Topic Editors

Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Environmental Research & Innovation Department (ERIN), Environmental Sustainability Assessment and Circularity Unit (SUSTAIN), 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg
Dr. Maider Llaguno-Munitxa
Faculty of Architecture, Architectural Engineering and Urban Planning, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
EPFL Swiss Data Science Center (SDSC), Lausanne, Switzerland

Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 January 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2023)
Viewed by
50626

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the global trend towards urbanization and the adverse effects of climate change, the design, implementation, and performance assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies, are urgently needed at the urban level. However, many knowledge gaps in urban climate actions still need to be addressed from both the modelling (simulation of future urbanization scenarios, future climate pathways, etc.), and technical implementation (new materials solutions, nature-based solutions, etc.) standpoints. In addition, the definition and evaluation of adequate climate mitigation strategies at the urban level are still challenging given limitations in the data (urban building stock and climate-related) that lack proper granularity and spatial differentiation. This Topic is open to studies that investigate the problem of climate change mitigation and adaptation at the urban level from any of the three perspectives presented above, i.e., modelling approaches, technical solutions, and strategies for data quality improvement. Potential themes relevant to this Research Topic may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Urban building energy modelling (BEM) and building information modelling (BIM) applications;
  • Urban heat island mitigation;
  • Sustainability assessment of mitigation and adaptation solutions in the built environment;
  • Data-driven methods for the characterization of urban impacts;
  • Social impacts of building-integrated technologies;
  • Renewable energy systems;
  • Regenerative buildings and infrastructure.

Dr. Antonino Marvuglia
Dr. Maider Llaguno-Munitxa
Dr. Federico Amato
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • climate adaptation
  • climate mitigation
  • BEM
  • BIM
  • data-driven
  • machine-learning
  • regenerative sustainability
  • renewable energy systems

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Atmosphere
atmosphere
2.9 4.1 2010 17.7 Days CHF 2400
Climate
climate
3.7 5.2 2013 19.7 Days CHF 1800
Buildings
buildings
3.8 3.1 2011 14.6 Days CHF 2600
Urban Science
urbansci
2.0 4.5 2017 23.7 Days CHF 1600

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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20 pages, 347 KiB  
Article
Climate Policy in Developing Countries: Analysis of Climate Mitigation and Adaptation Measures in Egypt
by Hamdy Abdelaty, Daniel Weiss and Delia Mangelkramer
Sustainability 2023, 15(11), 9121; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15119121 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) refers to a country’s climate action plan to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to climate change hazards. Each country is obliged to submit its NDCs to the UNFCCC, adhering to a guideline for increasing clarity and [...] Read more.
The Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) refers to a country’s climate action plan to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to climate change hazards. Each country is obliged to submit its NDCs to the UNFCCC, adhering to a guideline for increasing clarity and transparency. Nonetheless, few studies have employed this guideline to assess countries’ contributions, particularly the NDCs of developed countries. Our article centers on the case of The Arab Republic of Egypt (hereafter Egypt), which is extremely susceptible to climate change impacts due to its geographic location and economic structure. Using desk research and a systematic NDC analysis, this paper reviews recent measures Egypt has taken to build national resilience against climate change. We also assess Egypt’s planned mitigation and adaptation measures until 2030, documented in its updated NDC according to four criteria: mitigation ambition level, comprehensiveness, implementation plan, and transparency. The results show that Egypt’s 2022 NDC is more advanced on different fronts than the 2015 submission, focusing on fewer sectors and specific quantified targets for mitigation and adaptation. However, the updated NDC only partially meets the essential criteria for mitigation ambition level, implementability, and transparency. We provide a set of methodological and policy recommendations for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
30 pages, 2252 KiB  
Review
Building Adaptation Measures Using Future Climate Scenarios—A Scoping Review of Uncertainty Treatment and Communication
by Jørn Emil Gaarder, Hans Olav Hygen, Rolf André Bohne and Tore Kvande
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061460 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The global climate is changing. Predicting the impacts this will have on buildings is the first step in the process of finding suitable building adaptation measures. Future climate adaptation of buildings and infrastructure is a growing field of research, relying on both socio-economical [...] Read more.
The global climate is changing. Predicting the impacts this will have on buildings is the first step in the process of finding suitable building adaptation measures. Future climate adaptation of buildings and infrastructure is a growing field of research, relying on both socio-economical and meteorological research for input values to the simulation models. Models producing hourly future weather data rely on global climate models which are based on emission scenarios made from assumptions of future political, social, and economic developments. Accounting for the uncertainties from these underlying models as much as possible, and communicating the uncertainties in the results, is obviously paramount for reliable conclusions from the building simulation models. This paper is a scoping review, investigating how 132 studies treat and communicate the string of uncertainties from underlying models connected to future weather file generation in the scientific literature on building adaptation research. The findings suggest that climate-model-induced uncertainties are often under-communicated, due to either insufficient analysis or neglect. The studies that included the most comprehensive analyses of the uncertainties frequently concluded that treatment of these is important for the reliability of the results, and neglecting this could lead to misleading conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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26 pages, 6008 KiB  
Article
Climate Mitigation Strategies: The Use of Cool Pavements
by Martina Giorio and Rossana Paparella
Sustainability 2023, 15(9), 7641; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097641 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Recent statistical reports highlight an accelerating phenomenon of radical urbanization, and the forecasts estimate that within the next ten years, about 70% of the world’s population will be located in urban areas, compared with 54% currently living there. This phenomenon will result in [...] Read more.
Recent statistical reports highlight an accelerating phenomenon of radical urbanization, and the forecasts estimate that within the next ten years, about 70% of the world’s population will be located in urban areas, compared with 54% currently living there. This phenomenon will result in an increase in the constructed volume, with foreseeable adverse effects on the climate, the environment, and residents’ health. The resulting growth of the emissions and the use of energy resources, combined with changes in the soil condition and absorption characteristics, leads to a focus on issues related to the sustainable development of cities. The effects of anthropogenic activity influence the materials’ surface and air temperatures, contributing to the phenomenon of the increase of the average atmospheric temperatures near the earth’s surface, with the consequent generation of the phenomenon of the urban heat islands (UHIs). This paper aims to examine, in a neighborhood context, the effects of mitigation strategies implemented through the application of cool materials on urban surfaces. Through simulations carried out in a case study, with the support of software such as ENVI-met and tools for Grasshopper such as Ladybug, and with the observation of data related to the evolution of the surface temperatures, the air temperatures, and other microclimatic parameters, the outcomes obtained with the use of cool pavements were analyzed. Finally, the comparison between the two scenarios, the current and the projected, allowed the evaluation of the overall efficiency of the proposed interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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33 pages, 11677 KiB  
Article
Climatic Control of Urban Spaces Using Natural Cooling Techniques to Achieve Outdoor Thermal Comfort
by Daniel Castro Medina, MCarmen Guerrero Delgado, Teresa Rocío Palomo Amores, Aurore Toulou, Jose Sánchez Ramos and Servando Álvarez Domínguez
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14173; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114173 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3255
Abstract
The open spaces of cities have become hostile to citizens due to the high temperatures. Lack of thermal comfort hampers outdoor activities. It is imperative to combat these phenomena to bring life back to the streets and make spaces frequently used in the [...] Read more.
The open spaces of cities have become hostile to citizens due to the high temperatures. Lack of thermal comfort hampers outdoor activities. It is imperative to combat these phenomena to bring life back to the streets and make spaces frequently used in the past more appealing to local citizens. The aim is to mitigate the severity of the outdoor climate to reach comfortable conditions in open spaces. For that, microclimate control based on natural cooling techniques is proposed to recover the habitability of these spaces of the cities. These techniques are characterised via experiments. Demostrando como es posible conseguir and integrated using simulation tools. Following this methodology, it is possible to design, size and define operation strategies for the ideal climate control system according to the type of need. This paper addresses a degraded and unused real space as a case study to demonstrate the feasibility of the methodology used. A system has been designed that stores water cooled at night by using the sky and night air and uses it during the day to produce cold air and cool cover. The experimental results test the efficiency of each solution that has been integrated into the complete system. The system operates every technology to keep the temperature radiant and the air of the occupants cool. For it, falling-film technology cools every night a volume of water below 18 °C and dissipation in a water pond by water sprinkler maintains a pond 10–15 °C below the outside air temperature. Also, results test how it is possible to guarantee thermal comfort conditions (operative temperature below of 28 °C) even when the environment surrounding the conditioned volume is at temperatures above 40 °C, and how the seismic allows maintaining these conditions during the worst summer hours. In conclusion, microclimate control allows for mitigating the severity of the outdoor climate to reach a degree of thermal comfort equivalent to that in enclosed venues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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22 pages, 4790 KiB  
Review
A Review of Human Settlement Research on Climate Change Response under Carbon-Oriented: Literature Characteristics, Progress and Trends
by Na An, Qiang Yao and Qingji Shen
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101614 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
Climate issues have affected the sustainable development of global human settlements, and carbon, an essential factor affecting climate change, has become a hotspot of academic concern. This paper analyzes the research characteristics, stages and planning of carbon-oriented climate change response research in human [...] Read more.
Climate issues have affected the sustainable development of global human settlements, and carbon, an essential factor affecting climate change, has become a hotspot of academic concern. This paper analyzes the research characteristics, stages and planning of carbon-oriented climate change response research in human settlements based on the literature related to research on carbon-oriented human settlements for climate change, hereinafter referred to as RCHSCC, included in the Web of Science core database since 1991, using CiteSpace and VOSviewer bibliometric software. Based on the analysis of the literature and discipline distribution, research hotspots and priorities, this paper classifies the RCHSCC into four stages: early exploration, relationship building, integrated development and deepening collaboration. Based on keyword clustering, annual overlap and keyword emergence analysis, this paper predicts that future research will have three major trends regarding climate risk management, carbon technology enhancement and urban safety and resilience research. The study aims to analyze the distribution characteristics and evolution of research on carbon-oriented human settlements for climate change from 1991 to 2022. The RCHSCC predicts three major trends in the future—climate risk management, carbon technology upgrading and urban security and resilience—and offers three recommendations for governments and planners in terms of climate change adaptation and low-carbon and efficient development in human settlements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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26 pages, 8932 KiB  
Article
Studying the Effect of Blue-Green Infrastructure on Microclimate and Human Thermal Comfort in Melbourne’s Central Business District
by Fatma Balany, Nitin Muttil, Shobha Muthukumaran, Man Sing Wong and Anne W. M. Ng
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9057; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159057 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
Blue-green infrastructure (BGI) is defined as a strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services, which include microclimate regulation and enhanced human thermal comfort. While green infrastructure is [...] Read more.
Blue-green infrastructure (BGI) is defined as a strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas with other environmental features designed and managed to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services, which include microclimate regulation and enhanced human thermal comfort. While green infrastructure is widely known to be capable of mitigating the adverse effects of urban heat island, the effect of blue infrastructure to regulate thermal comfort is still poorly understood. This study investigates several blue-green-infrastructure (BGI) scenarios in the central business district (CBD) of Melbourne, Australia to assess their effects on microclimate and human thermal comfort. Three-dimensional microclimatic modelling software, ENVI-met, was used to simulate the microclimate and human thermal comfort. Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was used to quantify the level of thermal comfort in selected research areas. Ten different scenarios were simulated, which included those based on green roofs, green walls, trees, ponds and fountains. The simulations suggest that green roofs and green walls in the high-rise building environment have a small temperature reduction in its surrounding area by up to 0.47 °C and 0.27 °C, respectively, and there is no noticeable improvement in the level of thermal perception. The tree-based scenarios decrease temperature by up to 0.93 °C and improve the thermal perception from hot to warm. Scenarios based on water bodies and fountains decrease the temperature by up to 0.51 °C and 1.48 °C, respectively, yet they cannot improve the thermal perception of the area. A deeper water body has a better microclimate improvement as compared to a shallow one. The temperature reduction in the fountain scenario tends to be local and the effect could only be felt within a certain radius from the fountain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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17 pages, 3994 KiB  
Article
A Methodology for Bridging the Gap between Regional- and City-Scale Climate Simulations for the Urban Thermal Environment
by Konstantina Koutroumanou-Kontosi, Constantinos Cartalis, Kostas Philippopoulos, Ilias Agathangelidis and Anastasios Polydoros
Climate 2022, 10(7), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10070106 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2344
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to bridge the gap between regional- and city-scale climate simulations, with the focus given to the thermal environment. A dynamic-statistical downscaling methodology for defining daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures is [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to bridge the gap between regional- and city-scale climate simulations, with the focus given to the thermal environment. A dynamic-statistical downscaling methodology for defining daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures is developed based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multiple linear regression models (MLRs). The approach involves the use of simulations from two EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) (at approximately 12 km × 12 km) that are further downscaled to a finer resolution (1 km × 1 km). A feature selection methodology is applied to select the optimum subset of parameters for training the machine learning models. The downscaling methodology is initially applied to two RCMs, driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis (2008–2011) and high-resolution urban climate model simulations (UrbClims). The performance of the relationships is validated and found to successfully simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of Tmax and Tmin over Athens. Finally, the relationships that were extracted by the models are further used to quantify changes for Tmax and Tmin in high resolution, between the historical period (1971–2000) and mid-century (2041–2071) climate projections for two different representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Based on the results, both mean Tmax and Tmin are estimated to increase by 1.7 °C and 1.5 °C for RCP4.5 and 2.3 °C and 2.1 °C for RCP8.5, respectively, with distinct spatiotemporal patterns over the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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31 pages, 2538 KiB  
Article
Reinterpreting Spatial Planning Cultures to Define Local Adaptation Cultures: A Methodology from the Central Veneto Region Case
by Giovanni Litt, Mattia Bertin, Vittore Negretto and Francesco Musco
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7344; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127344 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
This paper focuses on recognising the underlying component of climate risk adaptation and management that is present at the local planning level. Starting from a comparative analysis of four Italian cities in the Central Veneto Area, the aim is to understand how plans [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on recognising the underlying component of climate risk adaptation and management that is present at the local planning level. Starting from a comparative analysis of four Italian cities in the Central Veneto Area, the aim is to understand how plans and regulations have already directed their efforts toward adaptation and climate risk reduction over the years, without explicitly labelling these measures as such. This process is carried out by co-ordinating the technicians of local administrations in the recognition and classification of already active measures that can be brought within the framework of combating the effects of climate change. The analysis of the identified measures shows that there is already considerable attention to flooding-related and heat-related issues in the local planning corpus. Understanding this dimension of local planning allows access to a set of adaptation intervention models that are already integrated into the planning system and support incorporating adaptation practices in a more co-ordinated way at various planning levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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18 pages, 9994 KiB  
Article
Influence of Low-Impact Development in Flood Control: A Case Study of the Febres Cordero Stormwater System of Guayaquil (Ecuador)
by Fabian Quichimbo-Miguitama, David Matamoros, Leticia Jiménez and Pablo Quichimbo-Miguitama
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7109; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127109 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2776
Abstract
Urban flooding is a major problem in many coastal cities. The rapidly shifting patterns of land use and demographic increase are making conventional approaches to stormwater management fail. In developing countries such as Ecuador, a lack of monitoring, financial constraints and absence of [...] Read more.
Urban flooding is a major problem in many coastal cities. The rapidly shifting patterns of land use and demographic increase are making conventional approaches to stormwater management fail. In developing countries such as Ecuador, a lack of monitoring, financial constraints and absence of proper policies exacerbate flooding problems. This work assesses the implementation of two Low Impact Development strategies (LIDs), namely, green streets and rain barrels, as nature-based solutions to mitigate flooding problems. The use of the “Stormwater Management Model” (SWMM) helped to contrast the new approach with the current state of the drainage system, including normal and extreme scenarios. With an implementation of 1.4% (19.5 ha) of the total area with LIDs, the reduction of runoff for short events (200 min) is around 20%, and for extreme events (within 24 h) is around 19% in comparison to the conventional approach. Flooded nodes were reduced to 27% for short events, and to 4% for extreme events. The peak flooding system had a reduction to 22% for short events and 15% for extreme events. These highlights help to increase city resilience, and authorities and stakeholders should engage in climate actions to reduce flood risks complementing drainage operations with nature-based solutions. Moreover, calibrated results in this article serve to increase awareness among municipal authorities regarding the importance of maintaining flooding records to improve modelling results for decision-makings processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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22 pages, 4891 KiB  
Article
Research on the Structure of Carbon Emission Efficiency and Influencing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration
by Chenxu Liu, Ruien Tang, Yaqi Guo, Yuhan Sun and Xinyi Liu
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6114; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106114 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
Climate change caused by CO2 emissions has become one of the most serious environmental problems facing the world today, and it has a strong relevance to sustainability. This paper measures the carbon emission efficiency of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration from [...] Read more.
Climate change caused by CO2 emissions has become one of the most serious environmental problems facing the world today, and it has a strong relevance to sustainability. This paper measures the carbon emission efficiency of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration from 2001 to 2019 using the U-S SBM model. The modified gravity model and social network analysis methods are used to explore its spatially correlated network structure, and QAP regression is used to explore the influencing factors. The results show the following: (1) The spatial correlation of the carbon emission efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration increased during the study period, showing a complex network structure with multiple threads and directions, and a strong mobility of the network. (2) The spatial network of the carbon emission efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration gradually formed a core−edge structure with southern Jiangsu as the core area, northern Zhejiang and central Jiangsu as the secondary core area, and central Anhui and southern Zhejiang as the edge area during the study period. (3) The spatial correlation network of carbon emission efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration is divided into “net benefit”, “net spillover”, “two-way spillover”, and “broker”. (4) Differences in energy intensity, government environmental regulations, technology research and development, and economic export orientation are the main factors affecting the spatial correlation of carbon emission efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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27 pages, 31562 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Impact of Urban Planning and Building Typologies in Urban Heat Island Mitigation
by Dionysia Kolokotsa, Katerina Lilli, Kostas Gobakis, Angeliki Mavrigiannaki, Shamila Haddad, Samira Garshasbi, Hamed Reza Heshmat Mohajer, Riccardo Paolini, Konstantina Vasilakopoulou, Carlos Bartesaghi, Deo Prasad and Mattheos Santamouris
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050537 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3875
Abstract
Urban and building typologies have a serious impact on the urban climate and determine at large the magnitude of the urban overheating and urban heat island intensity. The present study aims to analyze the impact of various city typologies and urban planning characteristics [...] Read more.
Urban and building typologies have a serious impact on the urban climate and determine at large the magnitude of the urban overheating and urban heat island intensity. The present study aims to analyze the impact of various city typologies and urban planning characteristics on the mitigation of the urban heat island. The effect of the building height, street width, aspect ratio, built area ratio, orientation, and dimensions of open spaces on the distribution of the ambient and surface temperature in open spaces is analyzed using the Sydney Metropolitan Area as a case study for both unmitigated and mitigated scenarios. Fourteen precincts are developed and simulated using ENVI-met the simulation tool. The ambient temperature, surface temperature, and wind speed are extracted. The parameter ‘Gradient of the Temperature Decrease along the Precinct Axis’ (GTD) is introduced to study the cooling potential of the various precincts. In the mitigated precincts, the GTD ranges between 0.01 K/m to 0.004 K/m. In the non-mitigated precincts, the GTD ranges between 0.0093 K/m to 0.0024 K/m. A strong correlation is observed between the GTD of all the precincts, with and without mitigation, and their corresponding average aspect ratio, (Height of buildings to Width of streets). The higher the aspect ratio of the precinct, the lower the cooling potential. It is also observed that the higher the Built Area Ratio of the precincts, the lower the cooling contribution of the mitigation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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16 pages, 10623 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Road Traffic Air Pollution in Urban Contexts: A Statistical Approach
by Concettina Marino, Antonino Nucara, Maria Francesca Panzera and Matilde Pietrafesa
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4127; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074127 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
In the article, a statistical approach to the assessment of the emission rates discharged by road traffic in a spatial context is proposed. It exploits the ‘yearly average vehicle’, an indicator representing the pollutant emission rate of the average vehicle belonging to a [...] Read more.
In the article, a statistical approach to the assessment of the emission rates discharged by road traffic in a spatial context is proposed. It exploits the ‘yearly average vehicle’, an indicator representing the pollutant emission rate of the average vehicle belonging to a specific category, considering the statistical variability of most of the involved traffic parameters: the vehicle speed and mileage travelled in the considered time. Finally, indicators assessing both the most probable value among the possible emission rates and the extent of their variability range are proposed. They may also be used to underpin decision-making processes, when the effects of different policies addressing air pollution issues are to be evaluated. Therefore, they are suitable for the analysis supporting urban planning activities, with a view to addressing and mitigating the effects and the consequences of pollution due to the transportation sector of the urban context. In addition, they can also be exploited by researchers when prediction analyses are to be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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22 pages, 6900 KiB  
Article
Potential Sea Level Rise Impacts in Acapulco Diamante, Mexico
by Ramiro Salvador Gómez-Villerías, Adalberto Tejeda-Martínez, Ana Cecilia Conde Álvarez, Maximino Reyes Umaña, José Luis Rosas-Acevedo, Manuel Ignacio Ruz Vargas and Erick Alfonso Galán Castro
Climate 2022, 10(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10030045 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3708
Abstract
The potential impacts of sea level in the study region are presented using the Integrated Procedure for Estimate Sea Level Impacts (IPESLI), made up of Landsat images, official databases, and design software for geographic information systems. IPESLI is useful in areas with little [...] Read more.
The potential impacts of sea level in the study region are presented using the Integrated Procedure for Estimate Sea Level Impacts (IPESLI), made up of Landsat images, official databases, and design software for geographic information systems. IPESLI is useful in areas with little georeferenced and validated information. The sea level projections are based on the climate projections, which incorporate the possible attenuation of the ice sheet near the upper end of Antarctica. Flood risk statistics were used to simulate the frequency of extreme flooding across the planet. The IPESLI was calibrated using seven field visits to compare the height values generated by the digital elevation model against the in situ data. The inundation maps generated in the study can be used to find the most vulnerable areas and initiate decision making for coastal adaptation. The IPESLI procedure has the potential to contribute to the formation of a communication bridge between climate change science and policy makers. The projection is profound for all scenarios, but it is particularly devastating for the Acapulco Diamante area if we start with the worst future climate scenario (SSP5-RCP8.5). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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17 pages, 1394 KiB  
Article
Investing in Urban Blue–Green Infrastructure—Assessing the Costs and Benefits of Stormwater Management in a Peri-Urban Catchment in Oslo, Norway
by Gert-Jan Wilbers, Karianne de Bruin, Isabel Seifert-Dähnn, Wiebe Lekkerkerk, Hong Li and Monserrat Budding-Polo Ballinas
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031934 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4307
Abstract
Cities are challenged by climate change impacts, such as extreme rainfall events that affect conventional urban water management systems via increased sewage water overflows resulting in water quality deterioration and urban floods causing infrastructure damage. Investments in blue–green infrastructure (BGI) are increasingly considered [...] Read more.
Cities are challenged by climate change impacts, such as extreme rainfall events that affect conventional urban water management systems via increased sewage water overflows resulting in water quality deterioration and urban floods causing infrastructure damage. Investments in blue–green infrastructure (BGI) are increasingly considered to address these issues. However, these should be cost-effective. In this study, the effectiveness of five different BGI strategies and one grey strategy are assessed for a peri-urban catchment area in Oslo (Grefsen) using a cost–benefit analysis. The strategies include (i) wadis; (ii) green roofs; (iii) raingardens, rain barrels and wadis; (iv) infiltration crates; (v) water squares, and (vi) a separate sewage system. Besides economic effectiveness, the study also aims to identify the proper protection level by comparing cost–benefit ratios and net benefits for 60-min rainfall events occurring once every 5, 20, and 100 years (M5, M20, and M100), concerning both the current situation and under future climate change (using the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5). The analyses revealed the highest BC ratios for wadis (12.0–17.3), separate sewage systems (7.7–15.1), and a combination of raingardens, rain barrels, and wadis (1.6–2.3). Strategies dimensioned for less frequent but more intensive rainfall events yielded higher BC ratios. Results for infiltration crates were difficult to interpret and were found to be very sensitive to input parameters. The other strategies implied a negative BC ratio. The study concludes that investments in BGI in Grefsen, Oslo, can be positively judged from a social–economic perspective and provide suitable information for water-related decision makers to decide upon the strategy selection and the appropriate flood protection level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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21 pages, 2301 KiB  
Article
Effects of Perceptions of Climate Change and Flood Risk on Coping Behavior: A Case Study of Taipei, Taiwan
by Yung-Jaan Lee and Shih-Ying Lin
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010289 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2250
Abstract
Globalization and population growth have put great pressure on the environment over the last few decades, and climate change has increased associated negative effects. Researchers examine the interactions between human and the environment. Among them, the relationship between place attachment and pro-environmental behavior [...] Read more.
Globalization and population growth have put great pressure on the environment over the last few decades, and climate change has increased associated negative effects. Researchers examine the interactions between human and the environment. Among them, the relationship between place attachment and pro-environmental behavior has attracted particular research attention. However, few studies have addressed the relationships among flood risk perceptions, place attachment, and climate change coping behavior in a densely populated urban area. This study examines the effects of perceptions of climate change and flood risk on coping behavioral intention, and determines whether place attachment plays a mediating or moderating role therein in Taipei, the flood-prone capital city of Taiwan. A total of 1208 questionnaires were collected. An analysis of the mediation effects based on a three-level regression model (Phase I) suggested that place attachment is not a mediator. Adjustment of the model and analysis of moderation effects using structural equation modeling (Phase II) suggested no moderation effect. In Phase III, the mediation effect was reexamined, with the replacement of dependent variables (adaptation/mitigation) with high-effort/low-effort coping behaviors, and one dimension of place attachment was replaced with four dimensions thereof (place dependence and place identity, place satisfaction, place affect, place social bonding). The results thus obtained reveal that the paths of place satisfaction exhibit significant mediating effects between attitudes and high-effort coping behavior. Some paths exhibit significant mediating effects between perceptions and low-effort coping behavior through place satisfaction. Another four paths exhibit partial significant mediating effects through place dependence and place identity and place social bonding. These results suggest that affective attachment of people to local places results in a behavioral tendency to protect or improve those places. The main contribution of this study is its support of meta-analyses of the effects of each dimension of place attachment to provide a better understanding of the effects of place attachment on flood risk perception and coping behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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27 pages, 9476 KiB  
Article
A Relationship between Micro-Meteorological and Personal Variables of Outdoor Thermal Comfort: A Case Study in Kitakyushu, Japan
by Dadang Hartabela, Bart Julien Dewancker and Mochamad Donny Koerniawan
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13634; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413634 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
Outdoor thermal comfort is an important indicator to create a quality and livable environment. This study examines a relationship between micro-meteorological and personal variables of outdoor thermal comfort conditions in an urban park. The data collection of outdoor thermal comfort is carried out [...] Read more.
Outdoor thermal comfort is an important indicator to create a quality and livable environment. This study examines a relationship between micro-meteorological and personal variables of outdoor thermal comfort conditions in an urban park. The data collection of outdoor thermal comfort is carried out using two methods in combination: micro-meteorological measurement and questionnaire survey. This finding shows that most of the respondents were comfortable with the thermal, wind, and humidity condition. The acceptability and satisfaction level of thermal comfort were positive. The most significant micro-meteorological variable for the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) value is mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). As the Tmrt value is influenced by how much shading is produced from the presence of vegetation or buildings around the measurement location, this finding shows that the shadow was very important to the thermal comfort conditions in the Green Park Kitakyushu. The most influential micro-meteorological variable for the three different personal variables (TSV, WFSV, and HSV) is air temperature. The strongest relationship among the four variables is between TSV and PET. The findings will be the basis for the city authorities in preparing regional development plans, especially those related to the planning of city parks or tourist attractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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16 pages, 5025 KiB  
Article
Flood Risk Analysis by Building Use in Urban Planning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation
by Insang Yu, Kiyong Park and Eui Hoon Lee
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13006; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313006 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4999
Abstract
In this study, focusing on buildings as the smallest unit of urban space, the distribution characteristics of risk factors were examined by building use as an adaptable measure for urban flooding disasters. Flood risk is calculated as a function of hazard, exposure, and [...] Read more.
In this study, focusing on buildings as the smallest unit of urban space, the distribution characteristics of risk factors were examined by building use as an adaptable measure for urban flooding disasters. Flood risk is calculated as a function of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The flood risk for a building was classified into five classes, and the distribution characteristics of buildings were examined according to England’s flood risk vulnerability classification system, known as Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS25). After analyzing the risk of flooding in Ulsan Metropolitan City, one of Korea’s representative urban areas, it was found that while Dong-gu District can be considered relatively safe, districts of Jung-gu and Nam-gu, as well as Ulju-gun, have highly vulnerable buildings with red and orange ratings, which include motor vehicles-related facilities, education and welfare facilities, and residential facilities. There has been evidence to prove that urban flood disaster affects topography and the environment, in addition to having a significant effect on adaptability depending on the facility groups that resulted from urbanization. This study is expected to serve as a scientific database for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation to floods during land-use planning, which would eventually allow for systematic management of high-risk buildings through verification of location suitability of buildings by facility group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change)
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