Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "The Global Need for Effective Antibiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2023) | Viewed by 25162

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Food Toxicology, Institute of Food Technology and Nutrition, University of Rzeszow, 35-601 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: honey plants; medicinal plants; phytochemicals in honey; bee pollen and propolis; antioxidant activity; polyphenolic profile; oxidative stress biomarkers; plant food toxins; heavy metal pollution; cadmium; risk assessment
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Co-Guest Editor
1. Institute of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia
2. Department of Bioenergetics, Food Analysis and Microbiology, Institute of Food Technology and Nutrition, Rzeszow University, Cwiklinskiej 1, 35-601 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: antimicrobial activity of biological active compounds; food microbiology; honey microbiology; bees GIT etc.
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

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The excessive use of antibiotics can promote bacteria that were originally sensitive to become resistant, so there is a great need to find natural antibacterial agents. One of the considered products is honey, which has been known for its antimicrobial properties, showing a broad spectrum of potential against microorganisms including bacteria. However, the effectiveness of honey against microorganisms depends on the type of the honey produced, which is contingent on its botanical origin (nectar source), the health of bees, climate condition, the storage and processing. The antibacterial activity of honey is attributed to its low water content (low water activity), high viscosity, osmolarity, low pH and acidity, and occurrence of phytochemicals, mainly polyphenols. Currently, many studies confirm the efficacy of honey therapy, but there are still some controversies, mainly regarding the honey-variety dependent action, as well as honey authentication.

Therefore, the main subject of this Special Issue includes the identify of antioxidant and antibacterial properties of varietal honey, the underlying factors that influence its antibacterial efficacy, and its potential medical applications. The manuscripts concerning all honey antibacterial-related activity areas of interest are welcome:

  • The impact of botanical origin of honey on its antioxidant activity,
  • The key-antioxidant components of honey responsible for their antibacterial action,
  • The mechanism of honey polyphenols action against various bacteria and bacteriophages,
  • Antibiotics synergism with honey against bacterial biofilms,
  • Therapeutic potential of honey in the medical setting,
  • The effect of honey processing on its antibacterial properties,
  • The necessity of honey authentication and detection of adulterated honey.

Dr. Malgorzata Dzugan
Prof. Dr. Miroslava Kačániová
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • honey
  • botanical origin
  • antioxidant
  • antibacterial
  • mechanisms
  • efficacy
  • treatment

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
The Antibacterial Properties of Polish Honey against Streptococcus mutans—A Causative Agent of Dental Caries
by Dorota Grabek-Lejko and Tomasz Hyrchel
Antibiotics 2023, 12(11), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12111640 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Streptococcus mutans is considered the main pathogen responsible for dental caries, one of the major infectious diseases, affecting more than 4 billion people worldwide. Honey is a natural product with well-known antibacterial potential against several human pathogens. The aim of the study was [...] Read more.
Streptococcus mutans is considered the main pathogen responsible for dental caries, one of the major infectious diseases, affecting more than 4 billion people worldwide. Honey is a natural product with well-known antibacterial potential against several human pathogens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of Polish honey against S. mutans and analyze the role of some bioactive substances on its antibacterial action. The antibacterial potential of different honey varieties (goldenrod, buckwheat, honeydew, and lime) was analyzed using a microdilution assay. Manuka and artificial honey were used as controls. The content of GOX, hydrogen peroxide, total polyphenols, and antioxidant potential was assayed in honey. The influence of catalase and proteinase K on antibacterial activity as well as antibiofilm action was also determined. The strongest antibacterial activity was observed for buckwheat, honeydew, and manuka honey, which were also characterized by the highest antioxidant activity and polyphenols content. Catalase treatment decreases the antibacterial activity of honey, while proteinase K treatment influences the antibacterial potential of honey slightly less. Obtained results suggest that honey can be a good natural product against S. mutans, and hydrogen peroxide was identified as a crucial contributor to its antimicrobial action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)
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13 pages, 1875 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Antimicrobial Properties of Honey Protein Components through In Silico Comparative Peptide Composition and Distribution Analysis
by Andrzej Łyskowski, Michał Miłek and Małgorzata Dżugan
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050830 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1254
Abstract
The availability of reference proteomes for two honeybee species (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana cerana) opens the possibility of in silico studies of diverse properties of the selected protein fractions. The antimicrobial activity of honey is well established and related to [...] Read more.
The availability of reference proteomes for two honeybee species (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana cerana) opens the possibility of in silico studies of diverse properties of the selected protein fractions. The antimicrobial activity of honey is well established and related to its composition, including protein components. We have performed a comparative study on a selected fraction of the honey-related proteins, as well as other bee-secreted proteins, utilizing a publicly available database of established and verified peptides with antimicrobial properties. Using a high-performance sequence aligner (diamond), protein components with antimicrobial peptide sequences were identified and analyzed. The identified peptides were mapped on the available bee proteome sequences, as well as on model structures provided by the AlphaFold project. The results indicate a highly conserved localization of the identified sequences within a limited number of the protein components. Putative antimicrobial fragments also show high sequence-based similarity to the multiple peptides contained in the reference databases. For the 2 databases used, the lowest calculated percentage of similarity ranged from 30.1% to 32.9%, with a respective average of 88.5% and 79.3% for the Apis mellifera proteome. It was revealed that the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) site is a single, well-defined domain with potentially conserved structural features. In the case of the examples studied in detail, the structural domain takes the form of the two β-sheets, stabilized by α-helices in one case, and a six-β-sheet-only domain localized in the C-terminal part of the sequence, respectively. Moreover, no significant differences were found in the composition of the antibacterial fraction of peptides that were identified in the proteomes of both species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)
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18 pages, 4646 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Properties of Latvian Honey against Causative Agents of Wound Infections
by Ingus Skadiņš, Krišs Dāvids Labsvārds, Andra Grava, Jhaleh Amirian, Laura Elīna Tomsone, Jānis Ruško, Arturs Viksna, Dace Bandere and Agnese Brangule
Antibiotics 2023, 12(5), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12050816 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Honey is widely used in traditional medicine and modern wound healing biomaterial research as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. The study’s objectives were to evaluate the antibacterial activity and polyphenolic profiles of 40 monofloral honey samples collected from beekeepers in the [...] Read more.
Honey is widely used in traditional medicine and modern wound healing biomaterial research as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. The study’s objectives were to evaluate the antibacterial activity and polyphenolic profiles of 40 monofloral honey samples collected from beekeepers in the territory of Latvia. The antimicrobial and antifungal activity of Latvian honey samples were compared with commercial Manuka honey and the honey analogue sugar solutions–carbohydrate mixture and tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, clinical isolates Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases produced Escherichia coli, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated with the well-diffusion method (80% honey solution w/v) and microdilution method. The honey samples with the highest antimicrobial potential were tested to prevent biofilm development and activity against a preformed biofilm. The principal component analysis of the antimicrobial properties of honey samples vs. polyphenolic profile was performed. Eleven honey samples exhibited antibacterial activity to all investigated bacteria. The antibacterial effect of the samples was most significant on the Gram-positive bacteria compared to the studied Gram-negative bacteria. Latvian honey presents promising potential for use in wound healing biomaterials, opening the possibility of achieving long-term antibacterial effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)
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10 pages, 1018 KiB  
Article
The Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Properties of Rapeseed Creamed Honey Enriched with Selected Plant Superfoods
by Michał Miłek, Ewa Ciszkowicz, Ewelina Sidor, Joanna Hęclik, Katarzyna Lecka-Szlachta and Małgorzata Dżugan
Antibiotics 2023, 12(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12020235 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the addition of selected fruits and herbs belonging to the “superfoods” category for the bioactivity of a rapeseed honey matrix. Flavored creamed honeys with nine types of various additives (2 and 4% [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the addition of selected fruits and herbs belonging to the “superfoods” category for the bioactivity of a rapeseed honey matrix. Flavored creamed honeys with nine types of various additives (2 and 4% of content) were prepared and analyzed for the content of total phenols, flavonoids, antioxidant (FRAP, DPPH and ABTS) and antibacterial activity against four strains of bacteria. Additionally, the impact of three months of storage on the antioxidant properties of the products obtained was examined. The significant dose-dependent increase in the content of bioactive ingredients and antioxidant capacity in spiced honeys, as compared to control honey, was observed. The highest enrichment was obtained for the addition of powdered sea buckthorn leaves and black raspberry fruits. Honey with the addition of sea buckthorn leaves inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and K. pneumonia, whereas honeys with black raspberry and blackcurrant fruits showed activity only on the latter two strains. Furthermore, what is more interesting, honey supplemented with sea buckthorn leaf and black raspberry fruits inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation at the sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs), showing a dose-dependent anti-biofilm effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)
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29 pages, 497 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Honeys Produced in Minas Gerais (Brazil)
by Vanessa de A. Royo, Dario A. de Oliveira, Pedro Henrique F. Veloso, Verônica de M. Sacramento, Ellen L. A. Olimpio, Luciano F. de Souza, Nathália da C. Pires, Carlos Henrique G. Martins, Mariana B. Santiago, Tânia Maria de A. Alves, Thaís M. Acácio, Afrânio F. de Melo Junior, Murilo M. Brandão and Elytania V. Menezes
Antibiotics 2022, 11(10), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11101429 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Honeys can be classified as polyfloral or monofloral and have been extensively studied due to an increased interest in their consumption. There is concern with the correct identification of their flowering, the use of analyses that guarantee their physicochemical quality and the quantification [...] Read more.
Honeys can be classified as polyfloral or monofloral and have been extensively studied due to an increased interest in their consumption. There is concern with the correct identification of their flowering, the use of analyses that guarantee their physicochemical quality and the quantification of some compounds such as phenolics, to determine their antioxidant and antimicrobial action. This study aims at botanical identification, physicochemical analyses, and the determination of total polyphenols, chromatographic profile and antiradical and antimicrobial activity of honey from different regions of Minas Gerais. Seven different samples were analyzed for the presence of pollen, and color determination. The physicochemical analyses performed were total acidity, moisture, HMF, reducing sugar, and apparent sucrose. The compound profile was determined by UHPLC/MS, the determination of total phenolics and antiradical activity (DPPH method) were performed by spectrophotometry, and minimum inhibitory and bacterial concentrations were determined for cariogenic bacteria. All honey samples met the quality standards required by international legislation, twenty compounds were detected as the main ones, the polyfloral honey was the only honey that inhibited all of the bacteria tested. Sample M6 (Coffee) was the one with the highest amount of total polyphenols, while the lowest was M4 (Cipó-uva). Regarding the antioxidant activity, M5 (Velame) had the best result and M4 (Cipó-uva) was the one that least inhibited oxidation. Of the polyfloral honeys, there was not as high a concentration of phenolic compounds as in the others. Coffee, Aroeira, Velame and Polyfloral have the best anti-radical actions. Betônica, Aroeira, Cipó-uva and Pequi inhibited only some bacteria. The best bacterial inhibition results are from Polyfloral. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)
12 pages, 6564 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Two Types of Honey against Escherichia coli through Interfering with Bacterial Membrane Permeability, Inhibiting Proteins, and Inducing Bacterial DNA Damage
by Asma Mohammed Al-Sayaghi, Abdelkodose Mohammed Al-Kabsi, Maisa Siddiq Abduh, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir and Mohammed Abdullah Alshawsh
Antibiotics 2022, 11(9), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11091182 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Honey is a sweet natural food produced by bees from flower nectar or some part of plant secretions that exhibit antimicrobial activity against many microorganisms. It has been used as traditional therapy for skin infections. Antibiotics play an essential role in managing wound [...] Read more.
Honey is a sweet natural food produced by bees from flower nectar or some part of plant secretions that exhibit antimicrobial activity against many microorganisms. It has been used as traditional therapy for skin infections. Antibiotics play an essential role in managing wound infection; however, some pathogenic bacteria have begun to possess resistance against them, which may cause chronic infections and severe adverse effects. This study investigates the antibacterial activities and mechanism of action of Yemeni Sidr honey (SH) and Manuka honey (MH) against Escherichia coli. The inhibitory effects of SH and MH using the disk diffusion method on bacterial growth were remarkable at 700 mg/disk. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were similar for both kinds of honey. However, MH showed a better bactericidal effect (30%) than SH (50%). The antimicrobial mechanism of action showed that SH substantially impacted the bacterial membrane’s permeability and increased the potassium and protein leakage rate. On the contrary, MH demonstrated remarkable inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis, while both kinds of honey caused bacterial DNA damage. These data reveal that SH and MH could be used as a remedy for skin infections and might be further developed as a promising dressing for bacterial wound infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)
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26 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Different Honey Samples from Beekeepers and Commercial Producers
by Miroslava Kačániová, Petra Borotová, Lucia Galovičová, Simona Kunová, Jana Štefániková, Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski and Peter Šedík
Antibiotics 2022, 11(9), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11091163 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Honey contains compounds with antioxidant and antibacterial capacities, such as phenolic compounds and carotenoids. The current analysis evaluates the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of 100 honey samples from beekeepers from Slovakia and commercially purchased ones. Honey samples were diluted to 50%, 25%, 12.5%, [...] Read more.
Honey contains compounds with antioxidant and antibacterial capacities, such as phenolic compounds and carotenoids. The current analysis evaluates the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of 100 honey samples from beekeepers from Slovakia and commercially purchased ones. Honey samples were diluted to 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25% concentrations. The antimicrobial activity of honey samples was evaluated against three Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacteria, and four Candida spp. by well diffusion method. The highest antimicrobial effect of all honey concentrations was expressed as the size of the inhibition zone and was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa among Gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus subtilis among Gram-positive bacteria, and Candida tropicalis among yeasts. Antibiotics used in the study showed the highest antimicrobial effect compared to all concentrations of honey samples. Slovakian honey from beekeepers and commercial honey samples from the Slovak market showed variable inhibitory effectiveness against microorganisms. The honey concentration of 50% was found the most effective. Lower concentrations of honey exhibited no effect against yeasts. The best antioxidant activity was found in a sample of buckwheat honey yielding 70.83% of DPPH inhibition and 2373.85 μg/g TEAC. Overall, better antioxidant activity was evaluated in honeydew honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)

Review

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17 pages, 1809 KiB  
Review
A Review of Commonly Used Methodologies for Assessing the Antibacterial Activity of Honey and Honey Products
by Md Lokman Hossain, Lee Yong Lim, Katherine Hammer, Dhanushka Hettiarachchi and Cornelia Locher
Antibiotics 2022, 11(7), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070975 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 10101
Abstract
Honey, a naturally sweet and viscous substance is mainly produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from flower nectar. Honey exerts a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities, namely, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, because of the presence of an extensive variety of [...] Read more.
Honey, a naturally sweet and viscous substance is mainly produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from flower nectar. Honey exerts a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities, namely, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, because of the presence of an extensive variety of bioactive compounds. The antibacterial activity is one of the most reported biological properties, with many studies demonstrating that honey is active against clinically important pathogens. As a result, beside honey’s widespread utilization as a common food and flavouring agent, honey is an attractive natural antimicrobial agent. However, the use of neat honey for therapeutic purposes poses some problems, for instance, its stickiness may hamper its appeal to consumers and health care professionals, and the maintenance of an adequate therapeutic concentration over a sufficient timeframe may be challenging due to honey liquidity and leakage. It has motivated researchers to integrate honey into diverse formulations, for example, hydrogels, dressings, ointments, pastes and lozenges. The antibacterial activity of these formulations should be scientifically determined to underscore claims of effectiveness. Some researchers have made efforts to adapt the disc carrier and suspension test to assess the antimicrobial activity of topical products (e.g., silver-based wound dressings). However, there is currently no established and validated method for determining the in vitro antimicrobial potential of natural product-based formulations, including those containing honey as the active principle. Against the backdrop of a brief discussion of the parameters that contribute to its antibacterial activity, this review provides an outline of the methods currently used for investigating the antibacterial activity of neat honey and discusses their limitations for application to honey-based formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Honey)
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