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Fluids, Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2024) – 29 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Direct liquid jet impingement is a promising cooling solution for electronics packages. However, to achieve up-scaling of the cooled area, the required coolant flow rate per unit area needs to be controlled. This work investigates the possibilities and limitations of using increased inlet nozzle pitch to improve achievable heat transfer coefficients at a constant total coolant flow rate. Using an experimentally validated model, the authors found that the improvement of heat transfer exhibits a point of saturation, dependent on the height of the impingement cavity. This behaviour is shown to be caused by the formation of a hydraulic jump within the cavity. This deterioration of flow, in combination with lateral heat spreading within the target, prevents further heat transfer improvement. View this paper
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16 pages, 15413 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Atomization Characteristics of Swirl Nozzle under Annular Airflow Impingement
by Qiuge Han, Dawei Zhang, Xuedong Liu, Bingyang Sun, Xu He, Lingling Shen and Siduo Song
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030080 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Pressure nozzles are widely used in spray drying and other industries. In order to improve the atomization characteristics of pressure cyclone nozzles, a new type of annular jet gas impingement atomization device is developed. We use high-speed imaging and digital image processing and [...] Read more.
Pressure nozzles are widely used in spray drying and other industries. In order to improve the atomization characteristics of pressure cyclone nozzles, a new type of annular jet gas impingement atomization device is developed. We use high-speed imaging and digital image processing and other methods to analyze the spray characteristics of the different annular device configurations (using four, six, and eight tubes) and under different gas–liquid mass flow rates. It is shown that with an increase in the Air–Liquid mass Ratio (ALR), the liquid film breakup process changes from undulating sheet breakup to perforated sheet breakup and the breakup length decreases. The breakup length decreases the most under the condition of six-tube airflow with the range of 31–55%, while the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) basically does not change. With the increase in ALR and the Weber number of liquid (Wel), the droplet size distribution becomes more uniform. The spray characteristics of the atomizer assisted by gas jets reaches the best state when Wel = 4596.3 and m˙g = 1.97 g/s. The experimental conclusions have some guiding significance for the design and optimization of the atomization devices in spray drying towers. Full article
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16 pages, 4393 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Critical Heat Flux during Downflow in Fully Heated Vertical Channels
by Mirza M. Shah
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030079 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Boiling with downflow in vertical channels is involved in many applications such as boilers, nuclear reactors, chemical processing, etc. Accurate prediction of CHF (Critical Heat Flux) is important to ensure their safe design. While numerous experimental studies have been done on CHF during [...] Read more.
Boiling with downflow in vertical channels is involved in many applications such as boilers, nuclear reactors, chemical processing, etc. Accurate prediction of CHF (Critical Heat Flux) is important to ensure their safe design. While numerous experimental studies have been done on CHF during upflow and reliable methods for predicting it have been developed, there have been only a few experimental studies on CHF during downflow. Some researchers have reported no difference in CHF between up- and downflow, while some have reported that CHF in downflow is lower or higher than that in upflow. Only a few correlations have been published that are stated to be applicable to CHF during downflow. No comprehensive comparison of correlations with test data has been published. In the present research, literature on CHF during downflow in fully heated channels was reviewed. A database for CHF in downflow was compiled. The data included round tubes and rectangular channels, hydraulic diameters 2.4 mm to 15.9 mm, reduced pressure 0.0045 to 0.6251, flow rates from 15 to 21,761 kg/m2s, and several fluids with diverse properties (water, nitrogen, refrigerants). This database was compared to a number of correlations for upflow and downflow CHF. The results of this comparison are presented and discussed. Design recommendations are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modeling and Experimental Studies of Two-Phase Flows)
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21 pages, 4512 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of Rarefied Gas Flow in Diverging Channels of Finite Length at Various Pressure Ratios
by Christos Tantos, Foteini Litovoli, Tim Teichmann, Ioannis Sarris and Christian Day
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030078 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 845
Abstract
In the present work, the gas flows through diverging channels driven by small, moderate, and large pressure drops are studied, considering a wide range of the gas rarefaction from free molecular limit through transition flow regime up to early slip regime. The analysis [...] Read more.
In the present work, the gas flows through diverging channels driven by small, moderate, and large pressure drops are studied, considering a wide range of the gas rarefaction from free molecular limit through transition flow regime up to early slip regime. The analysis is performed using the Shakhov kinetic model, and applying the deterministic DVM method. The complete 4D flow problem is considered by including the upstream and downstream reservoirs. A strong effect of the channel geometry on the flow pattern is shown, with the distributions of the macroscopic quantities differing qualitatively and quantitatively from the straight channel flows. The mass flow rate data set from the complete solution is compared with the corresponding set obtained from the approximate kinetic methodology, which is based on the fully developed mass flow rate data available in the literature. In addition, the use of the end-effect approach significantly improves the applicability range of the approximate kinetic methodology. The influence of the wall temperature on the flow characteristics is also studied and is found to be strong in less-rarefied cases, with the mass flow rate in these cases being a decreasing function of the temperature wall. Overall, the present analysis is expected to be useful in the development and optimization of technological devices in vacuum and aerospace technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rarefied Gas Flows: From Micro-Nano Scale to Hypersonic Regime)
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16 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Flow Modeling of a Non-Newtonian Viscous Fluid in Elastic-Wall Microchannels
by A. Rubio Martínez, A. E. Chávez Castellanos, N. A. Noguez Méndez, F. Aragón Rivera, M. Pliego Díaz, L. Di G. Sigalotti and C. A. Vargas
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030077 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
The use of polymer microspheres is becoming increasingly widespread. Along with their most common applications, they are beginning to be used in the synthesis of photonic crystals, microstructure analysis and multiplexed diagnostics for disease control purposes. This paper presents a simple mathematical model [...] Read more.
The use of polymer microspheres is becoming increasingly widespread. Along with their most common applications, they are beginning to be used in the synthesis of photonic crystals, microstructure analysis and multiplexed diagnostics for disease control purposes. This paper presents a simple mathematical model that allows us to study the transport mechanisms involved in the deformation of an elastic microchannel under the flow stream of a power-law fluid. In particular, we analyze the momentum transfer to a non-Newtonian fluid (Polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) due to the deformation of the elastic ceiling of a rectangular microchannel. Hooke’s law is used to represent the stress–deformation relationship of the PDMS channel ceiling. Stop-flow lithography is modeled, and the pressure exerted by the deformed PDMS ceiling on the fluid when the microchannel returns to its original form is taken into account. It is found that the response time of the elastic ceiling deformation increases with the channel width and length and decreases with the channel height independently of the power-law exponent of the injected fluid. However, an increase in the power-law exponent beyond unity causes an increase in the wall-deformation response time and the maximum deformation of the channel height compared to a Newtonian fluid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pipe Flow: Research and Applications)
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12 pages, 69161 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Limescale on the Wettability of Indirect Evaporative Cooling System Plates
by Roberta Caruana, Luca Marocco, Paolo Liberati and Manfredo Guilizzoni
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030076 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Indirect evaporative cooling systems have attracted much interest in recent years as they guarantee good cooling effectiveness, with lower energy demand with respect to traditional systems, thus helping to address the issue of climate change. Many studies have shown that an increase in [...] Read more.
Indirect evaporative cooling systems have attracted much interest in recent years as they guarantee good cooling effectiveness, with lower energy demand with respect to traditional systems, thus helping to address the issue of climate change. Many studies have shown that an increase in the wettability of recuperator plates results in an improvement in the system performance. However, if the water injected into the system comes from the city water supply, it will contain calcium carbonate residuals, which will form limescale layers on the plates, thus possibly changing their wetting behavior. Therefore, the wettability of three surfaces (an aluminum uncoated surface, AL, a standard epoxy coating, STD, and a hydrophilic lacquer, HPHI) was analyzed in the presence of limescale formations, and compared with that obtained in a previous study for corresponding clean surfaces. The results showed that the HPHI contact angle was reduced in the presence of limescale (median: 50°), that for STD was slightly increased (median: 81°), and that for AL was again reduced (median: 75°). Consequently, HPHI was confirmed to be the most wettable surface in both clean and limescale conditions. Finally, an analysis was undertaken evaluating the spreading factor and the reversible work of adhesion, which were in good agreement with the qualitative visual observations of the plates covered with limescale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids and Surfaces, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 4950 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Varying the Air Flow in a Solar Collector on the Quality of Arabica Coffee Beans
by Parulian Siagian, Farel Hasiholan Napitupulu, Himsar Ambarita, Hendrik Voice Sihombing, Yogie Probo Sibagariang and Horas Sotardodo Siagian
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030075 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Agricultural commodity drying technology aims to maintain and improve the quality of agricultural products. Coffee quality is important for the welfare of coffee farmers, and drying technology plays an important role in determining the quality of coffee. Various drying models can be applied, [...] Read more.
Agricultural commodity drying technology aims to maintain and improve the quality of agricultural products. Coffee quality is important for the welfare of coffee farmers, and drying technology plays an important role in determining the quality of coffee. Various drying models can be applied, including the traditional model that is still applied today: drying directly under solar radiation. One drying technology that can accelerate the drying time is varying the air velocity in the drying chamber. In this study, the air velocity was varied by 1–3 m/s over coffee bean samples with an initial weight of 1500 g that were dried in parallel simultaneously. The time required was 25 h, with a maximum radiation of 586.9 w/m2 and total solar energy over 3 days of 16.6 MJ/m2. It was found that good quality coffee was achieved using drying box 1, with a drying air velocity of 1.0 m/s, with which a final mass of 732.24 g was obtained with coffee moisture content of 12.0%, protein content of 11.7%, carbohydrate content of 21.7%, and free fatty acid content of 0.05%. Higher air velocities resulted in almost the same protein and carbohydrate content, as well as a fatty acid content of less than 0.1%, but a higher moisture content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Applied Heat Transfer)
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13 pages, 2193 KiB  
Article
Fly by Feel: Flow Event Detection via Bioinspired Wind-Hairs
by Alecsandra Court and Christoph Bruecker
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030074 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Bio-inspired flexible pillar-like wind-hairs show promise for the future of flying by feel by detecting critical flow events on an aerofoil during flight. To be able to characterise specific flow disturbances from the response of such sensors, quantitative PIV measurements of such flow-disturbance [...] Read more.
Bio-inspired flexible pillar-like wind-hairs show promise for the future of flying by feel by detecting critical flow events on an aerofoil during flight. To be able to characterise specific flow disturbances from the response of such sensors, quantitative PIV measurements of such flow-disturbance patterns were compared with sensor outputs under controlled conditions. Experiments were performed in a flow channel with an aerofoil equipped with a 2D array of such sensors when in uniform inflow conditions compared to when a well-defined gust was introduced upstream and was passing by. The gust was generated through the sudden deployment of a row of flaps on the suction side of a symmetric wing that was placed upstream of the aerofoil with the sensors. The resulting flow disturbance generated a starting vortex with two legs, which resembled a horseshoe-type vortex shed into the wake. Under the same tunnel conditions, PIV measurements were taken downstream of the gust generator to characterise the starting vortex, while further measurements were taken with the sensing pillars on the aerofoil in the same location. The disturbance pattern was compared to the pillar response to demonstrate the potential of flow-sensing pillars. It was found that the pillars could detect the arrival time and structural pattern of the flow disturbance, showing the characteristics of the induced flow field of the starting vortex when passing by. Therefore, such sensor arrays can detect the “footprint” of disturbances as temporal and spatial signatures, allowing us to distinguish those from others or noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Dynamics in Biological, Bio-Inspired, and Environmental Systems)
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11 pages, 1812 KiB  
Article
Hydromechanical Transmission IC2OC: Component Sizing and Optimization
by Nicola Andretta, Antonio Rossetti and Alarico Macor
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030073 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 733
Abstract
The IC2OC transmission is a continuous transmission whose layout can change from simple IC to simple OC configuration and vice versa. It was proposed to cover a wider range of vehicle speeds without adding gears. Its sizing can lead to higher efficiencies than [...] Read more.
The IC2OC transmission is a continuous transmission whose layout can change from simple IC to simple OC configuration and vice versa. It was proposed to cover a wider range of vehicle speeds without adding gears. Its sizing can lead to higher efficiencies than those of the IC and OC layouts. Therefore, this work deals with the sizing methodologies of this transmission. Two methodologies are proposed and discussed: the first uses the functional and constitutive equations of the transmission; the second is based on a mathematical programming problem. Both methodologies start from the choice of the full mechanical point speeds. The comparison between the two methods is carried out on the transmission of a commercially available 230 kW reach stacker. The comparison shows that the functional method, leaner and faster, can provide results very close to those obtained with the heavy and time-consuming optimization, provided that the values of the two full mechanical point speeds are the optimal ones for the two basic transmissions taken individually. Full article
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17 pages, 1432 KiB  
Article
Transition to the Fluid Dynamic Limit: Mathematical Models and Simulation Results
by Hans Babovsky
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030072 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Numerical simulations of standard situations in the transition region from gas kinetics to fluid dynamics at small Mach numbers indicate a clear dependence of the simulation results on the underlying kinetic model (here: nonlinear and linearized Boltzmann collision operator vs. BGK relaxation model). [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations of standard situations in the transition region from gas kinetics to fluid dynamics at small Mach numbers indicate a clear dependence of the simulation results on the underlying kinetic model (here: nonlinear and linearized Boltzmann collision operator vs. BGK relaxation model). We develop an improved mathematical framework (trace theory) to explain these differences. In particular we reveal certain deficiencies for the classical BKG system as well as for the standard Navier Stokes approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rarefied Gas Flows: From Micro-Nano Scale to Hypersonic Regime)
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31 pages, 6718 KiB  
Article
CFD Turbulence Models Assessment for the Cavitation Phenomenon in a Rectangular Profile Venturi Tube
by Mauricio De la Cruz-Ávila, Jorge E. De León-Ruiz, Ignacio Carvajal-Mariscal and Jaime Klapp
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030071 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 921
Abstract
This study investigates cavitation in a rectangular-profile Venturi tube using numerical simulations and four turbulence models. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes technique is employed to simulate vapor cloud formation and compared against experimental data. κ-ε realizable, κ-ε RNG, κ-ω SST, and κ-ω GEKO models [...] Read more.
This study investigates cavitation in a rectangular-profile Venturi tube using numerical simulations and four turbulence models. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes technique is employed to simulate vapor cloud formation and compared against experimental data. κ-ε realizable, κ-ε RNG, κ-ω SST, and κ-ω GEKO models are evaluated. The simulation results are analyzed for pressure, turbulence, and vapor cloud formation. Discrepancies in cavitation cloud formation among turbulence models are attributed to turbulence and vapor cloud interactions. RNG and SST models exhibit closer alignment with the experimental data, with RNG showing a superior performance. Key findings include significant vapor cloud shape differences across turbulence models. The RNG model best predicts velocity at the throat exit with an error of 4.145%. Static pressure predictions include an error of 4.47%. The vapor cloud length predictions show variation among models, with the RNG model having a 0.386% error for the minimum length and 4.9845% for the maximum length. The SST model exhibits 4.907% and 13.33% errors for minimum and maximum lengths, respectively. Analysis of the cavitation number reveals agreement with the experimental data and sensitivity to cavitation onset. Different turbulence models yield diverse cloud shapes and detachment points. Weber number contours illustrate the variation in the cavitation cloud behavior under different turbulence models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pipe Flow: Research and Applications)
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23 pages, 3166 KiB  
Article
Influence of Nozzle Geometry and Scale-Up on Oil Droplet Breakup in the Atomization Step during Spray Drying of Emulsions
by Sebastian Höhne, Martha L. Taboada, Jewe Schröder, Carolina Gomez, Heike P. Karbstein and Volker Gaukel
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030070 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Spray drying of oil-in-water emulsions is a widespread encapsulation technique. The oil droplet size (ODS) significantly impacts encapsulation efficiency and other powder properties. The ODS is commonly set to a specific value during homogenization, assuming that it remains unchanged throughout the process, which [...] Read more.
Spray drying of oil-in-water emulsions is a widespread encapsulation technique. The oil droplet size (ODS) significantly impacts encapsulation efficiency and other powder properties. The ODS is commonly set to a specific value during homogenization, assuming that it remains unchanged throughout the process, which is often inaccurate. This study investigated the impact of atomizer geometry and nozzle dimensions on oil droplet breakup during atomization using pressure-swirl atomizers. Subject of the investigation were nozzles that differ in the way the liquid is set in motion, as well as different inlet port and outlet orifice dimensions. The results indicate that nozzle inlet port area may have a significant impact on oil droplet breakup, with x90,3 values of the oil droplet size distribution decreasing from 5.29 to 2.30 µm with a decrease of the inlet area from 2.0 to 0.6 mm. Good scalability of the findings from pilot to industrial-scale was shown using larger nozzles. A simplified theoretical model, aiming to predict the ODS as a function of calculated shear rates, showed reasonable agreement to the experimental data for different atomization pressures with coefficients of determination of up to 0.99. However, it was not able to predict the impact of different nozzle dimensions, most likely due to changes in flow characteristics. These results suggest that the stress history of the oil droplets might have a larger influence than expected. Further studies will need to consider other zones of high stress in addition to the outlet orifice. Full article
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18 pages, 12716 KiB  
Article
Effects of Nozzle Pitch Adaptation in Micro-Scale Liquid Jet Impingement
by Georg Elsinger, Herman Oprins, Vladimir Cherman, Geert Van der Plas, Eric Beyne and Ingrid De Wolf
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030069 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 761
Abstract
With ever increasing integration density of electronic components, the demand for cooling solutions capable of removing the heat generated by such systems grows along with it. It has been shown that a viable answer to this demand is the use of direct liquid [...] Read more.
With ever increasing integration density of electronic components, the demand for cooling solutions capable of removing the heat generated by such systems grows along with it. It has been shown that a viable answer to this demand is the use of direct liquid jet impingement. While this method can generally be scaled to the cooling of large areas, this is restricted by the necessity of coolant flow rate scaling. In this study, the benefits and restrictions of using increased nozzle pitch to remedy the increasing demand for overall flow rate are investigated. To this end, a model is validated against experimental findings and then used for computational fluid dynamics simulations, exploring effects of the pitch change for micro-scale nozzle diameters and nozzle-to-target spacings. It is found that while this method is efficient in adjusting the tradeoff between total coolant flow rate and pressure drop up to a certain pint, the occurrence of a hydraulic jump in the cavity causes a deterioration of its effect for large nozzle pitches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer Enhancement Mechanisms and Techniques)
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16 pages, 4469 KiB  
Article
Unsteady Multiphase Simulation of Oleo-Pneumatic Shock Absorber Flow
by Ahmed A. Sheikh Al-Shabab, Bojan Grenko, Paulo A. S. F. Silva, Antonis F. Antoniadis, Panagiotis Tsoutsanis and Martin Skote
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030068 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
The internal flow in oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers is a complex multiphysics problem combining the interaction between highly unsteady turbulent flow and multiphase mixing, among other effects. The aim is to present a validated simulation methodology that facilitates shock absorber performance prediction by capturing [...] Read more.
The internal flow in oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers is a complex multiphysics problem combining the interaction between highly unsteady turbulent flow and multiphase mixing, among other effects. The aim is to present a validated simulation methodology that facilitates shock absorber performance prediction by capturing the dominant internal flow physics. This is achieved by simulating a drop test of approximately 1 tonne with an initial contact vertical speed of 2.7 m/s, corresponding to a light jet. The flow field solver is ANSYS Fluent, using an unsteady two-dimensional axisymmetric multiphase setup with a time-varying inlet velocity boundary condition corresponding to the stroke rate of the shock absorber piston. The stroke rate is calculated using a two-equation dynamic system model of the shock absorber under the applied loading. The simulation is validated against experimental measurements of the total force on the shock absorber during the stroke, in addition to standard physical checks. The flow field analysis focuses on multiphase mixing and its influence on the turbulent free shear layer and recirculating flow. A mixing index approach is suggested to facilitate systematically quantifying the mixing process and identifying the distinct stages of the interaction. It is found that gas–oil interaction has a significant impact on the flow development in the shock absorber’s upper chamber, where strong mixing leads to a periodic stream of small gas bubbles being fed into the jet’s shear layer from larger bubbles in recirculation zones, most notably in the corner between the orifice plate and outer shock absorber wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulent Flow, 2nd Edition)
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23 pages, 1761 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Air–Water and Air–Oil Frictional Pressure Drops in Horizontal Pipe Flow
by Enrique Guzmán, Valente Hernández Pérez, Fernando Aragón Rivera, Jaime Klapp and Leonardo Sigalotti
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030067 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Experimental data for frictional pressure drop using both air–water and air–oil mixtures are reported, compared and used to evaluate predictive methods. The data were gathered using the 2-inch (54.8 mm) flow loop of the multiphase flow facility at the National University of Singapore. [...] Read more.
Experimental data for frictional pressure drop using both air–water and air–oil mixtures are reported, compared and used to evaluate predictive methods. The data were gathered using the 2-inch (54.8 mm) flow loop of the multiphase flow facility at the National University of Singapore. Experiments were carried out over a wide range of flow conditions of superficial liquid and gas velocities that were varied from 0.05 to 1.5 m/s and 2 to 23 m/s, respectively. Pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and a differential pressure (DP) cell. A hitherto unreported finding was achieved, as the pressure drop in air–oil flow can be lower than that in air–water flow for the higher range of flow conditions. Using flow visualization to explain this phenomenon, it was found that it is related to the higher liquid holdup that occurs in the case of air–oil around the annular flow transition and the resulting interfacial friction. This additional key finding can have applications in flow assurance to improve the efficiency of oil and gas transportation in pipelines. Models and correlations from the open literature were tested against the present data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pipe Flow: Research and Applications)
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15 pages, 8943 KiB  
Article
Pipe Formation by Fluid Focalization in Bilayered Sediments
by Aurélien Gay, Ganesh Tangavelou and Valérie Vidal
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030066 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Pipe structures are commonly encountered in the geophysical context, and in particular in sedimentary basins, where they are associated with fluid migration structures. We investigate pipe formation through laboratory experiments by injecting water locally at a constant flow rate at the base of [...] Read more.
Pipe structures are commonly encountered in the geophysical context, and in particular in sedimentary basins, where they are associated with fluid migration structures. We investigate pipe formation through laboratory experiments by injecting water locally at a constant flow rate at the base of water-saturated sands in a Hele–Shaw cell (30 cm high, 35 cm wide, gap 2.3 mm). The originality of this work is to quantify the effect of a discontinuity. More precisely, bilayered structures are considered, where a layer of fine grains overlaps a layer of coarser grains. Different invasion structures are reported, with fluidization of the bilayered sediment over its whole height or over the finer grains only. The height and area of the region affected by the fluidization display a non-monotonous evolution, which can be interpreted in terms of fluid focusing vs. scattering. Theoretical considerations can predict the critical coarse grains height for the invasion pattern transition, as well as the maximum topography at the sediment free surface in the regime in which only the overlapping finer grains fluidize. These results have crucial geophysical implications, as they demonstrate that invasion patterns and pipe formation dynamics may control the fluid expulsion extent and localization at the seafloor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pipe Flow: Research and Applications)
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18 pages, 4768 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of a Particle’s Incipient Motion from a Rough Wall in Shear Flow of Herschel–Bulkley Fluid
by Alexander Seryakov, Yaroslav Ignatenko and Oleg B. Bocharov
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030065 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
A numerical simulation of the Herschel–Bulkley laminar steady state shear flow around a stationary particle located on a sedimentation layer was carried out. The surface of the sedimentation layer was formed by hemispheres of the same radius as the particle. The drag force, [...] Read more.
A numerical simulation of the Herschel–Bulkley laminar steady state shear flow around a stationary particle located on a sedimentation layer was carried out. The surface of the sedimentation layer was formed by hemispheres of the same radius as the particle. The drag force, lift force, and torque values were obtained in the following ranges: shear Reynolds numbers for a particle ReSH=2200, corresponding to laminar flow; power law index n=0.61.0; and Bingham number Bn=010. A significant difference in the forces and torque acting on a particle in shear flow in comparison to the case of a smooth wall is shown. It is shown that the drag coefficient is on average 6% higher compared to a smooth wall for a Newtonian fluid but decreases with the increase in non-Newtonian properties. At the edge values of n=0.6 and Bn=10, the drag is on average 25% lower compared to the smooth wall. For a Newtonian fluid, the lift coefficient is on average 30% higher compared to a smooth wall. It also decreases with the increase in non-Newtonian properties of the fluid, but at the edge values of n=0.6 and Bn=10, it is on average only 3% lower compared to the smooth wall. Approximation functions for the drag, lift force, and torque coefficient are constructed. A reduction in the drag force and lifting force leads to an increase in critical stresses (Shields number) on the wall on average by 10% for incipient motion (rolling) and by 12% for particle detachment from the sedimentation bed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphase Flow and Granular Mechanics)
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15 pages, 9682 KiB  
Article
V Flow Measurements of Pulsatile Flow in Femoral-Popliteal Bypass Proximal Anastomosis Compared with CFD Simulation
by Andrey Yukhnev, Ludmila Tikhomolova, Yakov Gataulin, Alexandra Marinova, Evgueni Smirnov, Andrey Vrabiy, Andrey Suprunovich and Gennady Khubulava
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030064 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
This paper presents the experience of using the V Flow high-frame-rate ultrasound vector imaging method to study the pulsatile velocity fields in the area of the proximal anastomosis for femoral popliteal bypass surgery in vitro and in vivo. A representative (average) anastomosis model [...] Read more.
This paper presents the experience of using the V Flow high-frame-rate ultrasound vector imaging method to study the pulsatile velocity fields in the area of the proximal anastomosis for femoral popliteal bypass surgery in vitro and in vivo. A representative (average) anastomosis model and the experimental setup designed for in vitro studies covering forward and reverse flow phases throughout the cycle are described. The results of the measurements are presented for areas with a relatively uniform velocity distribution and for areas with pronounced spatial inhomogeneities due to the jet or recirculating nature of the flow. The results of ultrasonic studies of the velocity field of the three-dimensional pulsatile flow in vitro and in vivo are compared with the data of numerical simulations carried out for the average and personalized models based on the Navier–Stokes equations. Acceptable consistency between the results of experimental and numerical studies is demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image-Based Computational and Experimental Biomedical Flows)
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12 pages, 1832 KiB  
Review
The Law of the Wall and von Kármán Constant: An Ongoing Controversial Debate
by Stefan Heinz
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030063 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 867
Abstract
The discovery of the law of the wall, the log-law including the von Kármán constant, is seen to be one of the biggest accomplishments of fluid mechanics. However, after more than ninety years, there is still a controversial debate about the validity and [...] Read more.
The discovery of the law of the wall, the log-law including the von Kármán constant, is seen to be one of the biggest accomplishments of fluid mechanics. However, after more than ninety years, there is still a controversial debate about the validity and universality of the law of the wall. In particular, evidence in favor of a universal log-law was recently questioned by data analyses of the majority of existing direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experimental results, arguing in favor of nonuniversality of the law of the wall. Future progress requires it to resolve this discrepancy: in absence of alternatives, a reliable and universal theory involving the law of the wall is needed to provide essential guideline for the validation of theory, computational methods, and experimental studies of very high Reynolds number flows. This paper presents an analysis of concepts used to derive controversial conclusions. Similar to the analysis of observed variations of the Kolmogorov constant, it is shown that nonuniversality is a consequence of simplified modeling concepts, leading to unrealizable models. Realizability implies universality: there is no need to adjust simplified models to different flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulent Flow, 2nd Edition)
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23 pages, 15075 KiB  
Article
Turbulent Channel Flow: Direct Numerical Simulation-Data-Driven Modeling
by Antonios Liakopoulos and Apostolos Palasis
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030062 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Data obtained using direct numerical simulations (DNS) of pressure-driven turbulent channel flow are studied in the range 180 Reτ 10,000. Reynolds number effects on the mean velocity profile (MVP) and second order statistics are analyzed with a view of [...] Read more.
Data obtained using direct numerical simulations (DNS) of pressure-driven turbulent channel flow are studied in the range 180 Reτ 10,000. Reynolds number effects on the mean velocity profile (MVP) and second order statistics are analyzed with a view of finding logarithmic behavior in the overlap region or even further from the wall, well in the boundary layer’s outer region. The values of the von Kármán constant for the MVPs and the Townsend–Perry constants for the streamwise and spanwise fluctuation variances are determined for the Reynolds numbers considered. A data-driven model of the MVP, proposed and validated for zero pressure-gradient flow over a flat plate, is employed for pressure-driven channel flow by appropriately adjusting Coles’ strength of the wake function parameter, Π. There is excellent agreement between the analytic model predictions of MVP and the DNS-computed MVP as well as of the Reynolds shear stress profile. The skin friction coefficient Cf is calculated analytically. The agreement between the analytical model predictions and the DNS-based computed discrete values of Cf is excellent. Full article
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13 pages, 2681 KiB  
Article
Investigating Heat Transfer in Whole-Body Cryotherapy: A 3D Thermodynamic Modeling Approach with Participant Variability
by Rim Elfahem, Bastien Bouchet, Boussad Abbes, Fabien Legrand, Guillaume Polidori and Fabien Beaumont
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030061 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is a therapeutic practice involving brief exposure to extreme cold, typically lasting one to four minutes. Given that WBC sessions often occur in groups, there is a hypothesis that cumulative heat dissipation from the group significantly affects the thermo-aerodynamic conditions [...] Read more.
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is a therapeutic practice involving brief exposure to extreme cold, typically lasting one to four minutes. Given that WBC sessions often occur in groups, there is a hypothesis that cumulative heat dissipation from the group significantly affects the thermo-aerodynamic conditions of the cryotherapy chamber. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is employed to investigate thermal exchanges between three subjects (one man, two women) and a cryotherapy chamber at −92 °C during a 3-minute session. The investigation reveals that collective body heat loss significantly influences temperature fields within the cabin, causing global modifications in aerodynamic and thermal conditions. For example, a temperature difference of 6.7 °C was calculated between the average temperature in a cryotherapy chamber with a single subject and that with three subjects. A notable finding is that, under an identical protocol, the thermal response varies among individuals based on their position in the chamber. The aerodynamic and thermal characteristics of the cryotherapy chamber impact the heat released at the body’s surface and the skin-cooling rate needed to achieve recommended analgesic thresholds. This study highlights the complexity of physiological responses in WBC and emphasizes the importance of considering individual positions within the chamber for optimizing therapeutic benefits. Full article
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14 pages, 5562 KiB  
Article
Grid Turbulence Measurements with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler
by Trygve K. Løken, David Lande-Sudall, Atle Jensen and Jean Rabault
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030060 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
The motivation for this study is to investigate the abilities and limitations of a Nortek Signature1000 acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) regarding fine-scale turbulence measurements. Current profilers offer the advantage of gaining more coherent measurement data than available with point acoustic measurements, and [...] Read more.
The motivation for this study is to investigate the abilities and limitations of a Nortek Signature1000 acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) regarding fine-scale turbulence measurements. Current profilers offer the advantage of gaining more coherent measurement data than available with point acoustic measurements, and it is desirable to exploit this property in laboratory and field applications. The ADCP was tested in a towing tank, where turbulence was generated from a grid towed under controlled conditions. Grid-induced turbulence is a well-studied phenomenon and a good approximation for isotropic turbulence. Several previous experiments are available for comparison and there are developed theories within the topic. In the present experiments, a Nortek Vectrino acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV), which is an established instrument for turbulence measurements, was applied to validate the ADCP. It was found that the mean flow measured with the ADCP was accurate within 4% of the ADV. The turbulent variance was reasonably well resolved by the ADCP when large grid bars were towed at a high speed, but largely overestimated for lower towing speed and smaller grid bars. The effective cutoff frequency and turbulent eddy size were characterized experimentally, which provides detailed guidelines for when the ADCP data can be trusted and will allow future experimentalists to decide a priori if the Nortek Signature can be used in their setup. We conclude that the ADCP is not suitable for resolving turbulent spectra in a small-scale grid-induced flow due to the intrinsic Doppler noise and the low spatial and temporal sample resolution relative to the turbulent scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Turbulence)
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14 pages, 2821 KiB  
Article
Application of Deep Learning in Predicting Particle Concentration of Gas–Solid Two-Phase Flow
by Zhiyong Wang, Bing Yan and Haoquan Wang
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030059 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Particle concentration is an important parameter for describing the state of gas–solid two-phase flow. This study compares the performance of three methods, namely, Back-Propagation Neural Networks (BPNNs), Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), in handling gas–solid two-phase flow data. The [...] Read more.
Particle concentration is an important parameter for describing the state of gas–solid two-phase flow. This study compares the performance of three methods, namely, Back-Propagation Neural Networks (BPNNs), Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), in handling gas–solid two-phase flow data. The experiment utilized seven parameters, including temperature, humidity, upstream and downstream sensor signals, delay, pressure difference, and particle concentration, as the dataset. The evaluation metrics, such as prediction accuracy, were used for comparative analysis by the experimenters. The experiment results indicate that the prediction accuracies of the RNN, LSTM, and BPNN experiments were 92.4%, 92.7%, and 92.5%, respectively. Future research can focus on further optimizing the performance of the BPNN, RNN, and LSTM to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of gas–solid two-phase flow data processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modeling and Experimental Studies of Two-Phase Flows)
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13 pages, 4138 KiB  
Article
Visualizing and Evaluating Microbubbles in Multiphase Flow Applications
by Safa A. Najim, Deepak Meerakaviyad, Kul Pun, Paul Russell, Poo Balan Ganesan, David Hughes and Faik A. Hamad
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030058 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Accurate visualization of bubbles in multiphase flow is a crucial aspect of modeling heat transfer, mixing, and turbulence processes. It has many applications, including chemical processes, wastewater treatment, and aquaculture. A new software, Flow_Vis, based on experimental data visualization, has been developed to [...] Read more.
Accurate visualization of bubbles in multiphase flow is a crucial aspect of modeling heat transfer, mixing, and turbulence processes. It has many applications, including chemical processes, wastewater treatment, and aquaculture. A new software, Flow_Vis, based on experimental data visualization, has been developed to visualize the movement and size distribution of bubbles within multiphase flow. Images and videos recorded from an experimental rig designed to generate microbubbles were analyzed using the new software. The bubbles in the fluid were examined and found to move with different velocities due to their varying sizes. The software was used to measure bubble size distributions, and the obtained results were compared with experimental measurements, showing reasonable accuracy. The velocity measurements were also compared with literature values and found to be equally accurate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphase Flow for Industry Applications)
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18 pages, 4328 KiB  
Review
Ten Years of Passion: I.S. Gromeka’s Contribution to Science
by Kamil Urbanowicz and Arris S. Tijsseling
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030057 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1411
Abstract
The work and life of Ippolit Stepanovich Gromeka is reviewed. Gromeka authored a classical set of eleven papers on fluid dynamics in just ten years before a tragic illness ended his life. Sadly, he is not well known to the western scientific community [...] Read more.
The work and life of Ippolit Stepanovich Gromeka is reviewed. Gromeka authored a classical set of eleven papers on fluid dynamics in just ten years before a tragic illness ended his life. Sadly, he is not well known to the western scientific community because all his publications were written in Russian. He is one of the three authors who independently derived an analytical solution for accelerating laminar pipe flow. He was the first to eliminate the contradiction between the theories of Young and Laplace on capillary phenomena. He initiated the theoretical basis of helical (Beltrami) flow, and he studied the movement of cyclones and anticyclones seventeen years before Zermelo (whose work is considered as pioneering). He is also the first to analyse wave propagation in liquid-filled hoses, thereby including fluid–structure interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vortical Flows in Memory of Professor Ippolit Stepanovich Gromeka)
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19 pages, 8707 KiB  
Article
Computation of Real-Fluid Thermophysical Properties Using a Neural Network Approach Implemented in OpenFOAM
by Nasrin Sahranavardfard, Damien Aubagnac-Karkar, Gabriele Costante, Faniry N. Z. Rahantamialisoa, Chaouki Habchi and Michele Battistoni
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030056 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Machine learning based on neural networks facilitates data-driven techniques for handling large amounts of data, either obtained through experiments or simulations at multiple spatio-temporal scales, thereby finding the hidden patterns underlying these data and promoting efficient research methods. The main purpose of this [...] Read more.
Machine learning based on neural networks facilitates data-driven techniques for handling large amounts of data, either obtained through experiments or simulations at multiple spatio-temporal scales, thereby finding the hidden patterns underlying these data and promoting efficient research methods. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the capabilities of a new solver called realFluidReactingNNFoam, under development at the University of Perugia, in OpenFOAM with a neural network algorithm for replacing complex real-fluid thermophysical property evaluations, using the approach of coupling OpenFOAM and Python-trained neural network models. Currently, neural network models are trained against data generated using the Peng–Robinson equation of state assuming a mixture’s frozen temperature. The OpenFOAM solver, where needed, calls the neural network models in each grid cell with appropriate inputs, and the returned results are used and stored in suitable OpenFOAM data structures. Such inference for thermophysical properties is achieved via the “Neural Network Inference in C made Easy (NNICE)” library, which proved to be very efficient and robust. The overall model is validated considering a liquid-rocket benchmark comprised of liquid-oxygen (LOX) and gaseous-hydrogen (GH2) streams. The model accounts for real-fluid thermodynamics and transport properties, making use of the Peng–Robinson equation of state and the Chung transport model. First, the development of a real-fluid model with an artificial neural network is described in detail. Then, the numerical results of the transcritical mixing layer (LOX/GH2) benchmark are presented and analyzed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. The results of the overall implementation indicate that the combined OpenFOAM and machine learning approach provides a speed-up factor higher than seven, while preserving the original solver accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiphase Flow Simulation with Machine Learning)
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15 pages, 2417 KiB  
Article
Computational Flow Diverter Implantation—A Comparative Study on Pre-Interventional Simulation and Post-Interventional Device Positioning for a Novel Blood Flow Modulator
by Maximilian Thormann, Janneck Stahl, Laurel Marsh, Sylvia Saalfeld, Nele Sillis, Andreas Ding, Anastasios Mpotsaris, Philipp Berg and Daniel Behme
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030055 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Due to their effect on aneurysm hemodynamics, flow diverters (FD) have become a routine endovascular therapy for intracranial aneurysms. Since over- and undersizing affect the device’s hemodynamic abilities, selecting the correct device diameter and accurately simulating FD placement can improve patient-specific outcomes. The [...] Read more.
Due to their effect on aneurysm hemodynamics, flow diverters (FD) have become a routine endovascular therapy for intracranial aneurysms. Since over- and undersizing affect the device’s hemodynamic abilities, selecting the correct device diameter and accurately simulating FD placement can improve patient-specific outcomes. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of virtual flow diverter deployments in the novel Derivo® 2 device. We retrospectively analyzed blood flows in ten FD placements for which 3D DSA datasets were available pre- and post-intervention. All patients were treated with a second-generation FD Derivo® 2 (Acandis GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany) and post-interventional datasets were compared to virtual FD deployment at the implanted position for implanted stent length, stent diameters, and curvature analysis using ANKYRAS (Galgo Medical, Barcelona, Spain). Image-based blood flow simulations of pre- and post-interventional configurations were conducted. The mean length of implanted FD was 32.61 (±11.18 mm). Overall, ANKYRAS prediction was good with an average deviation of 8.4% (±5.8%) with a mean absolute difference in stent length of 3.13 mm. There was a difference of 0.24 mm in stent diameter amplitude toward ANKYRAS simulation. In vessels exhibiting a high degree of curvature, however, relevant differences between simulated and real-patient data were observed. The intrasaccular blood flow activity represented by the wall shear stress was qualitatively reduced in all cases. Inflow velocity decreased and the pulsatility over the cardiac cycle was weakened. Virtual stenting is an accurate tool for FD positioning, which may help facilitate flow FDs’ individualization and assess their hemodynamic impact. Challenges posed by complex vessel anatomy and high curvatures must be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hemodynamics and Related Biological Flows)
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28 pages, 2774 KiB  
Review
Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: The Contrast between Indoors and Outdoors
by Clive B. Beggs, Rabia Abid, Fariborz Motallebi, Abdus Samad, Nithya Venkatesan and Eldad J. Avital
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030054 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
COVID-19 is an airborne disease, with the vast majority of infections occurring indoors. In comparison, little transmission occurs outdoors. Here, we investigate the airborne transmission pathways that differentiate the indoors from outdoors and conclude that profound differences exist, which help to explain why [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is an airborne disease, with the vast majority of infections occurring indoors. In comparison, little transmission occurs outdoors. Here, we investigate the airborne transmission pathways that differentiate the indoors from outdoors and conclude that profound differences exist, which help to explain why SARS-CoV-2 transmission is much more prevalent indoors. Near- and far-field transmission pathways are discussed along with factors that affect infection risk, with aerosol concentration, air entrainment, thermal plumes, and occupancy duration all identified as being influential. In particular, we present the fundamental equations that underpin the Wells–Riley model and show the mathematical relationship between inhaled virus particles and quanta of infection. A simple model is also presented for assessing infection risk in spaces with incomplete air mixing. Transmission risk is assessed in terms of aerosol concentration using simple 1D equations, followed by a description of thermal plume–ceiling interactions. With respect to this, we present new experimental results using Schlieren visualisation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. Pathways of airborne infection are discussed, with the key differences identified between indoors and outdoors. In particular, the contribution of thermal and exhalation plumes is evaluated, and the presence of a near-field/far-field feedback loop is postulated, which is absent outdoors. Full article
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30 pages, 6875 KiB  
Article
Application of a Combinatorial Vortex Detection Algorithm on 2 Component 2 Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry Data to Characterize the Wake of an Oscillating Wing
by Mathew Bussière, Guilherme M. Bessa, Charles R. Koch and David S. Nobes
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030053 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 997
Abstract
To investigate the vortical wake pattern generated by water flow past an oscillating symmetric airfoil, using experimental velocity fields from particle image velocimetry (PIV), a novel combinatorial vortex detection (CVD) algorithm is developed. The primary goal is to identify and characterize vortices within [...] Read more.
To investigate the vortical wake pattern generated by water flow past an oscillating symmetric airfoil, using experimental velocity fields from particle image velocimetry (PIV), a novel combinatorial vortex detection (CVD) algorithm is developed. The primary goal is to identify and characterize vortices within the wake. Experimental flows introduce complexities not present in numerical simulations, posing challenges for vortex detection. The proposed CVD approach offers a more robust alternative, excelling in both vortex detection and quantification of essential parameters, unlike widely-used methods such as Q-criterion, λ2-criterion, and Δ-criterion, which rely on subjective and arbitrary thresholds resulting in uncertainty. The CVD algorithm effectively characterizes the airfoil wake, identifying and analyzing vortices aligning with the Burgers model. This research enhances understanding of wake phenomena and showcases the algorithm’s potential as a valuable tool for vortex detection and characterization, particularly for experimental fluid dynamics. It provides a comprehensive, robust, and non-arbitrary approach, overcoming limitations of traditional methods and opening new avenues for studying complex flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow Visualization: Experiments and Techniques)
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11 pages, 3914 KiB  
Article
Influence of Cross Perturbations on Turbulent Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability
by Mae Sementilli, Rozie Zangeneh and James Chen
Fluids 2024, 9(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9030052 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Kelvin–Helmholtz instability has been studied extensively in 2D. This study attempts to address the influence of turbulent flow and cross perturbation on the growth rate of the instability and the development of mixing layers in 3D by means of direct numerical simulation. Two [...] Read more.
Kelvin–Helmholtz instability has been studied extensively in 2D. This study attempts to address the influence of turbulent flow and cross perturbation on the growth rate of the instability and the development of mixing layers in 3D by means of direct numerical simulation. Two perfect gases are considered to be working fluids moving as opposite streams, inducing shear instability at the interface between the fluids and resulting in Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. The results show that cross perturbation affects the instability by increasing the amplitude growth while adding turbulence has almost no effect on the amplitude growth. Furthermore, by increasing the turbulence intensity, a more distinct presence of the inner flow can be seen in the mixing layer of the two phases, and the presence of turbulence expands the range of high-frequency motion significantly due to turbulence structures. The results give a basis for which 3D Kelvin–Helmholtz phenomena should be further investigated using numerical simulation for predictive modeling, beyond the use of simplified 2D theoretical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Turbulence)
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