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Fluids, Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study investigates the potential of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) as a black-box optimizer for turbulence model identification. We augment the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model by incorporating a DRL-identified source term. The algorithm is trained to align the augmented RANS model velocity fields with time-averaged Large Eddy Simulation (LES) mean fields of a turbulent round jet flow at a Reynolds number of 10,000, achieving a 48% improvement in alignment. Furthermore, the framework also performs well on unseen data of the same configuration at a higher Reynolds number, demonstrating that DRL is a promising method for RANS closure model identification. View this paper
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11 pages, 1292 KiB  
Article
A New Solution of Drag for Newtonian Fluid Droplets in a Power-Law Fluid
by Jianting Zhu
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040099 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Understanding flow behaviors of multiple droplets in complex non-Newtonian fluids is crucial in many science and engineering applications. In this study, a new and improved analytical solution is developed based on the free surface cell model for the flow drag of swamp of [...] Read more.
Understanding flow behaviors of multiple droplets in complex non-Newtonian fluids is crucial in many science and engineering applications. In this study, a new and improved analytical solution is developed based on the free surface cell model for the flow drag of swamp of Newtonian fluid drops through a power-law fluid. The developed solution is accurate and compares well to the numerical solutions. The improvement involves a new quantification of shear stress boundary condition at the interface and a more consistent approximation in linearizing the power-law fluid flow governing equation. The Newtonian fluid solutions can be reasonably used to linearize the flow governing equation. The approximation of the boundary conditions at the interface, however, has a major impact on the model prediction. The main improvement in the new solution is observed under the condition of comparable viscosities of the Newtonian drops and the outside power-law fluid when the results are sensitive to the interface boundary condition. Under the two extreme conditions of high viscosity ratio (approaching particles) and low ratio (approaching bubbles), the present and existing solutions converge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Newtonian Flow: Interfacial and Bulk Phenomena)
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6 pages, 383 KiB  
Communication
A Note on the Moody Diagram
by Paulo R. de Souza Mendes
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040098 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
In this work, we underscore the significance of selecting an appropriate scaling to derive dimensionless quantities that accurately reflect their dimensional counterparts, thereby enhancing the comprehension of the underlying physics. For the loss of head in a pipe flow, we argue that employing [...] Read more.
In this work, we underscore the significance of selecting an appropriate scaling to derive dimensionless quantities that accurately reflect their dimensional counterparts, thereby enhancing the comprehension of the underlying physics. For the loss of head in a pipe flow, we argue that employing inertial force (or kinetic energy) to non-dimensionalized pressure force (or mechanical energy loss) lacks physical justification. As a result, an anomalous trend emerges for the classical friction factor: it decreases as the dimensionless flow rate (Reynolds number) increases, contrary to the behavior observed in the corresponding dimensional quantities. Conversely, by non-dimensionalizing the pressure force with the viscous force, a novel friction factor arises. In laminar flow, it is constant, while in turbulent flow, it is a monotonically increasing function of the Reynolds number, mirroring the behavior observed in the dimensional problem. Full article
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13 pages, 1197 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Approach to Jouguet Detonation in Perpendicular Magnetic Fields
by Andriy A. Avramenko, Igor V. Shevchuk, Margarita M. Kovetskaya, Yulia Y. Kovetska and Andrii I. Tyrinov
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040097 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 518
Abstract
The focus of this paper was Jouguet detonation in an ideal gas flow in a magnetic field. A modified Hugoniot detonation equation has been obtained, taking into account the influence of the magnetic field on the detonation process and the parameters of the [...] Read more.
The focus of this paper was Jouguet detonation in an ideal gas flow in a magnetic field. A modified Hugoniot detonation equation has been obtained, taking into account the influence of the magnetic field on the detonation process and the parameters of the detonation wave. It was shown that, under the influence of a magnetic field, combustion products move away from the detonation front at supersonic speed. As the magnetic field strength increases, the speed of the detonation products also increases. A dependence has been obtained that allows us to evaluate the influence of heat release on detonation parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Challenges and Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer)
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31 pages, 16083 KiB  
Article
Analysis of MAV Rotors Optimized for Low Noise and Aerodynamic Efficiency with Operational Constraints
by Pietro Li Volsi, Gianluigi Brogna, Romain Gojon, Thierry Jardin, Hélène Parisot-Dupuis and Jean-Marc Moschetta
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040096 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 643
Abstract
The rapid growth of drone use in urban areas has prompted authorities to review airspace regulations, forcing drone manufacturers to anticipate and reduce the noise emissions during the design stage. Additionally, micro air vehicles (MAVs) are designed to be aerodynamically efficient, allowing them [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of drone use in urban areas has prompted authorities to review airspace regulations, forcing drone manufacturers to anticipate and reduce the noise emissions during the design stage. Additionally, micro air vehicles (MAVs) are designed to be aerodynamically efficient, allowing them to fly farther, longer and safer. In this study, a steady aerodynamic code and an acoustic propagator based on the non-linear vortex lattice method (NVLM) and Farassat’s formulation-1A of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy, respectively, are coupled with pymoo, a python-based optimization framework. This tool is used to perform a multi-objective (noise and aerodynamic efficiency) optimization of a 20 cm diameter two-bladed rotor under hovering conditions. From the set of optimized results, (i.e., the Pareto front), three different rotors are 3D-printed using a stereolithography (SLA) technique and tested in an anechoic room. Here, an array of far-field microphones captures the acoustic radiation and directivity of the rotor, while a balance measures the aerodynamic performance. Both the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of the three different rotors, in line with what has been predicted by the numerical codes, are compared and guidelines for the design of aerodynamically and aeroacoustically efficient MAV rotors are extracted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of Micro Air Vehicles)
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11 pages, 2907 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Swept-Wing Laminar–Turbulent Flow in the Presence of Two-Dimensional Surface Reliefs
by Andrey V. Boiko, Stanislav V. Kirilovskiy and Tatiana V. Poplavskaya
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040095 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Stochastization of boundary-layer flow has a dramatic effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of wings, nacelles, and other objects frequently encountered in practice, resulting in higher skin-friction drag and worse aerodynamic quality. A swept-wing boundary layer encountering a transition to turbulence in the presence [...] Read more.
Stochastization of boundary-layer flow has a dramatic effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of wings, nacelles, and other objects frequently encountered in practice, resulting in higher skin-friction drag and worse aerodynamic quality. A swept-wing boundary layer encountering a transition to turbulence in the presence of two-dimensional surface reliefs is considered. The relief has the form of strips of a rectangular cross-section oriented parallel to the leading edge and located at different distances from it. The computations are performed for the angle of attack of −5° and an incoming flow velocity of 30 m/s using the ANSYS Fluent 18.0 software together with the author’s LOTRAN 3 package for predicting the laminar–turbulent transition on the basis of the eN-method. New data on distributions of N factors of swept-wing cross-flow instability affected by the surface relief are presented. The data are of practical importance for engineering modeling of the transition. Also, the effectiveness of using the reliefs as a passive method of weakening the cross-flow instability up to 30% to delay the flow stochastization is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stochastic Equations in Fluid Dynamics, 2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 2410 KiB  
Article
Darcy–Brinkman Model for Ternary Dusty Nanofluid Flow across Stretching/Shrinking Surface with Suction/Injection
by Sudha Mahanthesh Sachhin, Ulavathi Shettar Mahabaleshwar, David Laroze and Dimitris Drikakis
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040094 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Understanding of dusty fluids for different Brinkman numbers in porous media is limited. This study examines the Darcy–Brinkman model for two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic fluid flow across permeable stretching/shrinking surfaces with heat transfer. Water was considered as a conventional base fluid in which the copper [...] Read more.
Understanding of dusty fluids for different Brinkman numbers in porous media is limited. This study examines the Darcy–Brinkman model for two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic fluid flow across permeable stretching/shrinking surfaces with heat transfer. Water was considered as a conventional base fluid in which the copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were submerged in a preparation of a ternary dusty nanofluid. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations through suitable similarity conversions. Under radiation and mass transpiration, analytical solutions for stretching sheets/shrinking sheets are obtained. Several parameters are investigated, including the magnetic field, Darcy–Brinkman model, solution domain, and inverse Darcy number. The outcomes of the present article reveal that increasing the Brinkman number and inverse Darcy number decreases the velocity of the fluid and dusty phase. Increasing the magnetic field decreases the momentum of the boundary layer. Ternary dusty nanofluids have significantly improved the heat transmission process for manufacturing with applications in engineering, and biological and physical sciences. The findings of this study demonstrate that the ternary nanofluid phase’s heat and mass transpiration performance is better than the dusty phase’s performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer Technologies)
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23 pages, 2949 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Optimal Flow Setting and Respiratory Profile Evaluation in Infants Treated with High-Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC)
by Francesco Montecchia and Paola Papoff
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040093 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is becoming the gold standard to treat respiratory distress at any age since it potentially provides several significant clinical advantages. An obstacle to the diffusion of this simple and effective system of oxygen therapy is the impossibility to know [...] Read more.
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is becoming the gold standard to treat respiratory distress at any age since it potentially provides several significant clinical advantages. An obstacle to the diffusion of this simple and effective system of oxygen therapy is the impossibility to know the optimal flow rate leading to such advantages that allows the reduction in the respiratory effort without causing hyperinflation. To assist clinicians during HFNC treatment in setting the optimal flow rate and in determining the most relevant parameters related to respiratory mechanics and the effort of the patient, we developed a new programmable data monitoring, acquisition, and elaborating system (Pro_HFNC). The application of Pro_HFNC is fully compatible with HFNC as it is interfaced with patient through a facial mask and two specific catheters. The unavoidable and unpredictable loss of air flow occurring around the contour of the mask is evaluated and compensated by a specific algorithm implemented by Pro_HFNC. Our preliminary clinical trials on pediatric patients treated with HFNC show that Pro_HFNC is actually capable to detect for any specific patient both the lower threshold of the delivered flow beyond which the benefits of HFNC application are reached and all the parameters useful for a complete evaluation of the respiratory profile. Pro_HFNC can really help physicians in setting the optimal flow rate during HFNC treatment, thus allowing for the most effective HFNC performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Flows)
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22 pages, 34917 KiB  
Article
Unsteady Subsonic/Supersonic Flow Simulations in 3D Unstructured Grids over an Acoustic Cavity
by Guillermo Araya
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040092 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 597
Abstract
In this study, the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) equations are employed in conjunction with the Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST)-Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model in compressible flow, with an unstructured mesh and complex geometry. While other scale-resolving approaches in space and time, such [...] Read more.
In this study, the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) equations are employed in conjunction with the Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST)-Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model in compressible flow, with an unstructured mesh and complex geometry. While other scale-resolving approaches in space and time, such as direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large-eddy simulation (LES), supply more comprehensive information about the turbulent energy spectrum of the fluctuating component of the flow, they imply computationally intensive situations, usually performed over structured meshes and relatively simple geometries. In contrast, the SAS approach is designed according to “physically” prescribed length scales of the flow. More precisely, it operates by locally comparing the length scale of the modeled turbulence to the von Karman length scale (which depends on the local first- and second fluid velocity derivatives). This length-scale ratio allows the flow to dynamically adjust the local eddy viscosity in order to better capture the large-scale motions (LSMs) in unsteady regions of URANS simulations. While SAS may be constrained to model only low flow frequencies or wavenumbers (i.e., LSM), its versatility and low computational cost make it attractive for obtaining a quick first insight of the flow physics, particularly in those situations dominated by strong flow unsteadiness. The selected numerical application is the well-known M219 three-dimensional rectangular acoustic cavity from the literature at two different free-stream Mach numbers, M (0.85 and 1.35) and a length-to-depth ratio of 5:1. Thus, we consider the “deep configuration” in experiments by Henshaw. The SST-SAS model demonstrates a satisfactory compromise between simplicity, accuracy, and flow physics description. Full article
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27 pages, 5143 KiB  
Article
Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction of External Thermal Loads on Film-Cooled Gas Turbine Vanes: A Validation of Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Transition Models and Scale-Resolving Simulations for the VKI LS-94 Test Case
by Simone Sandrin, Lorenzo Mazzei, Riccardo Da Soghe and Fabrizio Fontaneto
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040091 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Given the increasing role of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in the aerothermal design of gas turbine vanes and blades, their rigorous validation is becoming more and more important. This article exploits an experimental database obtained by the von Karman Institute (VKI) for [...] Read more.
Given the increasing role of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in the aerothermal design of gas turbine vanes and blades, their rigorous validation is becoming more and more important. This article exploits an experimental database obtained by the von Karman Institute (VKI) for Fluid Dynamics for the LS-94 test case. This represents a film-cooled transonic turbine vane, investigated in a five-vane linear cascade configuration under engine-like conditions in terms of the Reynolds number and Mach number. The experimental characterization included inlet freestream turbulence measured with hot-wire anemometry, aerodynamic performance assessed with a three-hole pressure probe in the downstream section, and vane convective heat transfer coefficient distribution determined with thin-film thermometers. The test matrix included cases without any film-cooling injection, pressure-side injection, and suction-side injection. The CFD simulations were carried out in Ansys Fluent, considering the impact of mesh sizing and steady-state Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) transition modelling, as well as more accurate transient scale-resolving simulations. This work provides insight into the advantages and drawbacks of such approaches for gas turbine hot-gas path designers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Fluid Machinery)
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11 pages, 13316 KiB  
Article
A Compressible Formulation of the One-Fluid Model for Two-Phase Flows
by Simon El Ouafa, Stephane Vincent, Vincent Le Chenadec, Benoît Trouette, Syphax Fereka and Amine Chadil
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040090 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 692
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce a compressible formulation for dealing with 2D/3D compressible interfacial flows. It integrates a monolithic solver to achieve robust velocity–pressure coupling, ensuring precision and stability across diverse fluid flow conditions, including incompressible and compressible single-phase and two-phase flows. Validation [...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce a compressible formulation for dealing with 2D/3D compressible interfacial flows. It integrates a monolithic solver to achieve robust velocity–pressure coupling, ensuring precision and stability across diverse fluid flow conditions, including incompressible and compressible single-phase and two-phase flows. Validation of the model is conducted through various test scenarios, including Sod’s shock tube problem, isothermal viscous two-phase flows without capillary effects, and the impact of drops on viscous liquid films. The results highlight the ability of the scheme to handle compressible flow situations with capillary effects, which are important in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematical and Computational Fluid Mechanics)
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16 pages, 5517 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer in Quenching Treatments of Boron Steel under Different Configurations of Immersed Water Jets and Its Effects on Microstructure
by Raúl Alberto Tinajero-Álvarez, Constantin Alberto Hernández-Bocanegra, José Ángel Ramos-Banderas, Nancy Margarita López-Granados, Brandon Farrera-Buenrostro, Enrique Torres-Alonso and Gildardo Solorio-Díaz
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040089 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 598
Abstract
In this work, the effects of jet impact angle and water flow on the heat-transfer coefficient in boron steel probes were analyzed. Angles of 90°, 75° and 60° were used with stirring flows of 33 l·min−1, 25 l·min−1, 13 [...] Read more.
In this work, the effects of jet impact angle and water flow on the heat-transfer coefficient in boron steel probes were analyzed. Angles of 90°, 75° and 60° were used with stirring flows of 33 l·min−1, 25 l·min−1, 13 l·min−1 and 6 l·min−1. The aim consisted of determining the heat-extraction rates by analyzing the correlation programmed in the Ansys Fluent 2020R2 software when different cooling conditions are used, avoiding many experiments, and establishing quenching conditions free of surface defects on the workpiece. This process is currently used in heavy machinery, requiring high hardness and wear resistance. The fluid-dynamic field was validated using a scale physical model using the particle image velocimetry technique, PIV. In contrast, the thermal field was validated with transient state experiments solving the inverse heat conduction problem, IHCP. The results show that for high flows (33 l·min−1), the jets with an angle of 90° impact the entire surface of the piece, but their cooling rate is slower compared to the other angles, being 243.61 K·s−1, and 271.70 K·s−1, 329.56 K·s−1 for 75° and 60°, respectively. However, for low flows (6 l·min−1), the impact velocities are very similar for the three cases, promoting more homogeneous cooling rates of 58.47 K·s−1, 73.58 K·s−1 and 63.98 K s−1 for angles of 90°, 75° and 60°, respectively. Likewise, through the use of CCT diagrams, it was determined that regardless of the cooling rate, the final structure will always be a mixture of martensite–bainite due to the effect of boron as determined experimentally, which implies a more significant proportion of martensite at higher cooling rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change and Convective Heat Transfer)
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21 pages, 3275 KiB  
Article
Deep Reinforcement Learning-Augmented Spalart–Allmaras Turbulence Model: Application to a Turbulent Round Jet Flow
by Lukas M. Fuchs, Jakob G. R. von Saldern, Thomas L. Kaiser and Kilian Oberleithner
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040088 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to explore the potential of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) as a black-box optimizer for turbulence model identification. For this, we consider a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) closure model of a round turbulent jet flow at a Reynolds number [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to explore the potential of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) as a black-box optimizer for turbulence model identification. For this, we consider a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) closure model of a round turbulent jet flow at a Reynolds number of 10,000. For this purpose, we augment the widely utilized Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model by introducing a source term that is identified by DRL. The algorithm is trained to maximize the alignment of the augmented RANS model velocity fields and time-averaged large eddy simulation (LES) reference data. It is shown that the alignment between the reference data and the results of the RANS simulation is improved by 48% using the Spalart–Allmaras model augmented with DRL compared to the standard model. The velocity field, jet spreading rate, and axial velocity decay exhibit substantially improved agreement with both the LES reference and literature data. In addition, we applied the trained model to a jet flow with a Reynolds number of 15,000, which improved the mean field alignment by 35%, demonstrating that the framework is applicable to unseen data of the same configuration at a higher Reynolds number. Overall, this work demonstrates that DRL is a promising method for RANS closure model identification. Hurdles and challenges associated with the presented methodology, such as high numerical cost, numerical stability, and sensitivity of hyperparameters are discussed in the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematical and Computational Fluid Mechanics)
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25 pages, 3638 KiB  
Article
Discrete and Continuous Adjoint-Based Aerostructural Wing Shape Optimization of a Business Jet
by Konstantinos Tsiakas, Xenofon Trompoukis, Varvara Asouti, Kyriakos Giannakoglou, Gilbert Rogé, Sarah Julisson, Ludovic Martin and Steven Kleinveld
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040087 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 751
Abstract
This article presents single- and multi-disciplinary shape optimizations of a generic business jet wing at two transonic cruise flow conditions. The studies performed are based on two high-fidelity gradient-based optimization tools, assisted by the adjoint method (following both discrete and continuous approaches). Single [...] Read more.
This article presents single- and multi-disciplinary shape optimizations of a generic business jet wing at two transonic cruise flow conditions. The studies performed are based on two high-fidelity gradient-based optimization tools, assisted by the adjoint method (following both discrete and continuous approaches). Single discipline and coupled multi-disciplinary sensitivity derivatives computed from the two tools are compared and verified against finite differences. The importance of not making the frozen turbulence assumption in adjoint-based optimization is demonstrated. Then, a number of optimization runs, ranging from a pure aerodynamic with a rigid structure to an aerostructural one exploring the trade-offs between the involved disciplines, are presented and discussed. The middle-ground scenario of optimizing the wing with aerodynamic criteria and, then, performing an aerostructural trimming is also investigated. Full article
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20 pages, 3867 KiB  
Article
Study of the Geometry of an Oscillating Water Column Device with Five Chambers Coupled under Regular Waves through the Constructal Design Method
by Yuri Theodoro Barbosa de Lima, Liércio André Isoldi, Elizaldo Domingues dos Santos, Bianca Neves Machado, Mateus das Neves Gomes, Cesare Biserni and Luiz Alberto Oliveira Rocha
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040086 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 653
Abstract
This research conducts a numerical study of a wave energy converter (WEC) device with five coupled hydropneumatic chambers, operating based on the principle of an oscillating water column (OWC). A turbine was not included, only considering the tube without it. The computational domain [...] Read more.
This research conducts a numerical study of a wave energy converter (WEC) device with five coupled hydropneumatic chambers, operating based on the principle of an oscillating water column (OWC). A turbine was not included, only considering the tube without it. The computational domain was defined by a wave channel housing an OWC device subjected to regular incident waves. The central objective was to assess the impact of chamber geometry on maximizing the total hydropneumatic power in energy conversion. The numerical simulations consider the pressure, mass flow rate, and total hydropneumatic power, with the latter being the performance indicator. To determine the geometries to be analyzed, the Constructal Design method was employed in conjunction with the exhaustive search optimization method to maximize the performance indicator. The degrees of freedom defined were the ratios between the height (Hn) and the length (Ln) of the hydropneumatic chambers (Hn/Ln, where n varies from one to five). Based on the results of the mass flow rate and pressure, their influence on power was evaluated. It was observed that the influence of the degrees of freedom on the pressure difference, mass flow rate, and hydrodynamic power was quite similar, displaying an increase for low ratios of Hn/Ln up to a maximum magnitude and followed by a decrease in magnitude. The best performance was achieved for the geometric configuration with Hn/Ln = 0.2613 (Hn = 5.0625 m and Ln = 15.8219 m), representing an improvement of 98.6% compared to the worst case analyzed. Full article
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18 pages, 6388 KiB  
Article
Computational Analysis of Blood Flow in Healthy Pulmonary Arteries in Comparison to Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Results: A Small Cohort Study
by Maria Boumpouli, Scott MacDonald Black and Asimina Kazakidi
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040085 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Characterization of the physiological hemodynamic environment in normal pulmonary arteries is a key factor in understanding pathological conditions. This study aimed to analyze the morphology and hemodynamics in the healthy adult pulmonary bifurcation in comparison to age-matched repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) geometries. [...] Read more.
Characterization of the physiological hemodynamic environment in normal pulmonary arteries is a key factor in understanding pathological conditions. This study aimed to analyze the morphology and hemodynamics in the healthy adult pulmonary bifurcation in comparison to age-matched repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) geometries. The pulmonary trunk of five healthy volunteers was reconstructed from 4D Flow-MRI data and was compared to rTOF results. Subject-specific boundary conditions were assigned in both the inlet and outlets of the models, and flow characteristics were analyzed computationally. The morphological and flow features were consistent among the healthy geometries, highlighting the ability of an averaged geometry derived from this small cohort to capture the main flow characteristics. A slightly higher mean time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) was found in the right pulmonary artery, which was also the branch with a higher mean curvature and local Reynolds number. Compared to rTOF results, the averaged healthy geometry demonstrated more than an 8-fold lower value in TAWSS, with the individual patient-specific healthy volunteers showing further reduced TAWSS than the rTOF patients. These observations could be useful in clinical assessment and decision making based on hemodynamic indices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hemodynamics and Related Biological Flows)
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13 pages, 853 KiB  
Article
Turbulent Flow Prediction-Simulation: Strained Flow with Initial Isotropic Condition Using a GRU Model Trained by an Experimental Lagrangian Framework, with Emphasis on Hyperparameter Optimization
by Reza Hassanian, Marcel Aach, Andreas Lintermann, Ásdís Helgadóttir and Morris Riedel
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040084 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 665
Abstract
This study presents a novel approach to using a gated recurrent unit (GRU) model, a deep neural network, to predict turbulent flows in a Lagrangian framework. The emerging velocity field is predicted based on experimental data from a strained turbulent flow, which was [...] Read more.
This study presents a novel approach to using a gated recurrent unit (GRU) model, a deep neural network, to predict turbulent flows in a Lagrangian framework. The emerging velocity field is predicted based on experimental data from a strained turbulent flow, which was initially a nearly homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow at the measurement area. The distorted turbulent flow has a Taylor microscale Reynolds number in the range of 100 < Reλ < 152 before creating the strain and is strained with a mean strain rate of 4 s1 in the Y direction. The measurement is conducted in the presence of gravity consequent to the actual condition, an effect that is usually neglected and has not been investigated in most numerical studies. A Lagrangian particle tracking technique is used to extract the flow characterizations. It is used to assess the capability of the GRU model to forecast the unknown turbulent flow pattern affected by distortion and gravity using spatiotemporal input data. Using the flow track’s location (spatial) and time (temporal) highlights the model’s superiority. The suggested approach provides the possibility to predict the emerging pattern of the strained turbulent flow properties observed in many natural and artificial phenomena. In order to optimize the consumed computing, hyperparameter optimization (HPO) is used to improve the GRU model performance by 14–20%. Model training and inference run on the high-performance computing (HPC) JUWELS-BOOSTER and DEEP-DAM systems at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre, and the code speed-up on these machines is measured. The proposed model produces accurate predictions for turbulent flows in the Lagrangian view with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.001 and an R2 score of 0.993. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulent Flow, 2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 6496 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Oscillatory Response of Light-Weight Wind Turbine Rotors under Controlled Gust Pulses
by Fernando Ponta, Alayna Farrell, Apurva Baruah and North Yates
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040083 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 840
Abstract
Given the industry-wide trend of continual increases in the size of utility-scale wind turbines, a point will come where reductions will need to be made in terms of the weight of the turbine’s blades to ensure they can be as long as needed [...] Read more.
Given the industry-wide trend of continual increases in the size of utility-scale wind turbines, a point will come where reductions will need to be made in terms of the weight of the turbine’s blades to ensure they can be as long as needed without sacrificing structural stability. One such technique that may be considered is to decrease the material used for the shell and spar cap. While this will solve the weight issue, it creates a new one entirely—less material for the shell and spar cap will in turn create blades that are more flexible than what is currently used. This article aims to investigate how the oscillatory response of light-weight wind turbine rotors is affected by these flexibility changes. The object of our study is the Sandia National Lab National Rotor Testbed (SNL-NRT) wind turbine, which the authors investigated in the course of a research project supported by SNL. Using a reduced-order characterization (ROC) technique based on controlled gust pulses, introduced by the authors in a previous work, the aeroelastic dynamics of the NRT’s original baseline blade design and several of its flexible variations were studied via numerical simulations employing the CODEF multiphysics suite. Results for this characterization are presented and analyzed, including a generalization of the ROC of the SNL-NRT oscillatory dynamics to larger machines with geometrical similarity. The latter will prove to be valuable in terms of extrapolating results from the present investigation and other ongoing studies to the scale of current and future commercial machines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics in Fluid Machinery)
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17 pages, 20440 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of a Water Droplet Impacting an Ultrathin Layer of Oil Suspended on a Pool of Water
by Amir Dehghanghadikolaei, Bilal Abdul Halim, Ehsan Khoshbakhtnejad and Hossein Sojoudi
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040082 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
This study investigates water droplets impacting a two-layered pool, consisting of a deep pool of water above which an ultrathin a suspended layer of silicone oil is present. Initially, the difference between the impact dynamics of water droplets on ultrathin and thick layers [...] Read more.
This study investigates water droplets impacting a two-layered pool, consisting of a deep pool of water above which an ultrathin a suspended layer of silicone oil is present. Initially, the difference between the impact dynamics of water droplets on ultrathin and thick layers of oil were studied. It was found that the existence of an ultrathin layer of oil changes the impact characteristics such how aggressively the jet rises, how the dimensions of the impact impression change, and how the jets are broken down on their tops. Then, in a series of experiments on ultrathin layers of oil, the droplet size, the velocity of the droplets upon impact, and the viscosity of the oil layers were changed to observe and measure the characteristic dimensions of the formed craters and the jets. It was observed that when the viscosity of oil layers decreased to a minimum of 1 (cSt), the jet height and crater sizes increased to their maximum value. In addition to the effect of the oil viscosity, it was found that the droplet size and the release heights of the droplets were in the next orders of significance in determining the impact dynamics. The impacts were also characterized qualitatively by specifically looking into the crown and crater formations, pinch-off modes in jets, and number of formed secondary droplets. As well as the quantitative conclusion, it was found that the major affecting parameter in changing each of these qualities was the viscosity of the suspended oil layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contact Line Dynamics and Droplet Spreading)
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16 pages, 6385 KiB  
Article
Underwater Shock Wave-Enhanced Cavitation to Induce Morphological Changes and Cell Permeabilization in Microscopic Fungi
by Miguel A. Martínez-Maldonado, Blanca E. Millán-Chiu, Francisco Fernández, Daniel Larrañaga, Miguel A. Gómez-Lim and Achim M. Loske
Fluids 2024, 9(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9040081 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 977
Abstract
Since the discovery of extracorporeal lithotripsy, there has been an increased interest in studying shock wave-induced cavitation, both to improve this technique and to explore novel biotechnological applications. As shock waves propagate through fluids, pre-existing microbubbles undergo expansion and collapse, emitting high-speed microjets. [...] Read more.
Since the discovery of extracorporeal lithotripsy, there has been an increased interest in studying shock wave-induced cavitation, both to improve this technique and to explore novel biotechnological applications. As shock waves propagate through fluids, pre-existing microbubbles undergo expansion and collapse, emitting high-speed microjets. These microjets play a crucial role in the pulverization of urinary stones during lithotripsy and have been utilized in the delivery of drugs and genetic materials into cells. Their intensity can be amplified using tandem shock waves, generated so that the second wave reaches the bubbles, expanded by the first wave, during their collapse. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the control of microjet emissions. This study aimed to demonstrate that specific effects can be obtained by tuning the delay between the first and second shock waves. Suspensions containing Aspergillus niger, a microscopic fungus that produces metabolites with high commercial value, were exposed to single-pulse and tandem shock waves. Morphological changes were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Proteins released into the medium after shock wave exposure were also studied. Our findings suggest that, with enhanced control over cavitation, the detachment of proteins using conventional methods could be significantly optimized in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics)
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