The Chemistry of Wine—from Vine to the Glass

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Drinks and Liquid Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 August 2023) | Viewed by 9351

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Department of Biological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Minho, 4704-553 Braga, Portugal
Interests: industrial and food biotechnology; fermentation processes; food processing; agro-industry by-products valorization; prebiotics production
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CQM - Centro de Química da Madeira, University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal
Interests: wine chemistry; wine analysis; food chemistry; molecular markers; natural products; food bioactive components; analytical chemistry; microextraction; chromatographic analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

BACKGROUND: Wine is a very complex matrix, constituted by several hundreds of chemical compounds—terpenoids, pyrazines, higher alcohols, ethyl, esters, fatty acids, nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds and furanic compounds, among others, found in a wide range of concentrations and presenting different volatilities. These primary and secondary metabolites, which have been identified in grapes, musts and wines, are formed by several pathways occurring from the vineyard to the consumer, including (i) biosynthesis through different metabolic pathways occuring in grapes; (ii) through yeast metabolism during fermentative process; and (iii) during the ageing process due to several enzymatic and chemical reactions. Some of these metabolites actually contribute to the sensory perception of wine flavor and to its specific organoleptic characteristics and are responsible for wine aroma quality. The main key odorants and off-flavors, its impact on wine typicity and its transformation through aging are the focus of much current research and scientific interest. In addition, the interactions of odorants with each other and with other nonvolatile wine components and their impact on aroma volatility and quality is arousing an increasing curiosity in the scientific community. A deeper and comprehensive understanding, of the biochemistry of grape juice fermentation, and the chemistry of wine aging, is of utmost importance on helping the wine industry by reinforcing the empirical knowledge of the traditional winemaker. Different wine metabolomes can be used as useful tools in the research of key chemical components of a given wine and this allows one to differentiate it from other wines. In addition,

AIMS and SCOPE:

This Special Issue invites researchers to share their work in the form of primary research articles or literature reviews. The objective is to provide a deeper and comprehensive insight in different fields of wine science, from the vineyard to the final consumer. The influence of “terroir”, including geographic region, climate and soil of environments, viticulture, winemaking practices and the impact of microorganisms on the sensory, organoleptic characteristics and quality of the final product, will be considered. An overview of recent developments in important analytical approaches and recent applications of high-resolution analytical techniques—GC-MS, LC-MSMS, UHPLC, NMR, among others—in wine science, as useful platforms to identify and characterize the compounds that make the greatest contributions to the wine overall character, will be highlighted, including, but not limited to:

  • Metabolomic studies on grapes—analytical approaches and challenges;
  • Impact of microbial contribution on wine organoleptic characteristics;
  • Influence on “terroir” and geographical region on grapes metabolomic pattern;
  • Vinification processes and its influence on wine quality;
  • Sensory analysis and the influence of wine compounds on perception of wine aromas;
  • Chemical composition of grapes and wines;
  • Aroma and impact compounds;
  • Aging and wine transformations.

We are soliciting articles presenting recent developments in the influence of the “terroir”, winemaking practices, and the impact of microorganisms on the sensory, organoleptic characteristics and quality of the wine. The grape and wine composition, the influence of the yeast and vinification process on wine quality and the several pathways and processes occurring from grapes to final wine will be explored. The association of chemical composition to sensory properties, whether identifying impact compounds or elucidating matrix effects, is also of interest.  

Prof. Dr. José Sousa Câmara
Prof. Dr. José António Couto Teixeira
Dr. Rosa M. Perestrelo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • vine and vineyard
  • grape varieties and “terroir”
  • wine microbiome
  • fermentation and its management—spontaneous and inoculated fermentations
  • biochemistry of fermentations
  • yeast differentiation
  • winemaking process
  • wine quality assessment
  • wine composition
  • wine aroma
  • wine metabolome
  • wine omics
  • ageing process
  • sensory analysis and interactions
  • wine antioxidants and healthy compounds
  • wine bioactive molecules
  • the French paradox
  • amino acid and biogenic amines in wines
  • fortified wines
  • valorization of wine industry by-products

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2007 KiB  
Article
High-Power Ultrasound in Enology: Is the Outcome of This Technique Dependent on Grape Variety?
by Paula Pérez-Porras, Encarna Gómez Plaza, Leticia Martínez-Lapuente, Belén Ayestarán, Zenaida Guadalupe, Ricardo Jurado and Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112236 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
The disruptive effect exerted by high-power ultrasound (US) on grape cell walls is established as the reason behind the chromatic, aromatic and mouthfeel improvement that this treatment causes in red wines. Given the biochemical differences that exist between the cell walls of different [...] Read more.
The disruptive effect exerted by high-power ultrasound (US) on grape cell walls is established as the reason behind the chromatic, aromatic and mouthfeel improvement that this treatment causes in red wines. Given the biochemical differences that exist between the cell walls of different grape varieties, this paper investigates whether the effect of the application of US in a winery may vary according to the grape variety treated. Wines were elaborated with Monastrell, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, applying a sonication treatment to the crushed grapes using industrial-scale equipment. The results showed a clear varietal effect. The wines made with sonicated Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes showed an important increase in the values of color intensity and concentration of phenolic compounds, and these increases were higher than those observed when sonication was applied to Monastrell crushed grapes, whereas Monastrell wines presented the highest concentration in different families of polysaccharides. These findings correlate with the differences in the composition and structure of their cell walls since those of Monastrell grapes presented biochemical characteristics associated with a greater rigidity and firmness of the structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Wine—from Vine to the Glass)
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12 pages, 3772 KiB  
Article
Tracing the Volatilomic Fingerprint of the Most Popular Italian Fortified Wines
by Gonçalo Jasmins, Rosa Perestrelo, Jean Daniel Coïsson, Patrícia Sousa, José A. Teixeira, Matteo Bordiga and José S. Câmara
Foods 2023, 12(10), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12102058 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to provide a useful platform to identify characteristic molecular markers related to the authenticity of Italian fortified wines. For this purpose, the volatilomic fingerprint of the most popular Italian fortified wines was established using headspace solid-phase [...] Read more.
The aim of the current study was to provide a useful platform to identify characteristic molecular markers related to the authenticity of Italian fortified wines. For this purpose, the volatilomic fingerprint of the most popular Italian fortified wines was established using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), belonging with distinct chemical groups, were identified, ten of which are common to all the analyzed fortified Italian wines. Terpenoids were the most abundant chemical group in Campari bitter wines due to limonene’s high contribution to the total volatilomic fingerprint, whereas for Marsala wines, alcohols and esters were the most predominant chemical groups. The fortified Italian wines VOCs network demonstrated that the furanic compounds 2-furfural, ethyl furoate, and 5-methyl-2-furfural, constitute potential molecular markers of Marsala wines, while the terpenoids nerol, α-terpeniol, limonene, and menthone isomers, are characteristic of Vermouth wines. In addition, butanediol was detected only in Barolo wines, and β-phellandrene and β-myrcene only in Campari wines. The obtained data reveal an adequate tool to establish the authenticity and genuineness of Italian fortified wines, and at the same time constitute a valuable contribution to identify potential cases of fraud or adulteration to which they are subject, due to the high commercial value associated with these wines. In addition, they contribute to the deepening of scientific knowledge that supports its valorization and guarantee of quality and safety for consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Wine—from Vine to the Glass)
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17 pages, 1408 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sequential Fermentation with Lachancea thermotolerans/S. cerevisiae on Aromatic and Flavonoid Profiles of Plavac Mali Wine
by Ana Mucalo, Irena Budić-Leto and Goran Zdunić
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091912 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
In this study, the effects of sequential fermentation of Lachancea thermotolerans/S. cerevisiae on the production of Plavac Mali wines were investigated in comparison with the commonly used inoculation of the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and spontaneous fermentation. A total of 113 [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of sequential fermentation of Lachancea thermotolerans/S. cerevisiae on the production of Plavac Mali wines were investigated in comparison with the commonly used inoculation of the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and spontaneous fermentation. A total of 113 aroma compounds and 35 polyphenolic compounds were analyzed. Sequential inoculation resulted in a decrease in alcohol content and pH (up to 0.3% v/v and 0.12 units, respectively) and an increase in total acidity (0.6 g/L, expressed as tartaric acid). The wines produced by spontaneous fermentation exhibited the greatest diversity of volatile compounds and the highest concentration of C13 norisoprenoids, lactones, and other compounds. These wines exhibited maximum hydroxycinnamic acids, prodelphinidin monomer units, epigallocatechin, B1, B3, and B4 dimers, and total flavan-3-ols. Sequential inoculation decreased the content of the aromas and polyphenols in the wines. The practical significance of this procedure lies in the selective effect on aroma compounds, the decrease in green aromas, undetectable volatile phenols, and the decrease in bitter and astringent compounds such as gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers (catechin and epicatechin), and dimers (B1, B2, B3, and B4). This work demonstrates the potential of sequential and spontaneous fermentation to improve the aromatic characteristics and overall quality of Plavac Mali wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Wine—from Vine to the Glass)
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11 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of Biogenic Amines in Wines from the Central European Region (Zone B) and Evaluation of Their Safety
by Zuzana Míšková, Eva Lorencová, Richardos Nikolaos Salek, Tereza Koláčková, Ludmila Trávníková, Anita Rejdlová, Leona Buňková and František Buňka
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091835 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
The decarboxylation of the corresponding amino acids by microorganisms leads to the formation of biogenic amines (BAs). From a toxicological point of view, BAs can cause undesirable physiological effects in sensitive individuals, particularly if their metabolism is blocked or genetically altered. The current [...] Read more.
The decarboxylation of the corresponding amino acids by microorganisms leads to the formation of biogenic amines (BAs). From a toxicological point of view, BAs can cause undesirable physiological effects in sensitive individuals, particularly if their metabolism is blocked or genetically altered. The current study aimed to monitor and evaluate the content of eight biogenic amines (BAs) in 232 samples of wines (white, rosé, red) produced in the Central European region (Zone B). White wines (180 samples), rosé wines (17 samples), and red wines (35 samples) were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a ultraviolet–visible diode array detector (UV/VIS DAD) was applied to identify and quantify the BAs present in wines. In general, histamine (HIS), tyramine (TYM), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD), phenylethylamine (PEA), spermine (SPN) and spermidine (SPD) were detected in all tested wine samples. Tryptamine (TRM) was not present in any of the samples examined. In white and red wines, SPD, TYM, and PUT were most often detected. Regarding rosé wines, the three major BAs were SPN, TYM, and CAD. The BA content in red wines was generally higher than in rosé and white wines. However, HIS concentrations above the recommended limit of 10 mg/L were detected in 9% of the red wine samples. In addition, alarming levels of PUT, HIS, TYM, and PEA, with serious potential impact on consumer health, were recorded in two red wine samples. On the whole, the presence and concentrations of BAs in wine should be constantly evaluated, primarily because alcohol intensifies the hazardous effects of BAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Wine—from Vine to the Glass)
16 pages, 1350 KiB  
Article
Effects of Long-Term Bottle Storage on Red and Rosé Wines Sealed with Different Types of Closures
by Prudence Fleur Tchouakeu Betnga, Edoardo Longo, Vakarė Merkytė, Amanda Dupas de Matos, Fabrizio Rossetti and Emanuele Boselli
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2918; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122918 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2273
Abstract
Volatile and non-volatile chemical profiles, free and total SO2 and dissolved oxygen content were studied in three red (Merlot, Lagrein red, St. Magdalener) and one rosé (Lagrein rosé) wine after 30 months of storage in bottles. Each wine was sealed with closures [...] Read more.
Volatile and non-volatile chemical profiles, free and total SO2 and dissolved oxygen content were studied in three red (Merlot, Lagrein red, St. Magdalener) and one rosé (Lagrein rosé) wine after 30 months of storage in bottles. Each wine was sealed with closures made of a ‘blend’ (B) of natural cork microgranules and polymers without glue and was compared with wines closed with other types of corks (C; a technical cork 1 + 1, or an agglomerated natural cork or a natural one-piece cork). Glutathionyl caftaric acid (GRP) was inversely correlated with total SO2 content and was higher in all three red wines closed with B compared to C, whereas epicatechin was higher in three wines closed with C compared to B. Three volatile compounds formed by fermentation (ethyl butanoate, isoamyl lactate, and octanol) were inversely correlated with both free and total SO2. In terms of their volatile profiles, ethyl octanoate and 2,3-butanediol were significantly higher in the Lagrein red wines closed with C closures, whereas no significant difference was observed in Merlot, Lagrein rosé and St. Magdalener wines. Small differences in some phenolic compounds due to the type of closure were found: GRP, syringic acid, (+)-catechin, and (−)-epicatechin differentiated the Merlot wines closed with B from the C closures. Protocatechuic acid and GRP levels differentiated the Lagrein red wines according to their closure type, whereas only (−)-epicatechin differentiated the Lagrein rosé wines. GRP, caffeic acid, (−)-epicatechin, and anthocyanin content differentiated the St. Magdalener wines according to their closure type. Even though St. Magdalener and Lagrein rosé closed with C could be distinguished from those closed with B by using the (sensory) triangle test (α = 0.05), these differences appeared to be relative as it did not include all the wines in a systematic manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Wine—from Vine to the Glass)
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