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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 9 (May-1 2023) – 191 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The partial replacement of wheat flour with hemp seed protein highlighted the possibility of developing a new innovative type of pasta. Five formulations of rigatoni-shaped pasta obtained by partial replacement of wheat grain flour with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% hemp seed meal (HSM) were studied to investigate the technological, physicochemical, textural, antioxidant and sensory properties of the pasta samples. The substitution of wheat flour with hemp seed meal (HSM) led to a slight increase in the cooking loss (CL) and optimal cooking time (OCT) compared to the control sample, while water absorption (WA) and the swelling index (SI) decreased. Moreover, the developed pasta showed a significant improvement in antioxidant capacity in terms of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH). View this paper
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15 pages, 2891 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Wave Mode-Based Application for Contactless Density Measurement of Highly Aerated Batters
by Michael Metzenmacher, Dominik Geier and Thomas Becker
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091927 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
An ultrasonic wave mode-based method for density measurement in highly foamed batters was developed. Therefore, a non-contact ultrasonic sensor system was designed to generate signals for batch-wise processes. An ultrasonic sensor, containing a piezoelectric ceramic at the fundamental longitudinal frequency of 2 MHz, [...] Read more.
An ultrasonic wave mode-based method for density measurement in highly foamed batters was developed. Therefore, a non-contact ultrasonic sensor system was designed to generate signals for batch-wise processes. An ultrasonic sensor, containing a piezoelectric ceramic at the fundamental longitudinal frequency of 2 MHz, was used to take impedance measurements in pulse-echo mode. The ultrasonic signals were processed and analysed wave-mode wise, using a feature-driven approach. The measurements were carried out for different mixing times within a container, with the attached ultrasonic sensor. Within the biscuit batter, the change to the ultrasonic signals caused by density changes during the batter-mixing process was monitored (R2 = 0.96). The density range detected by the sensor ranges between 500 g/L and 1000 g/L. The ultrasonic sensor system developed also shows a reasonable level of accuracy for the measurements of biscuit batter variations (R2 > 0.94). The main benefit of this novel technique, which comprises multiple wave modes for signal features and combines these features with the relevant process parameters, leads to a more robust system as regards to multiple interference factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Food Safety and Quality Management Techniques)
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19 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
Effect of Olive Pomace Extract Application and Packaging Material on the Preservation of Fresh-Cut Royal Gala Apples
by Joana Madureira, Bruno Melgar, Vítor D. Alves, Margarida Moldão-Martins, Fernanda M. A. Margaça, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Lillian Barros and Sandra Cabo Verde
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091926 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
The efficiency of natural olive pomace extracts for enhancing the quality of fresh-cut apples was compared with commercial ascorbic acid and two different packaging films (biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) and oriented polypropylene (OPP)) were tested. The composition of atmosphere inside the packages, the [...] Read more.
The efficiency of natural olive pomace extracts for enhancing the quality of fresh-cut apples was compared with commercial ascorbic acid and two different packaging films (biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) and oriented polypropylene (OPP)) were tested. The composition of atmosphere inside the packages, the physicochemical parameters (firmness, weight loss and color), the microbial load, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut apples were evaluated throughout 12 days of storage at 4 °C. After 12 days of refrigerated storage, a significant decrease in O2 was promoted in PLA films, and the weight loss of the whole packaging was higher in PLA films (5.4%) than in OPP films (0.2%). Natural olive pomace extracts reduced the load of mesophilic bacteria (3.4 ± 0.1 log CFU/g and 2.4 ± 0.1 log CFU/g for OPP and PLA films, respectively) and filamentous fungi (3.3 ± 0.1 log CFU/g and 2.44 ± 0.05 log CFU/g for OPP and PLA films, respectively) growth in fresh-cut apples after five days of storage at 4 °C, and no detection of coliforms was verified throughout the 12 days of storage. In general, the olive pomace extract preserved or improved the total phenolic index and antioxidant potential of the fruit, without significant changes in their firmness. Moreover, this extract seemed to be more effective when combined with the biodegradable PLA film packaging. This work can contribute to the availability of effective natural food additives, the sustainability of the olive oil industries and the reduction of environmental impact. It can also be useful in meeting the food industries requirements to develop new functional food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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21 pages, 19425 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Allium sativum Leaves Using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network Coupled with Genetic Algorithm
by Shubhra Shekhar, Prem Prakash, Poonam Singha, Kamlesh Prasad and Sushil Kumar Singh
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091925 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
This study explains the effect of ultrasound on the extraction of the bioactive compounds from garlic (Allium sativum L.) leaf powder. The experiment was carried out by varying the ultrasound amplitude (30–60%), treatment time (5–15 min), and ethanol concentration (40–60%) required to [...] Read more.
This study explains the effect of ultrasound on the extraction of the bioactive compounds from garlic (Allium sativum L.) leaf powder. The experiment was carried out by varying the ultrasound amplitude (30–60%), treatment time (5–15 min), and ethanol concentration (40–60%) required to obtain the maximum extraction yield of total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity. Rotatable central composite design (RCCD) provided experimental parameter combinations in the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of garlic leaf powder. The values of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity for the optimized condition of RSM were obtained at 53% amplitude, 13 min of treatment time, and 50% ethanol concentration. The values of the target compounds predicted at this optimized condition from RSM were 32.2% extraction yield, 9.9 mg GAE/g TPC, 6.8 mg QE/g TFC, and 58% antioxidant activity. The ANN-GA optimized condition for the leaf extracts was obtained at 60% amplitude, 13 min treatment time, and 53% ethanol concentration. The predicted values of optimized condition obtained by ANN-GA were recorded as 32.1738% extraction yield and 9.8661 mg GAE/g, 6.8398 mg QE/g, and 58.5527% for TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity, respectively. The matured leaves of garlic, if not harvested during its cultivation, often go waste despite being rich in antioxidants and phenolic compounds. With the increased demand for the production of value-added products, the extraction of the bioactive compounds from garlic leaves can resolve waste management and potential health issues without affecting the crop yield through the process for high-end use in value addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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21 pages, 681 KiB  
Review
Stabilization of Rice Bran: A Review
by Neşe Yılmaz Tuncel
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1924; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091924 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3497
Abstract
One of the major problems in food science is meeting the demand of the world’s growing population, despite environmental limitations such as climate change, water scarcity, land degradation, marine pollution, and desertification. Preventing food from going to waste and utilizing nutritive by-products as [...] Read more.
One of the major problems in food science is meeting the demand of the world’s growing population, despite environmental limitations such as climate change, water scarcity, land degradation, marine pollution, and desertification. Preventing food from going to waste and utilizing nutritive by-products as food rather than feed are easy and powerful strategies for overcoming this problem. Rice is an important staple food crop for more than half of the world’s population and substantial quantities of rice bran emerge as the main by-product of rice grain milling. Usually, rice bran is used as animal feed or discarded as waste. Although it is highly nutritious and comprises many bioactive compounds with considerable health benefits, the rapid deterioration of bran limits the exploitation of the full potential of rice bran. Hydrolytic rancidity is the main obstacle to using rice bran as food, and the enzyme inactivation process, which is termed stabilization, is the only way to prevent it. This study reviews the methods of stabilizing rice bran and other rice-milling by-products comprising rice bran in the context of the efficiency of the process upon storage. The effect of the process on the components of rice bran is also discussed. Full article
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17 pages, 2612 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Capacity, and Bioavailability of Laurus nobilis L. Leaf Polyphenolic Extracts Microencapsulated by Spray Drying
by Erika Dobroslavić, Ivona Elez Garofulić, Zoran Zorić, Sandra Pedisić, Marin Roje and Verica Dragović-Uzelac
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091923 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) leaves are a rich source of polyphenols with the potential for use in functional foods, where the main obstacle is their low stability and bioavailability, which can be improved by spray drying (SD). This research examined the influence [...] Read more.
Laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) leaves are a rich source of polyphenols with the potential for use in functional foods, where the main obstacle is their low stability and bioavailability, which can be improved by spray drying (SD). This research examined the influence of SD parameters, including inlet temperature (120, 150, and 180 °C), carrier type (β-cyclodextrin (β-CD); β-CD + maltodextrin (MD) 50:50; β-CD + gum arabic (GA) 50:50), and sample:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) on the physicochemical properties, encapsulation efficiency, polyphenolic profile, antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of laurel leaf polyphenols. The highest encapsulation efficiency was achieved at a sample:carrier ratio 1:2 and the temperature of 180 °C by using either of the applied carriers. However, the application of β-CD + MD 50:50 ensured optimal solubility (55.10%), hygroscopicity (15.32%), and antioxidant capacity (ORAC 157.92 μmol Trolox equivalents per g of powder), while optimal moisture content (3.22%) was determined only by temperature, demanding conditions above 150 °C. A total of 29 polyphenols (dominantly flavonols) were identified in the obtained powders. SD encapsulation increased the bioaccessibility of laurel flavonols in comparison to the non-encapsulated extract by ~50% in the gastric and ~10% in the intestinal phase, especially for those powders produced with carrier mixtures. Full article
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10 pages, 953 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Anthocyanidins Content in Purple Chinese Cabbage Based on Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy
by Ya-Qin Wang, Guang-Min Liu, Li-Ping Hu, Xue-Zhi Zhao, De-Shuang Zhang and Hong-Ju He
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091922 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Purple Chinese cabbage (PCC) has become a new breeding trend due to its attractive color and high nutritional quality since it contains abundant anthocyanidins. With the aim of rapid evaluation of PCC anthocyanidins contents and screening of breeding materials, a fast quantitative detection [...] Read more.
Purple Chinese cabbage (PCC) has become a new breeding trend due to its attractive color and high nutritional quality since it contains abundant anthocyanidins. With the aim of rapid evaluation of PCC anthocyanidins contents and screening of breeding materials, a fast quantitative detection method for anthocyanidins in PCC was established using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). The PCC samples were scanned by NIR, and the spectral data combined with the chemometric results of anthocyanidins contents obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography were processed to establish the prediction models. The content of cyanidin varied from 93.5 mg/kg to 12,802.4 mg/kg in PCC, while the other anthocyanidins were much lower. The developed NIR prediction models on the basis of partial least square regression with the preprocessing of no-scattering mode and the first-order derivative showed the best prediction performance: for cyanidin, the external correlation coefficient (RSQ) and standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of the calibration set were 0.965 and 693.004, respectively; for total anthocyanidins, the RSQ and SECV of the calibration set were 0.966 and 685.994, respectively. The established models were effective, and this NIR method, with the advantages of timesaving and convenience, could be applied in purple vegetable breeding practice. Full article
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19 pages, 13660 KiB  
Article
Circular Economy and Sustainable Recovery of Taiwanese Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Byproduct—The Large-Scale Production of Umami-Rich Seasoning Material Application
by Chia-Hua Lin, Ying-Tang Huang, Jhih-Ying Ciou, Chiu-Min Cheng, Guan-Ting Wang, Chun-Mei You, Ping-Hsiu Huang and Chih-Yao Hou
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091921 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
In this study, umami-rich seasoning powder was produced from the offcuts of Taiwanese tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by cooking concentration and spray drying of granules while yielding an abundance of glutamic acid (0.23 mg/100 g), glycine (0.10 mg/100 g), aspartic acid (0.11 [...] Read more.
In this study, umami-rich seasoning powder was produced from the offcuts of Taiwanese tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by cooking concentration and spray drying of granules while yielding an abundance of glutamic acid (0.23 mg/100 g), glycine (0.10 mg/100 g), aspartic acid (0.11 mg/100 g), lysine (0.10 mg/100 g), and 11 other aminic acids. It exhibited water content (3.81%), water activity (0.3), powder yields (68.83%), and a good water solubility index (99.89%), while the particle microstructure was a spherical powder. Additionally, it received the highest overall preference score (7.53) in the consumer-type sensory evaluation compared to commercially available seasonings. This study proves that offcuts may be part of the human diet after proper processing and can be widely used to flavor savory food. The producers involved could increase their economic returns while meeting the environmental challenges. The practical contribution could create incremental value for products to critical stakeholders at each point in the tilapia supply chain with an operational guide for transitioning from inefficient to innovative circular practices. Full article
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17 pages, 1732 KiB  
Article
Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Tomato Flours Obtained after Conventional and Ohmic Heating Extraction and Its Prebiotic Properties
by Marta C. Coelho, Célia Costa, Dalila Roupar, Sara Silva, A. Sebastião Rodrigues, José A. Teixeira and Manuela E. Pintado
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091920 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
Several studies have supported the positive functional health effects of both prebiotics and probiotics on gut microbiota. Among these, the selective growth of beneficial bacteria due to the use of prebiotics and bioactive compounds as an energy and carbon source is critical to [...] Read more.
Several studies have supported the positive functional health effects of both prebiotics and probiotics on gut microbiota. Among these, the selective growth of beneficial bacteria due to the use of prebiotics and bioactive compounds as an energy and carbon source is critical to promote the development of healthy microbiota within the human gut. The present work aimed to assess the fermentability of tomato flour obtained after ohmic (SFOH) and conventional (SFCONV) extraction of phenolic compounds and carotenoids as well as their potential impact upon specific microbiota groups. To accomplish this, the attained bagasse flour was submitted to an in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion before its potential fermentability and impact upon gut microbiota (using an in vitro fecal fermentation model). Different impacts on the probiotic strains studied were observed for SFCONV promoting the B. animalis growth, while SFOH promoted the B. longum, probably based on the different carbohydrate profiles of the flours. Overall, the flours used were capable of functioning as a direct substrate to support potential prebiotic growth for Bifidus longum. The fecal fermentation model results showed the highest Bacteroidetes growth with SFOH and the highest values of Bacteroides with SFCONV. A correlation between microorganisms’ growth and short-chain fatty acids was also found. This by-product seems to promote beneficial effects on microbiota flora and could be a potential prebiotic ingredient, although more extensive in vivo trials would be necessary to confirm this. Full article
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19 pages, 12632 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Interactions of Heavy Metals in Dairy Matrices Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Chemometric, and In Silico Analysis
by Alfredo C. Benítez-Rojas, María E. Jaramillo-Flores, Orlando Zaca-Moran, Israel Quiroga-Montes and Raúl J. Delgado-Macuil
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091919 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
Heavy metals are among the toxic substances longest recognized by man. Today, due to the myriad sources of exposure, such as contaminated water, food, or air, they have become a major public health problem. This work presents the effects manifested in the infrared [...] Read more.
Heavy metals are among the toxic substances longest recognized by man. Today, due to the myriad sources of exposure, such as contaminated water, food, or air, they have become a major public health problem. This work presents the effects manifested in the infrared spectrum behavior caused by the presence of Cd2+, Cr6+, and Pb2+ at different concentrations in three different matrices: water, casein, and milk; observing that the spectral modifications in the regions of different vibrational modes of nucleophilic groups such as -OH, COO- and NH2 depending on the nature of the metal and its concentration. These findings were correlated in-silico using optimized models in Gabedit software and structural optimization was performed with MOPAC 2016 showing stable structures between the metals and Gln, Hys, Glu, and Phe of casein. By applying chemometrics (Principal Component Analysis), it was possible to observe a good correlation between the experimental data and to discriminate between the type of metal, the matrix that contains it, and the concentration could be represented through linear models that showed adjustments with a value of r2 ≥ 0.95. Full article
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10 pages, 1968 KiB  
Article
Salmonella Biofilm Formation under Fluidic Shear Stress on Different Surface Materials
by Hudson T. Thames, Diksha Pokhrel, Emma Willis, Orion Rivers, Thu T. N. Dinh, Li Zhang, Mark W. Schilling, Reshma Ramachandran, Shecoya White and Anuraj T. Sukumaran
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091918 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
This study characterized biofilm formation of various Salmonella strains on common processing plant surface materials (stainless steel, concrete, rubber, polyethylene) under static and fluidic shear stress conditions. Surface-coupons were immersed in well-plates containing 1 mL of Salmonella (6 log CFU/mL) and incubated aerobically [...] Read more.
This study characterized biofilm formation of various Salmonella strains on common processing plant surface materials (stainless steel, concrete, rubber, polyethylene) under static and fluidic shear stress conditions. Surface-coupons were immersed in well-plates containing 1 mL of Salmonella (6 log CFU/mL) and incubated aerobically for 48 h at 37 °C in static or shear stress conditions. Biofilm density was determined using crystal violet assay, and biofilm cells were enumerated by plating on tryptic soy agar plates. Biofilms were visualized using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by SAS 9.4 at a significance level of 0.05. A surface–incubation condition interaction was observed for biofilm density (p < 0.001). On stainless steel, the OD600 was higher under shear stress than static incubation; whereas, on polyethylene, the OD600 was higher under static condition. Enumeration revealed surface–incubation condition (p = 0.024) and surface–strain (p < 0.001) interactions. Among all surface–incubation condition combinations, the biofilm cells were highest on polyethylene under fluidic shear stress (6.4 log/coupon; p < 0.001). Biofilms of S. Kentucky on polyethylene had the highest number of cells (7.80 log/coupon) compared to all other strain–surface combinations (p < 0.001). Electron microscopy revealed morphological and extracellular matrix differences between surfaces. Results indicate that Salmonella biofilm formation is influenced by serotype, surface, and fluidic shear stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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19 pages, 1577 KiB  
Article
Consumers’ Preferences for Apple Production Attributes: Results of a Choice Experiment
by Ruopin Qu, Jing Chen, Wenjing Li, Shan Jin, Glyn D. Jones and Lynn J. Frewer
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091917 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2651
Abstract
Various food safety and environmental problems in China have raised consumer awareness of food safety issues and negative environmental impacts in various supply chains. This research assessed consumer preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for food safety and ecosystem delivery attributes associated with [...] Read more.
Various food safety and environmental problems in China have raised consumer awareness of food safety issues and negative environmental impacts in various supply chains. This research assessed consumer preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for food safety and ecosystem delivery attributes associated with apples, demonstrated through the application of different traceability systems. Research participants were recruited in Beijing (N = 384) and Shanghai (N = 320). Choice experiment methodology was applied. The data were analyzed using conditional logit, random parameter logit, and latent class models; the results indicated significant consumer preferences for traceability information, including in relation to lower pesticide usage and application of organic fertilizer during primary production. The results also indicated that participants in this research had a significant willingness-to-pay premium for apple products that had production information traceability, had reduced pesticide use, and were grown with organic fertilizers. The models demonstrated heterogeneous preferences among participants such that consumers could be divided into three classes: non-price-sensitive (53.5%), pesticide-sensitive (21.7%), and price-sensitive (24.8%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Security and Structural Transformation of the Food Industry)
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15 pages, 5115 KiB  
Review
A Perspective on Missing Aspects in Ongoing Purification Research towards Melissa officinalis
by Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Grzegorz Boczkaj and René Cabezas
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091916 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant used worldwide for ethno-medical purposes. Today, it is grown everywhere; while it is known to originate from Southern Europe, it is now found around the world, from North America to New Zealand. The biological properties of [...] Read more.
Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant used worldwide for ethno-medical purposes. Today, it is grown everywhere; while it is known to originate from Southern Europe, it is now found around the world, from North America to New Zealand. The biological properties of this medicinal plant are mainly related to its high content of phytochemical (bioactive) compounds, such as flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds, aldehydes, glycosides and terpenes, among many other groups of substances. Among the main biological activities associated with this plant are antimicrobial activity (against fungi and bacteria), and antispasmodic, antioxidant and insomnia properties. Today, this plant is still used by society (as a natural medicine) to alleviate many other illnesses and symptoms. Therefore, in this perspective, we provide an update on the phytochemical profiling analysis of this plant, as well as the relationships of specific biological and pharmacological effects of specific phytochemicals. Currently, among the organic solvents, ethanol reveals the highest effectiveness for the solvent extraction of precious components (mainly rosmarinic acid). Additionally, our attention is devoted to current developments in the extraction and fractionation of the phytochemicals of M. officinalis, highlighting the ongoing progress of the main strategies that the research community has employed. Finally, after analyzing the literature, we suggest potential perspectives in the field of sustainable extraction and purification of the phytochemical present in the plant. For instance, some research gaps concern the application of cavitation-assisted extraction processes, which can effectively enhance mass transfer while reducing the particle size of the extracted material in situ. Meanwhile, membrane-assisted processes could be useful in the fractionation and purification of obtained extracts. On the other hand, further studies should include the application of ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents (DES), including DESs of natural origin (NADES) and hydrophobic DESs (hDES), as extraction or fractionating solvents, along with new possibilities for effective extraction related to DESs formed in situ, assisted by mechanical mixing (mechanochemistry-based approach). Full article
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15 pages, 1873 KiB  
Article
Black Bean Hulls as a Byproduct of an Extraction Process to Enhance Nutraceutical and Glycemic-Related Properties of Nixtamalized Maize Tostadas
by Lesly Xiomara Machado-Velarde, Juan Pablo Dávila-Vega, Janet Gutiérrez-Uribe, Johanan Espinosa-Ramírez, Mariana Martínez-Ávila, Daniel Guajardo-Flores and Cristina Chuck-Hernández
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091915 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Black bean hulls (BBH) are rich in phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, which can be incorporated into common staple foods such as maize tostadas, enhancing the nutraceutical properties of these products. This study incorporates black bean hulls to produce nixtamalized maize tostadas with [...] Read more.
Black bean hulls (BBH) are rich in phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, which can be incorporated into common staple foods such as maize tostadas, enhancing the nutraceutical properties of these products. This study incorporates black bean hulls to produce nixtamalized maize tostadas with nutraceutical properties. Nixtamalized corn flour (NCF) and black bean hulls (BBH) were characterized in terms of protein, fat, crude and dietary fiber, anthocyanin concentration, and different starch fractions. NCF and BBH depicted 53.7 and 16.8% of total digestible starch (TDS), respectively, and 1.2 and 7.6% of resistant starch (RS), in the same order. BBH was incorporated into nixtamalized flour at 10, 15, and 20% w/w, and the resulting dough was thermo-mechanically characterized. Tostadas with BBH had higher protein, dietary fiber, and anthocyanin concentrations. Enriched tostadas did not show significant changes in texture or other sensory characteristics. However, a reduction in total digestible starch (61.97 up to 59.07%), an increase in resistant starch (0.46 to 2.3% from control tostadas to 20% BBH tostadas), and a reduction in the predicted glycemic index (52 to 49), among other parameters, indicated that BBH is a suitable alternative for developing nutraceutical food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal: Storage, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes)
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17 pages, 3672 KiB  
Article
Different Characteristics of Annealed Rice Kernels and Flour and Their Effects on the Quality of Rice Noodles
by Ziwen Zhang, Mengshan Shang, Xiaoyu Chen, Lei Dai, Na Ji, Yang Qin, Yanfei Wang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun and Fengwei Xie
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091914 - 07 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
In this study, the characteristics of indica rice kernels (IRK) and flour (IRF) annealed in different conditions were evaluated, and the quality of rice noodles made with these IRK and IRF was determined. Native IRK and IRF were annealed in deionized water at [...] Read more.
In this study, the characteristics of indica rice kernels (IRK) and flour (IRF) annealed in different conditions were evaluated, and the quality of rice noodles made with these IRK and IRF was determined. Native IRK and IRF were annealed in deionized water at a kernel or flour to water ratio of 1:3 (w/v) and temperatures of 50, 55, 60, and 65 °C for 12 and 24 h. Annealing increased the paste viscosity of IRK while decreasing that of IRF. Both annealed IRK and IRF exhibited increases in the gelatinization enthalpy change and relative crystallinity. Annealed IRK gel showed higher hardness, and annealed IRF gel displayed greater springiness. Unlike native rice noodles, annealed IRK noodles exhibited denser pores, while annealed IRF noodles exhibited a looser microstructure. With increasing annealing temperature and time, both annealed IRK and IRF noodles showed enhanced tensile properties. Rice noodles made from IRF annealed at 65 °C for 12 h exhibited a fracture strain of 2.7 times that of native rice noodles. In brief, IRK and IRF exhibited different degrees of susceptibility to annealing. Annealing had more significant effects on IRF than IRK. This study highlights the possibility of using annealed IRK and IRF in rice noodles. Full article
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17 pages, 3041 KiB  
Article
Hot-Air Drying Significantly Improves the Quality and Functional Activity of Orange Black Tea Compared with Traditional Sunlight Drying
by Zhi Yan, Zhihu Zhou, Yuanfang Jiao, Jiasheng Huang, Zhi Yu, De Zhang, Yuqiong Chen and Dejiang Ni
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091913 - 07 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
The quality of traditional sunlight-dried orange black tea can be affected by weather variations, leading to its quality instability. This study investigated the feasibility of replacing sunlight drying with a new hot-air drying method in orange black tea production. The hot-air-dried orange black [...] Read more.
The quality of traditional sunlight-dried orange black tea can be affected by weather variations, leading to its quality instability. This study investigated the feasibility of replacing sunlight drying with a new hot-air drying method in orange black tea production. The hot-air-dried orange black tea showed better sensory quality than the traditional outdoor-sunlight-dried tea, with a harmonious fruity aroma and sweet–mellow taste. The content of polyphenols and other quality components in the peel and tea leaves was significantly higher after hot-air drying than after sunlight drying. GC-MS analysis showed that the total number of volatile components of hot-air-dried tea (3103.46 μg/g) was higher than that of sunlight-dried tea (3019.19 μg/g). Compared with sunlight-dried orange black tea, the hot-air-dried orange black tea showed higher total antioxidant capacity, with an increase of 21.5% (FRAP), 7.5% (DPPH), and 17.4% (ABTS), as well as an increase of 38.1% and 36.3% in the inhibitory capacity on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities. Further analysis of the effects of different drying temperatures (40, 45, 50, and 60 °C) on the quality of orange black tea showed that the tea quality gradually decreased with the increase in drying temperature, with the most obvious decrease in the quality of orange black tea at the drying temperature of 60 °C. Low-temperature (40 °C) dried tea had better aroma coordination, higher fruit flavor, greater sweet–mellow taste, and higher retention of functional active substances in orange peel and black tea. In summary, compared with traditional sunlight drying, the hot-air drying method could reduce the drying time from 90 h to 20 h and improve the sensory quality and functional activity of orange black tea, suggesting it can replace the traditional sunlight drying process. This work is significant for improving the quality of orange black tea in practical production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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17 pages, 1408 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sequential Fermentation with Lachancea thermotolerans/S. cerevisiae on Aromatic and Flavonoid Profiles of Plavac Mali Wine
by Ana Mucalo, Irena Budić-Leto and Goran Zdunić
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091912 - 07 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
In this study, the effects of sequential fermentation of Lachancea thermotolerans/S. cerevisiae on the production of Plavac Mali wines were investigated in comparison with the commonly used inoculation of the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and spontaneous fermentation. A total of 113 [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of sequential fermentation of Lachancea thermotolerans/S. cerevisiae on the production of Plavac Mali wines were investigated in comparison with the commonly used inoculation of the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and spontaneous fermentation. A total of 113 aroma compounds and 35 polyphenolic compounds were analyzed. Sequential inoculation resulted in a decrease in alcohol content and pH (up to 0.3% v/v and 0.12 units, respectively) and an increase in total acidity (0.6 g/L, expressed as tartaric acid). The wines produced by spontaneous fermentation exhibited the greatest diversity of volatile compounds and the highest concentration of C13 norisoprenoids, lactones, and other compounds. These wines exhibited maximum hydroxycinnamic acids, prodelphinidin monomer units, epigallocatechin, B1, B3, and B4 dimers, and total flavan-3-ols. Sequential inoculation decreased the content of the aromas and polyphenols in the wines. The practical significance of this procedure lies in the selective effect on aroma compounds, the decrease in green aromas, undetectable volatile phenols, and the decrease in bitter and astringent compounds such as gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers (catechin and epicatechin), and dimers (B1, B2, B3, and B4). This work demonstrates the potential of sequential and spontaneous fermentation to improve the aromatic characteristics and overall quality of Plavac Mali wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Wine—from Vine to the Glass)
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20 pages, 1636 KiB  
Article
Analytical and Chemometric Characterization of Sweet Pedro Ximénez Sherry Wine during Its Aging in a Criaderas y Solera System
by Manuel J. Valcárcel-Muñoz, María Guerrero-Chanivet, María del Carmen Rodríguez-Dodero, Daniel Butrón-Benítez, María de Valme García-Moreno and Dominico A. Guillén-Sánchez
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091911 - 07 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
Pedro Ximénez is a naturally sweet sherry wine produced in southern Spain from raisined Pedro Ximénez grape must and aged using a traditional Criaderas y Solera system. Complete analytical characterization has been useful in determining which parameters are the most influential in the [...] Read more.
Pedro Ximénez is a naturally sweet sherry wine produced in southern Spain from raisined Pedro Ximénez grape must and aged using a traditional Criaderas y Solera system. Complete analytical characterization has been useful in determining which parameters are the most influential in the aging of this wine. The organic acids, volatile compounds (higher alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and acetals), and phenolic compounds of this wine evolve during its aging, mainly through physico-chemical reactions and the contributions of wood compounds. During their aging, Pedro Ximénez sherry wines develop their organoleptic profiles, as tasting sessions have confirmed. A strong correlation between the aging of a wine and the parameters analyzed has also been corroborated through an MLR analysis. This allowed for the development of a model that, by using just 8 of the variables considered in the study, led to the determination of wine samples’ ages at over 97% confidence. This constitutes a rather useful tool for wineries to control Pedro Ximénez sherry wine aging processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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15 pages, 4101 KiB  
Article
Protective Effect of Anoectochilus formosanus Polysaccharide against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression in BALB/c Mice
by Anqi Xie, Hao Wan, Lei Feng, Boyun Yang and Yiqun Wan
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1910; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091910 - 07 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
In this study, Anoectochilus formosanus polysaccharide (AFP) was acquired a via water extraction and alcohol precipitation method. The immunoregulatory activity of AFP was first evaluated on cyclophosphamide (Cy)-treated mice. Galacturonic acid, glucose and galactose were confirmed to be the main components of AFP. [...] Read more.
In this study, Anoectochilus formosanus polysaccharide (AFP) was acquired a via water extraction and alcohol precipitation method. The immunoregulatory activity of AFP was first evaluated on cyclophosphamide (Cy)-treated mice. Galacturonic acid, glucose and galactose were confirmed to be the main components of AFP. AFP demonstrated the ability to stimulate the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Not surprisingly, the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway by AFP was validated via Western blot analysis. Furthermore, AFP could alleviate Cy-induced immunosuppression, and significantly enhance the immunity of mice via increasing the thymus index and body weight, stimulating the production of cytokines (IgA, IgG, SIgA, IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ). The improvement in the intestinal morphology of immunosuppressed mice showed that AFP could alleviate Cy-induced immune toxicity. These results have raised the possibility that AFP may act as a natural immunomodulator. Overall, the study of AFP was innovative and of great significance for AFP’s further application and utilization. Full article
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21 pages, 4833 KiB  
Article
Catabolism of Dictyophora indusiata Polysaccharide and Its Impacts on Gut Microbial Composition during In Vitro Digestion and Microbial Fermentation
by Yun-Xuan Zhao, Ling Huang, Ding-Tao Wu, Jie Li, Jing Lei, Meng-Xi Fu, Qing Zhang and Wen Qin
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091909 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Dictyophora indusiata is one of the most famous edible mushrooms in China. D. indusiata polysaccharide (DP) has attracted increasing attention because of its multiple beneficial effects. In this study, the in vitro simulated digestion and microbial fermentation were designed to reveal the potential [...] Read more.
Dictyophora indusiata is one of the most famous edible mushrooms in China. D. indusiata polysaccharide (DP) has attracted increasing attention because of its multiple beneficial effects. In this study, the in vitro simulated digestion and microbial fermentation were designed to reveal the potential catabolic property of DP and its impacts on the modulation of gut microbial composition. The results showed that the reducing sugar content, total polysaccharides content, molecular weight, and rheological property of DP were not significantly altered under in vitro simulated digestive conditions. However, the molecular weight, apparent viscosity, and total polysaccharides content of indigestible DP (DPI) significantly decreased during in vitro fecal fermentation, and the reducing sugar content and the release of free monosaccharides notably increased, suggesting that DP could be degraded and used by gut microbiota. Additionally, the relative abundances of several beneficial bacteria, such as Bacteroides, Catenibacterium, Parabacteroides, and Megamonas, increased significantly, indicating that DP can regulate the composition and abundance of gut microbiota. Moreover, DP could also promote the production of SCFAs, thus changing the acid–base environment of the large intestine. The results of this study are beneficial for deeply clarifying the catabolic behavior of DP in the gastrointestinal tract, which can provide a theoretical basis for developing microbiota-directed products based on DP. Full article
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18 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Pomegranate Fruit Cracking during Maturation: From Waste to Valuable Fruits
by Caterina Fraschetti, Enkelejda Goci, Alexandru Nicolescu, Francesco Cairone, Simone Carradori, Antonello Filippi, Vincenzo Palmieri, Andrei Mocan and Stefania Cesa
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091908 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2538
Abstract
The pomegranate is an emerging functional food which is nowadays becoming more and more commercially attractive. Each part of this fruit (peels, arils and seeds) has a specific phytocomplex, rich in anti-oxidant and anti-radical compounds. Among these, punicalagin and ellagic acid continue to [...] Read more.
The pomegranate is an emerging functional food which is nowadays becoming more and more commercially attractive. Each part of this fruit (peels, arils and seeds) has a specific phytocomplex, rich in anti-oxidant and anti-radical compounds. Among these, punicalagin and ellagic acid continue to be widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health (anti-inflammatory effects, anti-diabetes activity, cardio-protection, cancer prevention). Despite their exceptionally valuable composition and high adaptability to different climatic conditions, pomegranate fruits are highly susceptible to splitting during different stages of ripening, so much so that an estimated 65% of the production may be lost. A “zero-kilometer” approach should therefore be adopted to utilize such a valuable product otherwise destined to be downgraded or even incinerated, with a very high environmental impact. The aim of this work is to highlight and compare the compositional differences between whole and split pomegranates belonging to the cultivar Dente di Cavallo, grown in Apulia (Italy), to assess a valuable role for this split fruit usually considered as waste. The arils and peels are subjected to extraction procedures and the extracts analyzed by CIEL*a*b*, HPLC-DAD and HS-SPME/GC-MS. Moreover, an assessment of the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase enzymes has also been applied. The data show a better chemical profile in split fruits (namely 60% more anthocyanin content than intact fruit) with very interesting results in terms of α-glucosidase inhibition. The juices obtained by squeezing are also compared to commercial juices (“Salus Melagrana” and “La Marianna”) processed from the same cultivar and subjected to the same protocol analysis. Full article
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21 pages, 14558 KiB  
Review
Potential Challenges of the Extraction of Carotenoids and Fatty Acids from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) Oil
by Camila Rodrigues Carneiro, Adamu Muhammad Alhaji, César Augusto Sodré da Silva, Rita de Cássia Superbi de Sousa, Simone Monteiro and Jane Sélia dos Reis Coimbra
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091907 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
Pequi is a natural source of bioactive compounds with wide versatility for fresh or processed fruit consumption, but it is still little explored economically. Functional foods are the subject of diverse scientific research since, in addition to being nourishing, they contain bioactive compounds [...] Read more.
Pequi is a natural source of bioactive compounds with wide versatility for fresh or processed fruit consumption, but it is still little explored economically. Functional foods are the subject of diverse scientific research since, in addition to being nourishing, they contain bioactive compounds capable of promoting several benefits to the human body. Pequi is a fruit species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, which is rich in oil and has components with a high nutritional value, such as unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3, omega-6, EPA, and DHA), antioxidants (carotenoids and phenolic compounds), and vitamins. Therefore, the present narrative review aims to compile and critically evaluate the methods used to extract oil from the pulp and almonds of pequi and describes the carotenoid separation from the oil because carotenoids are natural pigments of great interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries. It is emphasized that the main challenges linked to bioactive compound extraction are their susceptibility to degradation in the processing and storage stages of pequi and its derived products. Full article
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21 pages, 3933 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Second-Grade Date Fruit Byproducts and Nonstandard Sweet Potato Tubers to Produce Novel Biofortified Functional Jam
by Bayan J. Almaghlouth, Nashi K. Alqahtani, Khadijah I. Alnabbat, Hisham A. Mohamed, Tareq M. Alnemr and Hosam M. Habib
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091906 - 06 May 2023
Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Byproducts of second-grade dates and sweet potato tubers of noncommercial standard are produced along with the main product and are just as important as the main product but cannot be sold in the open market, as they may not be considered acceptable by [...] Read more.
Byproducts of second-grade dates and sweet potato tubers of noncommercial standard are produced along with the main product and are just as important as the main product but cannot be sold in the open market, as they may not be considered acceptable by consumers. Such byproducts can be valorized through the manufacture of a wide range of functional food products with high market appeal, such as jams. The research approach of this study included measuring antioxidant activity, total flavonoids, polyphenols, physicochemical and color indices, pH, and total sugar, as well as conducting a sensory evaluation, of mixed jams composed of different ratios of date jam (DFJ) to sweet potato jam (SPJ), namely, DP1 (80:20), DP2 (70:30), DP3 (60:40), and DP4 (50:50). To date, no other studies have considered producing mixed jam from dates and sweet potato byproducts. The sensory evaluation results indicated that jam DP4 (consisting of 50% date and 50% sweet potato) had the maximum overall acceptability. This investigation reveals the potential of using mixed byproducts in jams as natural functional ingredients, suggesting the economic value of valorization byproducts as low-cost ingredients to expand the properties, nutritional value, antioxidant content, and overall acceptability of jams. The discovered optimal mixed fruit jam has significant potential for further development as a commercial product. Full article
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24 pages, 3613 KiB  
Article
Intracellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Bioactive Profiles of Coffee Cascara and Black Tea Kombucha Beverages
by Amanda L. Sales, Amaia Iriondo-DeHond, Juliana DePaula, Mafalda Ribeiro, Isabel M. P. L. V. O. Ferreira, Marco Antonio L. Miguel, María Dolores del Castillo and Adriana Farah
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091905 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2737
Abstract
Kombucha is a functional beverage obtained through fermentation of sweetened Camellia sinensis infusion by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts that exerts many beneficial biological effects, mostly related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Alternative raw materials have been used to create [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a functional beverage obtained through fermentation of sweetened Camellia sinensis infusion by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts that exerts many beneficial biological effects, mostly related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Alternative raw materials have been used to create new kombucha or kombucha-like products. Coffee is the most important food commodity worldwide and generates large amounts of by-products during harvest and post-harvest processing. The main coffee by-product is the dried fruit skin and pulp, popularly known as cascara. To date, no studies have evaluated the potential bioactivity of coffee cascara kombucha. In this study, we aimed to measure and compare the effects of infusions and kombuchas made with arabica coffee cascaras (n = 2) and black tea leaves (n = 1), fermented for 0, 3, 6, and 9 days on the intracellular production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Nitric Oxide (NO) in model cells. Oxidative stress was induced in HK-2 cells with indoxyl sulfate (IS) and high glucose (G). Inflammation was induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophage. The contents of phenolic compounds, caffeine, and other physicochemical parameters were evaluated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing information on the bioactive profile and on the potential biological effects of coffee cascara kombucha. Fermentation caused the release of bound phenolic compounds from the infusions, especially total chlorogenic acids, with an average increase from 5.4 to 10.7 mg/100 mL (98%) and 2.6–3.4 mg/100 mL (30%) in coffee cascara and black tea kombucha, respectively, up to day 9. All evaluated beverages reduced (p < 0.0001) similarly the intracellular ROS (41% reduction, on average) and uric acid (10–55%) concentrations in HK-2 model cells, reversing the induced oxidative stress. All beverages also reduced (p < 0.0001, 81–90%) NO formation in LPS-induced macrophages, exhibiting an anti-inflammatory effect. These potential health benefits may be mostly attributed to polyphenols and caffeine, whose contents were comparable in all beverages. Coffee cascara showed similar potential to C. sinensis to produce healthy beverages and support sustainable coffee production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant-Based Food and Food Supplements)
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16 pages, 4321 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Membrane Lipid Metabolism in Postharvest Hami Melon Fruits by n-Butanol to Mitigate Chilling Injury and the Cloning of Phospholipase D-β Gene
by Shuai Huang, Ying Bi, Hui Li, Caihong Liu, Xue Wang, Xinyu Wang, Yaxin Lei, Qi Zhang and Jing Wang
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091904 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
To investigate the effect of n-butanol on postharvest membrane lipid metabolism of Hami melon (Cucumis melo ‘Hami’), the fruits were soaked in a 1.0% solution of n-butanol for 30 min with water as the control. Symptoms of chilling injury were observed [...] Read more.
To investigate the effect of n-butanol on postharvest membrane lipid metabolism of Hami melon (Cucumis melo ‘Hami’), the fruits were soaked in a 1.0% solution of n-butanol for 30 min with water as the control. Symptoms of chilling injury were observed regularly, and the indices related to permeability and membrane lipid metabolism of pericarp cells were measured. The results showed that treatment with n-butanol inhibited the increase in chilling injury index, membrane permeability, and malondialdehyde content of Hami melon fruits, promoted an increase in the contents of phosphatidyl alcohol and unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid (except 14 d), and erucic acid (28–42 d), and decreased the content of saturated fatty acids, stearic acid (0–28 d), phosphatidic acid (except for 21 d), and the key enzymes of membrane lipid metabolism compared with the control. The activities of phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) and the downregulation of the levels of expression CmPLD-β and CmLOX (42 d only) genes reduced the chilling injury index of Hami melon and alleviated the further expansion of chilling injury symptoms in the fruits. We also cloned the key gene of membrane lipid metabolism CmPLD-β, which was obtained by pre-transcriptome screening of the pericarp. We found that CmPLD-β of Hami melon had the closest affinity with cucumber (CsXP5), indicating that the CmPLD-β gene of Hami melon was functionally similar to that of cucumber. In addition, a two-fold alignment analysis of CmPLD-β and CmXP5 base sequences indicated that the base sequences of the two promoter regions differed from each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-harvest Losses and Food Safety in Fruit and Vegetable Produced)
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16 pages, 1782 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Porcine Livers through the Formation of Zn-Protoporphyrin Pigment Optimized by a Response Surface Methodology
by Mar Llauger, Jacint Arnau, Michela Albano-Gaglio, Sara Bover-Cid, Belén Martín and Ricard Bou
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091903 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
There is a growing demand for clean-label products. This study aimed to obtain a food-grade coloring ingredient for meat products based on the formation of Zn-protoporphyrin from porcine livers, thus contributing to the development of nitrite-free products. First, the effects of sodium disulfite [...] Read more.
There is a growing demand for clean-label products. This study aimed to obtain a food-grade coloring ingredient for meat products based on the formation of Zn-protoporphyrin from porcine livers, thus contributing to the development of nitrite-free products. First, the effects of sodium disulfite and acetic, ascorbic, and lactic acids on the formation of Zn-protoporphyrin and the total microbial count were studied. The combination of ascorbic and acetic acids resulted in a higher Zn-protoporphyrin content than acetic acid alone, and microbial levels were maintained (ca. 3 log CFU/mL). Second, a response surface methodology was used to maximize Zn-protoporphyrin while maintaining microbiological food standards. To that end, the effects of pH (4.2–5.4), incubation time (3–30 h), and temperature (25–50 °C) were studied. The selected conditions for Zn-protoporphyrin formation involved anaerobic incubation at pH 4.8 and 45 °C for 24 h. The safety was validated through challenge testing for relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Clostridium perfringens). A significant reduction (>6 log units) was observed in the selected conditions for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella, whereas C. perfringens spores remained at the inoculated levels. The optimized procedure is proven to be microbiologically safe, and may improve the color of nitrite-free meat products. Full article
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1 pages, 159 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Bigi et al. Waste Orange Peels as a Source of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Their Use for the Development of Nanocomposite Films. Foods 2023, 12, 960
by Francesco Bigi, Enrico Maurizzi, Hossein Haghighi, Heinz Wilhelm Siesler, Fabio Licciardello and Andrea Pulvirenti
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091902 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
12 pages, 4068 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Nanoemulsion-Based Natural Compound Delivery Systems Compared with Non-Nanoemulsified Versions
by Bruno Dutra da Silva, Denes Kaic Alves do Rosário, Luiz Torres Neto, Carini Aparecida Lelis and Carlos Adam Conte-Junior
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091901 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
This study aimed to develop nanoemulsions with a focus on improving the bioactivity of oregano essential oil (OEO), carvacrol and thymol for possible food applications. Nanoemulsions were prepared with acoustic cavitation using ultrasound. The nanodroplets had average diameters of 54.47, 81.66 and 84.07 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop nanoemulsions with a focus on improving the bioactivity of oregano essential oil (OEO), carvacrol and thymol for possible food applications. Nanoemulsions were prepared with acoustic cavitation using ultrasound. The nanodroplets had average diameters of 54.47, 81.66 and 84.07 nm for OEO, thymol and carvacrol, respectively. The main compound in OEO was carvacrol (74%), and the concentration in the nanoemulsions was 9.46 mg/mL for OEO and the isolated compounds. The effects of droplet size reduction on antioxidant, antibacterial and antibiofilm activity were evaluated. Regarding antioxidant activity, the nanoemulsions performed better at the same concentration, with inhibitions >45% of the DPPH radical and significant differences compared with their non-nanoemulsified versions (p < 0.05). The nanoemulsions’ minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and non-nanoemulsified compounds were evaluated against foodborne pathogens with inhibition ranges between 0.147 and 2.36 mg/mL. All evaluated pathogens were more sensitive to nanoemulsions, with reductions of up to four times in MIC compared with non-nanoemulsified versions. E. coli and S. Enteritidis were the most sensitive bacteria to the carvacrol nanoemulsion with MICs of 0.147 mg/mL. Concerning antibiofilm activity, nanoemulsions at concentrations up to four times lower than non-nanoemulsified versions showed inhibition of bacterial adhesion >67.2% and removal of adhered cells >57.7%. Overall, the observed effects indicate that droplet size reduction improved the bioactivity of OEO, carvacrol and thymol, suggesting that nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for natural compounds may be alternatives for food applications compared with free natural compounds. Full article
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17 pages, 2316 KiB  
Article
Research on Online Nondestructive Detection Technology of Duck Egg Origin Based on Visible/Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
by Qingxu Li, Wanhuai Zhou, Qiaohua Wang and Dandan Fu
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091900 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
As living standards rise, people have higher requirements for the quality of duck eggs. The quality of duck eggs is related to their origin. Thus, the origin traceability and identification of duck eggs are crucial for protecting the rights and interests of consumers [...] Read more.
As living standards rise, people have higher requirements for the quality of duck eggs. The quality of duck eggs is related to their origin. Thus, the origin traceability and identification of duck eggs are crucial for protecting the rights and interests of consumers and preserving food safety. As the world’s largest producer and consumer of duck eggs, China’s duck egg market suffers from a severe lack of duck egg traceability and rapid origin identification technology. As a result, a large number of duck eggs from other regions are sold as products from well-known brands, which seriously undermines the rights and interests of consumers and is not conducive to the sound development of the duck egg industry. To address the above issues, this study collected visible/near-infrared spectral data online from duck eggs of three distinct origins. To reduce noise in the spectral data, various pre-processing algorithms, including MSC, SNV, and SG, were employed to process the spectral data of duck eggs in the range of 400–1100 nm. Meanwhile, CARS and SPA were used to select feature variables that reflect the origin of duck eggs. Finally, classification models of duck egg origin were developed based on RF, SVM, and CNN, achieving the highest accuracy of 97.47%, 98.73%, and 100.00%, respectively. To promote the technology’s implementation in the duck egg industry, an online sorting device was built for duck eggs, which mainly consists of a mechanical drive device, spectral software, and a control system. The online detection performance of the machine was validated using 90 duck eggs, and the final detection accuracy of the RF, SVM, and CNN models was 90%, 91.11%, and 94.44%, with a detection speed of 0.1 s, 0.3 s, and 0.5 s, respectively. These results indicate that visible/near-infrared spectroscopy can be exploited to realize rapid online detection of the origin of duck eggs, and the methodologies used in this study can be immediately implemented in production practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Techniques)
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17 pages, 4307 KiB  
Article
Protective Effect of Quercetin and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract against Dimethoate Potentiated Fluoride-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats
by Priyanka Sharma, Pawan Kumar Verma, Shilpa Sood, Rasia Yousuf, Amit Kumar, Rajinder Raina, Muhammad Asim Shabbir and Zuhaib F. Bhat
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091899 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the potential of quercetin and Zingiber officinale (ZO) Roscoe extract to alleviate the renal damage induced by dimethoate (DM) and fluoride (F-) alone and by their combined exposure in rats. A total of 54 adult Wistar [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the potential of quercetin and Zingiber officinale (ZO) Roscoe extract to alleviate the renal damage induced by dimethoate (DM) and fluoride (F-) alone and by their combined exposure in rats. A total of 54 adult Wistar rats were randomly allocated to nine groups (n = 6). A sub-lethal dose of DM (1/10th of the median lethal dose) was administered by oral gavage alone and along with F- (4.5 ppm, three-fold the permissible limit) in their drinking water continuously for 28 days. Chromatographical analysis revealed the presence of quercetin, curcumin, and other phytochemicals with strong antioxidant properties in ZO-rhizome extract. Severe changes were observed in the levels of the renal biomarkers and histoarchitecture after co-administration of the toxicants, indicating greater kidney damage. The administration of ZO extract (300 mg/kg) along with either or both toxicants led to a significant restoration of the biochemical markers and renal antioxidant profile and histology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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12 pages, 1082 KiB  
Article
Dietary Exposure to Glutamates of 2- to 5-Year-Old Toddlers in China Using the Duplicate Diet Method
by Yanjun Zhou, Haixia Sui, Yibaina Wang, Ling Yong, Lei Zhang, Jiang Liang, Jing Zhou, Lili Xu, Yanxu Zhong, Jinyao Chen and Yan Song
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091898 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
A duplicate diet collection method was used to estimate dietary exposure to glutamates in children aged 2–5 years in selected provinces of China. Daily duplicate diet samples were collected from 86 healthy toddlers over three consecutive days. Glutamates were analyzed using ultra-high-pressure liquid [...] Read more.
A duplicate diet collection method was used to estimate dietary exposure to glutamates in children aged 2–5 years in selected provinces of China. Daily duplicate diet samples were collected from 86 healthy toddlers over three consecutive days. Glutamates were analyzed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography–MS/MS (UHPLC–MS/MS). Results showed that the highest glutamates content was found in mixed meals, at 5.12 mg/kg, followed by powdered formula (3.89 mg/kg), and milk and dairy products (2.29 mg/kg). The total mean daily dietary exposure for subjects was 0.20 mg/kg BW, and P95 daily dietary exposure was 0.44 mg/kg BW, both below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (120 mg/kg BW) recommended by the Joint (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the ADI (30 mg/kg BW) set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Hence it can be considered that glutamates exposure would cause low risk in this group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Food Additives)
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