Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040091

Authors: Simone Sandrin Lorenzo Mazzei Riccardo Da Soghe Fabrizio Fontaneto

Given the increasing role of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in the aerothermal design of gas turbine vanes and blades, their rigorous validation is becoming more and more important. This article exploits an experimental database obtained by the von Karman Institute (VKI) for Fluid Dynamics for the LS-94 test case. This represents a film-cooled transonic turbine vane, investigated in a five-vane linear cascade configuration under engine-like conditions in terms of the Reynolds number and Mach number. The experimental characterization included inlet freestream turbulence measured with hot-wire anemometry, aerodynamic performance assessed with a three-hole pressure probe in the downstream section, and vane convective heat transfer coefficient distribution determined with thin-film thermometers. The test matrix included cases without any film-cooling injection, pressure-side injection, and suction-side injection. The CFD simulations were carried out in Ansys Fluent, considering the impact of mesh sizing and steady-state Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) transition modelling, as well as more accurate transient scale-resolving simulations. This work provides insight into the advantages and drawbacks of such approaches for gas turbine hot-gas path designers.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040090

Authors: Simon El Ouafa Stephane Vincent Vincent Le Chenadec Benoît Trouette Syphax Ferreka Amine Chadil

In this paper, we introduce a compressible formulation for dealing with 2D/3D compressible interfacial flows. It integrates a monolithic solver to achieve robust velocity&ndash;pressure coupling, ensuring precision and stability across diverse fluid flow conditions, including incompressible and compressible single-phase and two-phase flows. Validation of the model is conducted through various test scenarios, including Sod&rsquo;s shock tube problem, isothermal viscous two-phase flows without capillary effects, and the impact of drops on viscous liquid films. The results highlight the ability of the scheme to handle compressible flow situations with capillary effects, which are important in computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040089

Authors: Raúl Alberto Tinajero-Álvarez Constantin Alberto Hernández-Bocanegra José Ángel Ramos-Banderas Nancy Margarita López-Granados Brandon Farrera-Buenrostro Enrique Torres-Alonso Gildardo Solorio-Díaz

In this work, the effects of jet impact angle and water flow on the heat-transfer coefficient in boron steel probes were analyzed. Angles of 90&deg;, 75&deg; and 60&deg; were used with stirring flows of 33 l&middot;min&minus;1, 25 l&middot;min&minus;1, 13 l&middot;min&minus;1 and 6 l&middot;min&minus;1. The aim consisted of determining the heat-extraction rates by analyzing the correlation programmed in the Ansys Fluent 2020R2 software when different cooling conditions are used, avoiding many experiments, and establishing quenching conditions free of surface defects on the workpiece. This process is currently used in heavy machinery, requiring high hardness and wear resistance. The fluid-dynamic field was validated using a scale physical model using the particle image velocimetry technique, PIV. In contrast, the thermal field was validated with transient state experiments solving the inverse heat conduction problem, IHCP. The results show that for high flows (33 l&middot;min&minus;1), the jets with an angle of 90&deg; impact the entire surface of the piece, but their cooling rate is slower compared to the other angles, being 243.61 K&middot;s&minus;1, and 271.70 K&middot;s&minus;1, 329.56 K&middot;s&minus;1 for 75&deg; and 60&deg;, respectively. However, for low flows (6 l&middot;min&minus;1), the impact velocities are very similar for the three cases, promoting more homogeneous cooling rates of 58.47 K&middot;s&minus;1, 73.58 K&middot;s&minus;1 and 63.98 K s&minus;1 for angles of 90&deg;, 75&deg; and 60&deg;, respectively. Likewise, through the use of CCT diagrams, it was determined that regardless of the cooling rate, the final structure will always be a mixture of martensite&ndash;bainite due to the effect of boron as determined experimentally, which implies a more significant proportion of martensite at higher cooling rates.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040088

Authors: Lukas M. Fuchs Jakob G. R. von Saldern Thomas L. Kaiser Kilian Oberleithner

The purpose of this work is to explore the potential of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) as a black-box optimizer for turbulence model identification. For this, we consider a Reynolds-averaged Navier&ndash;Stokes (RANS) closure model of a round turbulent jet flow at a Reynolds number of 10,000. For this purpose, we augment the widely utilized Spalart&ndash;Allmaras turbulence model by introducing a source term that is identified by DRL. The algorithm is trained to maximize the alignment of the augmented RANS model velocity fields and time-averaged large eddy simulation (LES) reference data. It is shown that the alignment between the reference data and the results of the RANS simulation is improved by 48% using the Spalart&ndash;Allmaras model augmented with DRL compared to the standard model. The velocity field, jet spreading rate, and axial velocity decay exhibit substantially improved agreement with both the LES reference and literature data. In addition, we applied the trained model to a jet flow with a Reynolds number of 15,000, which improved the mean field alignment by 35%, demonstrating that the framework is applicable to unseen data of the same configuration at a higher Reynolds number. Overall, this work demonstrates that DRL is a promising method for RANS closure model identification. Hurdles and challenges associated with the presented methodology, such as high numerical cost, numerical stability, and sensitivity of hyperparameters are discussed in the study.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040087

Authors: Konstantinos Tsiakas Xenofon Trompoukis Varvara Asouti Kyriakos Giannakoglou Gilbert Rogé Sarah Julisson Ludovic Martin Steven Kleinveld

This article presents single- and multi-disciplinary shape optimizations of a generic business jet wing at two transonic cruise flow conditions. The studies performed are based on two high-fidelity gradient-based optimization tools, assisted by the adjoint method (following both discrete and continuous approaches). Single discipline and coupled multi-disciplinary sensitivity derivatives computed from the two tools are compared and verified against finite differences. The importance of not making the frozen turbulence assumption in adjoint-based optimization is demonstrated. Then, a number of optimization runs, ranging from a pure aerodynamic with a rigid structure to an aerostructural one exploring the trade-offs between the involved disciplines, are presented and discussed. The middle-ground scenario of optimizing the wing with aerodynamic criteria and, then, performing an aerostructural trimming is also investigated.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040086

Authors: Yuri Theodoro Barbosa de Lima Liércio André Isoldi Elizaldo Domingues dos Santos Bianca Neves Machado Mateus das Neves Gomes Cesare Biserni Luiz Alberto Oliveira Rocha

This research conducts a numerical study of a wave energy converter (WEC) device with five coupled hydropneumatic chambers, operating based on the principle of an oscillating water column (OWC). A turbine was not included, only considering the tube without it. The computational domain was defined by a wave channel housing an OWC device subjected to regular incident waves. The central objective was to assess the impact of chamber geometry on maximizing the total hydropneumatic power in energy conversion. The numerical simulations consider the pressure, mass flow rate, and total hydropneumatic power, with the latter being the performance indicator. To determine the geometries to be analyzed, the Constructal Design method was employed in conjunction with the exhaustive search optimization method to maximize the performance indicator. The degrees of freedom defined were the ratios between the height (Hn) and the length (Ln) of the hydropneumatic chambers (Hn/Ln, where n varies from one to five). Based on the results of the mass flow rate and pressure, their influence on power was evaluated. It was observed that the influence of the degrees of freedom on the pressure difference, mass flow rate, and hydrodynamic power was quite similar, displaying an increase for low ratios of Hn/Ln up to a maximum magnitude and followed by a decrease in magnitude. The best performance was achieved for the geometric configuration with Hn/Ln = 0.2613 (Hn = 5.0625 m and Ln = 15.8219 m), representing an improvement of 98.6% compared to the worst case analyzed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040085

Authors: Maria Boumpouli Scott MacDonald Black Asimina Kazakidi

Characterization of the physiological hemodynamic environment in normal pulmonary arteries is a key factor in understanding pathological conditions. This study aimed to analyze the morphology and hemodynamics in the healthy adult pulmonary bifurcation in comparison to age-matched repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) geometries. The pulmonary trunk of five healthy volunteers was reconstructed from 4D Flow-MRI data and was compared to rTOF results. Subject-specific boundary conditions were assigned in both the inlet and outlets of the models, and flow characteristics were analyzed computationally. The morphological and flow features were consistent among the healthy geometries, highlighting the ability of an averaged geometry derived from this small cohort to capture the main flow characteristics. A slightly higher mean time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) was found in the right pulmonary artery, which was also the branch with a higher mean curvature and local Reynolds number. Compared to rTOF results, the averaged healthy geometry demonstrated more than an 8-fold lower value in TAWSS, with the individual patient-specific healthy volunteers showing further reduced TAWSS than the rTOF patients. These observations could be useful in clinical assessment and decision making based on hemodynamic indices.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040084

Authors: Reza Hassanian Marcel Aach Andreas Lintermann Ásdís Helgadóttir Morris Riedel

This study presents a novel approach to using a gated recurrent unit (GRU) model, a deep neural network, to predict turbulent flows in a Lagrangian framework. The emerging velocity field is predicted based on experimental data from a strained turbulent flow, which was initially a nearly homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow at the measurement area. The distorted turbulent flow has a Taylor microscale Reynolds number in the range of 100 &lt; Re&lambda; &lt; 152 before creating the strain and is strained with a mean strain rate of 4 s&minus;1 in the Y direction. The measurement is conducted in the presence of gravity consequent to the actual condition, an effect that is usually neglected and has not been investigated in most numerical studies. A Lagrangian particle tracking technique is used to extract the flow characterizations. It is used to assess the capability of the GRU model to forecast the unknown turbulent flow pattern affected by distortion and gravity using spatiotemporal input data. Using the flow track&rsquo;s location (spatial) and time (temporal) highlights the model&rsquo;s superiority. The suggested approach provides the possibility to predict the emerging pattern of the strained turbulent flow properties observed in many natural and artificial phenomena. In order to optimize the consumed computing, hyperparameter optimization (HPO) is used to improve the GRU model performance by 14&ndash;20%. Model training and inference run on the high-performance computing (HPC) JUWELS-BOOSTER and DEEP-DAM systems at the J&uuml;lich Supercomputing Centre, and the code speed-up on these machines is measured. The proposed model produces accurate predictions for turbulent flows in the Lagrangian view with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.001 and an R2 score of 0.993.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040083

Authors: Fernando Ponta Alayna Farrell Apurva Baruah North Yates

Given the industry-wide trend of continual increases in the size of utility-scale wind turbines, a point will come where reductions will need to be made in terms of the weight of the turbine&rsquo;s blades to ensure they can be as long as needed without sacrificing structural stability. One such technique that may be considered is to decrease the material used for the shell and spar cap. While this will solve the weight issue, it creates a new one entirely&mdash;less material for the shell and spar cap will in turn create blades that are more flexible than what is currently used. This article aims to investigate how the oscillatory response of light-weight wind turbine rotors is affected by these flexibility changes. The object of our study is the Sandia National Lab National Rotor Testbed (SNL-NRT) wind turbine, which the authors investigated in the course of a research project supported by SNL. Using a reduced-order characterization (ROC) technique based on controlled gust pulses, introduced by the authors in a previous work, the aeroelastic dynamics of the NRT&rsquo;s original baseline blade design and several of its flexible variations were studied via numerical simulations employing the CODEF multiphysics suite. Results for this characterization are presented and analyzed, including a generalization of the ROC of the SNL-NRT oscillatory dynamics to larger machines with geometrical similarity. The latter will prove to be valuable in terms of extrapolating results from the present investigation and other ongoing studies to the scale of current and future commercial machines.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040082

Authors: Amir Dehghanghadikolaei Bilal Abdul Halim Ehsan Khoshbakhtnejad Hossein Sojoudi

This study investigates water droplets impacting a two-layered pool, consisting of a deep pool of water above which an ultrathin a suspended layer of silicone oil is present. Initially, the difference between the impact dynamics of water droplets on ultrathin and thick layers of oil were studied. It was found that the existence of an ultrathin layer of oil changes the impact characteristics such how aggressively the jet rises, how the dimensions of the impact impression change, and how the jets are broken down on their tops. Then, in a series of experiments on ultrathin layers of oil, the droplet size, the velocity of the droplets upon impact, and the viscosity of the oil layers were changed to observe and measure the characteristic dimensions of the formed craters and the jets. It was observed that when the viscosity of oil layers decreased to a minimum of 1 (cSt), the jet height and crater sizes increased to their maximum value. In addition to the effect of the oil viscosity, it was found that the droplet size and the release heights of the droplets were in the next orders of significance in determining the impact dynamics. The impacts were also characterized qualitatively by specifically looking into the crown and crater formations, pinch-off modes in jets, and number of formed secondary droplets. As well as the quantitative conclusion, it was found that the major affecting parameter in changing each of these qualities was the viscosity of the suspended oil layer.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9040081

Authors: Miguel A. Martínez-Maldonado Blanca E. Millán-Chiu Francisco Fernández Daniel Larrañaga Miguel A. Gómez-Lim Achim M. Loske

Since the discovery of extracorporeal lithotripsy, there has been an increased interest in studying shock wave-induced cavitation, both to improve this technique and to explore novel biotechnological applications. As shock waves propagate through fluids, pre-existing microbubbles undergo expansion and collapse, emitting high-speed microjets. These microjets play a crucial role in the pulverization of urinary stones during lithotripsy and have been utilized in the delivery of drugs and genetic materials into cells. Their intensity can be amplified using tandem shock waves, generated so that the second wave reaches the bubbles, expanded by the first wave, during their collapse. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the control of microjet emissions. This study aimed to demonstrate that specific effects can be obtained by tuning the delay between the first and second shock waves. Suspensions containing Aspergillus niger, a microscopic fungus that produces metabolites with high commercial value, were exposed to single-pulse and tandem shock waves. Morphological changes were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Proteins released into the medium after shock wave exposure were also studied. Our findings suggest that, with enhanced control over cavitation, the detachment of proteins using conventional methods could be significantly optimized in future studies.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030080

Authors: Qiuge Han Dawei Zhang Xuedong Liu Bingyang Sun Xu He Lingling Shen Siduo Song

Pressure nozzles are widely used in spray drying and other industries. In order to improve the atomization characteristics of pressure cyclone nozzles, a new type of annular jet gas impingement atomization device is developed. We use high-speed imaging and digital image processing and other methods to analyze the spray characteristics of the different annular device configurations (using four, six, and eight tubes) and under different gas&ndash;liquid mass flow rates. It is shown that with an increase in the Air&ndash;Liquid mass Ratio (ALR), the liquid film breakup process changes from undulating sheet breakup to perforated sheet breakup and the breakup length decreases. The breakup length decreases the most under the condition of six-tube airflow with the range of 31&ndash;55%, while the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) basically does not change. With the increase in ALR and the Weber number of liquid (Wel), the droplet size distribution becomes more uniform. The spray characteristics of the atomizer assisted by gas jets reaches the best state when Wel = 4596.3 and m&#729;g = 1.97 g/s. The experimental conclusions have some guiding significance for the design and optimization of the atomization devices in spray drying towers.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030079

Authors: Mirza M. Shah

Boiling with downflow in vertical channels is involved in many applications such as boilers, nuclear reactors, chemical processing, etc. Accurate prediction of CHF (Critical Heat Flux) is important to ensure their safe design. While numerous experimental studies have been done on CHF during upflow and reliable methods for predicting it have been developed, there have been only a few experimental studies on CHF during downflow. Some researchers have reported no difference in CHF between up- and downflow, while some have reported that CHF in downflow is lower or higher than that in upflow. Only a few correlations have been published that are stated to be applicable to CHF during downflow. No comprehensive comparison of correlations with test data has been published. In the present research, literature on CHF during downflow in fully heated channels was reviewed. A database for CHF in downflow was compiled. The data included round tubes and rectangular channels, hydraulic diameters 2.4 mm to 15.9 mm, reduced pressure 0.0045 to 0.6251, flow rates from 15 to 21,761 kg/m2s, and several fluids with diverse properties (water, nitrogen, refrigerants). This database was compared to a number of correlations for upflow and downflow CHF. The results of this comparison are presented and discussed. Design recommendations are provided.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030078

Authors: Christos Tantos Foteini Litovoli Tim Teichmann Ioannis Sarris Christian Day

In the present work, the gas flows through diverging channels driven by small, moderate, and large pressure drops are studied, considering a wide range of the gas rarefaction from free molecular limit through transition flow regime up to early slip regime. The analysis is performed using the Shakhov kinetic model, and applying the deterministic DVM method. The complete 4D flow problem is considered by including the upstream and downstream reservoirs. A strong effect of the channel geometry on the flow pattern is shown, with the distributions of the macroscopic quantities differing qualitatively and quantitatively from the straight channel flows. The mass flow rate data set from the complete solution is compared with the corresponding set obtained from the approximate kinetic methodology, which is based on the fully developed mass flow rate data available in the literature. In addition, the use of the end-effect approach significantly improves the applicability range of the approximate kinetic methodology. The influence of the wall temperature on the flow characteristics is also studied and is found to be strong in less-rarefied cases, with the mass flow rate in these cases being a decreasing function of the temperature wall. Overall, the present analysis is expected to be useful in the development and optimization of technological devices in vacuum and aerospace technologies.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030077

Authors: A. Rubio Martínez A. E. Chávez Castellanos N. A. Noguez Méndez F. Aragón Rivera M. Pliego Díaz L. Di G. Sigalotti C. A. Vargas

The use of polymer microspheres is becoming increasingly widespread. Along with their most common applications, they are beginning to be used in the synthesis of photonic crystals, microstructure analysis and multiplexed diagnostics for disease control purposes. This paper presents a simple mathematical model that allows us to study the transport mechanisms involved in the deformation of an elastic microchannel under the flow stream of a power-law fluid. In particular, we analyze the momentum transfer to a non-Newtonian fluid (Polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) due to the deformation of the elastic ceiling of a rectangular microchannel. Hooke&rsquo;s law is used to represent the stress&ndash;deformation relationship of the PDMS channel ceiling. Stop-flow lithography is modeled, and the pressure exerted by the deformed PDMS ceiling on the fluid when the microchannel returns to its original form is taken into account. It is found that the response time of the elastic ceiling deformation increases with the channel width and length and decreases with the channel height independently of the power-law exponent of the injected fluid. However, an increase in the power-law exponent beyond unity causes an increase in the wall-deformation response time and the maximum deformation of the channel height compared to a Newtonian fluid.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030076

Authors: Roberta Caruana Luca Marocco Paolo Liberati Manfredo Guilizzoni

Indirect evaporative cooling systems have attracted much interest in recent years as they guarantee good cooling effectiveness, with lower energy demand with respect to traditional systems, thus helping to address the issue of climate change. Many studies have shown that an increase in the wettability of recuperator plates results in an improvement in the system performance. However, if the water injected into the system comes from the city water supply, it will contain calcium carbonate residuals, which will form limescale layers on the plates, thus possibly changing their wetting behavior. Therefore, the wettability of three surfaces (an aluminum uncoated surface, AL, a standard epoxy coating, STD, and a hydrophilic lacquer, HPHI) was analyzed in the presence of limescale formations, and compared with that obtained in a previous study for corresponding clean surfaces. The results showed that the HPHI contact angle was reduced in the presence of limescale (median: 50&deg;), that for STD was slightly increased (median: 81&deg;), and that for AL was again reduced (median: 75&deg;). Consequently, HPHI was confirmed to be the most wettable surface in both clean and limescale conditions. Finally, an analysis was undertaken evaluating the spreading factor and the reversible work of adhesion, which were in good agreement with the qualitative visual observations of the plates covered with limescale.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030075

Authors: Parulian Siagian Farel Hasiholan Napitupulu Himsar Ambarita Hendrik Voice Sihombing Yogie Probo Sibagariang Horas Sotardodo Siagian

Agricultural commodity drying technology aims to maintain and improve the quality of agricultural products. Coffee quality is important for the welfare of coffee farmers, and drying technology plays an important role in determining the quality of coffee. Various drying models can be applied, including the traditional model that is still applied today: drying directly under solar radiation. One drying technology that can accelerate the drying time is varying the air velocity in the drying chamber. In this study, the air velocity was varied by 1&ndash;3 m/s over coffee bean samples with an initial weight of 1500 g that were dried in parallel simultaneously. The time required was 25 h, with a maximum radiation of 586.9 w/m2 and total solar energy over 3 days of 16.6 MJ/m2. It was found that good quality coffee was achieved using drying box 1, with a drying air velocity of 1.0 m/s, with which a final mass of 732.24 g was obtained with coffee moisture content of 12.0%, protein content of 11.7%, carbohydrate content of 21.7%, and free fatty acid content of 0.05%. Higher air velocities resulted in almost the same protein and carbohydrate content, as well as a fatty acid content of less than 0.1%, but a higher moisture content.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030074

Authors: Alecsandra Court Christoph Bruecker

Bio-inspired flexible pillar-like wind-hairs show promise for the future of flying by feel by detecting critical flow events on an aerofoil during flight. To be able to characterise specific flow disturbances from the response of such sensors, quantitative PIV measurements of such flow-disturbance patterns were compared with sensor outputs under controlled conditions. Experiments were performed in a flow channel with an aerofoil equipped with a 2D array of such sensors when in uniform inflow conditions compared to when a well-defined gust was introduced upstream and was passing by. The gust was generated through the sudden deployment of a row of flaps on the suction side of a symmetric wing that was placed upstream of the aerofoil with the sensors. The resulting flow disturbance generated a starting vortex with two legs, which resembled a horseshoe-type vortex shed into the wake. Under the same tunnel conditions, PIV measurements were taken downstream of the gust generator to characterise the starting vortex, while further measurements were taken with the sensing pillars on the aerofoil in the same location. The disturbance pattern was compared to the pillar response to demonstrate the potential of flow-sensing pillars. It was found that the pillars could detect the arrival time and structural pattern of the flow disturbance, showing the characteristics of the induced flow field of the starting vortex when passing by. Therefore, such sensor arrays can detect the &ldquo;footprint&rdquo; of disturbances as temporal and spatial signatures, allowing us to distinguish those from others or noise.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030073

Authors: Nicola Andretta Antonio Rossetti Alarico Macor

The IC2OC transmission is a continuous transmission whose layout can change from simple IC to simple OC configuration and vice versa. It was proposed to cover a wider range of vehicle speeds without adding gears. Its sizing can lead to higher efficiencies than those of the IC and OC layouts. Therefore, this work deals with the sizing methodologies of this transmission. Two methodologies are proposed and discussed: the first uses the functional and constitutive equations of the transmission; the second is based on a mathematical programming problem. Both methodologies start from the choice of the full mechanical point speeds. The comparison between the two methods is carried out on the transmission of a commercially available 230 kW reach stacker. The comparison shows that the functional method, leaner and faster, can provide results very close to those obtained with the heavy and time-consuming optimization, provided that the values of the two full mechanical point speeds are the optimal ones for the two basic transmissions taken individually.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030072

Authors: Hans Babovsky

Numerical simulations of standard situations in the transition region from gas kinetics to fluid dynamics at small Mach numbers indicate a clear dependence of the simulation results on the underlying kinetic model (here: nonlinear and linearized Boltzmann collision operator vs. BGK relaxation model). We develop an improved mathematical framework (trace theory) to explain these differences. In particular we reveal certain deficiencies for the classical BKG system as well as for the standard Navier Stokes approach.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030071

Authors: Mauricio De la Cruz-Ávila Jorge E. De León-Ruiz Ignacio Carvajal-Mariscal Jaime Klapp

This study investigates cavitation in a rectangular-profile Venturi tube using numerical simulations and four turbulence models. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier&ndash;Stokes technique is employed to simulate vapor cloud formation and compared against experimental data. &kappa;-&epsilon; realizable, &kappa;-&epsilon; RNG, &kappa;-&omega; SST, and &kappa;-&omega; GEKO models are evaluated. The simulation results are analyzed for pressure, turbulence, and vapor cloud formation. Discrepancies in cavitation cloud formation among turbulence models are attributed to turbulence and vapor cloud interactions. RNG and SST models exhibit closer alignment with the experimental data, with RNG showing a superior performance. Key findings include significant vapor cloud shape differences across turbulence models. The RNG model best predicts velocity at the throat exit with an error of 4.145%. Static pressure predictions include an error of 4.47%. The vapor cloud length predictions show variation among models, with the RNG model having a 0.386% error for the minimum length and 4.9845% for the maximum length. The SST model exhibits 4.907% and 13.33% errors for minimum and maximum lengths, respectively. Analysis of the cavitation number reveals agreement with the experimental data and sensitivity to cavitation onset. Different turbulence models yield diverse cloud shapes and detachment points. Weber number contours illustrate the variation in the cavitation cloud behavior under different turbulence models.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030067

Authors: Enrique Guzmán Valente Hernández Pérez Fernando Aragón Rivera Jaime Klapp Leonardo Sigalotti

Experimental data for frictional pressure drop using both air&ndash;water and air&ndash;oil mixtures are reported, compared and used to evaluate predictive methods. The data were gathered using the 2-inch (54.8 mm) flow loop of the multiphase flow facility at the National University of Singapore. Experiments were carried out over a wide range of flow conditions of superficial liquid and gas velocities that were varied from 0.05 to 1.5 m/s and 2 to 23 m/s, respectively. Pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and a differential pressure (DP) cell. A hitherto unreported finding was achieved, as the pressure drop in air&ndash;oil flow can be lower than that in air&ndash;water flow for the higher range of flow conditions. Using flow visualization to explain this phenomenon, it was found that it is related to the higher liquid holdup that occurs in the case of air&ndash;oil around the annular flow transition and the resulting interfacial friction. This additional key finding can have applications in flow assurance to improve the efficiency of oil and gas transportation in pipelines. Models and correlations from the open literature were tested against the present data.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030070

Authors: Sebastian Höhne Martha L. Taboada Jewe Schröder Carolina Gomez Heike P. Karbstein Volker Gaukel

Spray drying of oil-in-water emulsions is a widespread encapsulation technique. The oil droplet size (ODS) significantly impacts encapsulation efficiency and other powder properties. The ODS is commonly set to a specific value during homogenization, assuming that it remains unchanged throughout the process, which is often inaccurate. This study investigated the impact of atomizer geometry and nozzle dimensions on oil droplet breakup during atomization using pressure-swirl atomizers. Subject of the investigation were nozzles that differ in the way the liquid is set in motion, as well as different inlet port and outlet orifice dimensions. The results indicate that nozzle inlet port area may have a significant impact on oil droplet breakup, with x90,3 values of the oil droplet size distribution decreasing from 5.29 to 2.30 &micro;m with a decrease of the inlet area from 2.0 to 0.6 mm. Good scalability of the findings from pilot to industrial-scale was shown using larger nozzles. A simplified theoretical model, aiming to predict the ODS as a function of calculated shear rates, showed reasonable agreement to the experimental data for different atomization pressures with coefficients of determination of up to 0.99. However, it was not able to predict the impact of different nozzle dimensions, most likely due to changes in flow characteristics. These results suggest that the stress history of the oil droplets might have a larger influence than expected. Further studies will need to consider other zones of high stress in addition to the outlet orifice.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030068

Authors: Ahmed A. Sheikh Al-Shabab Bojan Grenko Paulo A. S. F. Silva Antonis F. Antoniadis Panagiotis Tsoutsanis Martin Skote

The internal flow in oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers is a complex multiphysics problem combining the interaction between highly unsteady turbulent flow and multiphase mixing, among other effects. The aim is to present a validated simulation methodology that facilitates shock absorber performance prediction by capturing the dominant internal flow physics. This is achieved by simulating a drop test of approximately 1 tonne with an initial contact vertical speed of 2.7 m/s, corresponding to a light jet. The flow field solver is ANSYS Fluent, using an unsteady two-dimensional axisymmetric multiphase setup with a time-varying inlet velocity boundary condition corresponding to the stroke rate of the shock absorber piston. The stroke rate is calculated using a two-equation dynamic system model of the shock absorber under the applied loading. The simulation is validated against experimental measurements of the total force on the shock absorber during the stroke, in addition to standard physical checks. The flow field analysis focuses on multiphase mixing and its influence on the turbulent free shear layer and recirculating flow. A mixing index approach is suggested to facilitate systematically quantifying the mixing process and identifying the distinct stages of the interaction. It is found that gas&ndash;oil interaction has a significant impact on the flow development in the shock absorber&rsquo;s upper chamber, where strong mixing leads to a periodic stream of small gas bubbles being fed into the jet&rsquo;s shear layer from larger bubbles in recirculation zones, most notably in the corner between the orifice plate and outer shock absorber wall.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030069

Authors: Georg Elsinger Herman Oprins Vladimir Cherman Geert Van der Plas Eric Beyne Ingrid De Wolf

With ever increasing integration density of electronic components, the demand for cooling solutions capable of removing the heat generated by such systems grows along with it. It has been shown that a viable answer to this demand is the use of direct liquid jet impingement. While this method can generally be scaled to the cooling of large areas, this is restricted by the necessity of coolant flow rate scaling. In this study, the benefits and restrictions of using increased nozzle pitch to remedy the increasing demand for overall flow rate are investigated. To this end, a model is validated against experimental findings and then used for computational fluid dynamics simulations, exploring effects of the pitch change for micro-scale nozzle diameters and nozzle-to-target spacings. It is found that while this method is efficient in adjusting the tradeoff between total coolant flow rate and pressure drop up to a certain pint, the occurrence of a hydraulic jump in the cavity causes a deterioration of its effect for large nozzle pitches.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030066

Authors: Aurélien Gay Ganesh Tangavelou Valérie Vidal

Pipe structures are commonly encountered in the geophysical context, and in particular in sedimentary basins, where they are associated with fluid migration structures. We investigate pipe formation through laboratory experiments by injecting water locally at a constant flow rate at the base of water-saturated sands in a Hele&ndash;Shaw cell (30 cm high, 35 cm wide, gap 2.3 mm). The originality of this work is to quantify the effect of a discontinuity. More precisely, bilayered structures are considered, where a layer of fine grains overlaps a layer of coarser grains. Different invasion structures are reported, with fluidization of the bilayered sediment over its whole height or over the finer grains only. The height and area of the region affected by the fluidization display a non-monotonous evolution, which can be interpreted in terms of fluid focusing vs. scattering. Theoretical considerations can predict the critical coarse grains height for the invasion pattern transition, as well as the maximum topography at the sediment free surface in the regime in which only the overlapping finer grains fluidize. These results have crucial geophysical implications, as they demonstrate that invasion patterns and pipe formation dynamics may control the fluid expulsion extent and localization at the seafloor.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030065

Authors: Alexander Seryakov Yaroslav Ignatenko Oleg B. Bocharov

A numerical simulation of the Herschel&ndash;Bulkley laminar steady state shear flow around a stationary particle located on a sedimentation layer was carried out. The surface of the sedimentation layer was formed by hemispheres of the same radius as the particle. The drag force, lift force, and torque values were obtained in the following ranges: shear Reynolds numbers for a particle&nbsp;ReSH=2&ndash;200, corresponding to laminar flow; power law index&nbsp;n=0.6&ndash;1.0; and Bingham number&nbsp;Bn=0&ndash;10. A significant difference in the forces and torque acting on a particle in shear flow in comparison to the case of a smooth wall is shown. It is shown that the drag coefficient is on average 6% higher compared to a smooth wall for a Newtonian fluid but decreases with the increase in non-Newtonian properties. At the edge values of&nbsp;n=0.6&nbsp;and&nbsp;Bn=10, the drag is on average 25% lower compared to the smooth wall. For a Newtonian fluid, the lift coefficient is on average 30% higher compared to a smooth wall. It also decreases with the increase in non-Newtonian properties of the fluid, but at the edge values of&nbsp;n=0.6&nbsp;and&nbsp;Bn=10, it is on average only 3% lower compared to the smooth wall. Approximation functions for the drag, lift force, and torque coefficient are constructed. A reduction in the drag force and lifting force leads to an increase in critical stresses (Shields number) on the wall on average by 10% for incipient motion (rolling) and by 12% for particle detachment from the sedimentation bed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030064

Authors: Andrey Yukhnev Ludmila Tikhomolova Yakov Gataulin Alexandra Marinova Evgueni Smirnov Andrey Vrabiy Andrey Suprunovich Gennady Khubulava

This paper presents the experience of using the V Flow high-frame-rate ultrasound vector imaging method to study the pulsatile velocity fields in the area of the proximal anastomosis for femoral popliteal bypass surgery in vitro and in vivo. A representative (average) anastomosis model and the experimental setup designed for in vitro studies covering forward and reverse flow phases throughout the cycle are described. The results of the measurements are presented for areas with a relatively uniform velocity distribution and for areas with pronounced spatial inhomogeneities due to the jet or recirculating nature of the flow. The results of ultrasonic studies of the velocity field of the three-dimensional pulsatile flow in vitro and in vivo are compared with the data of numerical simulations carried out for the average and personalized models based on the Navier&ndash;Stokes equations. Acceptable consistency between the results of experimental and numerical studies is demonstrated.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030063

Authors: Stefan Heinz

The discovery of the law of the wall, the log-law including the von K&aacute;rm&aacute;n constant, is seen to be one of the biggest accomplishments of fluid mechanics. However, after more than ninety years, there is still a controversial debate about the validity and universality of the law of the wall. In particular, evidence in favor of a universal log-law was recently questioned by data analyses of the majority of existing direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experimental results, arguing in favor of nonuniversality of the law of the wall. Future progress requires it to resolve this discrepancy: in absence of alternatives, a reliable and universal theory involving the law of the wall is needed to provide essential guideline for the validation of theory, computational methods, and experimental studies of very high Reynolds number flows. This paper presents an analysis of concepts used to derive controversial conclusions. Similar to the analysis of observed variations of the Kolmogorov constant, it is shown that nonuniversality is a consequence of simplified modeling concepts, leading to unrealizable models. Realizability implies universality: there is no need to adjust simplified models to different flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030062

Authors: Antonios Liakopoulos Apostolos Palasis

Data obtained using direct numerical simulations (DNS) of pressure-driven turbulent channel flow are studied in the range 180 &le;Re&tau;&le; 10,000. Reynolds number effects on the mean velocity profile (MVP) and second order statistics are analyzed with a view of finding logarithmic behavior in the overlap region or even further from the wall, well in the boundary layer&rsquo;s outer region. The values of the von K&aacute;rm&aacute;n constant for the MVPs and the Townsend&ndash;Perry constants for the streamwise and spanwise fluctuation variances are determined for the Reynolds numbers considered. A data-driven model of the MVP, proposed and validated for zero pressure-gradient flow over a flat plate, is employed for pressure-driven channel flow by appropriately adjusting Coles&rsquo; strength of the wake function parameter, &Pi;. There is excellent agreement between the analytic model predictions of MVP and the DNS-computed MVP as well as of the Reynolds shear stress profile. The skin friction coefficient Cf is calculated analytically. The agreement between the analytical model predictions and the DNS-based computed discrete values of Cf is excellent.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030061

Authors: Rim Elfahem Bastien Bouchet Boussad Abbes Fabien Legrand Guillaume Polidori Fabien Beaumont

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is a therapeutic practice involving brief exposure to extreme cold, typically lasting one to four minutes. Given that WBC sessions often occur in groups, there is a hypothesis that cumulative heat dissipation from the group significantly affects the thermo-aerodynamic conditions of the cryotherapy chamber. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is employed to investigate thermal exchanges between three subjects (one man, two women) and a cryotherapy chamber at &minus;92 &deg;C during a 3-minute session. The investigation reveals that collective body heat loss significantly influences temperature fields within the cabin, causing global modifications in aerodynamic and thermal conditions. For example, a temperature difference of 6.7 &deg;C was calculated between the average temperature in a cryotherapy chamber with a single subject and that with three subjects. A notable finding is that, under an identical protocol, the thermal response varies among individuals based on their position in the chamber. The aerodynamic and thermal characteristics of the cryotherapy chamber impact the heat released at the body&rsquo;s surface and the skin-cooling rate needed to achieve recommended analgesic thresholds. This study highlights the complexity of physiological responses in WBC and emphasizes the importance of considering individual positions within the chamber for optimizing therapeutic benefits.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030060

Authors: Trygve K. Løken David Lande-Sudall Atle Jensen Jean Rabault

The motivation for this study is to investigate the abilities and limitations of a Nortek Signature1000 acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) regarding fine-scale turbulence measurements. Current profilers offer the advantage of gaining more coherent measurement data than available with point acoustic measurements, and it is desirable to exploit this property in laboratory and field applications. The ADCP was tested in a towing tank, where turbulence was generated from a grid towed under controlled conditions. Grid-induced turbulence is a well-studied phenomenon and a good approximation for isotropic turbulence. Several previous experiments are available for comparison and there are developed theories within the topic. In the present experiments, a Nortek Vectrino acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV), which is an established instrument for turbulence measurements, was applied to validate the ADCP. It was found that the mean flow measured with the ADCP was accurate within 4% of the ADV. The turbulent variance was reasonably well resolved by the ADCP when large grid bars were towed at a high speed, but largely overestimated for lower towing speed and smaller grid bars. The effective cutoff frequency and turbulent eddy size were characterized experimentally, which provides detailed guidelines for when the ADCP data can be trusted and will allow future experimentalists to decide a priori if the Nortek Signature can be used in their setup. We conclude that the ADCP is not suitable for resolving turbulent spectra in a small-scale grid-induced flow due to the intrinsic Doppler noise and the low spatial and temporal sample resolution relative to the turbulent scales.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030059

Authors: Zhiyong Wang Bing Yan Haoquan Wang

Particle concentration is an important parameter for describing the state of gas&ndash;solid two-phase flow. This study compares the performance of three methods, namely, Back-Propagation Neural Networks (BPNNs), Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), in handling gas&ndash;solid two-phase flow data. The experiment utilized seven parameters, including temperature, humidity, upstream and downstream sensor signals, delay, pressure difference, and particle concentration, as the dataset. The evaluation metrics, such as prediction accuracy, were used for comparative analysis by the experimenters. The experiment results indicate that the prediction accuracies of the RNN, LSTM, and BPNN experiments were 92.4%, 92.7%, and 92.5%, respectively. Future research can focus on further optimizing the performance of the BPNN, RNN, and LSTM to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of gas&ndash;solid two-phase flow data processing.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030058

Authors: Safa A. Najim Deepak Meerakaviyad Kul Pun Paul Russell Poo Balan Ganesan David Hughes Faik A. Hamad

Accurate visualization of bubbles in multiphase flow is a crucial aspect of modeling heat transfer, mixing, and turbulence processes. It has many applications, including chemical processes, wastewater treatment, and aquaculture. A new software, Flow_Vis, based on experimental data visualization, has been developed to visualize the movement and size distribution of bubbles within multiphase flow. Images and videos recorded from an experimental rig designed to generate microbubbles were analyzed using the new software. The bubbles in the fluid were examined and found to move with different velocities due to their varying sizes. The software was used to measure bubble size distributions, and the obtained results were compared with experimental measurements, showing reasonable accuracy. The velocity measurements were also compared with literature values and found to be equally accurate.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030057

Authors: Kamil Urbanowicz Arris S. Tijsseling

The work and life of Ippolit Stepanovich Gromeka is reviewed. Gromeka authored a classical set of eleven papers on fluid dynamics in just ten years before a tragic illness ended his life. Sadly, he is not well known to the western scientific community because all his publications were written in Russian. He is one of the three authors who independently derived an analytical solution for accelerating laminar pipe flow. He was the first to eliminate the contradiction between the theories of Young and Laplace on capillary phenomena. He initiated the theoretical basis of helical (Beltrami) flow, and he studied the movement of cyclones and anticyclones seventeen years before Zermelo (whose work is considered as pioneering). He is also the first to analyse wave propagation in liquid-filled hoses, thereby including fluid&ndash;structure interaction.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030056

Authors: Nasrin Sahranavardfard Damien Aubagnac-Karkar Gabriele Costante Faniry N. Z. Rahantamialisoa Chaouki Habchi Michele Battistoni

Machine learning based on neural networks facilitates data-driven techniques for handling large amounts of data, either obtained through experiments or simulations at multiple spatio-temporal scales, thereby finding the hidden patterns underlying these data and promoting efficient research methods. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the capabilities of a new solver called realFluidReactingNNFoam, under development at the University of Perugia, in OpenFOAM with a neural network algorithm for replacing complex real-fluid thermophysical property evaluations, using the approach of coupling OpenFOAM and Python-trained neural network models. Currently, neural network models are trained against data generated using the Peng&ndash;Robinson equation of state assuming a mixture&rsquo;s frozen temperature. The OpenFOAM solver, where needed, calls the neural network models in each grid cell with appropriate inputs, and the returned results are used and stored in suitable OpenFOAM data structures. Such inference for thermophysical properties is achieved via the &ldquo;Neural Network Inference in C made Easy (NNICE)&rdquo; library, which proved to be very efficient and robust. The overall model is validated considering a liquid-rocket benchmark comprised of liquid-oxygen (LOX) and gaseous-hydrogen (GH2) streams. The model accounts for real-fluid thermodynamics and transport properties, making use of the Peng&ndash;Robinson equation of state and the Chung transport model. First, the development of a real-fluid model with an artificial neural network is described in detail. Then, the numerical results of the transcritical mixing layer (LOX/GH2) benchmark are presented and analyzed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. The results of the overall implementation indicate that the combined OpenFOAM and machine learning approach provides a speed-up factor higher than seven, while preserving the original solver accuracy.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030055

Authors: Maximilian Thormann Janneck Stahl Laurel Marsh Sylvia Saalfeld Nele Sillis Andreas Ding Anastasios Mpotsaris Philipp Berg Daniel Behme

Due to their effect on aneurysm hemodynamics, flow diverters (FD) have become a routine endovascular therapy for intracranial aneurysms. Since over- and undersizing affect the device&rsquo;s hemodynamic abilities, selecting the correct device diameter and accurately simulating FD placement can improve patient-specific outcomes. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of virtual flow diverter deployments in the novel Derivo&reg; 2 device. We retrospectively analyzed blood flows in ten FD placements for which 3D DSA datasets were available pre- and post-intervention. All patients were treated with a second-generation FD Derivo&reg; 2 (Acandis GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany) and post-interventional datasets were compared to virtual FD deployment at the implanted position for implanted stent length, stent diameters, and curvature analysis using ANKYRAS (Galgo Medical, Barcelona, Spain). Image-based blood flow simulations of pre- and post-interventional configurations were conducted. The mean length of implanted FD was 32.61 (&plusmn;11.18 mm). Overall, ANKYRAS prediction was good with an average deviation of 8.4% (&plusmn;5.8%) with a mean absolute difference in stent length of 3.13 mm. There was a difference of 0.24 mm in stent diameter amplitude toward ANKYRAS simulation. In vessels exhibiting a high degree of curvature, however, relevant differences between simulated and real-patient data were observed. The intrasaccular blood flow activity represented by the wall shear stress was qualitatively reduced in all cases. Inflow velocity decreased and the pulsatility over the cardiac cycle was weakened. Virtual stenting is an accurate tool for FD positioning, which may help facilitate flow FDs&rsquo; individualization and assess their hemodynamic impact. Challenges posed by complex vessel anatomy and high curvatures must be addressed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030054

Authors: Clive B. Beggs Rabia Abid Fariborz Motallebi Abdus Samad Nithya Venkatesan Eldad J. Avital

COVID-19 is an airborne disease, with the vast majority of infections occurring indoors. In comparison, little transmission occurs outdoors. Here, we investigate the airborne transmission pathways that differentiate the indoors from outdoors and conclude that profound differences exist, which help to explain why SARS-CoV-2 transmission is much more prevalent indoors. Near- and far-field transmission pathways are discussed along with factors that affect infection risk, with aerosol concentration, air entrainment, thermal plumes, and occupancy duration all identified as being influential. In particular, we present the fundamental equations that underpin the Wells&ndash;Riley model and show the mathematical relationship between inhaled virus particles and quanta of infection. A simple model is also presented for assessing infection risk in spaces with incomplete air mixing. Transmission risk is assessed in terms of aerosol concentration using simple 1D equations, followed by a description of thermal plume&ndash;ceiling interactions. With respect to this, we present new experimental results using Schlieren visualisation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on the Eulerian&ndash;Lagrangian approach. Pathways of airborne infection are discussed, with the key differences identified between indoors and outdoors. In particular, the contribution of thermal and exhalation plumes is evaluated, and the presence of a near-field/far-field feedback loop is postulated, which is absent outdoors.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030053

Authors: Mathew Bussière Guilherme M. Bessa Charles R. Koch David S. Nobes

To investigate the vortical wake pattern generated by water flow past an oscillating symmetric airfoil, using experimental velocity fields from particle image velocimetry (PIV), a novel combinatorial vortex detection (CVD) algorithm is developed. The primary goal is to identify and characterize vortices within the wake. Experimental flows introduce complexities not present in numerical simulations, posing challenges for vortex detection. The proposed CVD approach offers a more robust alternative, excelling in both vortex detection and quantification of essential parameters, unlike widely-used methods such as Q-criterion, &lambda;2-criterion, and &Delta;-criterion, which rely on subjective and arbitrary thresholds resulting in uncertainty. The CVD algorithm effectively characterizes the airfoil wake, identifying and analyzing vortices aligning with the Burgers model. This research enhances understanding of wake phenomena and showcases the algorithm&rsquo;s potential as a valuable tool for vortex detection and characterization, particularly for experimental fluid dynamics. It provides a comprehensive, robust, and non-arbitrary approach, overcoming limitations of traditional methods and opening new avenues for studying complex flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9030052

Authors: Mae Sementilli Rozie Zangeneh James Chen

Kelvin&ndash;Helmholtz instability has been studied extensively in 2D. This study attempts to address the influence of turbulent flow and cross perturbation on the growth rate of the instability and the development of mixing layers in 3D by means of direct numerical simulation. Two perfect gases are considered to be working fluids moving as opposite streams, inducing shear instability at the interface between the fluids and resulting in Kelvin&ndash;Helmholtz instability. The results show that cross perturbation affects the instability by increasing the amplitude growth while adding turbulence has almost no effect on the amplitude growth. Furthermore, by increasing the turbulence intensity, a more distinct presence of the inner flow can be seen in the mixing layer of the two phases, and the presence of turbulence expands the range of high-frequency motion significantly due to turbulence structures. The results give a basis for which 3D Kelvin&ndash;Helmholtz phenomena should be further investigated using numerical simulation for predictive modeling, beyond the use of simplified 2D theoretical models.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020051

Authors: Rention Pasolari Carlos Simão Ferreira Alexander van Zuijlen Carlos Fernando Baptista

The past few decades have witnessed a growing popularity in Eulerian&ndash;Lagrangian solvers due to their significant potential for simulating aerodynamic flows, particularly in cases involving strong body&ndash;vortex interactions. In this hybrid approach, the two component solvers are mutually coupled in a two-way fashion. Initially, the Lagrangian solver can supply boundary conditions to the Eulerian solver, while the Eulerian solver functions as a corrector for the Lagrangian solution in regions where the latter cannot achieve high accuracy. To utilize such tools effectively, it is vital for them to be capable of handling dynamic mesh movements. This study builds upon the previous research conducted by our team and extends the capabilities of the hybrid solver to handle dynamic meshes. While OpenFOAM, the Eulerian component of this hybrid code, incorporates built-in dynamic mesh properties, certain modifications are necessary to ensure its compatibility with the Lagrangian solver. More specifically, the evolution algorithm of the pimpleFOAM solver needs to be divided into two discrete steps: first, updating the mesh, and later, evolving the solution. This division enables a proper coupling between pimpleFOAM and the Lagrangian solver as an intermediate step. Therefore, the primary objective of this specific paper is to adapt the OpenFOAM solver to meet the demands of the hybrid solver and subsequently validate that the hybrid solver can effectively address dynamic mesh challenges using this approach. This approach introduces a pioneering method for conducting dynamic mesh simulations within the OpenFOAM framework, showcasing its potential for broader applications. To validate the approach, various test cases involving dynamic mesh movements are employed. Specifically, all these cases employ the Lamb&ndash;Oseen diffusing vortex, but each case incorporates different types of mesh movements, including translational, rotational, oscillational, and combinations thereof. The results from these cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed OpenFOAM algorithm, with the maximum relative errors &mdash;when compared to the analytical solution across all presented cases&mdash;capped at 2.0% for the worst-case scenario. This affirms the algorithm&rsquo;s capability to successfully handle dynamic mesh simulations with the proposed solver.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020050

Authors: Suvash C. Saha Isabella Francis Goutam Saha Xinlei Huang Md. Mamun Molla

Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) present a formidable public health concern due to their propensity for localized, anomalous expansion of the abdominal aorta. These insidious dilations, often in their early stages, mask the life-threatening potential for rupture, which carries a grave prognosis. Understanding the hemodynamic intricacies governing AAAs is paramount for predicting aneurysmal growth and the imminent risk of rupture. Objective: Our extensive investigation delves into this complex hemodynamic environment intrinsic to AAAs, utilizing comprehensive numerical analyses of the physiological pulsatile blood flow and realistic boundary conditions to explore the multifaceted dynamics influencing aneurysm rupture risk. Our study introduces novel elements by integrating these parameters into the overall context of aneurysm pathophysiology, thus advancing our understanding of the intricate mechanics governing their evolution and rupture. Methods: Conservation of mass and momentum equations are used to model the blood flow in an AAAs, and these equations are solved using a finite volume-based ANSYS Fluent solver. Resistance pressure outlets following a three-element Windkessel model were imposed at each outlet to accurately model the blood flow and the AAAs&rsquo; shear stress. Results: Our results uncover elevated blood flow velocities within an aneurysm, suggesting an augmented risk of future rupture due to increased stress in the aneurysm wall. During the systole phase, high wall shear stress (WSS) was observed, typically associated with a lower risk of rupture, while a low oscillatory shear index (OSI) was noted, correlating with a decreased risk of aneurysm expansion. Conversely, during the diastole phase, low WSS and a high OSI were identified, potentially weakening the aneurysm wall, thereby promoting expansion and rupture. Conclusion: Our study underscores the indispensable role of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques in the diagnostic, therapeutic, and monitoring realms of AAAs. This body of research significantly advances our understanding of aneurysm pathophysiology, thus offering pivotal insights into the intricate mechanics underpinning their progression and rupture, informing clinical interventions and enhancing patient care.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020049

Authors: Gustavo Gómez Francisco José Higuera Florencio Sánchez-Silva Abraham Medina

Using linear elasticity theory, we describe the mechanical response of dry non-cohesive granular masses of Ottawa sand contained by spherical rubber balloons subject to sudden bursting in the earliest instants of the event. Due to the compression imposed by the balloon, the rupture produces a fast radial expansion of the sand front that depends on the initial radius R0, the initial pressure p originated by the balloon, and the effective modulus of compression Ke. The hydrostatic compression approximation allows for the theoretical study of this problem. We found a linear decompression wave that travels into the sand and that induces a radial expansion of the granular front in the opposite direction with similar behavior to the wave but with a slightly lower speed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020048

Authors: Natasha Singh Vivek Narsimhan

Surface rheology becomes important for droplets with adsorbed proteins, solid particulates, lipids, or polymers, and understanding how surface rheology alters basic droplet processes like coalescence provides insight into the processing of dispersions in industrial and biological systems. In this work, we model the approach of two equal-size deformable droplets under an axisymmetric, biaxial extensional flow in the Stokes flow limit. We explore how the viscosity contrast between the drop and suspending fluid alters the film drainage behaviour when interfacial viscosity is present. For a clean droplet at a fixed capillary number, the drainage time is observed to be independent of the viscosity ratio (&lambda;) for &lambda;&le;O(1), while the drainage increases linearly with the viscosity ratio for &lambda;&ge;O(1). Surface viscosity increases the drainage time by causing the thin film between the droplets to flatten and widen, and shifts the viscosity ratio at which the aforementioned scaling behaviour changes to larger values. The drainage time is increased more significantly at lower viscosity ratio values than higher values. In the second half of the paper, we examine how surface viscosity alters film drainage when the surfactant can be soluble. We examine the kinetically controlled adsorption/desorption limit. We find that surfactant solubility abolishes surface tension gradients and increases the prominence of surface viscosity effects, the effects of which are quantified for Boussinesq numbers Bq&sim;O(0.1).

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020047

Authors: Vladimir Kossov Dauren Zhakebayev Olga Fedorenko Ainur Zhumali

This study discusses the influence of the composition of a ternary gas mixture on the possibility of occurrence of convective instability under isothermal conditions due to the difference in the diffusion abilities of the components. A numerical study was carried out to study the change in &ldquo;diffusion&ndash;concentration gravitational convection&rdquo; modes in an isothermal three-component gas mixture He + CO2 &minus; N2. The mixing process in the system under study was modeled at different initial carbon dioxide contents. To carry out a numerical experiment, a mathematical algorithm based on the D2Q9 model of lattice Boltzmann equations was used for modeling the flow of gases. We show that the model presented in the paper allows one to study the occurrence of convective structures at different heavy component contents (carbon dioxide). It has been established that in the system under study, the instability of the mechanical equilibrium occurs when the content of carbon dioxide in the mixture is more than 0.3 mole fractions. The characteristic times for the onset of convective instability and the subsequent creation of structural formations, the values of which depend on the initial content of carbon dioxide in the mixture, have been determined. Distributions of concentration, pressure and kinetic energy that allow one to specify the types of mixing and explain the occurrence of convection for a situation where, at the initial moment of time, the density of the gas mixture in the upper part of the diffusion channel is less than in the lower one, were obtained.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020046

Authors: John V. Shebalin

We review and extend the theory of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The theory contains a solution to the &lsquo;dynamo problem&rsquo;, i.e., the problem of determining how a planetary or stellar body produces a global dipole magnetic field. We extend the theory to the case of ideal MHD turbulence with a mean magnetic field that is aligned with a rotation axis. The existing theory is also extended by developing the thermodynamics of ideal MHD turbulence based on entropy. A mathematical model is created by Fourier transforming the MHD equations and dynamical variables, resulting in a dynamical system consisting of the independent Fourier coefficients of the velocity and magnetic fields. This dynamical system has a large but finite-dimensional phase space in which the phase flow is divergenceless in the ideal case. There may be several constants of the motion, in addition to energy, which depend on the presence, or lack thereof, of a mean magnetic field or system rotation or both imposed on the magnetofluid; this leads to five different cases of MHD turbulence that must be considered. The constants of the motion (ideal invariants)&mdash;the most important being energy and magnetic helicity&mdash;are used to construct canonical probability densities and partition functions that enable ensemble predictions to be made. These predictions are compared with time averages from numerical simulations to test whether or not the system is ergodic. In the cases most pertinent to planets and stars, nonergodicity is observed at the largest length-scales and occurs when the components of the dipole field become quasi-stationary and dipole energy is directly proportional to magnetic helicity. This nonergodicity is evident in the thermodynamics, while dipole alignment with a rotation axis may be seen as the result of dynamical symmetry breaking, i.e., &lsquo;broken ergodicity&rsquo;. The relevance of ideal theoretical results to real (forced, dissipative) MHD turbulence is shown through numerical simulation. Again, an important result is a statistical solution of the &lsquo;dynamo problem&rsquo;.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020045

Authors: Tomáš Jirout Adam Krupica Alexandr Kolomijec

This study connects and compares the results from two different rheological measurement techniques, namely, the slump test and rotational rheometry, on UHPC (Ultra-High-Performance Concrete) through the use of commercially available numerical simulation software ANSYS Fluent 2022 R2. The workability and resulting mechanical properties of the UHPC (a material used in construction) are highly dependent on its rheology and, hence, also on the composition and level of homogeneity of the assessed mixture. It is generally understood that the most suitable rheological model for concrete mixtures is the Hershel&ndash;Bulkley model. However, obtaining reliable rheological data is complicated as the wide-gap rotational rheometers developed for concrete show bias in their measurements even on precise laboratory equipment, while common industrial tests, such as the slump test, do not produce the usual shear rate&ndash;shear stress relation and, hence, do not allow for more complex analysis. Recently, a new methodology for the rheological measurement of non-Newtonian fluids that utilises a simple power input&ndash;rotation speed measurement was published. However, in this study, only model liquids were evaluated, and the method was not validated for more complex fluids such as pastes. Therefore, it was the goal of this study to show this method&rsquo;s suitability for fine pastes through a comparison with the slump test, using numerical simulation.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020044

Authors: Pasquale Borriello Emma Frosina Pierpaolo Lucchesi Adolfo Senatore

This research conducts a comprehensive comparative analysis of simulation methodologies for spindle pumps, with a specific focus on steady-state CFD, transient-CFD, and lumped-parameter approaches. Spindle pumps, renowned for their reliability, efficiency, and low noise emission, play a pivotal role in Thermal Management for Battery Electric Vehicles, aligning with the automotive industry&rsquo;s commitment to reducing pollutants and CO2 emissions. The study is motivated by the critical need to curtail energy consumption during on-the-road operations, particularly as the automotive industry strives for enhanced efficiency. While centrifugal pumps are commonly employed for such applications, their efficiency is highly contingent on rotational speed, leading to energy wastage in real-world scenarios despite high efficiency at the design point. Consequently, the adoption of precisely designed spindle pumps for thermal management systems emerges as a viable solution to meet evolving industry needs. Recognizing the profound impact of simulation tools on the design and optimization phases for pump manufacturers, this research emphasizes the significance of fast and accurate simulation tools. Transient-CFD emerges as a powerful Tool, enabling real-time monitoring of various performance indicators, while steady-CFD, with minimal simplifications, adeptly captures pressure distribution and machine leakages. Lumped-parameter approaches, though requiring effort in simulation setup and simplifying input geometry, offer rapid computational times and comprehensive predictions, including leakages, Torque, cavitation, and pressure ripple. Breaking new ground, this paper presents, for the first time in the literature, accurate simulation models for the same reference machine using the aforementioned methodologies. The results were rigorously validated against experiments spanning a wide range of pump speeds and pressure drops. The discussion encompasses predicted flow, Torque, cavitation, and pressure ripple, offering valuable insights into the strengths and limitations of each methodology.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020043

Authors: Julien Sirois Marlène Sanjosé Fabian Sanchez Vladimir Brailovski

The work presented here aims to provide design guidelines to create vortex-damping structures. A design of experiment was developed to investigate the individual and combined effects of the geometrical properties of planar regular grid structures, i.e., the wire diameter, the porosity, and the inter-grid spacing, on their vortex-breakdown performance. The simulations were carried out using a commercial unsteady RANS solver. The model relies on the Von Karman street effect to generate vortices in a pipe which are convected downstream, where they interact with an array of grids. The vortex-breakdown efficiency is characterized by the pressure drop, the residual turbulent kinetic energy, the flow homogeneity, and the size of the transmitted vortices. The wire diameter is shown to be an important design lever as it affects the level of distortion of the transmitted vortices. Increasing the number of grids augments the pressure loss, but their contribution to vortex breakdown is otherwise limited when the wire diameter is small. The influence of grid spacing strongly depends on the wire diameter and grid alignment. For instance, minimizing this gap reduces the pressure drop for the inline configurations, but increases the pressure drop for the offset configurations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020042

Authors: Liyuan Liu Umair Ahmed Nilanjan Chakraborty

Turbulent heat transfer in channel flows is an important area of research due to its simple geometry and diverse industrial applications. Reynolds-Averaged Navier&ndash;Stokes (RANS) models are the most-affordable simulation methodology and are often the only viable choice for investigating industrial flows. However, accurate modelling of wall-bounded flows is challenging in RANS, and the assessment of the performance of RANS models for heated turbulent channel flow has not been sufficiently investigated for a wide range of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. In this study, five RANS models are assessed for their ability to predict heat transfer in channel flows across a wide range of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers (Pr) by comparing the RANS results with respect to the corresponding Direct Numerical Simulation data. The models include three Eddy Viscosity Models (EVMs): standard k&minus;&#1013;, low Reynolds number k&minus;&#1013;LS, and k&minus;&omega;SST, as well as two Reynolds Stress Models (RSMs): Launder&ndash;Reece&ndash;Rodi and Speziale&ndash;Sarkar&ndash;Gatski models. The study analyses the Reynolds number effects on turbulent heat transfer in a channel flow at a Pr of 0.71 for friction Reynolds number values of 180,395,640, and 1020. The results show that all models accurately predict velocity across all Reynolds numbers, but the accuracy of mean temperature prediction drops with increasing Reynolds number for all models, except for the k&minus;&omega;SST model. The study also analyses the Pr effects on turbulent heat transfer in a channel flow with Pr values between 0.025 and 10.0. An error analysis is performed on the results obtained from different turbulence models, and it is shown that the k&minus;&omega;SST model has the smallest error for the predictions of the mean temperature and Nusselt number for high-Prandtl-number flows, while the low Reynolds number k&minus;&#1013;LS model shows the smallest errors for low-Prandtl-number flows at different Reynolds numbers. An analytical solution is utilised to identify Pr effects on forced convection in a channel flow into three different regimes: analytical region, transitional region, and turbulent diffusion-dominated region. These regimes are helpful to discuss the validity of the models in relation to the Pr. The findings of this paper provide insights into the performance of different RANS models for heat transfer predictions in a channel flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020041

Authors: Sina Safaei Carsten Mehring

In this work, we investigate the effect of dissolved gas concentration on cavitation inception and cavitation development in a transparent sharp-edged orifice, similar to that previously analyzed by Nurick in the context of liquid injectors. The working liquid is water, and carbon dioxide is employed as a non-condensable dissolved gas. Cavitation inception points are determined for different dissolved gas concentration levels by measuring wall-static pressures just downstream of the orifice contraction and visually observing the onset of a localized (vapor) bubble cloud formation and collapse. Cavitation onset correlates with a plateau in wall-static pressure measurements as a function of a cavitation number. An increase in the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide is found to increase the cavitation number at which the onset of cavitation occurs. The transition from cloud cavitation to extended-sheet or full cavitation along the entire orifice length occurs suddenly and is shifted to higher cavitation numbers with increasing dissolved gas content. Volume flow rate measurements are performed to determine the change in the discharge coefficient with the cavitation number and dissolved gas content for the investigated cases. CFD analyses are carried out based on the cavitation model by Zwart et al. and the model by Yang et al. to account for non-condensable gases. Discharge coefficients obtained from the numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental values, although they are slightly higher in the cavitating case. The earlier onset of fluid cavitation (i.e., cavitation inception at higher cavitation numbers) with increasing dissolved carbon dioxide content is not predicted using the employed numerical model.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020040

Authors: Steven Cryer John Raymond

The atomization of liquid spray solutions through nozzles is a mechanism for delivering many pesticides to the target. The smallest drop sizes (&lt;150 &mu;m) are known as driftable fines and have a propensity for wind-induced convection. Many agricultural applications include oil-in-water formulations. The experimental metrics obtained from spray images of these formulations include the distance from the nozzle origin to the drop centroid once a drop has formed; the hole location and surface area for holes that form in the liquid sheet (all hole areas approximated as polygons); the angles formed between polygon segments (whose vertices are represented as boundary points); and the ligament dimensions that form from intersecting holes, such as the ligament aspect ratio (R/L), ligament length (L), and ligament radius (width), along with the number of drops a ligament breaks up into. These metrics were used in a principal component regression (PCR) analysis, and the results illustrated that 99% of the variability in the response variable (DT10) was addressed by 10 principal components. Angles formed by the colliding holes, hole distance from the nozzle, drop distance, hole number, ligament number, and drop number were negatively correlated to the atomization driftable fine fraction, while hole area, ligament distance, ligament area, and boundary area were positively correlated. Thus, to decrease/minimize driftable fines, one needs to increase the negatively correlated metrics.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020039

Authors: Difei Xiao Zhiyong Hao Tongming Zhou Hongjun Zhu

Offshore pipelines of different diameters are often seen in piggyback arrangements in close proximity. Under the effects of external flows, the pipelines may experience vibration. Reliable prediction of the vibration amplitudes is important for the design and operation of these structures. In the present study, the effect of the position angle (&alpha;) and gap ratio (G/D) of a piggyback pipeline on the amplitude of 1DOF vortex-induced vibration (VIV) was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The diameter ratio d/D of the two cylinders was 0.5. Five position angles, namely, &alpha; = 0&deg;, 45&deg;, 90&deg;, 135&deg;, and 180&deg;, and six gap ratios at each angle, G/D = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, were tested. It was found that both &alpha; and G/D affected the amplitude of vibrations significantly. For all gap ratios, the amplitude of vibrations increased from &alpha; = 0&deg; to &alpha; = 90&deg; and then decreased to a minimum value around &alpha; = 135&deg;. The maximum amplitude occurred around &alpha; = 90&deg; when G/D = 0, and the minimum occurred around &alpha; = 135&deg;, when G/D = 0.2&ndash;0.3. At other position angles, the vibration amplitude was less sensitive to G/D, especially when the latter was between 0.1 and 0.4. These results verified those obtained using numerical methods and are invaluable to engineers when designing offshore piggyback pipelines.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020038

Authors: Yong G. Lai Jianchun Huang Blair P. Greimann

This article provides a comprehensive review and best practices for numerically simulating hydraulic flushing for reservoir sediment management. Three sediment flushing types are discussed: drawdown flushing, pressure flushing, and turbidity current venting. The need for reservoir sediment management and the current practices are reviewed. Different hydraulic drawdown types are described in terms of the basic physical processes involved as well as the empirical/analytical assessment tools that may be used. The primary focus has been on the numerical modeling of various hydraulic flushing options. Three model categories are reviewed: one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged or layer-averaged, and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. General guidelines are provided on how to select a proper model given the characteristics of the reservoir and the flushing method, as well as specific guidelines for modeling. Case studies are also presented to illustrate the guidelines.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020037

Authors: Keiya Tomioka Tomohiro Fukui

A solvent in suspension often has non-Newtonian properties. To date, in order to determine these properties, many constitutive equations have been suggested. In particular, power-law fluid, which describes both dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids, has been used in many previous studies because of its simplicity. Then, the Herschel&ndash;Bulkley model is used, which describes fluid with yield stress. In this study, we considered how a non-Newtonian solvent affected the equilibrium position of a particle and relative viscosity using the regularized lattice Boltzmann method for fluid and a two-way coupling scheme for the particle. We focused on these methods so as to evaluate the non-Newtonian effects of a solvent. The equilibrium position in Bingham fluid was closer to the wall than that in Newtonian or power-law fluid. In contrast, the tendency of relative viscosity in Bingham fluid for each position was similar to that in power-law fluid.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020036

Authors: Georgios C. Florides Georgios C. Georgiou Michael Modigell Eugenio José Zoqui

We propose a methodology for the rheological characterization of a semisolid metal slurry using experimental squeeze-flow data. The slurry is modeled as a structural thixotropic viscoplastic material, obeying the regularized Herschel&ndash;Bulkley constitutive equation. All rheological parameters are assumed to vary with the structure parameter that is governed by first-order kinetics accounting for the material structure breakdown and build-up. The squeeze flow is simulated using finite elements in a Lagrangian framework. The evolution of the sample height has been studied for wide ranges of the Bingham and Reynolds numbers, the power-law exponent as well as the kinetics parameters of the structure parameter. Systematic comparisons have been carried out with available experimental data on a semisolid aluminum alloy (A356), where the sample is compressed from its top side under a specified strain of 80% at a temperature of 582 &deg;C, while the bottom side remains fixed. Excellent agreement with the experimental data could be achieved provided that at the initial instances (up to 0.01 s) of the experiment, the applied load is much higher than the nominal experimental load and that the yield stress and the power-law exponent vary linearly with the structure parameter. The first assumption implies that a different model, such as an elastoviscoplastic one, needs to be employed during the initial stages of the experiment. As for the second one, the evolution of the sample height can be reproduced allowing the yield stress to vary from 0 (no structure) to a maximum nominal value (full structure) and the power-law exponent from 0.2 to 1.4, i.e., from the shear-thinning to the shear-thickening regime. These variations are consistent with the internal microstructure variation pattern known to be exhibited by semisolid slurries.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020035

Authors: Subodh Guragain Norio Tanaka

One of the major problems associated with bridge piers is ensuring their safety against local scouring caused by the erosive action of flow. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and tested to solve this problem, among which sacrificial piles are highly recognized due to their high performance, economy, durability, and ease of construction. Several factors affect the performance of sacrificial piles, such as their number, size, degree of submergence, and geometric arrangement parameters. In this study, the performance of a group of linearly arranged cylindrical sacrificial piles in reducing local scour around a circular bridge pier was investigated by varying the number of piles (or sheltering area) and distance between piles and the pier under clear-water conditions. Three values of distance between piles and the pier and three values of sheltering area (or number of piles) were tested. The efficiencies of sacrificial piles in different configurations were presented in terms of the percentage reduction in maximum scour depth at an unprotected pier under the same hydraulic conditions. The results of this experiment show that when linearly arranged sacrificial piles are placed close to the pier (at distance D; D is the pier diameter), an increase in the number of piles (or sheltered area) results in an increased scour depth, and when placed far from the pier (2D and 3D), an increase in the number of piles results in a decrease in scour depth around the pier. In addition, for 40% and 60% sheltering conditions, scour depth increased with an increase in the spacing between piles and the pier, while for 80% sheltering conditions, optimum protection was observed at a distance of 2D. Overall, two piles placed at distance D provided optimum protection with a scour depth reduction of 41.6%, while minimum protection was recorded when the same were placed at a spacing of 3D from the pier (25.5%).

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020034

Authors: Nils Tångefjord Basse

This review is a first attempt at bringing together various concepts from research on wall- and magnetically-bounded turbulent flows. Brief reviews of both fields are provided: The main similarities identified are coherent (turbulent) structures, flow generation, and transport barriers. Examples are provided and discussed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020033

Authors: Ebenezer Mayowa Adebayo Panagiotis Tsoutsanis Karl W. Jenkins

Cavitation resulting from underwater explosions in compressible multiphase or multicomponent flows presents significant challenges due to the dynamic nature of shock&ndash;cavitation&ndash;structure interactions, as well as the complex and discontinuous nature of the involved interfaces. Achieving accurate resolution of interfaces between different phases or components, in the presence of shocks, cavitating regions, and structural interactions, is crucial for modeling such problems. Furthermore, pressure convergence in simulations involving shock&ndash;cavitation&ndash;structure interactions requires accurate algorithms. In this research paper, we employ the diffuse interface method, also known as the interface-capturing scheme, to investigate cavitation in various underwater explosion test cases near different surfaces: a free surface and a rigid surface. The simulations are conducted using the unstructured compressible Navier&ndash;Stokes (UCNS3D) finite-volume framework employing central-weighted essentially non-oscillatory (CWENO) reconstruction schemes, utilizing the five-equation diffuse interface family of methods. Quantitative comparisons are made between the performance of both models. Additionally, we examine the effects of cavitation as a secondary loading source on structures, and evaluate the ability of the CWENO schemes to accurately capture and resolve material interfaces between fluids with minimal numerical dissipation or smearing. The results are compared with existing high-order methods and experimental data, where possible, to demonstrate the robustness of the CWENO schemes in simulating cavitation bubble dynamics, as well as their limitations within the current implementation of interface capturing.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020032

Authors: Daniel B. V. Santos Gustavo P. Oliveira Norberto Mangiavacchi Prashant Valluri Gustavo R. Anjos

This work&rsquo;s goal is to numerically investigate the interactions between two gas bubbles in a fluid flow in a circular cross-section channel, both in the presence and in the absence of gravitational forces, with several Reynolds and Weber numbers. The first bubble is placed at the center of the channel, while the second is near the wall. Their positions are set in such a way that a dynamic interaction is expected to occur due to their velocity differences. A finite element numerical tool is utilized to solve the incompressible Navier&ndash;Stokes equations and simulate two-phase flow using an unfitted mesh to represent the fluid interface, akin to the front-tracking method. The results show that the velocity gradient influences bubble shapes near the wall. Moreover, lower viscosity and surface tension force account for more significant interactions, both in the bubble shape and in the trajectory. In this scenario, it can be observed that one bubble is trapped in the other&rsquo;s wake, with the proximity possibly allowing the onset of coalescence. The results obtained contribute to a deeper understanding of two-phase inner flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9020031

Authors: Yongtao Wang Zhiteng Zhou Zhuoyu Xie

Mosquitoes&rsquo; self-generated air movements around their antennae, especially at the wing-beat frequency, are crucial for both obstacle avoidance and mating communication. However, the characteristics of these air movements are not well clarified. In this study, the air movements induced by wing tones (sound generated by flapping wings in flight) around the antennae of a mosquito-like model (Culex quinquefasciatus, male) are investigated using the acoustic analogy method. Both the self-generated wing tone and the wing tone reflected from the ground are calculated. Given that the tiny changes in direction and magnitude of air movements can be detected by the mosquito&rsquo;s antennae, a novel method is introduced to intuitively characterize the air movements induced by the wing tone. The air movements are decomposed into two basic modes (oscillation and revolution). Our results show that, without considering the scattering on the mosquito&rsquo;s body, the self-generated sound wave of the wing-beat frequency around the antennae mainly induces air oscillation, with the velocity amplitude exceeding the mosquito&rsquo;s hearing threshold of the male wingbeat frequency by two orders of magnitude. Moreover, when the model is positioned at a distance from the ground greater than approximately two wing lengths, the reflected sound wave at the male wingbeat frequency attenuates below the hearing threshold. That is, the role of reflected wing tone in the mosquito&rsquo;s obstacle avoidance mechanism appears negligible. Our findings and method may provide insight into how mosquitoes avoid obstacles when their vision is unavailable and inspire the development of collision avoidance systems in micro-aerial vehicles.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010030

Authors: Jesus Gonzalez-Trejo Raul Miranda-Tello Ruslan Gabbasov Cesar A. Real-Ramirez Francisco Cervantes-de-la-Torre

This work studies how the sliding-gate valve (SGV) modifies the features and the dynamic behavior of the outlet jets for flat-bottom and well-bottom bifurcated submerged entry nozzles (SENs) used in continuous casting machines. Three conditions for the SGV were studied: no obstruction, moderate obstruction, and severe obstruction. The experimental study used a scaled model, employing cold water as the working fluid. A high-frequency analysis of the flow inside the SEN&rsquo;s bore arriving at the outlet ports was performed by employing the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Low-frequency measurements of the volumetric flow at the exit port were obtained by splitting the exit jet into four quadrants and employing digital flowmeters. It was observed that reducing the SGV clearance increases the turbulence of the flow inside the SEN bore, but the flow displays ordered rather than erratic fluctuations. Flowmeter measurements showed that, regardless of the level of obstruction in the SGV, the outlet jets on flat-bottom and the well-bottom SENs have dynamic behaviors and features with significant differences. This finding is relevant because the flow distribution inside the outlet ports is directly related to the jet&rsquo;s wideness, affecting the recirculation pattern inside the mold and, therefore, the quality of the finished steel slab.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010029

Authors: Hamid Reza Zandi Pour Michele Iovieno

We present an analysis of the effect of particle inertia and thermal inertia on the heat transfer in a turbulent shearless flow, where an inhomogeneous passive temperature field is advected along with inertial point particles by a homogeneous isotropic velocity field. Eulerian&ndash;Lagrangian direct numerical simulations are carried out in both one- and two-way coupling regimes and analyzed through single-point statistics. The role of particle inertia and thermal inertia is discussed by introducing a new decomposition of particle second-order moments in terms of correlations involving Lagrangian acceleration and time derivative of particles. We present how particle relaxation times mediate the level of particle velocity&ndash;temperature correlation, which gives particle contribution to the overall heat transfer. For each thermal Stokes number, a critical Stokes number is individuated. The effect of particle feedback on the attenuation or enhancement of fluid temperature variance is presented. We show that particle feedback enhances fluid temperature variance for Stokes numbers less than one and damps is for larger than one Stokes number, regardless of the thermal Stokes number, even if this effect is amplified by an increasing thermal inertia.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010028

Authors: Kai Huang Louis Benteux Wenhu Han Damir M. Valiev

The understanding of the boundary layer flame flashback (BLF) has considerably improved in recent decades, driven by the increasing focus on clean energy and the need to address the operational issues associated with flashback. This study investigates the influence of the Lewis number (Le) on symmetric flame shapes under the critical conditions for a laminar boundary layer flashback in cylindrical tubes. It has been found that the transformation of the flame shape from a mushroom to a tulip happens in a tube of a given radius, as the thermal expansion coefficient and Le are modified. A smaller Lewis number results in a local increase in the burning rate at the flame tip, with the flame being able to propagate closer to the wall, which significantly increases the flashback propensity, in line with previous findings. In cases with a Lewis number smaller than unity, a higher thermal expansion results in a flame propagation happening closer to the wall, thus facing a weaker oncoming flow and, consequently, becoming more prone to flashback. For Le &gt; 1, the effect of the increase in the thermal expansion coefficient on the flashback tendency is much less pronounced.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010027

Authors: Leonardo Geronzi Benigno Marco Fanni Bart De Jong Gerben Roest Sasa Kenjeres Simona Celi Marco Evangelos Biancolini

The treatment for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease relies on forced inhalation of drug particles. Their distribution is essential for maximizing the outcomes. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can be used to optimize these therapies. In this regard, this study focuses on creating a parametric model of the human respiratory tract from which synthetic anatomies for particle deposition analysis through CFD simulation could be derived. A baseline geometry up to the fourth generation of bronchioles was extracted from a CT dataset. Radial basis function (RBF) mesh morphing acting on a dedicated tree structure was used to modify this baseline mesh, extracting 1000 synthetic anatomies. A total of 26 geometrical parameters affecting branch lengths, angles, and diameters were controlled. Morphed models underwent CFD simulations to analyze airflow and particle dynamics. Mesh morphing was crucial in generating high-quality computational grids, with 96% of the synthetic database being immediately suitable for accurate CFD simulations. Variations in wall shear stress, particle accretion rate, and turbulent kinetic energy across different anatomies highlighted the impact of the anatomical shape on drug delivery and deposition. The study successfully demonstrates the potential of tree-structure-based RBF mesh morphing in generating parametric airways for drug delivery studies.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010026

Authors: Pavel Bulat Pavel Chernyshov Nikolay Prodan Konstantin Volkov

The article explores flow behavior around thick airfoils at low Reynolds numbers and the potential application of energy methods to manipulate the flow field for increased lift and reduced drag. The study relies on a set of propulsion airfoils calculated using a combined approach of solving the inverse problem of aerodynamics and applying stochastic global optimization methods. The calculations consider the transition from laminar to turbulent flow regimes, which significantly affects lift and airfoil drag. The suitability of different turbulence models for airfoil modeling in low Reynolds numbers is discussed, and numerical simulation results determine the lift coefficient dependence on angle of attack and the optimal air flow rate taken from the airfoil surface for each angle of attack. The accuracy of different turbulence models is analyzed by comparing numerical simulation results to physical experiment data.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010025

Authors: Stefan Heinz

Our ability to reliably and efficiently predict complex high-Reynolds-number (Re) turbulent flows is essential for dealing with a large variety of problems of practical relevance. However, experiments as well as computational methods such as direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) face serious questions regarding their applicability to high Re turbulent flows. The most promising option to create reliable guidelines for experimental and computational studies is the use of analytical conclusions. An essential criterion for the reliability of such analytical conclusions is the inclusion of a physically plausible explanation of the asymptotic turbulence regime at infinite Re in consistency with observed physical requirements. Corresponding analytical results are reported here for three canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows: channel flow, pipe flow, and the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. The asymptotic structure of the mean velocity and characteristic turbulence velocity, length, and time scales is analytically determined. In outer scaling, a stable asymptotic mean velocity distribution is found corresponding to a linear probability density function of mean velocities along the wall-normal direction, which is modified through wake effects. Turbulence tends to decay in this regime. In inner scaling, the mean velocity is governed by a universal log-law. Turbulence does survive in an infinitesimally thin layer very close to the wall.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010024

Authors: Vincent Proulx-Cabana Guilhem Michon Eric Laurendeau

The aim of this article is to investigate the parameter sensitivity of the (Non-Linear) Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method-Vortex Particle Method [(NL-)UVLM-VPM] with Particle Strength Exchange-Large Eddy Simulations (PSE-LES) method on a lower Reynolds number rotor. The previous work detailed the method, but introduced parameters whose influence were not investigated. Most importantly, the Vreman model coefficient was chosen arbitrarily and was not suitable to ensure stability for this lower Reynolds number rotor simulation. In addition, the previous work presented a consistency study where geometry and time discretization were refined simultaneously. The present article starts with a comparative literature review of potential methods used to solve the aerodynamics of an isolated hovering rotor. This review highlights the differences in modeling, discretizations, sensitivity analysis, validation cases, and the results chosen by the different studies. Then, a transparent and thorough parametric study of the method is presented alongside discussions of the observed results and their physical interpretation regarding the flow. The sensitivity analysis is performed for the three free parameters of UVLM, namely Vatistas core size, the geometry and the temporal discretizations, and then for the three additional parameters introduced by UVLM-VPM, which are the Vreman model coefficient, the particle spacing, and the conversion time. The effect of different databases in the non-linear coupling is also shown. The method is shown to be consistent with both geometry and temporal refinements. It is also consistent with the expected behavior of the different parameters change, including the numerical stability that depends on the strength of the LES diffusion controlled by the Vreman model coefficient. The effect of discretization refinement presented here not only shows the integrated coefficients where different errors can cancel each other, but also looks at their convergence and where relevant, the distributed loads and tip singularity position. Finally, the aerodynamics results of the method are compared for different databases and with higher fidelity Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier&ndash;Stokes (URANS) 3D results on a lower Reynolds number rotor.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010023

Authors: Eric Cayeux

Some non-Newtonian fluids have time-dependent rheological properties like a shear stress that depends on the shear history or a stress overshoot that is a function of the resting time, when fluid movement is started. The rheological properties of such complex fluids may not stay constant while they are used in an industrial process, and it is therefore desirable to measure these properties frequently and with a simple and robust device like a pipe rheometer. This paper investigated how the time-dependent rheological properties of a thixotropic and viscoelastic shear-thinning fluid can be extracted from differential pressure measurements obtained at different flowrates along a circular pipe section. The method consists in modeling the flow of a thixotropic version of a Quemada fluid and solving the inverse problem in order to find the model parameters using the measurements made in steady-state conditions. Also, a Maxwell linear viscoelastic model was used to reproduce the stress overshoot observed when starting circulation after a resting period. The pipe rheometer was designed to have the proper features necessary to exhibit the thixotropic and viscoelastic effects that were needed to calibrate the rheological model parameters. The accuracy of rheological measurements depends on understanding the effects that can influence the observations and on a proper design that takes advantage of these side effects instead of attempting to eliminate them.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010022

Authors: Adeyemi Fagbade Stefan Heinz

The usual concept of simulation methods for turbulent flows is to impose a certain (partial) flow resolution. This concept becomes problematic away from limit regimes of no or an almost complete flow resolution: discrepancies between the imposed and actual flow resolution may imply an unreliable model behavior and high computational cost to compensate for simulation deficiencies. An exact mathematical approach based on variational analysis provides a solution to these problems. Minimal error continuous eddy simulation (CES) designed in this way enables simulations in which the model actively responds to variations in flow resolution by increasing or decreasing its contribution to the simulation as required. This paper presents the first application of CES methods to a moderately complex, relatively high Reynolds number turbulent flow simulation: the NASA wall-mounted hump flow. It is shown that CES performs equally well or better than almost resolving simulation methods at a little fraction of computational cost. Significant computational cost and performance advantages are reported in comparison to popular partially resolving simulation methods including detached eddy simulation and wall-modeled large eddy simulation. Characteristic features of the asymptotic flow structure are identified on the basis of CES simulations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010021

Authors: Enif Gutiérrez Saul Garcia-Hernandez Rodolfo Morales Davila Jose de Jesus Barreto

The continuous casting tundish is non-isothermal due to heat losses and temperature variation from the inlet stream, which generate relevant convection forces. This condition is commonly avoided through qualitative fluid dynamic analysis only. This work searches to establish the conditions for which non-isothermal simulations are mandatory or for which isothermal simulations are enough to accurately describe the fluid dynamics inside the tundish by quantifying the buoyant and inertial forces. The mathematical model, simulated by CFD software, considers the Navier-Stokes equations, the realizable k-&epsilon; model for solving the turbulence, and the Lagrangian discrete phase to track the inclusion trajectories. The results show that temperature does not significantly impact the volume fraction percentages or the mean residence time results; nevertheless, bigger velocity magnitudes under non-isothermal conditions than in isothermal conditions and noticeable changes in the fluid dynamics between isothermal and non-isothermal cases in all the zones where buoyancy forces dominate over inertial forces were observed. Because of the results, it is concluded that isothermal simulations can accurately describe the flow behavior in tundishes when the flow control devices control the fluid dynamics, but simulations without control devices or with a weak fluid dynamic dependence on the control devices require non-isothermal simulations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010020

Authors: Abulhassan Ali Nawal Noshad Abhishek Kumar Suhaib Umer Ilyas Patrick E. Phelan Mustafa Alsaady Rizwan Nasir Yuying Yan

The use of nanofluids in heat transfer applications has significantly increased in recent times due to their enhanced thermal properties. It is therefore important to investigate the flow behavior and, thus, the rheology of different nanosuspensions to improve heat transfer performance. In this study, the viscosity of a BN-diamond/thermal oil hybrid nanofluid is predicted using four machine learning (ML) algorithms, i.e., random forest (RF), gradient boosting regression (GBR), Gaussian regression (GR) and artificial neural network (ANN), as a function of temperature (25&ndash;65 &deg;C), particle concentration (0.2&ndash;0.6 wt.%), and shear rate (1&ndash;2000 s&minus;1). Six different error matrices were employed to evaluate the performance of these models by providing a comparative analysis. The data were randomly divided into training and testing data. The algorithms were optimized for better prediction of 700 experimental data points. While all ML algorithms produced R2 values greater than 0.99, the most accurate predictions, with minimum error, were obtained by GBR. This study indicates that ML algorithms are highly accurate and reliable for the rheological predictions of nanofluids.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010019

Authors: Emilia-Georgiana Prisăcariu Tudor Prisecaru

Throughout many decades, the Schlieren visualization method has been mainly used as means to visualize transparent flows in a qualitative manner. The images recorded provide data regarding the existence of the flow, or illustrate predicted flow geometries and details. The colored Schlieren method has been developed in the late 1890s and has always had the intent to provide quantitative data rather than qualitative pictures of the studied phenomena. This paper centers on applying a quantitative color Schlieren method to help determine the gasodynamic parameters of an H2&ndash;O2 exhaust jet, developing in air. A comparison between the parameters obtained through calibrating the color filter for the Schlieren method and the results from a CFD simulation is performed to assess the range of the CS (color Schlieren) measurement. This paper&rsquo;s findings address the issues of calibrated color filter Schlieren encounter during its implementation and discusses possible errors appearing when the method is applied to a 3D flow. While the qualitative Schlieren images are still impressive to observe, the quantitative Schlieren presents challenges and a low measurement accuracy (75%) when applied to 3D flows and compared to 2D cases found in the literature (97&ndash;98%).

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010018

Authors: Rakesh Ranjan Lucia Catabriga Guillermo Araya

The solution of compressible flow equations is of interest with many aerospace engineering applications. Past literature has focused primarily on the solution of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) problems with low-order finite element and finite volume methods. High-order methods are more the norm nowadays, in both a finite element and a finite volume setting. In this paper, inviscid compressible flow of an ideal gas is solved with high-order spectral/hp stabilized formulations using uniform high-order spectral element methods. The Euler equations are solved with high-order spectral element methods. Traditional definitions of stabilization parameters used in conjunction with traditional low-order bilinear Lagrange-based polynomials provide diffused results when applied to the high-order context. Thus, a revision of the definitions of the stabilization parameters was needed in a high-order spectral/hp framework. We introduce revised stabilization parameters, &tau;supg, with low-order finite element solutions. We also reexamine two standard definitions of the shock-capturing parameter, &delta;: the first is described with entropy variables, and the other is the YZ&beta; parameter. We focus on applications with the above introduced stabilization parameters and analyze an array of problems in the high-speed flow regime. We demonstrate spectral convergence for the Kovasznay flow problem in both L1 and L2 norms. We numerically validate the revised definitions of the stabilization parameter with Sod&rsquo;s shock and the oblique shock problems and compare the solutions with the exact solutions available in the literature. The high-order formulation is further extended to solve shock reflection and two-dimensional explosion problems. Following, we solve flow past a two-dimensional step at a Mach number of 3.0 and numerically validate the shock standoff distance with results obtained from NASA Overflow 2.2 code. Compressible flow computations with high-order spectral methods are found to perform satisfactorily for this supersonic inflow problem configuration. We extend the formulation to solve the implosion problem. Furthermore, we test the stabilization parameters on a complex flow configuration of AS-202 capsule analyzing the flight envelope. The proposed stabilization parameters have shown robustness, providing excellent results for both simple and complex geometries.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010017

Authors: Reza Hassanian Nashmin Yeganeh Morris Riedel

This study proposes a computational model to define the wind velocity of the environment on the photovoltaic (PV) module via heat transfer concepts. The effect of the wind velocity and PV module is mostly considered a cooling effect. However, cooling and controlling the PV module temperature leads to the capability to optimize the PV module efficiency. The present study applied a nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) condition of the PV module as a reference condition to determine the wind velocity and PV module temperature. The obtained model has been examined in contrast to the experimental heat transfer equation and outdoor PV module performance. The results display a remarkable matching of the model with experiments. The model&rsquo;s novelty defines the PV module temperature in relation to the wind speed, PV module size, and various ambient temperatures that were not included in previous studies. The suggested model could be used in PV module test specification and provide analytical evaluation.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010016

Authors: Luca Del Zanna Simone Landi Lorenzo Serafini Matteo Bugli Emanuele Papini

The numerical study of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plays a crucial role in high-energy astrophysics but unfortunately is computationally demanding, given the complex physics involved (high Lorentz factor flows, extreme magnetization, and curved spacetimes near compact objects) and the large variety of spatial scales needed to resolve turbulent motions. A great benefit comes from the porting of existing codes running on standard processors to GPU-based platforms. However, this usually requires a drastic rewriting of the original code, the use of specific languages like CUDA, and a complex analysis of data management and optimization of parallel processes. Here, we describe the porting of the ECHO code for special and general relativistic MHD to accelerated devices, simply based on native Fortran language built-in constructs, especially do concurrent loops, few OpenACC directives, and straightforward data management provided by the Unified Memory option of NVIDIA compilers. Thanks to these very minor modifications to the original code, the new version of ECHO runs at least 16 times faster on GPU platforms as compared to CPU-based ones. The chosen benchmark is the 3D propagation of a relativistic MHD Alfv&eacute;n wave, for which strong and weak scaling tests performed on the LEONARDO pre-exascale supercomputer at CINECA are provided (using up to 256 nodes corresponding to 1024 GPUs, and over 14 billion cells). Finally, an example of high-resolution relativistic MHD Alfv&eacute;nic turbulence simulation is shown, demonstrating the potential for astrophysical plasmas of the new GPU-based version of ECHO.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010015

Authors: Aldo Tamburrino

The article presents a summarised history of the equations governing fluid motion, known as the Navier&ndash;Stokes equations. It starts with the work of Castelli, who established the continuity equation in 1628. The determination of fluid flow resistance was a topic that involved the brightest minds of the 17th and 18th centuries. Navier&rsquo;s contribution consisted of the incorporation of molecular attraction effects into Euler&rsquo;s equation, giving rise to an additional term associated with resistance. However, his analysis was not the only one. This continued until 1850, when Stokes firmly established the boundary conditions that must be applied to the differential equations of motion, specifically stating the non-slip condition of the fluid in contact with a solid surface. With this article, the author wants to commemorate the bicentennial of the publication of &ldquo;Sur les Lois du Mouvement des Fluides&rdquo; by Navier in the M&eacute;moires de l&rsquo;Acad&eacute;mie Royale des Sciences de l&rsquo;Institut de France.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010014

Authors: Yannick Duensing Amos Merkel Katharina Schmitz

In pursuit of advancing the development of more electric aircraft, the present research explores the forefront capabilities of electro-hydrostatic actuators (EHAs) as potential replacements for conventional hydraulic flight control systems. EHAs are currently used primarily as backup options due to their limited durability. As of now, the high dynamic axial piston pump is the main cause of the limited longevity of the EHA, due to strong tribological wear. The primary objective of this investigation is the identification of parameters and pump behavior to determine the current wear of the pump, as well as providing valuable insights into run-ins, temperature dependencies, and wear-related efficiency losses for future pump improvements. In the scope of this paper, the design of EHAs is explained in detail and the impact of challenging working conditions on the health status of the pump by comprehensive analysis of load-holding modes is examined. The experimental data for analysis is conducted on a longevity test bench with test profiles specifically designed to simulate real-world operational scenarios.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010013

Authors: Jesudoss Aservitham Jeyaraj Anthony Perez Abla Zayed Austin Gray Mullins Andres E. Tejada-Martinez

Drilled shafts are cylindrical, cast-in-place concrete deep foundation elements. During construction, anomalies in drilled shafts can occur due to the kinematics of concrete, flowing radially from the center of the shaft to the concrete cover region at the peripheral edge. This radial component of concrete flow develops veins or creases of poorly cemented or high water-cement ratio material, as the concrete flows around the reinforcement cage of rebars and ties, jeopardizing the shaft integrity. This manuscript presents a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the non-Newtonian concrete flow in drilled shaft construction developed using the finite volume method with interface tracking based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The non-Newtonian behavior of the concrete is represented via the Carreau constitutive model. The model results are encouraging as the flow obtained from the simulations shows patterns of both horizontal and vertical creases in the concrete cover region, consistent with previously reported field and laboratory experiments. Moreover, the flow exhibits the concrete head differential developed between the inside and the outside of the reinforcement cage, as exhibited in the physical experiments. This head differential induces the radial component of the concrete flow responsible for the creases that develop in the concrete cover region. Results show that the head differential depends on the flowability of the concrete, consistent with field observations. Less viscous concrete tends to reduce the head differential and the formation of creases of poorly cemented material. The model is unique, making use of state-of-the-art numerical techniques and demonstrating the capability of CFD to model industrially relevant concrete flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010012

Authors: Hiroki Yamaguchi Gota Kikugawa

Thermal transpiration flow, a flow from cold to hot, driven by a temperature gradient along a wall under a high Knudsen number condition, was studied using the molecular dynamics method with a two-dimensional channel consisting of infinite parallel plates with nanoscale clearance based on our previous study. To accelerate the numerical analysis, a dense gas was employed in our previous study. In this study, the influence of the number density of gas was investigated by varying the height of the channel while keeping the number of molecules to achieve the flow ranging from dense to dilute gas while maintaining a constant Knudsen number. From the flow velocity profile compared to the number density profile, the thermal transpiration flow was observed for all number density conditions from dense to dilute gas. A similar flow structure was exhibited regardless of the number density. Thus, the numerical analysis in a dense gas condition is considered to be valid and useful for analyzing the thermal transpiration flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010011

Authors: Yasmeen Jojo-Cunningham Xipeng Guo Chenn Zhou Yun Liu

Ladle metallurgy serves as a crucial component of the steelmaking industry, where it plays a pivotal role in manipulating the molten steel to exercise precise control over its composition and properties. Turbulence in ladle metallurgy influences various important aspects of the steelmaking process, including mixing and distribution of additives, alongside the transport and removal of inclusions within the ladle. Consequently, gaining a clear understanding of the stirred flow field holds the potential of optimizing ladle design, improving control strategies, and enhancing the overall efficiency and steel quality. In this project, an advanced Particle-Tracking-Velocimetry system known as &ldquo;Shake-the-Box&rdquo; is implemented on a cylindrical water ladle model while compressed air injections through two circular plugs positioned at the bottom of the model are employed to actively stir the flow. To mitigate the particle images distortion caused by the cylindrical plexi-glass walls, the method of refractive matching is utilized with an outer polygon tank filled with a sodium iodide solution. The volumetric flow measurement is achieved on a 6 &times; 6 &times; 2 cm domain between the two plugs inside the cylindrical container while the flow rate of gas injection is set from 0.1 to 0.4 L per minute. The volumetric flow field result suggests double gas injection at low flow rate (0.1 L per minute) produce the least disturbed flow while highly disturbed and turbulent flow can be created at higher flow rate of gas injection.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010010

Authors: Ratka Hoferick Holger Schönherr Stéphan Barbe

This research explores the two-phase flow behavior involved in enhanced dense phase carbon dioxide inactivation of E. coli DH5&alpha;, which has been shown to possess a high microbial reduction efficiency of up to 3.7 &plusmn; 0.4 log. We present an experiment in which the liquid sample was pressurized with liquid carbon dioxide to 8.2 MPa and, after saturation, was forced to flow through a mini tube. An experimental setup was developed to visualize the flow patterns (plug, slug and churn flows) occurring in the mini tube by means of high-speed imaging. The values of the wall shear stress were estimated within the mini tube with the help of the gas slug velocities (8&ndash;9 m/s) and were compared with threshold shear stress values reported for the disruption of fresh E. coli cells. The results suggest that the preliminary pressurization phase may cause a substantial destabilization of the cell wall of E. coli DH5&alpha;.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010009

Authors: Kian Barari Xiuhua Si Jinxiang Xi

Elevated face temperature due to mask wearing can cause discomfort and skin irritation, making mask mandates challenging. When thermal discomfort becomes intolerable, individuals instinctively or unknowingly loosen or remove their facemasks, compromising the mask&rsquo;s protective efficacy. The objective of this study was to numerically quantify the microclimate under the mask and facial thermoregulation when wearing a surgical mask with different levels of misfit. An integrated ambient&ndash;mask&ndash;face&ndash;airway computational model was developed with gaps of varying sizes and locations and was validated against complementary experiments. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k-&omega; turbulence model with porous media was used to simulate transient respiratory flows. Both skin convective heat transfer and tissue heat generation were considered in thermoregulation under the facemask, besides the warm air exhaled from the body and the cool air inhaled from the ambient. The results of this study showed that when wearing a surgical mask with a perfect fit under normal breathing, the temperature at the philtrum increased by 4.3 &deg;C compared to not wearing a mask. A small gap measuring 0.51 cm2 (gap A) at the nose top resulted in 5.6% leakage but reduced the warming effect by 28% compared to zero gap. Meanwhile, a gap of 4.3 cm2 (R1L1) caused 42% leakage and a 62% reduction in the warming effect. Unique temporospatial temperature profiles were observed at various sampling points and for different gap sizes, which correlated reasonably with the corresponding flow dynamics, particularly close to the gaps. The temperature change rate also exhibited patterns unique to the gap site and sampling point, with distinctive peaks occurring during the inspiratory&ndash;expiratory flow transitions. These results have the significant implications that by using the temporospatial temperature profiles at several landmark points, the gap location can potentially be pinpointed, and the gap size and leakage fractions can be quantified.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010008

Authors: Mohammadamin Ghasemzadeh Alidad Amirfazli

Laminar flow aircraft may potentially save fuel and reduce the emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases. However, laminar flow aircraft face challenges caused by contaminations on the wings, such as insect impact residue. To study insect residue on an aircraft airfoil, a new setup was developed that used rotary wings and shot an insect toward the leading edge. This setup kept insects intact before impact while airflow was maintained throughout the experiment. Additionally, the setup enabled the long-term observation of the impact residue while the test speed was adjusted. Two experiments were carried out to investigate inconsistencies from past studies about insect rupture velocity and the effect of airflow on residue. Drosophila Hydei was the insect used, and aluminum was used as the baseline substrate, which was also coated with polyurethane, acrylic, and two superhydrophobic coatings. Instead of a threshold velocity for the minimum rupture velocity of the insect, a range from initial insect rupture to the velocity at which insects ruptured in all instances was determined (i.e., 17&ndash;30 m/s). Furthermore, the presence of a coating (polyurethane) on the airfoil did not affect the minimum rupture velocity. It was observed that airflow, which has been previously mentioned as a mitigation method, did not change the residue amount after coagulation for all coatings.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010007

Authors: Julien Carlier Miltiadis V. Papalexandris

In this article, we report on numerical simulations of laminar Rayleigh&ndash;B&eacute;nard convection of air in cuboids. We provide numerical evidence of the existence of multiple steady states when the aspect ratio of the cuboid is sufficiently large. In our simulations, the Rayleigh number is fixed at Ra=1.7&times;104. The gas in the cube is initially at rest but subject to random small-amplitude velocity perturbations and an adverse temperature gradient. When the flow domain is a cube, i.e., the aspect ratio is equal to unity, there is only one steady state. This state is characterized by the development of a single convective roll and by a symmetric normalized temperature profile with respect to the mid-height. On the contrary, when the aspect ratio is equal to 2, there are five different steady states. Only one of them exhibits a symmetric temperature profile and flow structure. The other four steady states are characterized by two-roll configurations and asymmetric temperature profiles.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010006

Authors: Alexander Nepomnyashchy Ilya Simanovskii

We investigate the dynamics and instabilities of a droplet that floats on a liquid substrate. The substrate is cooled from below. In the framework of the slender droplet approximation and the precursor model, the problem is studied numerically. Oscillatory and stationary regimes of thermocapillary convection have been observed. The influence of a two-dimensional spatial inhomogeneity of temperature on the droplet dynamics is investigated. The two-dimensional spatial temperature inhomogeneity can suppress oscillations, changing the droplet&rsquo;s shape. In a definite region of parameters, the two-dimensional spatial modulation can lead to the excitation of periodic oscillations. The influence of the Biot number on the shape of the droplets is studied.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010005

Authors: Grigorios Chrimatopoulos Efstratios E. Tzirtzilakis Michalis A. Xenos

Many problems in fluid mechanics describe the change in the flow under the effect of electromagnetic forces. The present study explores the behaviour of an electric conducting, Newtonian fluid flow applying the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and ferrohydrodynamics (FHD) principles. The physical problems for such flows are formulated by the Navier&ndash;Stokes equations with the conservation of mass and energy equations, which constitute a coupled non-linear system of partial differential equations subject to analogous boundary conditions. The numerical solution of such physical problems is not a trivial task due to the electromagnetic forces which may cause severe disturbances in the flow field. In the present study, a numerical algorithm based on a finite volume method is developed for the solution of such problems. The basic characteristics of the method are, the set of equations is solved using a simultaneous direct approach, the discretization is achieved using the finite volume method, and the solution is attained solving an implicit non-linear system of algebraic equations with intense source terms created by the non-uniform magnetic field. For the validation of the overall algorithm, comparisons are made with previously published results concerning MHD and FHD flows. The advantages of the proposed methodology are that it is direct and the governing equations are not manipulated like other methods such as the stream function vorticity formulation. Moreover, it is relatively easily extended for the study of three-dimensional problems. This study examines the Hartmann flow and the fluid flow with FHD principles, that formulate MHD and FHD flows, respectively. The major component of the Hartmann flow is the Hartmann number, which increases in value the stronger the Lorentz forces are, thus the fluid decelerates. In the case of FHD fluid flow, the major finding is the creation of vortices close to the external magnetic field source, and the stronger the magnetic field of the source, the larger the vortices are.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010004

Authors: Maria Vasilyeva Nana Adjoah Mbroh Mehrube Mehrubeoglu

In this work, we present a lower-dimensional model for flow and transport problems in thin domains with rough walls. The full-order model is given for a fully resolved geometry, wherein we consider Stokes flow and a time-dependent diffusion&ndash;convection equation with inlet and outlet boundary conditions and zero-flux boundary conditions for both the flow and transport problems on domain walls. Generally, discretizations of a full-order model by classical numerical schemes result in very large discrete problems, which are computationally expensive given that sufficiently fine grids are needed for the approximation. To construct a computationally efficient numerical method, we propose a model-order-reduction numerical technique to reduce the full-order model to a lower-dimensional model. The construction of the lower-dimensional model for the flow and the transport problem is based on the finite volume method and the concept of numerical averaging. Numerical results are presented for three test geometries with varying roughness of walls and thickness of the two-dimensional domain to show the accuracy and applicability of the proposed scheme. In our numerical simulations, we use solutions obtained from the finite element method on a fine grid that can resolve the complex geometry at the grid level as the reference solution to the problem.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010003

Authors: Alexey V. Bulanov Ekaterina V. Sosedko Vladimir A. Bulanov Igor V. Korskov

The acoustic properties of real liquids are largely related to the phase inclusions contained in them, of which gas bubbles are the most common. The aim of the work was to find the relationship between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the cavitation strength of the liquid with the distribution of bubbles in the liquid, which has so far been poorly studied. The theoretical studies of the parameter of acoustic nonlinearity and the cavitation strength of a liquid with bubbles were carried out within the framework of the homogeneous approximation of a micro-homogeneous liquid; the relationship of these parameters with the bubble distribution function was established, and the typical values of these parameters for different concentrations of bubbles were calculated. Experimental measurements of the parameter of acoustic nonlinearity and the cavitation strength in the upper layer of seawater were carried out; these measurements were consistent with the theoretical estimates. A connection was established between the thresholds of acoustic and optical cavitation&mdash;the optical breakdown of a liquid by laser radiation. The results obtained can find practical application in the measurement of the cavitation strength of seawater at great depths in the sea, and the use of an optoacoustic method associated with the use of optical cavitation is proposed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010002

Authors: Enbao Cao Zbigniew J. Kabala

Metachrony is defined as coordinated asynchronous movement throughout multiple appendages, such as the cilia of cells and swimmerets of crustaceans. Used by species of crustaceans and microscopic cells to move through fluid, the process of metachronal propulsion was investigated. A rigid crustacean model with paddles moving in symmetric strokes was created to simulate metachronal movement. Coupled with the surrounding fluid domain, the immersed boundary method was employed to analyze the fluid&ndash;structure interactions. To explore the effect of a nonlinear morphology on the efficiency of metachronal propulsion, a range of crustacean body shapes was generated and simulated, from upward curves to downward curves. The highest propulsion velocity was found to be achieved when the crustacean model morphology was a downward curve, specifically a parabola of leading coefficient k = &minus;0.4. This curved morphology resulted in a 4.5% higher velocity when compared to the linear model. As k deviated from &minus;0.4, the propulsion velocity decreased with increasing magnitude, forming a concave downward trend. The impact of body shape on propulsion velocity is shown by how the optimal velocity with k = &minus;0.4 is 71.5% larger than the velocity at k = 1. Overall, this study suggests that morphology has a significant impact on metachronal propulsion.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids9010001

Authors: Pablo Jeken-Rico Aurèle Goetz Philippe Meliga Aurélien Larcher Yigit Özpeynirci Elie Hachem

Hemodynamic simulations are increasingly used to study vascular diseases such as Intracranial Aneurysms (IA) and to further develop treatment options. However, due to limited data, certain aspects must rely on heuristics, especially at the simulation&rsquo;s distal ends. In the literature, Murray&rsquo;s Law is often used to model the outflow split based on vessel cross-section area; however, this poses challenges for the communicating arteries in the Circle of Willis (CoW). In this study, we contribute by assessing the impact of Murray&rsquo;s Law in patient-specific geometries featuring IA at the posterior communication. We simulate different domain extensions representing common modelling choices and establish Full CoW simulations as a baseline to evaluate the effect of these modelling assumptions on hemodynamic indicators, focusing on IA growth and rupture-related factors such as the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI). Our findings reveal qualitative alterations in hemodynamics when not modeling posterior communication. Comparisons between computing the anterior circulation and computing the whole Circle of Willis reveal that quantitative changes in WSS may reach up to 80%, highlighting the significance of modelling choices in assessing IA risks and treatment strategies.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids8120323

Authors: Amirhossein Mollaali Izzet Sahin Iqrar Raza Christian Moya Guillermo Paniagua Guang Lin

In the pursuit of accurate experimental and computational data while minimizing effort, there is a constant need for high-fidelity results. However, achieving such results often requires significant computational resources. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a deep operator learning-based framework that requires a limited high-fidelity dataset for training. We introduce a novel physics-guided, bi-fidelity, Fourier-featured deep operator network (DeepONet) framework that effectively combines low- and high-fidelity datasets, leveraging the strengths of each. In our methodology, we begin by designing a physics-guided Fourier-featured DeepONet, drawing inspiration from the intrinsic physical behavior of the target solution. Subsequently, we train this network to primarily learn the low-fidelity solution, utilizing an extensive dataset. This process ensures a comprehensive grasp of the foundational solution patterns. Following this foundational learning, the low-fidelity deep operator network&rsquo;s output is enhanced using a physics-guided Fourier-featured residual deep operator network. This network refines the initial low-fidelity output, achieving the high-fidelity solution by employing a small high-fidelity dataset for training. Notably, in our framework, we employ the Fourier feature network as the trunk network for the DeepONets, given its proficiency in capturing and learning the oscillatory nature of the target solution with high precision. We validate our approach using a well-known 2D benchmark cylinder problem, which aims to predict the time trajectories of lift and drag coefficients. The results highlight that the physics-guided Fourier-featured deep operator network, serving as a foundational building block of our framework, possesses superior predictive capability for the lift and drag coefficients compared to its data-driven counterparts. The bi-fidelity learning framework, built upon the physics-guided Fourier-featured deep operator, accurately forecasts the time trajectories of lift and drag coefficients. A thorough evaluation of the proposed bi-fidelity framework confirms that our approach closely matches the high-fidelity solution, with an error rate under 2%. This confirms the effectiveness and reliability of our framework, particularly given the limited high-fidelity dataset used during training.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids8120322

Authors: Jeff Howell Daniel Butcher Martin Passmore

Wheels and wheelhouses are a significant source of aerodynamic drag on passenger cars. The use of air jets, in the form of an air curtain, to smooth the airflow around front wheel housings on cars has become common practice, as it produces a small drag benefit. This paper reports an initial small-scale wind tunnel study of an air jet employed as an effective wheel spoiler to reduce the drag produced by the front wheels and wheel housings of passenger cars. For this investigation, the air jet was created using an external compressed-air supply and was applied to a highly simplified car body shape. The data presented suggest that the air jet has some potential as a drag-reduction device.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids8120321

Authors: Yonghu Wang Chengcheng Duan Xinyu Huang Juan Zhao Ran Zheng Haiping Li

Using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for bridge inspection is becoming increasingly popular due to its ability to improve efficiency and ensure the safety of monitoring personnel. Compared to traditional manual monitoring methods, UAV inspections are a safer and more efficient alternative. This paper examines the impact of meteorological conditions on UAV-based bridge monitoring during specific tasks, with the aim of enhancing the safety of the UAV&rsquo;s costly components. The wake vortex behind a bridge structure can vary over time due to airflow, which can have a direct impact on the safety of UAV flights. To assess this impact, numerical analysis is conducted based on monitoring requirements specific to different tasks, taking into account wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature. In order to optimize UAV trajectory, it is important to consider the wake vortex intensity and its associated influence region, which can pose a potential danger to UAV flight. Additionally, the analysis should take into account the aerodynamic effects of different types of bridge columns on the wake vortex. An optimization algorithm was utilized to optimize the trajectory of a UAV during bridge inspections within the safe region affected by wind fields. This resulted in the determination of an effective and safe flight path. The study reveals that varying wind speeds have an impact on the safe flight zone of UAVs, even if they are below the operational requirements. Therefore, when monitoring bridges using UAVs, it is important to take into account the influence of meteorological conditions. Furthermore, it was observed that the flight path of UAVs during square cylinder column monitoring is longer and more time-consuming than round cylinder column monitoring. Determining an effective UAV inspection path is crucial for completing bridge monitoring tasks in windy conditions, establishing bridge inspection standards, and developing the Intelligent Bridge Inspection System (IBIS).

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids8120320

Authors: Kashif Mehmood Syed Irtiza Ali Shah Taimur Ali Shams Muhammad Nafees Mumtaz Qadri Tariq Amin Khan David Kukulka

In this research, a wide-body aircraft was analyzed with critical monitoring of its states, a function of several control inputs (wind gust, turbulence, and microburst). The aerodynamic and stability coefficients of a Boeing 747-200 were obtained from previously published works and 6- DOF equations were formulated. Simulations were conducted for various control inputs to determine the aircraft&rsquo;s free response, as well as the forced response. In order to understand the nature of the atmosphere, three different models were incorporated, including (i) the Dryden Model, (ii) wind gust, and (iii) microburst. The aircraft was found to be stable in the longitudinal and lateral flight modes, with trim conditions agreeing with published data. For a vertical wind gust of &minus;10 ft/s, the AoA and pitch rate were observed to oscillate sinusoidally and became stable with new trim conditions. These states were found to regain trim conditions once the gust was removed. In the case of 3D gust, it was found that the longitudinal modes achieved a new trim condition through Phugoid oscillations, whereas the lateral modes underwent short-period oscillations. For the case of turbulence, random fluctuations were observed for trim conditions with no unstable behavior. When considering the microburst case, it was found that the aircraft initially gained altitude in the region of the headwind; this was followed by a sharp descent under the influence of a vertical velocity component.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids8120319

Authors: Yousry Mahmoud Ghazaw Abdul Razzaq Ghumman Ahmed Mohammed Sami Al-Janabi Afzal Ahmed Erum Aamir Rana Muhammad Adnan Ikram

Some dams globally have negatively affected downstream structures. Constructing subsidiary weirs may solve this problem. This novel study focuses on investigating the parameters of seepage beneath the original structure and the proposed subsidiary weir. Conformal mapping and finite element methods are used for the analysis. The proposed subsidiary weir consists of a sloping central apron, flat aprons on both the downstream and upstream ends, and upstream and downstream sheet piles of varying depths. The existing structure also has sheet piles of different depths at its upstream and downstream ends, with an impervious layer situated at a specific depth below both the structures. The study derives equations for the simulation of the upwards pressure on both the structures, seepage rate, and exit gradient along the downstream bed and the filter at an intermediate location. Our own developed software for the analysis and a commercial software for numerical methods named Finite Element Heat Transfer (FEHT)-version-1are used to calculate these parameters. The accuracy of the analytical and numerical methods is verified by comparing the results with experimental data, which demonstrate a good level of agreement. This study also simulates the impacts of various factors, such as sheet pile configurations, the depth of the stratum beneath the structure, the ratio of effective heads, and the length of the intermediate filter.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids8120318

Authors: Melissa M. Gibbons Dillon Muldoon Imane Khalil

A Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is formed when two fluids of different densities exert a shear on one another at their interface when flowing in opposite directions. This paper presents a step-by-step guide for the design of a low-cost, small-scale, experimental tilt tube apparatus and a corresponding computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that can be used to introduce the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability to undergraduate mechanical engineering students in several courses. A thermal-fluids laboratory course is taken by our fourth-year mechanical engineering students, and the overall variety of experiments has been limited by the cost of commercial teaching equipment. The tilt tube apparatus allows students to induce and record the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and no ongoing costs are involved in incorporating this experiment into the course. In our introductory CFD course, students perform CFD simulations as part of the design and analysis process. Developing a two-dimensional (2D) CFD model with two different fluids is well within their capabilities after completing initial software and simulation tutorial exercises and homework. Representative experiments were conducted with fresh water and salt water of different densities, and results showed that both the amplitude of the waves and the amount of time the instability was visible decreased with increasing salt water salinity. Results from a 2D CFD model developed in Ansys Fluent exhibited the same trends as the experimental data.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids8120317

Authors: Glauciléia Maria Cardoso Magalhães Jeferson Avila Souza Elizaldo Domingues dos Santos

Liquid composite molding techniques are largely used to produce pieces such as truck cabins or wind turbine blades. The liquid resin infusion processes use a network of injection channels to improve the resin flow through a porous-reinforced medium. The present numerical study predicts the positioning of empty channels by applying constructal theory to an idealized problem. The channels&rsquo; position and size were not predefined but instead constructed (made to grow) from an elemental channel. Two strategies were tested for channel growth: each new elemental channel was placed next to the region with the lowest or highest resistance to resin flow. The geometric configuration of the channels was constructed using a control function instead of using pre-defined shapes. The conservation of mass and momentum and an additional transport equation for the resin volume fraction were solved using the finite volume method. The volume of the fluid model was used for the treatment of the multiphase flow (air + resin). The growth of an empty channel with the lowest resistance strategy led to a decrease in the injection time and waste of resin. The size (resolution) of the elemental channel also affected the performance indicators and geometric configuration of the injection channels.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids8120316

Authors: James Cowley Xichun Luo Grant D. Stewart Wenmiao Shu Asimina Kazakidi

In 2021, approximately 51% of patients diagnosed with kidney tumors underwent surgical resections. One possible way to reduce complications from surgery is to minimise the associated blood loss, which, in the case of partial nephrectomy, is caused by the inadequate repair of branching arteries within the kidney cut during the tumor resection. The kidney vasculature is particularly complicated in nature, consisting of various interconnecting blood vessels and numerous bifurcation, trifurcation, tetrafurcation, and pentafurcation points. In this study, we present a mathematical lumped-parameter model of a whole kidney, assuming a non-Newtonian Carreau fluid, as a first approximation of estimating the blood loss arising from the cutting of single or multiple vessels. It shows that severing one or more blood vessels from the kidney vasculature results in a redistribution of the blood flow rates and pressures to the unaltered section of the kidney. The model can account for the change in the total impedance of the vascular network and considers a variety of multiple cuts. Calculating the blood loss for numerous combinations of arterial cuts allows us to identify the appropriate surgical protocols required to minimise blood loss during partial nephrectomy as well as enhance our understanding of perfusion and account for the possibility of cellular necrosis. This model may help renal surgeons during partial organ resection in assessing whether the remaining vascularisation is sufficient to support organ viability.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids8120315

Authors: Van Gulinyan Fedor Kuzikov Roman Podgornyi Daniil Shirkin Ivan Zakharov Zarina Sadrieva Maxim Korobkov Yana Muzychenko Andrey Kudlis

Due to their long-lived nature, vortex rings are highly promising for the non-contact transportation of colloidal microparticles. However, because of the high complexity of the structures, their description using rigorous, closed-form mathematical expressions is challenging, particularly in the presence of strongly inhomogeneous colloidal suspensions. In this work, we comprehensively study this phenomenon, placing special emphasis on a quantitative description of the ability of vortex rings to move the particles suspended in a liquid over distances significantly exceeding the ring&rsquo;s dimensions. Moreover, within the study, we present straightforward analytical approximations extracted by using the fitting of the experimental and numerical simulation observations that reveal the dynamics of vortex rings transporting the microparticles. It includes both the dependence of the concentration on the distance traveled by the vortex ring and coefficients describing the evolution of vortex ring shape in time, which were not presented in the literature before. It turns out that despite the fact that 2D modeling is a simplification of the full 3D problem solution and is unable to capture some of the minor effects of real behavior, it has demonstrated a good consistency with the results obtained via experiments regarding the process of particles transportation.

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