Bioactive Substances with Antioxidant Properties in Agricultural Products

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Horticultural and Floricultural Crops".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 October 2022) | Viewed by 25036

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Vegetable Production, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra 94976, Slovakia
Interests: antioxidants in horticultural products, their increase through the use of biostimulants, and the use of essential oils in plant protection

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Guest Editor
Department of Fruit sciences, Viticulture and Enology, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia
Interests: bacteriology; essential oils; food microbiology; antimicrobial activity; mass spectrometry; medicinal plants
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research is increasingly focused on the production of secondary plant metabolites in agricultural products and their antioxidant effects in disease prevention. It is necessary to know more about their diversity and ways to increase their production in vegetables and fruits due to the potential increase in their nutritional value. At the same time, they also provide some protection for plants against various stressful situations. Their effects are essential for the proper functioning of the human body. This group of substances also includes polyphenolic compounds, carotenoids, minerals and vitamins, etc., which have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-insect, and many other effects. An important way to increase them is also the biofortification of horticultural crops with antioxidant trace elements (e.g., selenium) and products of organic origin (biostimulants), which became the subject of interest of many farmers and scientists at the end of the 20th century. They stimulate natural processes in plants, in which available studies have shown a significant effect on the quality composition and yield of horticultural crops. The papers published in this Special Issue will present the results of research in the field of biofortification of various types of horticultural crops with selected biostimulants and selenium, their impact on crops and antioxidants, and the use of essential oils of spices and medicinal plants to control decay and maintain the quality of agricultural products using their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity and the antioxidant activity of little-known horticultural crops.

Prof. Dr. Alžbeta Hegedűsová
Prof. Dr. Miroslava Kačániová
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • vegetables
  • fruit
  • crops
  • biostimulants
  • antioxidants
  • antioxidant activity
  • antimicrobial activity
  • protection

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 1405 KiB  
Article
Identification of Phytochemical Compounds, Functional Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Purple Corn Protein Concentrate and Its Gastrointestinal Hydrolysates
by Edgar Vilcacundo, Vinicio Montalvo, Herminia Sanaguano, Roberto Moran, Wilman Carrillo and Antón García
Agronomy 2022, 12(9), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12092217 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Purple corn seeds germinated at 25 °C and 35 °C for 5 days were used to obtain purple corn protein concentrate (PCPC25 and PCPC35). PCPC25 and PCPC35 were subject to gastrointestinal hydrolysis. PCPC and its hydrolysates were used to evaluate their functional and [...] Read more.
Purple corn seeds germinated at 25 °C and 35 °C for 5 days were used to obtain purple corn protein concentrate (PCPC25 and PCPC35). PCPC25 and PCPC35 were subject to gastrointestinal hydrolysis. PCPC and its hydrolysates were used to evaluate their functional and biological properties. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total flavonol content (TFLC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and total proanthocyanin (TAP) were determined. The polyphenols and flavonoids were identified by UPLC-QDa. Protein solubility (PS), water and oil absorption capacity (WAC and OAC) were determined. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the FRAP, ABTS and DPPH methods. PCPC35 showed the highest TFLC values (11,091.37 mg rutin equivalents (RE)/100 g dry weight DW), and TFL presented values of 7975.59 mg RE/100 g DW. The PCPCs presented better functional properties than the hydrolysates. PCPC25 presented a PS of 59.43%PS at pH 8.0, 27.77%WAC and 24.94%OAC. PCPC25 and PCPC35 showed high values of antioxidant activity. PCPC25 showed ABTS values (570.97 µmol trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW) and FRAP (772.85 µmol TE/g DW). PCPCs hydrolysates were less active with ABTS values (74.12 µmol TE/g DW) and FRAP (59.42 µmol TE/g DW). Full article
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12 pages, 6795 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Quality of Yard-Long Bean (Vigna unguiculata sub sp. sesquipedalis L.) Cultivars to Meet the Nutritional Security of Increasing Population
by AKM Quamruzzaman, Ferdouse Islam, Limu Akter, Anjumanara Khatun, Sharmila Rani Mallick, Ahmed Gaber, Alison Laing, Marian Brestic and Akbar Hossain
Agronomy 2022, 12(9), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12092195 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4616
Abstract
It is well-known that eating highly nutritious foods has health benefits which may include the prevention of diabetes, heart disease, cancers and other diseases. We examined five yard-long bean cultivars commonly grown in Bangladesh to determine their quality and nutritional composition in terms [...] Read more.
It is well-known that eating highly nutritious foods has health benefits which may include the prevention of diabetes, heart disease, cancers and other diseases. We examined five yard-long bean cultivars commonly grown in Bangladesh to determine their quality and nutritional composition in terms of carbohydrates, protein, moisture content, fat, ash, sugar crude fiber, as well as their average concentrations of the important nutrients vitamins A (folate) B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxamine), and C (ascorbic acid), the electrolytes sodium and potassium, and the minerals iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc. The experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Research Centre (latitude 23.9920° N and longitude 90.4125° E, having an elevation of 8.2 m asl) of the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Joydebpur, Bangladesh during 2019–2020 to find out the best yard-long bean cultivar to meet the nutritional security of the increasing population of Bangladesh. We observed average energy concentrations of the five yard-long bean cultivars between 37.62 to 45.94 Kcal/100 g. Similarly, average carbohydrate concentrations ranged between 6.28 to 8.41 g/100 g, average protein between 2.80 and 3.30 g/100 g, average fat between 0.10 and 0.19 g/100 g, average sugar between 1.47 to 2.34 g/100 g, and average crude fiber between 1.23 to 1.85 g/100 g. All five yard-long bean cultivars had high average concentrations of folate and key vitamins critical for human health: vitamin A (846.23–869.36 IU), vitamin B1 (0.096–0.115 mg), vitamin B2 (0.109–0.118 mg), vitamin B3 (0.40–0.42 mg), vitamin B6 (0.020–0.025 mg), and vitamin C (18.20–20.22 mg). Average sodium concentrations in the yard-long bean pods ranged from 3.97 to 4.18 mg, while average potassium concentrations varied between 230.03 and 246.57 mg. We observed high average concentrations of the minerals iron (0.85–1.28 mg), calcium (42.11–58.83 mg), magnesium (40.44–46.50 mg), and zinc (0.36–0.40 mg). Following this thorough investigation, we recommend the five yard-long bean cultivars be promoted for production and consumption within Bangladesh to improve human health and nutrition and to contribute to the prevention of key health complications including diabetes, obesity and some cancers. Full article
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10 pages, 1211 KiB  
Article
Thermal Treatment Influence on Selected Nutritional Values of Common Sea Buckthorn (Hyppophae rhamnoides) Juice
by Ján Mezey, Ondrej Hegedűs, Ivana Mezeyová, Katarína Szarka and Alžbeta Hegedűsová
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081834 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
Since ancient times, sea buckthorn (Hyppophae rhamnoides) (SBT) has been utilized as a medical plant for its ability to extract health-promoting compounds from its fruits, seeds, pulp, skin, bark, roots, and leaves. L-ascorbic acid is primarily found in fruits, and because [...] Read more.
Since ancient times, sea buckthorn (Hyppophae rhamnoides) (SBT) has been utilized as a medical plant for its ability to extract health-promoting compounds from its fruits, seeds, pulp, skin, bark, roots, and leaves. L-ascorbic acid is primarily found in fruits, and because of this, it can be utilized as a fortification agent to enhance other juices. The study’s goal was to look into how the L-ascorbic acid and selected nutritional parameters in common sea buckthorn juice changed over the period of storage and different thermal treatments. The L-ascorbic acid stability in the processed juice in both used varieties (“Hergo” and “Leikora”) was ensured by the processing technology with a modified vat (or batch) (low-temperature long-time pasteurization) process. Even after being sterilized at 120 °C for 15 min, the amount of L-ascorbic acid in the processed sea buckthorn juice in both varieties was unaffected and ranged between 1762 and 2058 mg/kg. There was no change in the pH level at the same time; it stayed extremely low (about 2.3), which may have helped the L-ascorbic acid to stabilize. The sterilized juice variant in both varieties had the highest levels of glucose, fructose, total sugar, malic acid, total acid, and total soluble solids (TSS), which were significantly higher than in fresh juice or in either variant after pasteurization. Given this, we advise processing the SBT berries immediately after harvest using thermal processing to prevent ascorbic acid (AA) loss, or storing them under frost conditions until processing. Full article
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16 pages, 1936 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Carrot Production System Using Biologically Active Compounds and Metabolomic Fingerprints
by Vera Schulzova, Martin Koudela, Hana Chmelarova, Jana Hajslova and Cenek Novotny
Agronomy 2022, 12(8), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12081770 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2145
Abstract
Carrot is the most important root vegetable plant produced worldwide, consumed as a food source rich in bioactive compounds. The purpose was to investigate the effect of different farming conditions on the content of those compounds in the roots of Afalon and Cortina [...] Read more.
Carrot is the most important root vegetable plant produced worldwide, consumed as a food source rich in bioactive compounds. The purpose was to investigate the effect of different farming conditions on the content of those compounds in the roots of Afalon and Cortina carrot cv. and to use metabolomic fingerprinting for the authentication of the carrots. Carotenoids and ascorbic acid (AA) were detected and quantified using the LC method. The characterization and classification of carrot samples according to the production system, variety and plant density were performed using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The metabolomic fingerprints/profiles were measured in positive and negative ionization mode on a reversed-phase analytical column, and the data were processed using the relevant statistical tools. The respective AA levels in Afalon and Cortina were 217–291 and 318–514 mg.kg−1 dry biomass. The main carotenes were β- and α-carotene whose ratio in Afalon and Cortina was 1.3 and 1.2, respectively. A set of 19 compounds detected by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS, selected on the basis of their importance for statistical distribution into individual groups representing a farming system, cultivar, or seeding density, was established and used for the authentication of the carrot samples. These compounds included various saccharides, phenolics, and lipids with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antibiotic activities. The metabolomic data obtained were used for the verification of the farming system in which the carrots were grown. Full article
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14 pages, 3150 KiB  
Article
Variability of Bioactive Substances in Potatoes (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Depending on Variety and Maturity
by Hana Franková, Janette Musilová, Július Árvay, Ľuboš Harangozo, Marek Šnirc, Alena Vollmannová, Judita Lidiková, Alžbeta Hegedűsová and Edina Jaško
Agronomy 2022, 12(6), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12061454 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are an essential food for the human diet and thus represent an important source of biologically active substances. This study aimed at investigating the content of bioactive substances (total anthocyanin and polyphenol contents and chlorogenic acid) in seven [...] Read more.
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are an essential food for the human diet and thus represent an important source of biologically active substances. This study aimed at investigating the content of bioactive substances (total anthocyanin and polyphenol contents and chlorogenic acid) in seven potato varieties (Belana, Cecile, Magenta Love, Mozart, Talentine, Toscana, and Violet Queen) with various flesh and skin colors. To evaluate the impact of potato maturity on the analyzed parameters, potato samples were harvested in two different periods (1st harvest—July and 2nd harvest—September). Total anthocyanin and polyphenol contents were determined spectrophotometrically, and chlorogenic acid by the HPLC-DAD method. Varieties with a colored flesh (Magenta Love and Violet Queen) showed the highest content of bioactive substances. The maturity level significantly (p < 0.05) affected the total content of anthocyanins and polyphenols in potatoes. Early to medium early varieties (Belana and Magenta Love) showed an increase in chlorogenic acid content during maturation, while in other varieties, chlorogenic acid decreased due to higher maturity. In terms of the content of bioactive substances with a possible positive effect on human health, the consumption of potatoes with colored flesh could be recommended. Full article
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14 pages, 1869 KiB  
Article
Influence of Microgreens Biofortification with Selenium on Their Quantitative and Qualitative Parameters
by Ivana Mezeyová, Alžbeta Hegedűsová, Marcel Golian, Alena Andrejiová, Miroslav Šlosár and Ján Mezey
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051096 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
The study monitored the effect of differentiated mineral nutrition of microgreens species by solution of sodium selenate (2 mg Se/L) on the content of Se, chlorophylls, and other minerals. Chlorophylls were measured spectrophotometrically, Se by electrothermal atomic absorption method (ETAAS) with Zeeman-effect background [...] Read more.
The study monitored the effect of differentiated mineral nutrition of microgreens species by solution of sodium selenate (2 mg Se/L) on the content of Se, chlorophylls, and other minerals. Chlorophylls were measured spectrophotometrically, Se by electrothermal atomic absorption method (ETAAS) with Zeeman-effect background and elements’ concentration was performed by a dual Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) iCAP7600 instrument. The content of selenium in fresh weight moved on average from 0.013 to 12.556 μg/g. Selenisation increased the content of Se in all tested species significantly (p < 0.05) without impacting yield. The content of chlorophyll a moved from 249.9 mg/kg (Mizuna) to 604.4 mg/kg (Arugula) with significant differences between the species, without significance (p ≤ 0.05) between tested variants. The influence of selenisation on other minerals significantly differed (p < 0.05) due to the genetic variability. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in Ca was observed in green basil (10.7%) and cress (20.9%); of Fe in green basil (1.6%) and cress (40.9%); of K in arugula (1.6%), green basil (3.9%) and cress (2.8%); of Zn in arugula (2.6%), green basil (8.6%), cress (2.7%) and radish (5.9%); and of Ba in green basil (5.6%) and cress (23.9%). Full article
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12 pages, 3924 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Underutilized Fruits Grown in Sri Lanka
by Shamara Perera, A. Buddhika G. Silva, Yashora Amarathunga, Shiromi De Silva, Renuka Jayatissa, Ashoka Gamage, Othmane Merah and Terrence Madhujith
Agronomy 2022, 12(5), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12051073 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5483
Abstract
Sri Lanka has been identified as one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots with a rich array of fruits; however, most of them remain underutilized. The present study was carried out to investigate the nutritional composition and to assess the bioactivity of six underutilized [...] Read more.
Sri Lanka has been identified as one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots with a rich array of fruits; however, most of them remain underutilized. The present study was carried out to investigate the nutritional composition and to assess the bioactivity of six underutilized fruits collected from three provinces of Sri Lanka. The selected fruit species were Màdan (Syzygium cumini), Maha Karamba (Carissa carandas), Himbutu (Salacia chinensis), Ugurassa (Flacourtia indica), Barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata), and Ceylon gooseberry (Dovyalis hebecarpa). The proximate composition, total dietary fiber content, mineral content, total phenolic content, and vanillin contents were determined using standard methods. The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of fruits was assessed using FRAP and DPPH assays. Uguressa extract exhibited the highest dietary fiber content (12.25 ± 0.29 of fresh fruit weight) while the lowest was observed in Barbados cherry (6.01 ± 1.10 g/100 g). The total phenolic content (TPC) of fruits ranged from 6.8 ± 0.4 to 10.3 ± 0.3 milligram gallic acid equivalents/g fruit. Barbados cherry showed the highest antioxidant activity (AOA) as measured by FRAP (0.022 ± 0.003 mM Fe 2+/g fruit) and the highest vanillin content (2.4 mg/kg). The highest potassium (434.60 ± 0.36 mg/kg), phosphorous (16.69 ± 0.46), and calcium contents (23.43 ± 0.45) were observed in Uguressa. Màdan had the highest content of magnesium (13.25 ± 0.38 mg/kg), sodium (5.28 ± 0.30), iron (0.65 ± 0.12 mg/kg), and aluminum (1.15 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The highest manganese content (0.98 ± 0.18 mg/kg) was observed in Himbutu while the highest copper content was found in Uguressa (0.11 ± 0.04 mg/kg) and Maha Karamba (0.11 ± 0.03 mg/kg). The study reveals that six underutilized fruits tested possess high nutritional value and are rich in antioxidant activity. Full article
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12 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
The Potential Use of Citrus aurantifolia L. Essential Oils for Decay Control, Quality Preservation of Agricultural Products, and Anti-Insect Activity
by Lucia Galovičová, Petra Borotová, Nenad L. Vukovic, Milena Vukic, Simona Kunová, Pawel Hanus, Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski, Ladislav Bakay and Miroslava Kačániová
Agronomy 2022, 12(3), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12030735 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3798
Abstract
The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the biological activity of Citrus aurantifolia essential oil (CAEO) with emphasis on antioxidant, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activity, chemical composition, and the antimicrobial effect of its vapor phase in situ on various food models. We [...] Read more.
The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the biological activity of Citrus aurantifolia essential oil (CAEO) with emphasis on antioxidant, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activity, chemical composition, and the antimicrobial effect of its vapor phase in situ on various food models. We determined the main volatile components of CAEO as α-phellandrene (48.5%) and p-cymene (16.5%). The antioxidant activity was high and reached 74.5 ± 0.5%, which corresponds to 442 ± 2.3 TEAC. The antimicrobial activity in the contact phase was most pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria, with inhibition zones of 12.66–15.33 mm and a minimal inhibition concentration of 2.36–8.26 µL/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the CAEO vapor phase was high at the highest concentration tested (500 µL/mL), but the inhibitory effect was seen at all concentrations tested. The effect was observed on all types of microorganisms and all types of model foods. Based on the findings, CAEO could find use in storing and extending the shelf life of agricultural products. Insecticidal activity reached 10–90% depending on the concentration used. The significant insecticidal effect provides the possibility of using CAEO as a natural insecticidal, larvicidal, or repellent preparation. Full article
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