Recent Developments in the Applications of Fingerprinting Technology in the Food Field

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020) | Viewed by 71314

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CQM - Centro de Química da Madeira, Faculty of Exact Sciences and Engineering, University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal
Interests: food chemistry; food composition; food bioactive; foodomics; fgeographical markers; food markers; food authenticity; fraceability; food contaminants; microextraction techniques; instrumental techniques
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Guest Editor
CQM - Centro de Química da Madeira, University of Madeira, Portugal
Interests: Food fingerprints; bioactive compounds; metabolomics; food chemistry; food integrity; analytical methods; biomarkers

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
CQM - Centro de Química da Madeira, University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal
Interests: wine chemistry; wine analysis; food chemistry; molecular markers; natural products; food bioactive components; analytical chemistry; microextraction; chromatographic analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the concerns and interest by consumers for the high quality and safety of natural and processed foods of vegetable and animal origin has increased significantly. The main demands are directed towards food origin, shelf life, adulterations, and food composition related with potential health benefits. Unfortunately, food adulteration and contamination events seem to occur with some regularity, which requires continued efficient vigilance accomplished by the development of rapid analytical and detection techniques for identification and/or quantification of characteristic components, adulterants, and/or contaminants of food. Currently, a combination of well-established and recognized high-resolution analytical methods, comprising mass spectrometry techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, MALDI-TOFMS), in addition to modern spectroscopic approaches based on NMR (1H; 13C), IR, and sensor technologies, amongst others, seems to be the most promising approach to food fingerprinting, in a nonselective way, as a strategy to establish its composition and to certify its integrity (food traceability, safety, quality, and authenticity), constituting a useful support on detection adulterations and contaminations.

This Special Issue aims to address relevant contributions on all aspects of food fingerprinting technologies, constituting a useful platform to enable the food industry, consumers, governments, and regulatory organisms to keep up to date with the most recent and innovative developments in production technologies and processes in addition to analytical fingerprinting techniques in food science. The food’s fingerprint constitutes a support for mapping food characteristics with potential uses to evaluate its integrity, expressed on authenticity and traceability, determine its geographical origin, and identify contaminants and other undesirable compounds. This will contribute to increase the consumer protection and give them more transparency, confidence, and better knowledge over their foods.

Prof. Dr. José Sousa Câmara
Dr. Sonia Medina-Escudero
Dr. Rosa Maria de Sá Perestrelo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Foodomics
  • Food fingerprints
  • Food compounds
  • Food safety
  • Food quality
  • Food control
  • Food contaminants
  • Food processing techniques
  • Authenticity
  • Traceability
  • Adulteration
  • Consumer protection
  • Legislation
  • Production technologies and processes
  • Molecular and genetic markers
  • Geographical origin
  • Instrumental techniques
  • Pattern analysis
  • Chemometrics
  • Multivariate statistical analysis

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 205 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Developments in the Applications of Fingerprinting Technology in the Food Field
by José S. Câmara, Sonia Medina and Rosa Perestrelo
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142006 - 7 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
In recent years, the concerns and demands by consumers for the high quality and safety for natural and processed plant-based and animal foods has increased significantly [...] Full article

Research

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14 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Dietary Exposure Assessment of Veterinary Antibiotics in Pork Meat on Children and Adolescents in Cyprus
by Demetra Kyriakides, Andreas C. Lazaris, Konstantinos Arsenoglou, Maria Emmanouil, Olympia Kyriakides, Nikolaos Kavantzas and Irene Panderi
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101479 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3599
Abstract
In recent years, huge amounts of antibiotics have been administered to farm animals, and as a result, residues of these antibiotics can accumulate in livestock products and, once consumed, may be transmitted to humans. Farm animals’ antibiotic treatment may therefore present a risk [...] Read more.
In recent years, huge amounts of antibiotics have been administered to farm animals, and as a result, residues of these antibiotics can accumulate in livestock products and, once consumed, may be transmitted to humans. Farm animals’ antibiotic treatment may therefore present a risk for consumers health, especially for children and adolescents. In children, the immune system is not fully developed, and thus, they are more susceptible than adults to resistant bacteria. A dietary exposure assessment was conducted on veterinary antibiotics found in raw pork meat among children and adolescents in Cyprus, since pork is the most consumed red meat in Cypriot population. The study was based on the results of the occurrence of 45 residual antibiotics in raw pork meat samples in Cyprus between 2012 and 2017 in combination with data on the consumption of pork meat on children and adolescents taken from the latest demographic report in Cyprus. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values of veterinary antibiotics for children aged 6–9 years old, were higher compared to EDI values for adolescents aged 10–17 years old. The percentage ratio of the estimated daily intake to the acceptable daily intake for all the veterinary antibiotic residues was less than 5.6. The results indicate that antibiotic residues in pork meat of inland production are below the acceptable daily intake and are of low risk to human health related to the exposure of antibiotics. Nevertheless, continuous exposure to low levels of antibiotic residues in respect to age vulnerability should be of a great concern. Full article
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16 pages, 3716 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Fingerprint of “Pera Rocha do Oeste”. A PDO Pear Native from Portugal
by Soraia I. Pedro, Elisabete Coelho, Fátima Peres, Ana Machado, António M. Rodrigues, Dulcineia F. Wessel, Manuel A. Coimbra and Ofélia Anjos
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091209 - 1 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3446
Abstract
“Pera Rocha do Oeste” is a pear (Pyrus communis L.) variety native from Portugal with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). To supply the world market for almost all the year, the fruits are kept under controlled storage. This study aims to [...] Read more.
“Pera Rocha do Oeste” is a pear (Pyrus communis L.) variety native from Portugal with a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). To supply the world market for almost all the year, the fruits are kept under controlled storage. This study aims to identify which classical physicochemical parameters (colour, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, ripening index, firmness, vitamin C, total phenols, protein, lipids, fibre, ash, other compounds including carbohydrates, and energy) could be fingerprint markers of PDO “Pera Rocha do Oeste”. For this purpose, a data set constituting fruits from the same size, harvested from three orchards of the most representative PDO locations and stored in refrigerated conditions for 2 or 5 months at atmospheric conditions or for 5 months under a modified atmosphere, were selected. To validate the fingerprint parameters selected with the first set, an external data set was used with pears from five PDO orchards stored under different refrigerated conditions. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used as a complementary tool to assess the global variability of the samples. The lightness of the pulp; the b* CIELab coordinate of the pulp and peel; and the pulp TSS, pH, firmness, and total phenols, due to their lower variability, are proposed as fingerprint markers of this pear. Full article
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10 pages, 1198 KiB  
Article
Classification and Authentication of Paprika by UHPLC-HRMS Fingerprinting and Multivariate Calibration Methods (PCA and PLS-DA)
by Sergio Barbosa, Javier Saurina, Lluís Puignou and Oscar Núñez
Foods 2020, 9(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040486 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3858
Abstract
In this study, the feasibility of non-targeted UHPLC-HRMS fingerprints as chemical descriptors to address the classification and authentication of paprika samples was evaluated. Non-targeted UHPLC-HRMS fingerprints were obtained after a simple sample extraction method and C18 reversed-phase separation. Fingerprinting data based on signal [...] Read more.
In this study, the feasibility of non-targeted UHPLC-HRMS fingerprints as chemical descriptors to address the classification and authentication of paprika samples was evaluated. Non-targeted UHPLC-HRMS fingerprints were obtained after a simple sample extraction method and C18 reversed-phase separation. Fingerprinting data based on signal intensities as a function of m/z values and retention times were registered in negative ion mode using a q-Orbitrap high-resolution mass analyzer, and the obtained non-targeted UHPLC-HRMS fingerprints subjected to unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to study sample discrimination and classification. A total of 105 paprika samples produced in three different regions, La Vera PDO and Murcia PDO, in Spain, and the Czech Republic, and all of them composed of samples of at least two different taste varieties, were analyzed. Non-targeted UHPLC-HRMS fingerprints demonstrated to be excellent sample chemical descriptors to achieve the authentication of paprika production regions with 100% sample classification rates by PLS-DA. Besides, the obtained fingerprints were also able to perfectly discriminate among the different paprika taste varieties in all the studied cases, even in the case of the different La Vera PDO paprika tastes (sweet, bittersweet, and spicy) which are produced in a very small region. Full article
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10 pages, 1986 KiB  
Article
An Untargeted Metabolomics Investigation of Jiulong Yak (Bos grunniens) Meat by 1H-NMR
by Chenglin Zhu, Massimiliano Petracci, Cheng Li, Enrico Fiore and Luca Laghi
Foods 2020, 9(4), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040481 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3129
Abstract
Yak represents the main meat source for Tibetan people. This work aimed to investigate the metabolome of raw meat from Jiulong yaks, focusing on specimens farmed and harvested locally through traditional procedures. Untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) was selected as [...] Read more.
Yak represents the main meat source for Tibetan people. This work aimed to investigate the metabolome of raw meat from Jiulong yaks, focusing on specimens farmed and harvested locally through traditional procedures. Untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) was selected as the analytical platform. Samples from longissimus thoracis, trapezius, triceps brachii and biceps femoris muscles, with different prevalences of red and white fibers, were selected. Among the fifty-three metabolites quantified in each of them, carnitine, carnosine, creatine and taurine are known for their bioactive properties. Twelve molecules were found to be differently concentrated in relation to muscle type. Longissimus thoracis, compared to biceps femoris, had higher concentrations of carnosine and formate and lower concentrations of mannose, inosine, threonine, IMP, alanine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and leucine. A metabolic pathway analysis suggested that the main pathways differing among the muscles were connected to the turnover of amino acids. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of yak raw meat metabolism and muscle type differences, which can be used as an initial reference for the meat industry to set up muscle-specific investigations. The possibility of simultaneously quantifying several bioactive compounds suggests that these investigations could revolve around meat’s nutritional value. Full article
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12 pages, 3293 KiB  
Article
Changes in Aroma Profile of Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes) during Different Stages of Hot Air Drying
by Lei Qin, Jing-Xuan Gao, Jia Xue, Dong Chen, Song-Yi Lin, Xiu-Ping Dong and Bei-Wei Zhu
Foods 2020, 9(4), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040444 - 7 Apr 2020
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4261
Abstract
To clarify the changes in the aroma characteristics of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) during hot-air drying, volatile compounds of L. edodes were analyzed using sensory evaluation, electronic nose, and purge and trap combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS) at different timepoints [...] Read more.
To clarify the changes in the aroma characteristics of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) during hot-air drying, volatile compounds of L. edodes were analyzed using sensory evaluation, electronic nose, and purge and trap combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS) at different timepoints of the drying process. Results showed that the sensory and volatile profile changed significantly during the drying process at 60 °C for up to 12 h and the drying process could be divided into three stages: early stage (<2 h), middle stage (2–3.5 h) and late stage (>3.5 h). Volatile compounds in fresh L. edodes consisted mainly of ketones and alcohols. The early stage of drying decreased the concentration of ketone and alcohol compounds and promoted the generation of cyclic organosulfur compounds through a series of enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions, which mainly contribute to the characteristic odor of shiitake mushroom. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed that the volatile compounds released after different drying times could be divided into four groups, which have been confirmed by sensory evaluation results. The results suggested that the unique flavor of dried mushrooms is mainly due to the activation of enzymes during the drying process, which act on lentinic acid to produce sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds. We believe that our study makes a potential contribution to the mushroom cultivation and processing industry to achieve an improvement in sensory quality. Full article
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16 pages, 1169 KiB  
Article
Predictive Correlation between Apparent Sensory Properties and the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines in Chicken Breast as a Function of Grilling Temperature and Time
by Dániel Pleva, Katalin Lányi, Lívia Darnay and Péter Laczay
Foods 2020, 9(4), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040412 - 2 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2984
Abstract
In the present set of experiments, we studied the correlation between the heterocyclic amine (HCA) concentration and the color changes of the chicken breast with or without skin during grilling under open or closed conditions as a function of the applied temperature and [...] Read more.
In the present set of experiments, we studied the correlation between the heterocyclic amine (HCA) concentration and the color changes of the chicken breast with or without skin during grilling under open or closed conditions as a function of the applied temperature and time. The concentration of the HCAs formed during grilling was measured by a validated LC–MS/MS method, whereas the color changes were determined either instrumentally or by visual observation. In general, higher temperatures and longer heat treatment times resulted in a more substantial HCA formation, especially on the surface of the samples and in the skin, where the total levels reached 746 ng/g. Results of regression analysis demonstrate a strong correlation (r > 0.7) between the HCA content of the grilled chicken breast and the L* and a* values indicating the significance of brightness and the red parameter of the color scale, respectively. In the case of open grilling, the skinless breast samples showed correlation (r > 0.7) between the HCA content and the color analysis results in both the full sample and the crust, respectively. Breast samples with skin exhibited the same level of correlation when they were grilled closed. In the case of open grilling the breast with skin, and closed-grilling the skinless breast, the linear regression analysis yielded a weaker correlation (0.7 > r > 0.4 or less) between the HCA concentrations and the color. Our results demonstrate that there is a predictive correlation between the color changes perceptible for the consumers and the HCA formation during grilling of chicken breast as a function of time and temperature depending on the type of grilling and the presence of skin. Full article
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14 pages, 2617 KiB  
Article
Authentication of the Origin, Variety and Roasting Degree of Coffee Samples by Non-Targeted HPLC-UV Fingerprinting and Chemometrics. Application to the Detection and Quantitation of Adulterated Coffee Samples
by Nerea Núñez, Xavi Collado, Clara Martínez, Javier Saurina and Oscar Núñez
Foods 2020, 9(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030378 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 5817
Abstract
In this work, non-targeted approaches relying on HPLC-UV chromatographic fingerprints were evaluated to address coffee characterization, classification, and authentication by chemometrics. In general, high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprints were good chemical descriptors for the classification of coffee samples by partial [...] Read more.
In this work, non-targeted approaches relying on HPLC-UV chromatographic fingerprints were evaluated to address coffee characterization, classification, and authentication by chemometrics. In general, high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprints were good chemical descriptors for the classification of coffee samples by partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) according to their country of origin, even for nearby countries such as Vietnam and Cambodia. Good classification was also observed according to the coffee variety (Arabica vs. Robusta) and the coffee roasting degree. Sample classification rates higher than 89.3% and 91.7% were obtained in all the evaluated cases for the PLS-DA calibrations and predictions, respectively. Besides, the coffee adulteration studies carried out by partial least squares regression (PLSR), and based on coffees adulterated with other production regions or variety, demonstrated the good capability of the proposed methodology for the detection and quantitation of the adulterant levels down to 15%. Calibration, cross-validation, and prediction errors below 2.9%, 6.5%, and 8.9%, respectively, were obtained for most of the evaluated cases. Full article
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15 pages, 1721 KiB  
Article
Typicality Assessment of Onions (Allium cepa) from Different Geographical Regions Based on the Volatile Signature and Chemometric Tools
by Sara Fernandes, André Gois, Fátima Mendes, Rosa Perestrelo, Sonia Medina and José S. Câmara
Foods 2020, 9(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030375 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4488
Abstract
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the main agricultural commodities produced and consumed around the world. In the present work, for the first time, the volatile signature of onions from different geographical regions of Madeira Island (Caniço, Santa Cruz, Ribeira Brava, [...] Read more.
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the main agricultural commodities produced and consumed around the world. In the present work, for the first time, the volatile signature of onions from different geographical regions of Madeira Island (Caniço, Santa Cruz, Ribeira Brava, and Porto Moniz) was tested with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME/GC-qMS) and chemometric tools, showing that the volatile signature was affected by the geographical region of cultivation. Sulfur compounds, furanic compounds, and aldehydes are the most dominant chemical groups. Some of the identified volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) were detected only in onions cultivated in specific regions; 17 VOMs were only identified in onions cultivated at Caniço, eight in Porto Moniz, two in Santa Cruz, two in Ribeira Brava, while 12 VOMs are common to all samples from the four regions. Moreover, some VOMs belonging to sulfur compounds (dipropyl disulfide, 3-(acetylthio)-2-methylfuran), furanic compounds (dimethylmethoxyfuranone, ethyl furanone, acetyloxy-dimethylfuranone), and lactones (whiskey lactone isomer), could be applied as potential geographical markers of onions, providing a useful tool to authenticate onions by farming regions where the influence of latitude seems to be an important factor for yielding the chemical profile and may contribute to geographical protection of food and simultaneously benefiting both consumers and farmers. Full article
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13 pages, 1230 KiB  
Article
Comparative Phytochemical Analyses and Metabolic Profiling of Different Phenotypes of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica Rapa ssp. Pekinensis)
by Chang Ha Park, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Soo-Yun Park, Jae Kwang Kim and Sang Un Park
Foods 2019, 8(11), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110587 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6798
Abstract
This study aimed to comprehensively examine the interface between primary and secondary metabolites in oval- and rectangular-shaped Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) using gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition to differences [...] Read more.
This study aimed to comprehensively examine the interface between primary and secondary metabolites in oval- and rectangular-shaped Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) using gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition to differences in shape, there was significant morphological variation between the two cultivars. The rectangular variety had greater height and deeper green color, whereas the oval variety had more leaves and greater width. A total of 42 primary metabolites identified by GC-TOFMS were subjected to partial least-squares discriminant, which indicated significant differences in the primary and secondary metabolisms of the two cultivars. Furthermore, total glucosinolate and phenolic contents were higher in the oval cultivar, whereas the rectangular cultivar contained a higher level of total carotenoids. This metabolome study comprehensively describes the relationship between primary and secondary metabolites in the oval and rectangular cultivars of Chinese cabbage and provides information useful for developing strategies to enhance the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, phenolics, and carotenoids in Chinese cabbage. Additionally, this work highlights that HPLC and GC-TOFMS–based metabolite profiling is suitable techniques to determine metabolic differences in Chinese cabbage. Full article
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Review

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34 pages, 4749 KiB  
Review
Food Bioactive Compounds and Emerging Techniques for Their Extraction: Polyphenols as a Case Study
by José S. Câmara, Bianca R. Albuquerque, Joselin Aguiar, Rúbia C. G. Corrêa, João L. Gonçalves, Daniel Granato, Jorge A. M. Pereira, Lillian Barros and Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Foods 2021, 10(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010037 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 101 | Viewed by 22339
Abstract
Experimental studies have provided convincing evidence that food bioactive compounds (FBCs) have a positive biological impact on human health, exerting protective effects against non-communicable diseases (NCD) including cancer and cardiovascular (CVDs), metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). These benefits have been associated with the [...] Read more.
Experimental studies have provided convincing evidence that food bioactive compounds (FBCs) have a positive biological impact on human health, exerting protective effects against non-communicable diseases (NCD) including cancer and cardiovascular (CVDs), metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). These benefits have been associated with the presence of secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, glucosinolates, carotenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, vitamins, and fibres, among others, derived from their antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, cardioprotective, and vasodilator properties. Polyphenols as one of the most abundant classes of bioactive compounds present in plant-based foods emerge as a promising approach for the development of efficacious preventive agents against NCDs with reduced side effects. The aim of this review is to present comprehensive and deep insights into the potential of polyphenols, from their chemical structure classification and biosynthesis to preventive effects on NCDs, namely cancer, CVDs, and NDDS. The challenge of polyphenols bioavailability and bioaccessibility will be explored in addition to useful industrial and environmental applications. Advanced and emerging extraction techniques will be highlighted and the high-resolution analytical techniques used for FBCs characterization, identification, and quantification will be considered. Full article
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16 pages, 3322 KiB  
Review
Geographical Origin Authentication of Agri-Food Products: A Review
by Katerina Katerinopoulou, Achilleas Kontogeorgos, Constantinos E. Salmas, Angelos Patakas and Athanasios Ladavos
Foods 2020, 9(4), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040489 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 73 | Viewed by 7982
Abstract
This study is a systematic literature review of geographical origin authentication by elemental analytical techniques. Authentication and certification of geographic origin of agri-food products is a useful tool toward the protection of the quality for products. The aim of this work was to [...] Read more.
This study is a systematic literature review of geographical origin authentication by elemental analytical techniques. Authentication and certification of geographic origin of agri-food products is a useful tool toward the protection of the quality for products. The aim of this work was to map the current state of research in the area of agricultural products and food, identifying emerging fields to the geographical origin of products. The article is divided in three parts. The first part of the article deals with the analytical techniques applied in the food authentication. Special mention is made to elemental analysis and multiple isotope ratio. The second section focuses on statistically published data concerning published research for geographical origin authentication for the period 2015–2019. Specific results are presented inter alia: number of articles according to the type of product, articles according to the type of the analytical techniques, and others. The third part contains characteristic results from articles that were published in the period 2015–2019, on certification of geographical origin on specific agricultural products. Full article
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