spread to the bloodstream is increasing, and drug-resistant infections may be even more prevalent. While the availability of upcoming tests to identify the bacterial cause of infection and its resistance spectrum is critical, it alone will not solve the problem; innovative treatment approaches are also needed. This review analyses the main characteristics of biofilm formation and drug resistance in recurrent uropathogen-induced UTIs. The importance of innovative and alternative therapies for combatting biofilm-caused UTI is emphasised. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3065 KiB  
Article
Influence of Dead Cells Killed by Industrial Biocides (BAC and DBNPA) on Biofilm Formation
by Ana C. Barros, Diogo A. C. Narciso, Luis F. Melo and Ana Pereira
Antibiotics 2024, 13(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13020140 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Industrial biocides aim to keep water systems microbiologically controlled and to minimize biofouling. However, the resulting dead cells are usually not removed from the water streams and can influence the growth of the remaining live cells in planktonic and sessile states. This study [...] Read more.
Industrial biocides aim to keep water systems microbiologically controlled and to minimize biofouling. However, the resulting dead cells are usually not removed from the water streams and can influence the growth of the remaining live cells in planktonic and sessile states. This study aims to understand the effect of dead Pseudomonas fluorescens cells killed by industrial biocides—benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA)—on biofilm formation. Additionally, the effect of different dead/live cell ratios (50.00% and 99.99%) was studied. The inoculum was recirculated in a Parallel Plate Flow Cell (PPFC). The overall results indicate that dead cells greatly affect biofilm properties. Inoculum with DBNPA–dead cells led to more active (higher ATP content and metabolic activity) and thicker biofilm layers in comparison to BAC–dead cells, which seems to be linked to the mechanism of action by which the cells were killed. Furthermore, higher dead cell ratios (99.99%) in the inoculum led to more active (higher culturability, metabolic activity and ATP content) and cohesive/compact and uniformly distributed biofilms in comparison with the 50.00% dead cell ratio. The design of future disinfection strategies must consider the contribution of dead cells to the biofilm build-up, as they might negatively affect water system operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Formation and Control)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 848 KiB  
Article
Determining Susceptibility and Potential Mediators of Resistance for the Novel Polymyxin Derivative, SPR206, in Acinetobacter baumannii
by Jacinda C. Abdul-Mutakabbir, Nana Sakyi Opoku, Karen K. Tan, Peter Jorth, Victor Nizet, Hansel M. Fletcher, Keith S. Kaye and Michael J. Rybak
Antibiotics 2024, 13(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13010047 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1547
Abstract
With the increase in carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) infections, there has been a resurgence in the use of polymyxins, specifically colistin (COL). Since the reintroduction of COL-based regimens in treating CRAB infections, several COL-resistant A. baumannii isolates have been identified, with the mechanism [...] Read more.
With the increase in carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) infections, there has been a resurgence in the use of polymyxins, specifically colistin (COL). Since the reintroduction of COL-based regimens in treating CRAB infections, several COL-resistant A. baumannii isolates have been identified, with the mechanism of resistance heavily linked with the loss of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer of the bacterial outer membrane through mutations in lpxACD genes or the pmrCAB operon. SPR206, a novel polymyxin derivative, has exhibited robust activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii. However, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding its efficacy in comparison with other A. baumannii-active therapeutics and whether traditional polymyxin (COL) mediators of A. baumannii resistance also translate to reduced SPR206 activity. Here, we conducted susceptibility testing using broth microdilution on 30 A. baumannii isolates (17 COL-resistant and 27 CRAB), selected 14 COL-resistant isolates for genomic sequencing analysis, and performed time-kill analyses on four COL-resistant isolates. In susceptibility testing, SPR206 demonstrated a lower range of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) compared with COL, with a four-fold difference observed in MIC50 values. Mutations in lpxACD and/or pmrA and pmrB genes were detected in each of the 14 COL-resistant isolates; however, SPR206 maintained MICs ≤ 2 mg/L for 9/14 (64%) of the isolates. Finally, SPR206-based combination regimens exhibited increased synergistic and bactericidal activity compared with COL-based combination regimens irrespective of the multiple resistance genes detected. The results of this study highlight the potential utility of SPR206 in the treatment of COL-resistant A. baumannii infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4545 KiB  
Article
Exploring Structure–Activity Relationships of Niclosamide-Based Colistin Potentiators in Colistin-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria
by Liam Berry, Quinn Neale, Rajat Arora, Danyel Ramirez, Marc Brizuela, Ronald Domalaon, Gilbert Arthur and Frank Schweizer
Antibiotics 2024, 13(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13010043 - 03 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Colistin is primarily used as a last resort antibiotic against highly resistant Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). Rising rates of colistin resistance, however, may limit future use of this agent. The anthelmintic drug niclosamide has been shown to enhance colistin activity in combination therapy, but [...] Read more.
Colistin is primarily used as a last resort antibiotic against highly resistant Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). Rising rates of colistin resistance, however, may limit future use of this agent. The anthelmintic drug niclosamide has been shown to enhance colistin activity in combination therapy, but a detailed structure–activity relationship (SAR) for niclosamide against GNB has yet to be studied. A series of niclosamide analogs were synthesized to perform an SAR, leading to the discovery of a lead compound that displayed comparable colistin-potentiating activity to niclosamide with reduced cytotoxicity. Overall, this work provides important insights into synthetic strategies for the future development of new niclosamide derivatives and demonstrates that toxicity to mammalian cells can be reduced while maintaining colistin potentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics Use and Therapy in Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1492 KiB  
Article
Searching for Antimicrobial-Producing Bacteria from Soils through an Educational Project and Their Evaluation as Potential Biocontrol Agents
by Mario Sergio Pino-Hurtado, Rosa Fernández-Fernández, Carmen Torres and Beatriz Robredo
Antibiotics 2024, 13(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13010029 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to public health due to the lack of effective drugs to combat infectious diseases, which generates the need to search for new antimicrobial substances. In this study, the potential of soil as a source of antimicrobial-producing [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to public health due to the lack of effective drugs to combat infectious diseases, which generates the need to search for new antimicrobial substances. In this study, the potential of soil as a source of antimicrobial-producing bacteria (APB) was investigated and the importance of the connection between education and science was emphasized, using service-learning methodologies. Sixty-one soil samples were collected, and 1220 bacterial isolates were recovered. Eighteen of these isolates showed antimicrobial activity against at least 1 of the 12 indicator bacteria tested (including multidrug-resistant and relevant pathogens). The 18 APB were identified by MALDI-TOF and 6 different genera (Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinobacillus, Peribacillus, Streptomyces, and Advenella) and 10 species were identified. The 18 APB were tested for antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi (Botritis cynerea, Lecanicillium fungicola, Trichoderma harzianum, and Cladobotryum mycophilum). Moreover, the antibiotic susceptibility of APB was tested using the disk-diffusion method as well as their β-hemolytic activity (important safety criteria for potential future applications). A total of 10 of the 18 APB were able to inhibit at least 50% of indicator bacteria tested, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), among others. A total of 4 of the 18 APB (3 Bacillus pumilus and 1 Bacillus altitudinis) showed inhibitory activity against two of the four fungal pathogens tested (B. cinerea and L. fungicola), as well as against 5–7 of the 12 bacterial pathogen indicators; these 4 isolates showed susceptibility to the antibiotics tested and lacked β-hemolytic activity and were considered promising APB for use as potential biocontrol agents. In addition, one Brevibacillus laterosporus strain had activity against 83% of indicator bacteria tested including Escherichia coli, MRSA and other methicillin-resistant staphylococci, as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (but not against fungi). These results show that soil is a source of APB with relevant antibacterial and antifungal activities, and also emphasize the importance of education and science to raise public awareness of the AMR problem and the strategies to control it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A One Health Approach to Antimicrobial Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1880 KiB  
Article
Acinetobacter baumannii Survival under Infection-Associated Stresses Depends on the Expression of Resistance–Nodulation–Division and Major Facilitator Superfamily Efflux Pumps
by Inga V. Leus, Marcela Olvera, Justyna W. Adamiak, Lauren L. Nguyen and Helen I. Zgurskaya
Antibiotics 2024, 13(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13010007 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2280
Abstract
Multidrug efflux transporters are major contributors to the antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in clinical settings. Previous studies showed that these transporters are tightly integrated into the physiology of A. baumannii and have diverse functions. However, for many of the efflux pumps, such [...] Read more.
Multidrug efflux transporters are major contributors to the antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in clinical settings. Previous studies showed that these transporters are tightly integrated into the physiology of A. baumannii and have diverse functions. However, for many of the efflux pumps, such functions remain poorly defined. In this study, we characterized two putative drug efflux pumps, AmfAB and AmfCD (Acinetobacter Major Facilitator), that are homologous to EmrAB-like transporters from Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. These pumps comprise the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporters AmfB and AmfD and the periplasmic membrane fusion proteins AmfA and AmfC, respectively. We inactivated and overproduced these pumps in the wild-type ATCC 17978 strain and its derivative strains lacking the major efflux pumps from the Resistance–Nodulation–Division (RND) superfamily and characterized antibiotic susceptibilities and growth of the strains under stresses typical during human infections. We found that neither AmfAB nor AmfCD contribute to the antibiotic non-susceptibility phenotypes of A. baumannii. The two pumps, however, are critical for the adaptation and growth of the bacterium under acidic stress, whereas AmfCD also contributes to growth under conditions of low iron, high temperature, and in the presence of bile salts. These functions are dependent on the presence of the RND pumps, the inactivation of which further diminishes A. baumannii survival and growth. Our results suggest that MFS transporters contribute to stress survival by affecting the permeability properties of the A. baumannii cell envelope. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 1865 KiB  
Article
Antibiofilm and Antivirulence Properties of 6-Polyaminosteroid Derivatives against Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
by Delphine Vergoz, Hung Le, Benoit Bernay, Annick Schaumann, Magalie Barreau, Flore Nilly, Florie Desriac, Ali Tahrioui, Jean-Christophe Giard, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Sylvie Chevalier, Jean Michel Brunel, Cécile Muller and Emmanuelle Dé
Antibiotics 2024, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13010008 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
The emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens is a major public health problem, leading us to rethink and innovate our bacterial control strategies. Here, we explore the antibiofilm and antivirulence activities of nineteen 6-polyaminosterol derivatives (squalamine-based), presenting a modulation of their polyamine side chain [...] Read more.
The emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens is a major public health problem, leading us to rethink and innovate our bacterial control strategies. Here, we explore the antibiofilm and antivirulence activities of nineteen 6-polyaminosterol derivatives (squalamine-based), presenting a modulation of their polyamine side chain on four major pathogens, i.e., carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) and P. aeruginosa (CRPA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) strains. We screened the effect of these derivatives on biofilm formation and eradication. Derivatives 4e (for CRAB, VRE, and MRSA) and 4f (for all the strains) were the most potent ones and displayed activities as good as those of conventional antibiotics. We also identified 11 compounds able to decrease by more than 40% the production of pyocyanin, a major virulence factor of P. aeruginosa. We demonstrated that 4f treatment acts against bacterial infections in Galleria mellonella and significantly prolonged larvae survival (from 50% to 80%) after 24 h of CRAB, VRE, and MRSA infections. As shown by proteomic studies, 4f triggered distinct cellular responses depending on the bacterial species but essentially linked to cell envelope. Its interesting antibiofilm and antivirulence properties make it a promising a candidate for use in therapeutics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1540 KiB  
Review
How We Treat Drug-Susceptible Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Practical Guide for Clinicians
by Niccolò Riccardi, Sara Occhineri, Elisa Vanino, Roberta Maria Antonello, Agostina Pontarelli, Francesca Saluzzo, Tiziana Masini, Giorgio Besozzi, Marina Tadolini, Luigi Codecasa and on behalf of StopTB Italia
Antibiotics 2023, 12(12), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12121733 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and pulmonary TB (PTB) is the main variant responsible for fueling transmission of the infection. Effective treatment of drug-susceptible (DS) TB is crucial to avoid the emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and pulmonary TB (PTB) is the main variant responsible for fueling transmission of the infection. Effective treatment of drug-susceptible (DS) TB is crucial to avoid the emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-resistant strains. In this narrative review, through a fictional suggestive case of DS PTB, we guide the reader in a step-by-step commentary to provide an updated review of current evidence in the management of TB, from diagnosis to post-treatment follow-up. World Health Organization and Centre for Diseases Control (CDC) guidelines for TB, as well as the updated literature, were used to support this manuscript. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Northwestern and Central Romania Detected by Culture-Based and PCR-Based Methods
by Carmen Costache, Horațiu Alexandru Colosi, Simona Grad, Anamaria Ioana Paștiu, Mariela Militaru, Anca Paula Hădărean, Dan Alexandru Țoc, Vlad Sever Neculicioiu, Alina Mihaela Baciu, Razvan Vlad Opris, Dan Lucian Dumitrașcu and Ioana Alina Colosi
Antibiotics 2023, 12(12), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12121672 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Little evidence has been published regarding the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains in Northwestern and Central Romania. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of H. pylori isolates from gastric biopsies collected [...] Read more.
Little evidence has been published regarding the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains in Northwestern and Central Romania. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of H. pylori isolates from gastric biopsies collected from patients living in Romania using ETEST® and GenoType HelicoDR. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 148 adult patients, 87 women and 61 men, the majority (131 patients) from Northwestern and Central Romania. Sixty-nine H. pylori strains were detected by both culture and PCR; sixty-three biopsies were negative by both techniques; one biopsy was positive by culture but negative by PCR; and fifteen biopsies were negative by culture but positive by PCR. Primary resistance against clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, and metronidazole was found in 16.7%, 11.1%, and 13.3% of strains, respectively. No primary resistance has been detected against amoxicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin. Secondary resistance against clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, metronidazole, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin was found in 75.8%, 30.3%, 65.5%, 1.8%, 1.8%, and 7.3% of the strains, respectively. The most frequent clarithromycin-resistant genotype detected by GenoType HelicoDR was A2147G (62.3%). Concordances between ETEST® and PCR for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones were 85.5% and 78.3%, respectively. Further investigation of H. pylori resistance should be conducted to ensure proper eradication schemes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 457 KiB  
Article
Clinical Impact of Rapid Bacterial Microbiological Identification with the MALDI-TOF MS
by Miriam Uzuriaga, José Leiva, Francisco Guillén-Grima, Marta Rua and José R. Yuste
Antibiotics 2023, 12(12), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12121660 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Rapid microbiological reports to clinicians are related to improved clinical outcomes. We conducted a 3-year quasi-experimental design, specifically a pretest–posttest single group design in a university medical center, to evaluate the clinical impact of rapid microbiological identification information using MALDI-TOF MS on optimizing [...] Read more.
Rapid microbiological reports to clinicians are related to improved clinical outcomes. We conducted a 3-year quasi-experimental design, specifically a pretest–posttest single group design in a university medical center, to evaluate the clinical impact of rapid microbiological identification information using MALDI-TOF MS on optimizing antibiotic prescription. A total of 363 consecutive hospitalized patients with bacterial infections were evaluated comparing a historical control group (CG) (n = 183), in which the microbiological information (bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility) was reported jointly to the clinician between 18:00 h and 22:00 h of the same day and a prospective intervention group (IG) (n = 180); the bacterial identification information was informed to the clinician as soon as it was available between 12:00 h and 14:00 h and the antibiotic susceptibility between 18:00 h and 22:00 h). We observed, in favor of IG, a statistically significant decrease in the information time (11.44 h CG vs. 4.48 h IG (p < 0.01)) from the detection of bacterial growth in the culture medium to the communication of identification. Consequently, the therapeutic optimization was improved by introducing new antibiotics in the 10–24 h time window (p = 0.05) and conversion to oral route (p = 0.01). Additionally, we observed a non-statistically significant decrease in inpatient mortality (global, p = 0.15; infection-related, p = 0.21) without impact on hospital length of stay. In conclusion, the rapid communication of microbiological identification to clinicians reduced reporting time and was associated with early optimization of antibiotic prescribing without worsening clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Use and Stewardship in Hospital)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 3155 KiB  
Article
Genomic Diversity, Antimicrobial Resistance, Plasmidome, and Virulence Profiles of Salmonella Isolated from Small Specialty Crop Farms Revealed by Whole-Genome Sequencing
by Menuka Bhandari, Jelmer W. Poelstra, Michael Kauffman, Binta Varghese, Yosra A. Helmy, Joy Scaria and Gireesh Rajashekara
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111637 - 18 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Salmonella is the leading cause of death associated with foodborne illnesses in the USA. Difficulty in treating human salmonellosis is attributed to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the pathogenicity of Salmonella strains. Therefore, it is important to study the genetic landscape of [...] Read more.
Salmonella is the leading cause of death associated with foodborne illnesses in the USA. Difficulty in treating human salmonellosis is attributed to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the pathogenicity of Salmonella strains. Therefore, it is important to study the genetic landscape of Salmonella, such as the diversity, plasmids, and presence antimicrobial resistance genes (AMRs) and virulence genes. To this end, we isolated Salmonella from environmental samples from small specialty crop farms (SSCFs) in Northeast Ohio from 2016 to 2021; 80 Salmonella isolates from 29 Salmonella-positive samples were subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In silico serotyping revealed the presence of 15 serotypes. AMR genes were detected in 15% of the samples, with 75% exhibiting phenotypic and genotypic multidrug resistance (MDR). Plasmid analysis demonstrated the presence of nine different types of plasmids, and 75% of AMR genes were located on plasmids. Interestingly, five Salmonella Newport isolates and one Salmonella Dublin isolate carried the ACSSuT gene cassette on a plasmid, which confers resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline. Overall, our results show that SSCFs are a potential reservoir of Salmonella with MDR genes. Thus, regular monitoring is needed to prevent the transmission of MDR Salmonella from SSCFs to humans. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 583 KiB  
Article
Emergence of Antibiotic-Resistant Porphyromonas gingivalis in United States Periodontitis Patients
by Thomas E. Rams, Jacqueline D. Sautter and Arie J. van Winkelhoff
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111584 - 02 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2673
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance patterns of the major human periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis were assessed over a 20-year period in the United States. Subgingival P. gingivalis was cultured pre-treatment from 2193 severe periodontitis patients during three time periods: 1999–2000 (936 patients), 2009–2010 (685 patients), and [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance patterns of the major human periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis were assessed over a 20-year period in the United States. Subgingival P. gingivalis was cultured pre-treatment from 2193 severe periodontitis patients during three time periods: 1999–2000 (936 patients), 2009–2010 (685 patients), and 2019–2020 (572 patients). The clinical isolates were tested for in vitro resistance to 4 mg/L for clindamycin and doxycycline, 8 mg/L for amoxicillin, and 16 mg/L for metronidazole, with a post hoc combination of data for metronidazole plus amoxicillin. Clindamycin-resistant P. gingivalis was significantly more prevalent in 2009–2010 (9.1% of patients) and 2019–2020 (9.3%; 15-fold increase) as compared to 1999–2000 (0.6%). P. gingivalis resistance to amoxicillin also significantly increased from 0.1% of patients in 1999–2000 to 1.3% in 2009–2010 and 2.8% (28-fold increase) in 2019–2020. P. gingivalis resistance to metronidazole, metronidazole plus amoxicillin, and doxycycline was low (≤0.5% prevalence), and statistically unchanged, over the 20-year period. These findings are the first to reveal marked increases over 20 years in clindamycin-resistant and amoxicillin-resistant P. gingivalis in United States periodontitis patients. Increased antibiotic resistance of P. gingivalis and other periodontitis-associated bacteria threatens the efficacy of periodontal antimicrobial chemotherapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Susceptibility to 27 Drugs and the Molecular Mechanisms of Macrolide, Tetracycline, and Quinolone Resistance in Gemella sp.
by Michiko Furugaito, Yuko Arai, Yutaka Uzawa, Toshinori Kamisako, Kohei Ogura, Shigefumi Okamoto and Ken Kikuchi
Antibiotics 2023, 12(10), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12101538 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Gemella is a catalase-negative, facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus that is commensal in humans but can become opportunistic and cause severe infectious diseases, such as infective endocarditis. Few studies have tested the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gemella. We tested its antimicrobial susceptibility to 27 [...] Read more.
Gemella is a catalase-negative, facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus that is commensal in humans but can become opportunistic and cause severe infectious diseases, such as infective endocarditis. Few studies have tested the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gemella. We tested its antimicrobial susceptibility to 27 drugs and defined the resistant genes using PCR in 58 Gemella strains, including 52 clinical isolates and six type strains. The type strains and clinical isolates included 22 G. morbillorum, 18 G. haemolysans (GH) group (genetically indistinguishable from G. haemolysans and G. parahaemolysans), 13 G. taiwanensis, three G. sanguinis, and two G. bergeri. No strain was resistant to beta-lactams and vancomycin. In total, 6/22 (27.3%) G. morbillorum strains were erythromycin- and clindamycin-resistant ermB-positive, whereas 4/18 (22.2%) in the GH group, 7/13 (53.8%) G. taiwanensis, and 1/3 (33.3%) of the G. sanguinis strains were erythromycin-non-susceptible mefE- or mefA-positive and clindamycin-susceptible. The MIC90 of minocycline and the ratios of tetM-positive strains varied across the different species—G. morbillorum: 2 µg/mL and 27.3% (6/22); GH group: 8 µg/mL and 27.8% (5/18); G. taiwanensis: 8 µg/mL and 46.2% (6/13), respectively. Levofloxacin resistance was significantly higher in G. taiwanensis (9/13 69.2%) than in G. morbillorum (2/22 9.1%). Levofloxacin resistance was associated with a substitution at serine 83 for leucine, phenylalanine, or tyrosine in GyrA. The mechanisms of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin differed across Gemella species. In addition, the rate of susceptibility to levofloxacin differed across Gemella sp., and the quinolone resistance mechanism was caused by mutations in GyrA alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3389 KiB  
Article
Modified CLEC3A-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides Lead to Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Bacteria
by Denise Meinberger, Marco G. Drexelius, Joshua Grabeck, Gabriele Hermes, Annika Roth, Dzemal Elezagic, Ines Neundorf, Thomas Streichert and Andreas R. Klatt
Antibiotics 2023, 12(10), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12101532 - 11 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Sequence changes can significantly improve the therapeutic properties of antimicrobial peptides. In our study, we apply different sequence modifications to enhance the performance of the CLEC3A-derived AMPs HT-16 and HT-47. We truncated their [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Sequence changes can significantly improve the therapeutic properties of antimicrobial peptides. In our study, we apply different sequence modifications to enhance the performance of the CLEC3A-derived AMPs HT-16 and HT-47. We truncated their sequences, inserting a triple-glycine linker, adding an N-terminal tryptophan residue, and generating a D-amino acid variant, resulting in the generation of seven new peptides. We investigated their antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, their cytotoxicity to murine cells, and the biostability of the modified peptides in serum. We identified a novel antimicrobial peptide, WRK-30, with enhanced antimicrobial potency against S. aureus and MRSA. Additionally, WRK-30 was less cytotoxic to eukaryotic cells, allowing its application in higher concentrations in an in vivo setting. In conclusion, we identified a novel CLEC3A-derived antimicrobial peptide WRK-30 with significantly improved therapeutic properties and the potential to widen the repertoire of conventional antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Modification and Application of Antimicrobial Peptides)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 4340 KiB  
Review
Complementary Activities of Host Defence Peptides and Antibiotics in Combating Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria
by Patrick R. Lennard, Pieter S. Hiemstra and Peter H. Nibbering
Antibiotics 2023, 12(10), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12101518 - 06 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
Due to their ability to eliminate antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria and to modulate the immune response, host defence peptides (HDPs) hold great promise for the clinical treatment of bacterial infections. Whereas monotherapy with HDPs is not likely to become an effective first-line treatment, [...] Read more.
Due to their ability to eliminate antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria and to modulate the immune response, host defence peptides (HDPs) hold great promise for the clinical treatment of bacterial infections. Whereas monotherapy with HDPs is not likely to become an effective first-line treatment, combinations of such peptides with antibiotics can potentially provide a path to future therapies for AMR infections. Therefore, we critically reviewed the recent literature regarding the antibacterial activity of combinations of HDPs and antibiotics against AMR bacteria and the approaches taken in these studies. Of the 86 studies compiled, 56 featured a formal assessment of synergy between agents. Of the combinations assessed, synergistic and additive interactions between HDPs and antibiotics amounted to 84.9% of the records, while indifferent and antagonistic interactions accounted for 15.1%. Penicillin, aminoglycoside, fluoro/quinolone, and glycopeptide antibiotic classes were the most frequently documented as interacting with HDPs, and Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecium were the most reported bacterial species. Few studies formally evaluated the effects of combinations of HDPs and antibiotics on bacteria, and even fewer assessed such combinations against bacteria within biofilms, in animal models, or in advanced tissue infection models. Despite the biases of the current literature, the studies suggest that effective combinations of HDPs and antibiotics hold promise for the future treatment of infections caused by AMR bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential of Antimicrobial Peptides for an Exciting Future)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 691 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Susceptibility of Aztreonam-Vaborbactam, Aztreonam-Relebactam and Aztreonam-Avibactam Associations against Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria
by Cécile Emeraud, Sandrine Bernabeu and Laurent Dortet
Antibiotics 2023, 12(10), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12101493 - 29 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Background: Despite the availability of new options (ceftazidime-avibactam, imipenem-relebactam, meropenem-vaborbactam and cefiderocol), it is still very difficult to treat infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs)-producers resistant to aztreonam. The in vitro efficacy of aztreonam in association with avibactam, vaborbactam or relebactam was evaluated on [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the availability of new options (ceftazidime-avibactam, imipenem-relebactam, meropenem-vaborbactam and cefiderocol), it is still very difficult to treat infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs)-producers resistant to aztreonam. The in vitro efficacy of aztreonam in association with avibactam, vaborbactam or relebactam was evaluated on a collection of MBL-producing Enterobacterales, MBL-producing P. aeruginosa and highly drug-resistant S. maltophilia. Methods: A total of fifty-two non-duplicate MBL-producing Enterobacterales, five MBL-producing P. aeruginosa and five multidrug-resistant S. maltophila isolates were used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of aztreonam, meropenem-vaborbactam and imipenem-relebactam were determined by Etest® (bioMérieux, La Balme-les-Grottes) according to EUCAST recommendations. For aztreonam-avibactam, aztreonam-vaborbactam and aztreonam-relebactam associations, the MICs were determined using Etest® on Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar supplemented with 8 mg/L of avibactam, 8 mg/L of vaborbactam and 4 mg/L of relebactam. The MICs were interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines. Results: The susceptibility rates of aztreonam-avibactam, aztreonam-vaborbactam and aztreonam-relebactam with a standard exposure of aztreonam (1g × 3, IV) were 84.6% (44/52), 55.8% and 34.6% for Enterobacterales and 0% for all combinations for P. aeruginosa and S. maltophila. The susceptibility rates of aztreonam-avibactam, aztreonam-vaborbactam and aztreonam-relebactam with a high exposure of aztreonam (2g × 4, IV) were 92.3%, 78.9% and 57.7% for Enterobacterales, 75%, 60% and 60% for P. aeruginosa and 100%, 100% and 40% for S. maltophila. Conclusions: As previously demonstrated for an aztreonam/ceftazidime-avibactam combination, aztreonam plus imipenem-relebactam and aztreonam plus meropenem-vaborbactam might be useful options, but with potentially lower efficiency, to treat infections caused by aztreonam-non-susceptible MBL-producing Gram-negative strains. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1883 KiB  
Article
Procalcitonin-Based Antibiotic Use for Neonatal Early-Onset Bacterial Infections: Pre- and Post-Intervention Clinical Study
by Hidetoshi Go, Nobuhiko Nagano, Yuki Sato, Daichi Katayama, Koichiro Hara, Takuya Akimoto, Takayuki Imaizumi, Ryoji Aoki, Midori Hijikata, Ayako Seimiya, Aya Okahashi and Ichiro Morioka
Antibiotics 2023, 12(9), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12091426 - 09 Sep 2023
Viewed by 989
Abstract
We previously reported the 95th percentile cutoff value of the serum procalcitonin (PCT) reference curve for diagnosing early-onset bacterial infection. We aimed to verify the effectivity of these novel diagnostic criteria by comparing antibiotic use and incidence of early-onset bacterial infection between pre- [...] Read more.
We previously reported the 95th percentile cutoff value of the serum procalcitonin (PCT) reference curve for diagnosing early-onset bacterial infection. We aimed to verify the effectivity of these novel diagnostic criteria by comparing antibiotic use and incidence of early-onset bacterial infection between pre- and post-introduction periods. We included newborns admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit who underwent blood tests within 72 h after birth between 2018 and 2022. The neonates were divided into the pre-intervention (admitted before the introduction, n = 737) or post-intervention (admitted after the introduction, n = 686) group. The days of antibiotics therapy (DOT) per 1000 patient days up to 6 days after birth, percentage of antibiotic use, and incidence of early-onset bacterial infection were compared between the groups. The post-intervention group had significantly lower DOT per 1000 patient days (82.0 days vs. 211.3 days, p < 0.01) and percentage of newborns receiving antibiotics compared with the pre-intervention group (79 (12%) vs. 280 (38%), respectively, p < 0.01). The incidence of early-onset bacterial infections did not differ between the groups (2% each, p = 0.99). In conclusion, our diagnostic criteria using the 95th percentile cutoff value of the serum PCT reference curve for early-onset bacterial infection were proven safe and effective, promoting appropriate use of antibiotics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 6586 KiB  
Review
Phosphoethanolamine Transferases as Drug Discovery Targets for Therapeutic Treatment of Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogenic Gram-Negative Bacteria
by Van C. Thai, Keith A. Stubbs, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson and Charlene M. Kahler
Antibiotics 2023, 12(9), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12091382 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a major challenge to global public health. Polymyxins are increasingly being used as last-in-line antibiotics to treat MDR Gram-negative bacterial infections, but resistance development renders them ineffective for empirical therapy. The main mechanism that bacteria [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a major challenge to global public health. Polymyxins are increasingly being used as last-in-line antibiotics to treat MDR Gram-negative bacterial infections, but resistance development renders them ineffective for empirical therapy. The main mechanism that bacteria use to defend against polymyxins is to modify the lipid A headgroups of the outer membrane by adding phosphoethanolamine (PEA) moieties. In addition to lipid A modifying PEA transferases, Gram-negative bacteria possess PEA transferases that decorate proteins and glycans. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the function, structure, and mechanism of action of PEA transferases identified in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. It also summarizes the current drug development progress targeting this enzyme family, which could reverse antibiotic resistance to polymyxins to restore their utility in empiric therapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2230 KiB  
Article
How Did COVID-19 Impact the Antimicrobial Consumption and Bacterial Resistance Profiles in Brazil?
by Natália Cassago Marcos Massarine, Gleyce Hellen de Almeida de Souza, Isadora Batista Nunes, Túlio Máximo Salomé, Marcelo dos Santos Barbosa, Izadora Faccin, Luana Rossato and Simone Simionatto
Antibiotics 2023, 12(9), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12091374 - 28 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has favored the selective pressure of multidrug resistance among microorganisms. This research evaluated the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions among the Brazilian population between January 2018 and December 2021. Additionally, the study sought to analyze the incidence rates of [...] Read more.
The indiscriminate use of antibiotics has favored the selective pressure of multidrug resistance among microorganisms. This research evaluated the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions among the Brazilian population between January 2018 and December 2021. Additionally, the study sought to analyze the incidence rates of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and examine the profiles of antibiotic resistance. We assessed the hospital and community antimicrobial consumption from the National Health Surveillance Agency Database and correlated it to microorganisms. The consumption of antimicrobials in the hospital environment increased by 26% in 2021, highlighting polymyxin B, which increased by 204%. In 2021, 244,266 cases of CLABSI were reported, indicating a nosocomial infection rate of 7.9%. The rate of resistance to polymyxin B was higher in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1400%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (514%). Azithromycin emerged as the predominant antibiotic utilized within the community setting, accounting for 24% of the overall consumption. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed a significant and positive correlation (r = 0.71) between the elevated usage of azithromycin and the incidence of COVID-19. Our results indicate an increase in antimicrobial consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic and reinforce the fact that the misuse of antimicrobials may lead to an expansion in antimicrobial resistance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Viral and Bacterial Co-Infections and Home Antibiotic Treatment in SARS-CoV-2 Hospitalized Patients at the Policlinico Tor Vergata Hospital, Rome, Italy
by Andrea Di Lorenzo, Laura Campogiani, Marco Iannetta, Roberta Iannazzo, Alessandra Imeneo, Grazia Alessio, Veronica D’Aquila, Barbara Massa, Ilenia Fato, Lorenzo Vittorio Rindi, Vincenzo Malagnino, Elisabetta Teti, Massimo Andreoni and Loredana Sarmati
Antibiotics 2023, 12(9), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12091348 - 22 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Co-infections during COVID-19 may worsen patients’ outcomes. This study reports the results of a screening assessing the presence of co-infections among patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Infectious Diseases-Ward of the Policlinico Tor Vergata Hospital, Rome, Italy, from 1 January to 31 [...] Read more.
Co-infections during COVID-19 may worsen patients’ outcomes. This study reports the results of a screening assessing the presence of co-infections among patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Infectious Diseases-Ward of the Policlinico Tor Vergata Hospital, Rome, Italy, from 1 January to 31 December 2021. Data on hepatitis B and C virus, urinary antigens for legionella pneumophila and streptococcus pneumoniae, pharyngeal swab for respiratory viruses, QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus assay (QFT-P), blood cultures and pre-hospitalization antibiotic prescription were recorded. A total of 482 patients were included, 61% males, median age of 65 years (IQR 52–77), median Charlson comorbidity index of 4 (IQR 2–5). The mortality rate was 12.4%; 366 patients needed oxygen supply. In total, 151 patients (31.3%) received home antibiotics without any association with the outcome. No significant association between mortality and the positivity of viral hepatitis markers was found. Out of 442 patients, 125 had an indeterminate QFT-P, associated with increased mortality. SARS-CoV-2 was the only respiratory virus detected among 389 pharyngeal swabs; 15/428 patients were positive for S. pneumoniae; none for L. pneumophila. In total, 237 blood cultures were drawn within 48 h from hospital admission: 28 were positive and associated with increased mortality. In our cohort, bacterial and viral co-infections in COVID-19 hospitalized patients were rare and not associated with higher mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics Use in COVID-19 and Respiratory Tract Infections)
21 pages, 2897 KiB  
Article
Size-Controlled Ammonium-Based Homopolymers as Broad-Spectrum Antibacterials
by Meltem Haktaniyan, Richa Sharma and Mark Bradley
Antibiotics 2023, 12(8), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12081320 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Ammonium group containing polymers possess inherent antimicrobial properties, effectively eliminating or preventing infections caused by harmful microorganisms. Here, homopolymers based on monomers containing ammonium groups were synthesized via Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization (RAFT) and evaluated as potential antibacterial agents. The antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Ammonium group containing polymers possess inherent antimicrobial properties, effectively eliminating or preventing infections caused by harmful microorganisms. Here, homopolymers based on monomers containing ammonium groups were synthesized via Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization (RAFT) and evaluated as potential antibacterial agents. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive (M. luteus and B. subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and S. typhimurium). Three polymers, poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), poly([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), and poly(vinyl benzyl trimethylammonium chloride), were examined to explore the effect of molecular weight (10 kDa, 20 kDa, and 40 kDa) on their antimicrobial activity and toxicity to mammalian cells. The mechanisms of action of the polymers were investigated with dye-based assays, while Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed collapsed and fused bacterial morphologies due to the interactions between the polymers and components of the bacterial cell envelope, with some polymers proving to be bactericidal and others bacteriostatic, while being non-hemolytic. Among all the homopolymers, the most active, non-Gram-specific polymer was poly([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), with a molecular weight of 40 kDa, with minimum inhibitory concentrations between 16 and 64 µg/mL, showing a bactericidal mode of action mediated by disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. This homopolymer could be useful in biomedical applications such as surface dressings and in areas such as eye infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Methods in Antibiotics Discovery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

49 pages, 5949 KiB  
Review
Nanosilver: An Old Antibacterial Agent with Great Promise in the Fight against Antibiotic Resistance
by Kyra G. Kaiser, Victoire Delattre, Victoria J. Frost, Gregory W. Buck, Julianne V. Phu, Timea G. Fernandez and Ioana E. Pavel
Antibiotics 2023, 12(8), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12081264 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2675
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a major problem worldwide that costs 55 billion USD annually for extended hospitalization, resource utilization, and additional treatment expenditures in the United States. This review examines the roles and forms of silver (e.g., bulk Ag, silver salts (AgNO [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a major problem worldwide that costs 55 billion USD annually for extended hospitalization, resource utilization, and additional treatment expenditures in the United States. This review examines the roles and forms of silver (e.g., bulk Ag, silver salts (AgNO3), and colloidal Ag) from antiquity to the present, and its eventual incorporation as silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in numerous antibacterial consumer products and biomedical applications. The AgNP fabrication methods, physicochemical properties, and antibacterial mechanisms in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial models are covered. The emphasis is on the problematic ESKAPE pathogens and the antibiotic-resistant pathogens of the greatest human health concern according to the World Health Organization. This review delineates the differences between each bacterial model, the role of the physicochemical properties of AgNPs in the interaction with pathogens, and the subsequent damage of AgNPs and Ag+ released by AgNPs on structural cellular components. In closing, the processes of antibiotic resistance attainment and how novel AgNP–antibiotic conjugates may synergistically reduce the growth of antibiotic-resistant pathogens are presented in light of promising examples, where antibiotic efficacy alone is decreased. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

22 pages, 3896 KiB  
Review
Evaluating the Translational Potential of Bacteriocins as an Alternative Treatment for Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Animals and Humans
by Lauren R. Heinzinger, Aaron R. Pugh, Julie A. Wagner and Michael Otto
Antibiotics 2023, 12(8), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12081256 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance remains a global threat to human and animal health. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes minor to life-threatening infections. The widespread use of antibiotics in the clinical, veterinary, and agricultural setting combined with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant S. [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance remains a global threat to human and animal health. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes minor to life-threatening infections. The widespread use of antibiotics in the clinical, veterinary, and agricultural setting combined with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains makes it abundantly clear that alternatives to antibiotics are urgently needed. Bacteriocins represent one potential alternative therapeutic. They are antimicrobial peptides that are produced by bacteria that are generally nontoxic and have a relatively narrow target spectrum, and they leave many commensals and most mammalian cells unperturbed. Multiple studies involving bacteriocins (e.g., nisin, epidermicin, mersacidin, and lysostaphin) have demonstrated their efficacy at eliminating or treating a wide variety of S. aureus infections in animal models. This review provides a comprehensive and updated evaluation of animal studies involving bacteriocins and highlights their translational potential. The strengths and limitations associated with bacteriocin treatments compared with traditional antibiotic therapies are evaluated, and the challenges that are involved with implementing novel therapeutics are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2145 KiB  
Article
Moving toward Extensively Drug-Resistant: Four-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Trends of Acinetobacter baumannii from the Largest Department of Internal Medicine in Slovakia
by Yashar Jalali, Adriána Liptáková, Monika Jalali and Juraj Payer
Antibiotics 2023, 12(7), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12071200 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
A. baumannii imposes a great burden on medical systems worldwide. Surveillance of trends of antibiotic resistance provides a great deal of information needed for antimicrobial stewardship programmes nationwide. Clinical data from long-term, continuous surveillance on trends of antibiotic resistance of A. baumannii in [...] Read more.
A. baumannii imposes a great burden on medical systems worldwide. Surveillance of trends of antibiotic resistance provides a great deal of information needed for antimicrobial stewardship programmes nationwide. Clinical data from long-term, continuous surveillance on trends of antibiotic resistance of A. baumannii in Slovakia is missing. One hundred and forty-nine samples of A. baumannii were isolated over a period of four years. A panel of 19 antibiotics from seven antibiotic categories were tested for the bacterium’s susceptibility. Resistance results were evaluated, and the significance of patterns was estimated using simple linear regression analysis. All isolates were more than 85% resistant to at least 13 out of the 19 tested antibiotics. A significant rise in resistance was recorded for aminoglycosides and imipenem from 2019 to 2022. Colistin and ampicillin-sulbactam have been the only antibiotics maintaining more than 80% efficacy on the bacterium to date. A significant rise in extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains among carbapenem-resistant (CR) isolates has been recorded. Multidrug-resistance (MDR) among all A. baumannii isolates and XDR among CR strains of the bacterium have risen significantly in the last four years. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5193 KiB  
Article
Phylogeny, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Profiles of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Australian Feedlot Cattle and Their Significance to Public and Environmental Health
by Yohannes E. Messele, Darren J. Trott, Mauida F. Hasoon, Tania Veltman, Joe P. McMeniman, Stephen P. Kidd, Kiro R. Petrovski and Wai Y. Low
Antibiotics 2023, 12(7), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12071122 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
The extent of similarity between E. faecium strains found in healthy feedlot beef cattle and those causing extraintestinal infections in humans is not yet fully understood. This study used whole-genome sequencing to analyse the antimicrobial resistance profile of E. faecium isolated from beef [...] Read more.
The extent of similarity between E. faecium strains found in healthy feedlot beef cattle and those causing extraintestinal infections in humans is not yet fully understood. This study used whole-genome sequencing to analyse the antimicrobial resistance profile of E. faecium isolated from beef cattle (n = 59) at a single feedlot and compared them to previously reported Australian isolates obtained from pig (n = 60) and meat chicken caecal samples (n = 8), as well as human sepsis cases (n = 302). The E. faecium isolated from beef cattle and other food animal sources neither carried vanA/vanB responsible for vancomycin nor possessed gyrA/parC and liaR/liaS gene mutations associated with high-level fluoroquinolone and daptomycin resistance, respectively. A small proportion (7.6%) of human isolates clustered with beef cattle and pig isolates, including a few isolates belonging to the same sequence types ST22 (one beef cattle, one pig, and two human isolates), ST32 (eight beef cattle and one human isolate), and ST327 (two beef cattle and one human isolate), suggesting common origins. This provides further evidence that these clonal lineages may have broader host range but are unrelated to the typical hospital-adapted human strains belonging to clonal complex 17, significant proportions of which contain vanA/vanB and liaR/liaS. Additionally, none of the human isolates belonging to these STs contained resistance genes to WHO critically important antimicrobials. The results confirm that most E. faecium isolated from beef cattle in this study do not pose a significant risk for resistance to critically important antimicrobials and are not associated with current human septic infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics Resistance in Animals and the Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1312 KiB  
Article
Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variants from Airways of Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients as Precursors of Adaptive Antibiotic-Resistant Mutations
by Guillaume Millette, David Lalonde Séguin, Charles Isabelle, Suzanne Chamberland, Jean-François Lucier, Sébastien Rodrigue, André M. Cantin and François Malouin
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12061069 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Prototypic Staphylococcus aureus and their small-colony variants (SCVs) are predominant in cystic fibrosis (CF), but the interdependence of these phenotypes is poorly understood. We characterized S. aureus isolates from adult CF patients over several years. Of 18 S. aureus-positive patients (58%), 13 [...] Read more.
Prototypic Staphylococcus aureus and their small-colony variants (SCVs) are predominant in cystic fibrosis (CF), but the interdependence of these phenotypes is poorly understood. We characterized S. aureus isolates from adult CF patients over several years. Of 18 S. aureus-positive patients (58%), 13 (72%) were positive for SCVs. Characterization included genotyping, SCCmec types, auxotrophy, biofilm production, antibiotic susceptibilities and tolerance, and resistance acquisition rates. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that several patients were colonized with prototypical and SCV-related clones. Some clonal pairs showed acquisition of aminoglycoside resistance that was not explained by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, suggesting a mutation-based process. The characteristics of SCVs that could play a role in resistance acquisition were thus investigated further. For instance, SCV isolates produced more biofilm (p < 0.05) and showed a higher survival rate upon exposure to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin compared to their prototypic associated clones. SCVs also developed spontaneous rifampicin resistance mutations at a higher frequency. Accordingly, a laboratory-derived SCV (ΔhemB) acquired resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin faster than its parent counterpart after serial passages in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. These results suggest a role for SCVs in the establishment of persistent antibiotic-resistant clones in adult CF patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1710 KiB  
Article
Conditions Necessary for the Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance in Poultry Litter
by Aaron Oxendine, Allison A. Walsh, Tamesha Young, Brandan Dixon, Alexa Hoke, Eda Erdogan Rogers, Margie D. Lee and John J. Maurer
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12061006 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 3179
Abstract
Animal manures contain a large and diverse reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes that could potentially spillover into the general population through transfer of AMR to antibiotic-susceptible pathogens. The ability of poultry litter microbiota to transmit AMR was examined in this study. Abundance [...] Read more.
Animal manures contain a large and diverse reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes that could potentially spillover into the general population through transfer of AMR to antibiotic-susceptible pathogens. The ability of poultry litter microbiota to transmit AMR was examined in this study. Abundance of phenotypic AMR was assessed for litter microbiota to the antibiotics: ampicillin (Ap; 25 μg/mL), chloramphenicol (Cm; 25 μg/mL), streptomycin (Sm; 100 μg/mL), and tetracycline (Tc; 25 μg/mL). qPCR was used to estimate gene load of streptomycin-resistance and sulfonamide-resistance genes aadA1 and sul1, respectively, in the poultry litter community. AMR gene load was determined relative to total bacterial abundance using 16S rRNA qPCR. Poultry litter contained 108 CFU/g, with Gram-negative enterics representing a minor population (<104 CFU/g). There was high abundance of resistance to Sm (106 to 107 CFU/g) and Tc (106 to 107 CFU/g) and a sizeable antimicrobial-resistance gene load in regards to gene copies per bacterial genome (aadA1: 0.0001–0.0060 and sul1: 0.0355–0.2455). While plasmid transfer was observed from Escherichia coli R100, as an F-plasmid donor control, to the Salmonella recipient in vitro, no AMR Salmonella were detected in a poultry litter microcosm with the inclusion of E. coli R100. Confirmatory experiments showed that isolated poultry litter bacteria were not interfering with plasmid transfer in filter matings. As no R100 transfer was observed at 25 °C, conjugative plasmid pRSA was chosen for its high plasmid transfer frequency (10−4 to 10−5) at 25 °C. While E. coli strain background influenced the persistence of pRSA in poultry litter, no plasmid transfer to Salmonella was ever observed. Although poultry litter microbiota contains a significant AMR gene load, potential to transmit resistance is low under conditions commonly used to assess plasmid conjugation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasmid Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Empirical Antimicrobial Therapy in Enterobacterales Bloodstream Infection Using the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Prediction Score
by Brian J. Haimerl, Rodrigo Encinas, Julie Ann Justo, Joseph Kohn, P. Brandon Bookstaver, Hana Rac Winders and Majdi N. Al-Hasan
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12061003 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
Clinical tools for the prediction of antimicrobial resistance have been derived and validated without examination of their implementation in clinical practice. This study examined the impact of utilization of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prediction score on the time to initiation of appropriate antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Clinical tools for the prediction of antimicrobial resistance have been derived and validated without examination of their implementation in clinical practice. This study examined the impact of utilization of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prediction score on the time to initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for bloodstream infection (BSI). The quasi-experimental cohort study included hospitalized adults with BSI due to ceftriaxone-resistant (CRO-R) Enterobacterales at three community hospitals in Columbia, South Carolina, USA before (January 2010 to December 2013) and after (January 2014 to December 2019) implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. In total, 45 and 101 patients with BSI due to CRO-R Enterobacterales were included before and after the intervention, respectively. Overall, the median age was 66 years, 85 (58%) were men, and 86 (59%) had a urinary source of infection. The mean time to appropriate antimicrobial therapy was 78 h before and 46 h after implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship intervention (p = 0.04). Application of the ESBL prediction score as part of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention was associated with a significant reduction in time to appropriate antimicrobial therapy in patients with BSI due to CRO-R Enterobacterales. Utilization of advanced rapid diagnostics may be necessary for a further reduction in time to appropriate antimicrobial therapy in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotic Therapy in Infectious Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1870 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Encapsulated Olive Leaf Extracts for Food Preservation
by Wafa Medfai, Imen Oueslati, Emilie Dumas, Zina Harzalli, Christophe Viton, Ridha Mhamdi and Adem Gharsallaoui
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12060987 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Phenolic compounds in olive leaves have an excellent antioxidant activity and good antimicrobial properties. These bioactive molecules have beneficial properties for health, arousing great scientific and commercial interest. This study reports lyophilized olive leaf extracts (OLE) encapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrins, maltodextrins–pectin and [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds in olive leaves have an excellent antioxidant activity and good antimicrobial properties. These bioactive molecules have beneficial properties for health, arousing great scientific and commercial interest. This study reports lyophilized olive leaf extracts (OLE) encapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrins, maltodextrins–pectin and maltodextrins–gum Arabic as encapsulating agents. Lyophilized OLE were collected from two varieties cultivated in a harsh pedo-climatic conditions of the arid region of Tunisia. The effects of the genetic factor and the different encapsulating agents on the physicochemical properties of microcapsules and their behavior during storage, as well as their antimicrobial activities, were studied. Microcapsules successfully passed heat treatment and storage conditions and their antimicrobial activities were preserved. The encapsulating agent combination improved the encapsulation efficiency and the product yield in Zarrazi variety compared to Dhokar one. In addition, Dhokar variety microparticles showed the best heat stability at 4 and 25 °C after 90 days of storage and the higher inhibition percent against bacteria. The results of the present study evidenced that the best conditions for OLE encapsulation were obtained when the maltodextrins–pectin and maltodextrins–gum Arabic were combined to form a hybrid coating material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials Agents: Latest Advances and Prospects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 832 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Cefepime with Piperacillin/Tazobactam Treatment in Patients with Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia
by Bo-Guen Kim, Danbee Kang, Kyung Hoon Min, Juhee Cho and Kyeongman Jeon
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12060984 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5393
Abstract
Although cefepime and piperacillin/tazobactam are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which one is the superior therapy remains unclear. Using Korean National Health Insurance Service data from January 2018 to December 2018, we compared the clinical outcomes of patients with [...] Read more.
Although cefepime and piperacillin/tazobactam are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which one is the superior therapy remains unclear. Using Korean National Health Insurance Service data from January 2018 to December 2018, we compared the clinical outcomes of patients with HAP who were treated with cefepime and those treated with piperacillin/tazobactam. Data from 9955 adult patients with HAP, of whom 1502 (15%) received cefepime and 8453 (85%) received piperacillin/tazobactam, were retrieved for primary analysis. Tube feeding, suctioning, positioning care, and intensive care unit admission were more common among patients who received piperacillin/tazobactam. Treatment outcomes, including rates of in-hospital mortality, pneumonia-related readmission, and all-cause mortality within 6 months after discharge, were comparable between the two groups. In a subgroup analysis of data from patients who required tube feeding, the risk for in-hospital mortality was significantly higher among those who received cefepime (fully adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.97; p = 0.042). Treatment outcomes did not differ between patients who received cefepime and those who received piperacillin/tazobactam treatment, but among patients who were at risk for aspiration, such as those receiving tube feeding, those who received piperacillin/tazobactam had lower rates of in-hospital mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics Use and Therapy in Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1794 KiB  
Review
Insect Antimicrobial Peptides: Advancements, Enhancements and New Challenges
by Matteo Dho, Valentina Candian and Rosemarie Tedeschi
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12060952 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
Several insects are known as vectors of a wide range of animal and human pathogens causing various diseases. However, they are also a source of different substances, such as the Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs), which can be employed in the development of natural bioactive [...] Read more.
Several insects are known as vectors of a wide range of animal and human pathogens causing various diseases. However, they are also a source of different substances, such as the Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs), which can be employed in the development of natural bioactive compounds for medical, veterinary and agricultural applications. It is well known that AMP activity, in contrast to most classical antibiotics, does not lead to the development of natural bacterial resistance, or at least the frequency of resistance is considered to be low. Therefore, there is a strong interest in assessing the efficacy of the various peptides known to date, identifying new compounds and evaluating possible solutions in order to increase their production. Moreover, implementing AMP modulation in insect rearing could preserve insect health in large-scale production. This review describes the current knowledge on insect AMPs, presenting the validated ones for the different insect orders. A brief description of their mechanism of action is reported with focus on proposed applications. The possible effects of insect diet on AMP translation and synthesis have been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential of Antimicrobial Peptides for an Exciting Future)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1875 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Antimicrobial Properties of Honey Protein Components through In Silico Comparative Peptide Composition and Distribution Analysis
by Andrzej Łyskowski, Michał Miłek and Małgorzata Dżugan
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050830 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
The availability of reference proteomes for two honeybee species (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana cerana) opens the possibility of in silico studies of diverse properties of the selected protein fractions. The antimicrobial activity of honey is well established and related to [...] Read more.
The availability of reference proteomes for two honeybee species (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana cerana) opens the possibility of in silico studies of diverse properties of the selected protein fractions. The antimicrobial activity of honey is well established and related to its composition, including protein components. We have performed a comparative study on a selected fraction of the honey-related proteins, as well as other bee-secreted proteins, utilizing a publicly available database of established and verified peptides with antimicrobial properties. Using a high-performance sequence aligner (diamond), protein components with antimicrobial peptide sequences were identified and analyzed. The identified peptides were mapped on the available bee proteome sequences, as well as on model structures provided by the AlphaFold project. The results indicate a highly conserved localization of the identified sequences within a limited number of the protein components. Putative antimicrobial fragments also show high sequence-based similarity to the multiple peptides contained in the reference databases. For the 2 databases used, the lowest calculated percentage of similarity ranged from 30.1% to 32.9%, with a respective average of 88.5% and 79.3% for the Apis mellifera proteome. It was revealed that the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) site is a single, well-defined domain with potentially conserved structural features. In the case of the examples studied in detail, the structural domain takes the form of the two β-sheets, stabilized by α-helices in one case, and a six-β-sheet-only domain localized in the C-terminal part of the sequence, respectively. Moreover, no significant differences were found in the composition of the antibacterial fraction of peptides that were identified in the proteomes of both species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 692 KiB  
Article
Biocide Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Swine Feces, Pork Meat and Humans in Germany
by David Attuy Vey da Silva, Ralf Dieckmann, Oliwia Makarewicz, Anita Hartung, Astrid Bethe, Mirjam Grobbel, Vitaly Belik, Mathias W. Pletz, Sascha Al Dahouk and Szilvia Neuhaus
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050823 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
Phenotypic susceptibility testing of Escherichia (E.) coli is an essential tool to gain a better understanding of the potential impact of biocide selection pressure on antimicrobial resistance. We, therefore, determined the biocide and antimicrobial susceptibility of 216 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and [...] Read more.
Phenotypic susceptibility testing of Escherichia (E.) coli is an essential tool to gain a better understanding of the potential impact of biocide selection pressure on antimicrobial resistance. We, therefore, determined the biocide and antimicrobial susceptibility of 216 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and 177 non-ESBL E. coli isolated from swine feces, pork meat, voluntary donors and inpatients and evaluated associations between their susceptibilities. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), chlorocresol (PCMC), glutaraldehyde (GDA), isopropanol (IPA), octenidine dihydrochloride and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) showed unimodal distributions, indicating the absence of bacterial adaptation to biocides due to the acquisition of resistance mechanisms. Although MIC95 and MBC95 did not vary more than one doubling dilution step between isolates of porcine and human origin, significant differences in MIC and/or MBC distributions were identified for GDA, CHG, IPA, PCMC and NaOCl. Comparing non-ESBL and ESBL E. coli, significantly different MIC and/or MBC distributions were found for PCMC, CHG and GDA. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the highest frequency of resistant E. coli in the subpopulation isolated from inpatients. We observed significant but weakly positive correlations between biocide MICs and/or MBCs and antimicrobial MICs. In summary, our data indicate a rather moderate effect of biocide use on the susceptibility of E. coli to biocides and antimicrobials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics in Animal Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3597 KiB  
Article
D- and N-Methyl Amino Acids for Modulating the Therapeutic Properties of Antimicrobial Peptides and Lipopeptides
by Maria Veronica Humpola, Roque Spinelli, Melina Erben, Virginia Perdomo, Georgina Guadalupe Tonarelli, Fernando Albericio and Alvaro Sebastian Siano
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050821 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Here we designed and synthesized analogs of two antimicrobial peptides, namely C10:0-A2, a lipopeptide, and TA4, a cationic α-helical amphipathic peptide, and used non-proteinogenic amino acids to improve their therapeutic properties. The physicochemical properties of these analogs were analyzed, including their retention time, [...] Read more.
Here we designed and synthesized analogs of two antimicrobial peptides, namely C10:0-A2, a lipopeptide, and TA4, a cationic α-helical amphipathic peptide, and used non-proteinogenic amino acids to improve their therapeutic properties. The physicochemical properties of these analogs were analyzed, including their retention time, hydrophobicity, and critical micelle concentration, as well as their antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and yeast. Our results showed that substitution with D- and N-methyl amino acids could be a useful strategy to modulate the therapeutic properties of antimicrobial peptides and lipopeptides, including enhancing stability against enzymatic degradation. The study provides insights into the design and optimization of antimicrobial peptides to achieve improved stability and therapeutic efficacy. TA4(dK), C10:0-A2(6-NMeLys), and C10:0-A2(9-NMeLys) were identified as the most promising molecules for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Peptides from Natural Sources to Synthetic Optimization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2183 KiB  
Article
Sorangicin A Is Active against Chlamydia in Cell Culture, Explanted Fallopian Tubes, and Topical In Vivo Treatment
by Simon Graspeuntner, Katharina Koethke, Celeste Scholz, Lea Semmler, Mariia Lupatsii, Laura Kirchhoff, Jennifer Herrmann, Katharina Rox, Kathrin Wittstein, Nadja Käding, Lars C. Hanker, Marc Stadler, Mark Brönstrup, Rolf Müller, Kensuke Shima and Jan Rupp
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050795 - 22 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Current treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis using doxycycline and azithromycin introduces detrimental side effects on the host’s microbiota. As a potential alternative treatment, the myxobacterial natural product sorangicin A (SorA) blocks the bacterial RNA polymerase. In this study we analyzed the effectiveness of SorA [...] Read more.
Current treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis using doxycycline and azithromycin introduces detrimental side effects on the host’s microbiota. As a potential alternative treatment, the myxobacterial natural product sorangicin A (SorA) blocks the bacterial RNA polymerase. In this study we analyzed the effectiveness of SorA against C. trachomatis in cell culture, and explanted fallopian tubes and systemic and local treatment in mice, providing also pharmacokinetic data on SorA. Potential side effects of SorA on the vaginal and gut microbiome were assessed in mice and against human-derived Lactobacillus species. SorA showed minimal inhibitory concentrations of 80 ng/mL (normoxia) to 120 ng/mL (hypoxia) against C. trachomatis in vitro and was eradicating C. trachomatis at a concentration of 1 µg/mL from fallopian tubes. In vivo, SorA reduced chlamydial shedding by more than 100-fold within the first days of infection by topical application corresponding with vaginal detection of SorA only upon topical treatment, but not after systemic application. SorA changed gut microbial composition during intraperitoneal application only and did neither alter the vaginal microbiota in mice nor affect growth of human-derived lactobacilli. Additional dose escalations and/or pharmaceutical modifications will be needed to optimize application of SorA and to reach sufficient anti-chlamydial activity in vivo. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1439 KiB  
Review
Persistent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: Host, Pathogen, and Treatment
by Joshua B. Parsons, Annette C. Westgeest, Brian P. Conlon and Vance G. Fowler, Jr.
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030455 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4402
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a devastating pathogen responsible for a variety of life-threatening infections. A distinctive characteristic of this pathogen is its ability to persist in the bloodstream for several days despite seemingly appropriate antibiotics. Persistent MRSA bacteremia is common and is [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a devastating pathogen responsible for a variety of life-threatening infections. A distinctive characteristic of this pathogen is its ability to persist in the bloodstream for several days despite seemingly appropriate antibiotics. Persistent MRSA bacteremia is common and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The etiology of persistent MRSA bacteremia is a result of the complex interplay between the host, the pathogen, and the antibiotic used to treat the infection. In this review, we explore the factors related to each component of the host–pathogen interaction and discuss the clinical relevance of each element. Next, we discuss the treatment options and diagnostic approaches for the management of persistent MRSA bacteremia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1712 KiB  
Article
Investigation of α,ω-Disubstituted Polyamine-Cholic Acid Conjugates Identifies Hyodeoxycholic and Chenodeoxycholic Scaffolds as Non-Toxic, Potent Antimicrobials
by Kenneth Sue, Melissa M. Cadelis, Thomas Troia, Florent Rouvier, Marie-Lise Bourguet-Kondracki, Jean Michel Brunel and Brent R. Copp
Antibiotics 2023, 12(2), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12020404 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
With the increased incidence of antibiotic resistance, the discovery and development of new antibacterials is of increasing importance and urgency. The report of the natural product antibiotic squalamine in 1993 has stimulated a lot of interest in the study of structurally simplified cholic [...] Read more.
With the increased incidence of antibiotic resistance, the discovery and development of new antibacterials is of increasing importance and urgency. The report of the natural product antibiotic squalamine in 1993 has stimulated a lot of interest in the study of structurally simplified cholic acid-polyamine derivatives. We report the synthesis of a focused set of deoxycholic acid-polyamine conjugates and the identification of hyodeoxycholic acid derivatives as being potently active towards S. aureus MRSA and some fungal strains, but with no attendant cytotoxicity or hemolytic properties. Analogue 7e exhibited bactericidal activity towards a range of Gram-positive bacteria, while preliminary investigation of its mechanism of action ruled out the bacterial membrane as being a primary cellular target as determined using an ATP-release bioluminescence assay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery and Development of the Novel Antimicrobial Agent)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

27 pages, 6477 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity of an Fmoc-Plantaricin 149 Derivative Peptide against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria
by Gabriela Marinho Righetto, José Luiz de Souza Lopes, Paulo José Martins Bispo, Camille André, Julia Medeiros Souza, Adriano Defini Andricopulo, Leila Maria Beltramini and Ilana Lopes Baratella da Cunha Camargo
Antibiotics 2023, 12(2), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12020391 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5928
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance poses a major threat to public health. Given the paucity of novel antimicrobials to treat resistant infections, the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria renewed interest in antimicrobial peptides as potential therapeutics. This study designed a new analog of the antimicrobial peptide Plantaricin [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance poses a major threat to public health. Given the paucity of novel antimicrobials to treat resistant infections, the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria renewed interest in antimicrobial peptides as potential therapeutics. This study designed a new analog of the antimicrobial peptide Plantaricin 149 (Pln149-PEP20) based on previous Fmoc-peptides. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of Pln149-PEP20 were determined for 60 bacteria of different species and resistance profiles, ranging from 1 mg/L to 128 mg/L for Gram-positive bacteria and 16 to 512 mg/L for Gram-negative. Furthermore, Pln149-PEP20 demonstrated excellent bactericidal activity within one hour. To determine the propensity to develop resistance to Pln149-PEP20, a directed-evolution in vitro experiment was performed. Whole-genome sequencing of selected mutants with increased MICs and wild-type isolates revealed that most mutations were concentrated in genes associated with membrane metabolism, indicating the most likely target of Pln149-PEP20. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism showed how this molecule disturbs the membranes, suggesting a carpet mode of interaction. Membrane depolarization and transmission electron microscopy assays supported these two hypotheses, although a secondary intracellular mechanism of action is possible. The molecule studied in this research has the potential to be used as a novel antimicrobial therapy, although further modifications and optimization remain possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 895 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial Peptides against Bacterial Pathogens: Innovative Delivery Nanosystems for Pharmaceutical Applications
by Esther Imperlini, Federica Massaro and Francesco Buonocore
Antibiotics 2023, 12(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010184 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3589
Abstract
The introduction of antibiotics has revolutionized the treatment and prevention of microbial infections. However, the global spread of pathogens resistant to available antibiotics is a major concern. Recently, the WHO has updated the priority list of multidrug-resistant (MDR) species for which the discovery [...] Read more.
The introduction of antibiotics has revolutionized the treatment and prevention of microbial infections. However, the global spread of pathogens resistant to available antibiotics is a major concern. Recently, the WHO has updated the priority list of multidrug-resistant (MDR) species for which the discovery of new therapeutics is urgently needed. In this scenario, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a new potential alternative to conventional antibiotics, as they show a low risk of developing antimicrobial resistance, thus preventing MDR bacterial infections. However, there are limitations and challenges related to the clinical impact of AMPs, as well as great scientific efforts to find solutions aimed at improving their biological activity, in vivo stability, and bioavailability by reducing the eventual toxicity. To overcome some of these issues, different types of nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed for AMP delivery over the last decades. In this review, we provide an update on recent nanosystems applied to AMPs, with special attention on their potential pharmaceutical applications for the treatment of bacterial infections. Among lipid nanomaterials, solid lipid NPs and lipid nanocapsules have been employed to enhance AMP solubility and protect peptides from proteolytic degradation. In addition, polymeric NPs, particularly nanogels, are able to help in reducing AMP toxicity and also increasing AMP loading. To boost AMP activity instead, mesoporous silica or gold NPs can be selected due to their easy surface functionalization. They have been also used as nanocarriers for different AMP combinations, thus synergistically potentiating their action against pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews on Antimicrobial Peptides)
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 17163 KiB  
Review
Update on the Discovery of Efflux Pump Inhibitors against Critical Priority Gram-Negative Bacteria
by Nina Compagne, Anais Vieira Da Cruz, Reinke T. Müller, Ruben C. Hartkoorn, Marion Flipo and Klaas M. Pos
Antibiotics 2023, 12(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010180 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4707
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a major problem in public health leading to an estimated 4.95 million deaths in 2019. The selective pressure caused by the massive and repeated use of antibiotics has led to bacterial strains that are partially or even entirely [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a major problem in public health leading to an estimated 4.95 million deaths in 2019. The selective pressure caused by the massive and repeated use of antibiotics has led to bacterial strains that are partially or even entirely resistant to known antibiotics. AMR is caused by several mechanisms, among which the (over)expression of multidrug efflux pumps plays a central role. Multidrug efflux pumps are transmembrane transporters, naturally expressed by Gram-negative bacteria, able to extrude and confer resistance to several classes of antibiotics. Targeting them would be an effective way to revive various options for treatment. Many efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) have been described in the literature; however, none of them have entered clinical trials to date. This review presents eight families of EPIs active against Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Structure–activity relationships, chemical synthesis, in vitro and in vivo activities, and pharmacological properties are reported. Their binding sites and their mechanisms of action are also analyzed comparatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efflux Pumps in Bacteria: What They Do and How We Can Stop Them)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1912 KiB  
Article
Effective Biofilm Eradication on Orthopedic Implants with Methylene Blue Based Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro
by Julia Prinz, Marianne Wink, Sonja Neuhaus, Markus C. Grob, Heinrich Walt, Philipp P. Bosshard and Yvonne Achermann
Antibiotics 2023, 12(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010118 - 08 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4458
Abstract
Periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) are difficult to treat due to biofilm formation on implant surfaces, often requiring removal or exchange of prostheses along with long-lasting antibiotic treatment. This in vitro study investigated the effect of methylene blue photodynamic therapy (MB-PDT) on PJI-causing biofilms [...] Read more.
Periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) are difficult to treat due to biofilm formation on implant surfaces, often requiring removal or exchange of prostheses along with long-lasting antibiotic treatment. This in vitro study investigated the effect of methylene blue photodynamic therapy (MB-PDT) on PJI-causing biofilms on different implant materials. MB-PDT (664 nm LED, 15 J/cm2) was tested on different Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Cutibacterium acnes strains in both planktonic form and grown in early and mature biofilms on prosthetic materials (polyethylene, titanium alloys, cobalt–chrome-based alloys, and bone cement). The minimum bactericidal concentration with 100% killing (MBC100%) was determined. Chemical and topographical alterations were investigated on the prosthesis surfaces after MB-PDT. Results showed a MBC100% of 0.5–5 μg/mL for planktonic bacteria and 50–100 μg/mL for bacteria in biofilms—independent of the tested strain, the orthopedic material, or the maturity of the biofilm. Material testing showed no relevant surface modification. MB-PDT effectively eradicated common PJI pathogens on arthroplasty materials without damage to the materials, suggesting that MB-PDT could be used as a novel treatment method, replacing current, more invasive approaches and potentially shortening the antibiotic treatment in PJI. This would improve quality of life and reduce morbidity, mortality, and high health-care costs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3551 KiB  
Article
Efficient AntiMycolata Agents by Increasing the Lipophilicity of Known Antibiotics through Multicomponent Reactions
by Angela Trejo, Carme Masdeu, Irene Serrano-Pérez, Marina Pedrola, Narcís Juanola, Ouldouz Ghashghaei, Guadalupe Jiménez-Galisteo, Rodolfo Lavilla, Francisco Palacios, Concepción Alonso and Miguel Viñas
Antibiotics 2023, 12(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010083 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2875
Abstract
New antibiotic agents were prepared using Povarov and Ugi multicomponent reactions upon the known drugs sulfadoxine and dapsone. The prepared derivatives, with increased lipophilicity, showed improved efficiency against Mycolata bacteria. Microbiological guidance for medicinal chemistry is a powerful tool to design new and [...] Read more.
New antibiotic agents were prepared using Povarov and Ugi multicomponent reactions upon the known drugs sulfadoxine and dapsone. The prepared derivatives, with increased lipophilicity, showed improved efficiency against Mycolata bacteria. Microbiological guidance for medicinal chemistry is a powerful tool to design new and effective antimicrobials. In this case, the readily synthesized compounds open new possibilities in the search for antimicrobials active on mycolic acid-containing bacteria. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

37 pages, 1659 KiB  
Review
The Blood–Brain Barrier and Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Optimization of Antibiotics for the Treatment of Central Nervous System Infections in Adults
by Nicholas Haddad, Maddie Carr, Steve Balian, James Lannin, Yuri Kim, Courtney Toth and Jennifer Jarvis
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121843 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 17309
Abstract
Bacterial central nervous system (CNS) infections are serious and carry significant morbidity and mortality. They encompass many syndromes, the most common being meningitis, which may occur spontaneously or as a consequence of neurosurgical procedures. Many classes of antimicrobials are in clinical use for [...] Read more.
Bacterial central nervous system (CNS) infections are serious and carry significant morbidity and mortality. They encompass many syndromes, the most common being meningitis, which may occur spontaneously or as a consequence of neurosurgical procedures. Many classes of antimicrobials are in clinical use for therapy of CNS infections, some with established roles and indications, others with experimental reporting based on case studies or small series. This review delves into the specifics of the commonly utilized antibacterial agents, updating their therapeutic use in CNS infections from the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic perspectives, with a focus on the optimization of dosing and route of administration that have been described to achieve good clinical outcomes. We also provide a concise synopsis regarding the most focused, clinically relevant information as pertains to each class and subclass of antimicrobial therapeutics. CNS infection morbidity and mortality remain high, and aggressive management is critical in ensuring favorable patient outcomes while averting toxicity and upholding patient safety. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1668 KiB  
Review
β-Lactam Dosing in Critical Patients: A Narrative Review of Optimal Efficacy and the Prevention of Resistance and Toxicity
by João Gonçalves Pereira, Joana Fernandes, Ana Rita Duarte and Susana Mendes Fernandes
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121839 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3943
Abstract
Antimicrobial prescription in critically ill patients represents a complex challenge due to the difficult balance between infection treatment and toxicity prevention. Underexposure to antibiotics and therapeutic failure or, conversely, drug overexposure and toxicity may both contribute to a worse prognosis. Moreover, changes in [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial prescription in critically ill patients represents a complex challenge due to the difficult balance between infection treatment and toxicity prevention. Underexposure to antibiotics and therapeutic failure or, conversely, drug overexposure and toxicity may both contribute to a worse prognosis. Moreover, changes in organ perfusion and dysfunction often lead to unpredictable pharmacokinetics. In critically ill patients, interindividual and intraindividual real-time β-lactam antibiotic dose adjustments according to the patient’s condition are critical. The continuous infusion of β-lactams and the therapeutic monitoring of their concentration have both been proposed to improve their efficacy, but strong data to support their use are still lacking. The knowledge of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets is poor and is mostly based on observational data. In patients with renal or hepatic failure, selecting the right dose is even more tricky due to changes in drug clearance, distribution, and the use of extracorporeal circuits. Intermittent usage may further increase the dosing conundrum. Recent data have emerged linking overexposure to β-lactams to central nervous system toxicity, mitochondrial recovery delay, and microbiome changes. In addition, it is well recognized that β-lactam exposure facilitates resistance selection and that correct dosing can help to overcome it. In this review, we discuss recent data regarding real-time β-lactam antibiotic dose adjustment, options in special populations, and the impacts on mitochondria and the microbiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics Treatment Optimization in Vulnerable Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 544 KiB  
Review
How to Identify Invasive Candidemia in ICU—A Narrative Review
by Joana Alves, Carles Alonso-Tarrés and Jordi Rello
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121804 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3282
Abstract
The incidence of invasive fungal infection in ICUs has increased over time, and Candida spp. is the most common cause. Critical care patients are a particular set of patients with a higher risk of invasive fungal infections; this population is characterized by extensive [...] Read more.
The incidence of invasive fungal infection in ICUs has increased over time, and Candida spp. is the most common cause. Critical care patients are a particular set of patients with a higher risk of invasive fungal infections; this population is characterized by extensive use of medical devices such as central venous lines, arterial lines, bladder catheters, hemodialysis and mechanical intubation. Blood cultures are the gold standard diagnosis; still, they are not an early diagnostic technique. Mannan, anti-mannan antibody, 1,3-β-D-glucan, Candida albicans germ tube antibody, Vitek 2, PNA-FISH, MALDI-TOF, PCR and T2Candida panel are diagnostic promising microbiological assays. Scoring systems are tools to distinguish patients with low and high risk of infection. They can be combined with diagnostic tests to select patients for pre-emptive treatment or antifungal discontinuation. Candidemia is the focus of this narrative review, an approach to contributing factors and diagnosis, with an emphasis on critical care patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 753 KiB  
Review
When and How to Use MIC in Clinical Practice?
by Sophie Magréault, Françoise Jauréguy, Etienne Carbonnelle and Jean-Ralph Zahar
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121748 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 9943
Abstract
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to be a global public health problem. The choice of the most effective antibiotic and the use of an adapted dose in the initial phase of the infection are essential to limit the emergence of resistance. This will [...] Read more.
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to be a global public health problem. The choice of the most effective antibiotic and the use of an adapted dose in the initial phase of the infection are essential to limit the emergence of resistance. This will depend on (i) the isolated bacteria and its resistance profile, (ii) the pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of the antibiotic used and its level of toxicity, (iii) the site of infection, and (iv) the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the patient. In order to take account of both parameters to optimize the administered treatment, a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination associated with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and their combined interpretation are required. The objective of this narrative review is thus to suggest microbiological, pharmacological, and/or clinical situations for which this approach could be useful. Regarding the microbiological aspect, such as the detection of antibiotic resistance and its level, the preservation of broad-spectrum β-lactams is particularly discussed. PK-PD profiles are relevant for difficult-to-reach infections and specific populations such as intensive care patients, cystic fibrosis patients, obese, or elderly patients. Finally, MIC and TDM are tools available to clinicians, who should not hesitate to use them to manage their patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 10397 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial and Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Understanding Penetration for the Design of Novel Conjugate Antibiotics
by Andreas Hadjicharalambous, Nikolaos Bournakas, Hector Newman, Michael J. Skynner and Paul Beswick
Antibiotics 2022, 11(11), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11111636 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5733
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short oligopeptides that can penetrate the bacterial inner and outer membranes. Together with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), they are called membrane active peptides; peptides which can translocate across biological membranes. Over the last fifty years, attempts have been made to [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short oligopeptides that can penetrate the bacterial inner and outer membranes. Together with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), they are called membrane active peptides; peptides which can translocate across biological membranes. Over the last fifty years, attempts have been made to understand the molecular features that drive the interactions of membranes with membrane active peptides. This review examines the features of a membrane these peptides exploit for translocation, as well as the physicochemical characteristics of membrane active peptides which are important for translocation. Moreover, it presents examples of how these features have been used in recent years to create conjugates consisting of a membrane active peptide, called a “vector”, attached to either a current or novel antibiotic, called a “cargo” or “payload”. In addition, the review discusses what properties may contribute to an ideal peptide vector able to deliver cargoes across the bacterial outer membrane as the rising issue of antimicrobial resistance demands new strategies to be employed to combat this global public health threat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews on Antimicrobial Peptides)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop