Process Intensification on Beverages Production

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710). This special issue belongs to the section "Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 10228

Special Issue Editors


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Department of Biological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Minho, 4704-553 Braga, Portugal
Interests: industrial and food biotechnology; fermentation processes; food processing; agro-industry by-products valorization; prebiotics production
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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
CEB–Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
Interests: wine; non-Saccharomyces yeast; alcoholic fermentation; yeast

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Process intensification is a recent field with growing interest with a focus on the reduction in equipment size and cleaner and more energy-efficient technology.  These can result in significant improvements in terms of process and efficiency, superior quality of products, a decrease in capital and operating expenses, less waste, and improved process safety.

The beverage industry in conjunction with health safety and the environmental and sustainability paradigm demands new answers. The process intensification approach presents the options to solve the arising questions, focusing on several methods and technologies.

The development of continuous fermentation that may use immobilized cells to improve fermentation rate is an alternative that has been proposed. Techniques such as ultrasound, micro-oxygenation, pulsed electric field, high hydrostatic pressure, microwave, and gamma irradiation have been used with positive results in accelerating the aging process of alcoholic beverages, saving money, time, and space for aging barrels.

Fermentation processes for the production of dealcoholized/low alcohol beverages or the obtention of non-alcoholic beverages from their alcoholic correspondents shows several opportunities for process intensification, from Pervaporation-based membrane processes for ethanol removal, to optimization of reactors for improved fermentation.

Preservation and stabilization are another topic with pulsed electric fields as an alternative to thermal processing for the conservation of nutritive and physicochemical properties of beverages.

The beverage industry shows a panoply of opportunities for improving process and create new value. This Special Issue on “Process Intensification on beverages production” intends to illustrate novel trends in beverage research and industry, and demonstrate that with the proper methodology or equipment it is possible to integrate multiple processing steps into a single unit operation or optimize critical parameters.

Prof. Dr. José António Couto Teixeira
Prof. Dr. José Sousa Câmara
Dr. João Salvador Simões
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • process intensification
  • continuous fermentation
  • microreactors, microwaves
  • ultrasound
  • high hydrostatic pressure
  • structured reactors
  • pulsed electric fields
  • membrane processes
  • membrane processes

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2761 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Different Withering Process Conditions on the Bioactivity and Quality of Black Tea from Azorean Camellia sinensis
by Lisete Sousa Paiva, Ana Paula Dias, Massimo Francesco Marcone and José António Bettencourt Baptista
Beverages 2023, 9(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9040094 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of natural bioactive compounds, such as catechin, theaflavin, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC), of Azorean black tea (Camellia sinensis L., O. Kuntze) as well as its antioxidant activities [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of natural bioactive compounds, such as catechin, theaflavin, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC), of Azorean black tea (Camellia sinensis L., O. Kuntze) as well as its antioxidant activities according to different withering times. The TPC, TFC, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ferrous-ion-chelating (FIC) activities were determined by colorimetric methods, and catechin and theaflavin contents were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The FRSA shows similar results for the withering range of 6 to 16 h (hours). For FRAP, the best results were observed at 16 h, and for FIC, the highest value was at 20 h. The TPC and TFC showed the highest value at 9 h and the lowest at 20 h. For the total theaflavins, the highest results were obtained after 12 h of withering, and the lowest values were obtained at 16 and 20 h. According to the different withering times, the highest value of total catechin levels was at 12 h, while the lowest value was observed at 20 h. Regarding caffeine content, all samples presented similar results, with the exception of the 12 h time point. In conclusion, the best withering times were observed in the range of 9 to 16 h, showing decreased values at 20 h, with the exception of FIC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
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18 pages, 3092 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical and Structural Changes of Chickpea Beverage Prepared Using Ultrasound-Assisted Fermentation with Optimized Ultrasound Parameters Modelled by Response Surface Methodology
by Nana Adwoa Nkuma Johnson, John-Nelson Ekumah, Selorm Yao-Say Solomon Adade, Yanshu Li, Garba Betchem, Eliasu Issaka and Yongkun Ma
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030062 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
To improve the quality of fermented chickpea beverages, a highly nutritious substitute for dairy, the Box-Behnken design and the response surface methodology were used to obtain optimized ultrasonic parameters for producing ultrasound-assisted fermented chickpea beverages. The determining parameters were the lactic acid, reducing [...] Read more.
To improve the quality of fermented chickpea beverages, a highly nutritious substitute for dairy, the Box-Behnken design and the response surface methodology were used to obtain optimized ultrasonic parameters for producing ultrasound-assisted fermented chickpea beverages. The determining parameters were the lactic acid, reducing sugar content, and the cell viability of the treated product. The most significant parameters obtained were frequency and treatment duration, while power density was relatively insignificant. The optimum fermentation parameters obtained were a treatment start time of 3 h, treatment duration of 80 min, frequency of 27.5 kHz, and power density of 100 W/L with optimum yields of 0.23096 mg/mL, 2.92898 mg/mL, and 0.488189 for reducing sugar, lactic acid, and cell viability index, respectively, with desirability above 0.95. Further analysis of the ultrasound treatment’s effect on the product’s structure showed the ultrasound-assisted fermented chickpea beverage was more structurally stable and homogenous, with even distribution of macromolecules present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
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16 pages, 3063 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Cold-Brew Method for Developing Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)-Based Tisane with High Antioxidant Activity
by Intan Dewi Larasati, Nurul Mutmainah Diah Oktaviani, Hanifah Nuryani Lioe, Teti Estiasih, Miguel Palma and Widiastuti Setyaningsih
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030058 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Edible flowers, including roselle, contain a varied composition of phenolic compounds that may inhibit the oxidative stress mechanism. Roselle-based tisane with appealing sensory properties is commonly consumed worldwide. However, the conventional hot-brew method may ruin the stability of thermolabile phenolic compounds during the [...] Read more.
Edible flowers, including roselle, contain a varied composition of phenolic compounds that may inhibit the oxidative stress mechanism. Roselle-based tisane with appealing sensory properties is commonly consumed worldwide. However, the conventional hot-brew method may ruin the stability of thermolabile phenolic compounds during the tisane preparation. Hence, this study aimed to develop a new alternative brewing method linked with the new cold-brew method, which involves a lower temperature and applying ultrasound to maximize the extraction of phenolic compounds and to avoid degradation during the tisane preparation. The brewing factors, including particle size (10, 20, 30 mesh), temperature (4, 15, 26 °C), time (10, 20, 30 min), and ultrasound amplitude (20, 60, 100% of the maximum amplitude) have been optimized simultaneously using Box–Behnken design in conjunction with response surface methodology. Seven major phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD and classified into hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCA) and flavonoids. The optimum extraction condition to reach the highest level of the studied phenolic compounds was set to brew roselle with particle size of 30 ± 3.25 mesh at 26 ± 1.32 °C for 18 ± 2.00 min applying 78 ± 5.64% ultrasound amplitude. This method successfully extracted almost all HCA and flavonoid during the first cycle with less than 10% CV and provided higher antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH (IC50 9.77 ± 0.01 µg mL−1), ABTS (IC50 8.05 ± 0.02 µg mL−1), and FRAP (IC50 10.34 ± 0.03 µg mL−1) than the roselle tisane prepared using the conventional method. Additionally, the resulting cold-brew product was stable for up to five days of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
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20 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
Validation of High-Pressure Homogenization Process to Pasteurize Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa) Beverages: Sensorial and Quality Characteristics during Cold Storage
by Wilson V. Vasquez-Rojas, Sara Parralejo-Sanz, Diana Martin, Tiziana Fornari and M. Pilar Cano
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010022 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and the stability of the quality properties of Brazil nut beverages were studied. E. coli was used as target microorganism to validate the HPH process (pressures from 50 to 180 MPa [...] Read more.
The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and the stability of the quality properties of Brazil nut beverages were studied. E. coli was used as target microorganism to validate the HPH process (pressures from 50 to 180 MPa and inlet temperatures (Ti) from 25 to 75 °C). Cold storage (5 °C) for 21 days was conducted to establish the shelf-life of BN beverages, in terms of their microbiological, physical, physicochemical, and sensorial stability. HPH-treated samples were compared to pasteurized BN beverages (63 °C for 20 min). The combination of Ti and the pressure of the HPH process (50 to 150 MPa/75 °C and 180 MPa/25 °C) had a significant effect on E. coli inactivation (8.2 log CFU/mL). During storage at 5 °C, the growth of mesophilic aerobes in processed BN beverages was controlled by the HPH process. Oxidative stability (TBAR assay) and physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, and °Brix) were evaluated during cold storage, showing good stability. Additionally, HPH-treated beverages showed a reduction in their particle size and the formation of more stable protein aggregates, which favored the beverages’ whiteness (color). The HPH process could be an alternative to pasteurization to obtain Brazil nut beverages with an acceptable microbiological shelf life (≥21 days at 5 °C) and high-quality characteristics without the use of any additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
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16 pages, 5583 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Control of Oxygen Uptake in the Blanketing and Purging of Tanks with Inert Gases in the Winery
by Rubén del Barrio-Galán, Ignacio Nevares and Maria del Alamo-Sanza
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010019 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3384
Abstract
This work presents the study of the effectiveness of different inert gases applied during racking to prevent oxygen uptake by wine. Inert gases were used for the purging of empty tanks and hoses before the start of each racking, as well as for [...] Read more.
This work presents the study of the effectiveness of different inert gases applied during racking to prevent oxygen uptake by wine. Inert gases were used for the purging of empty tanks and hoses before the start of each racking, as well as for blanketing in the full racked tank. After analyzing these operations with the different inert gases, the required volumes of each gas were optimized. The CO2:Ar (20:80) mixture proved to be the most effective for the complete purging of the empty tank, while CO2 was the most cost-effective gas. Purging the empty tank with 25% vessel volume gas was sufficient to achieve useful inerting with all the gases studied, as well as to maintain low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the wine filling the tank. Applying 0.5 of vessel volume of Ar, CO2:Ar (20:80), and CO2 gases during blanketing allowed the headspace oxygen (HSO) of the racked tank to be protected throughout. During the racking of a white wine in a commercial winery, Ar showed the highest efficiency, compared to N2, for both the inerting of empty hoses and destination tank and for maintaining low levels of DO and HSO in the tank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
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